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John-Paul paints his picture on The Art Ofmu·.

lhe Interviews Community painters explain howtbey achieve their results, with galleries of their work.

Clemens G6bel- Germany Antti Heiskaneu - Finland

Michael Weiske - Germany

Nate Rice - United States

Glen Tarbet - Canada

Tom Wise - United States

John Boulrwood - United Kingdom

(SallE oNE • ~O¥EMB1Ut 2007

40 Planning Your Force Some thoughts about the things you should plan before you purchase your arm)~

56 Weathering & Detailing (Step 5)

lvIakill.g yo LLI" dean III in iatu res eli !"I.y.

62 Basing (Step 6)

TIl.C dirt on grou.Dd coyer.

4.3 Tools of the Trade
A helpful list o·f handy tools 68
for painting and modelling,
Cleaning, Assembly 70
& Modification
Those necessary hrst
steps in detail. 7;zt
48 Undercoating (Step 1)
A look into undercoating methods.
49 .Basecoating (Step 2)
Variations and ideas for putting
the colour on your miniatures.
8:2 52 Highllghts & Shadows (Step 3)

All you ever needed to know [0 make yom miniatures glow.

84 Vallejo Paint Chart Referencing Vallejo colours to the German, US and British standards,

5'4 Decals & Markings (Step 4)

Identifying specific nations-and units.

Sealing (Step 7)

Clear coats of protection.


'Ihe art of hiding in the open.

Photographing Miniatures The basics to get YOll did ing.

TIle Techniques

Ni11e techniques to add to your pai I1ting skills.

Airbrushing Basks \Vhat to look tor.

tricks my:self, after reading

been consum

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~ II • • • t I. I

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"What's your ff.lvourite army, and model?

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Wben choosing an army to collect for FltlJfl,cs 0/Wit1' rhe first and most important question is which nation do you want your farce to represenrj

TIllS choice can be influenced by the theatre you want to represent, as net all nations were involved in every theatre of operaeions:


Wor.ld War II V\'aI> fought over many varied battlefields in many different theatres, These theatres can range from the arid condjtions of (he North A£ciean desert ro the vast E:ozen wastes of the Russian front.

There are plenty of good .introductieas to the various theatres and who fought in them. Some of the best sources can be found by reading the history section in the Flames Of war rulebook, the Flames ofWal' we b site and discusSion ftu:um (www.FI.fl11'},esOjW(u-. CQm) , or by researching on the 'Internet and in your local library,



Flames Of Wrm' is broken Into three time frames or periods, covering the signJfi<;ant technological advancements, The periods are:

Ear£'II W"tI/.; J9.39-1~941

Mid \.\1dr: J 942-1943

Lilt/! Win-: '944-1945

The periods are shown on all Flar;2e~ Of War products hy the following symbols.

Choose a period that suits the nation and theatre you have chosen. For instance, lfyon like the US ArrnyIn North Africa, you will find out that they fought there in 1942 and 1943. That means YOll are looking at a [Jlitiwar force.


There ate three basic types of forces, tank companies, mechanlsed companies, and infantry companies.

'Tank companies are the most powerful forces available. They are small, hut have plenty of big guns and good armour, and suit an agg.rcssive playing style.

Meehanised companies have plenty of tigbt1y~armoun;d half-tracks and armeured cars. 'Th,ey can be hnrd-hltting, but fragile:, and suit a dynamic style of play.

Infantry companles are very solid. Thlo/ can 'rake and dish Old. lots of punishment. They aren't fast or flashy. but are very tough and suit a mort' methodical styfe.


Every anny ill each theatre has a mix of these diffetent company types available. Once yeLL have narrowed down the nation, theatre and period thar interest you, get the appropriate Flame,l' Of W'fw Intelligenee Handbook, such as Afrika, OStfrOl1t, or Festul1Jg EU!mjJ£l" and choose the type o:F company that suits your playing style.


111e easiest way to start a Plames OfWa:r.. army is to buy the core units for your d'0I11.pany, the ones that you have to have. FOl" most companies these will be the Company HQ and two Combat Platoons (although for a Soviet force they will be called the Battalion HQ and two Combat Companles).

Once you have yeur core force) playa few small games to get an Idea of their strengths and. weal messes, then add some more platoons to support [hem. i?lci( units that will complement them by enhancing their strengths and covering for their weaknesses. Adding- a thlrd Combat Platoon is usually a good idea too!


miniatures in the uniferms and camouflage used by the historical prototype and give them the right markings fotyom unit. Finally, you GaD base them for the right type of terrain for the battle, be it beaches, snow, city rubble, or just wide open steppes.

Most people will have a general idea of a force, tb_eat:[~) or battle that is of particular interest to them. cfl1i~ could be because a grandpare.nt or great-gran d pal"€!Ul was involved. in the battle, or just because of an event that you _find intri,guiug. Therning your attny to match this his.torical background can be a lot af fun and makes your force much more personal to you. It takes a bit of research, but the results can be visually stunning and really rewarding to play With.

Y-ou can theme YOlU' force by selecting an appropriate typ~ orcompany with me support platoons that historically supported it. Once YOll have selected the force" you can paint rhe


As weU as company organisatiens and scenarios, the Plames Of war Campaign and Battle booles and the Inrelligence Handbooks contain a great deal of historical infermatlcn about campaigns, battles and specific LU1itS that can make theming your army much easier.


Osprey Publishing (wtmp, ospreypublisbing. com) produces a very detailed line of excellent books coveting battles, units, and equipment, Tt \s well worth buyill,g the Osprey titles that match. the force or lel'ces you are representing.

Your Iocallibrary should also have a.reasonably extensive section on the history. of World War II. Some libraries allow you TO search

their catalogue on a website. If yon get smck ask your local Ilhrarlan who will he able to point yell in the rigbtdirection.


Your local bobby store can be really helpful in m.aking inFotmed choices when it comes to building yoU[ army. They are alse filll of other hobbyists that ~an help you out with bu:ying the right models and suggesting the best options available for your desired force.


When se:lrching for historical .references on the Internet, there are some tricks that can help narrow dOWEl the sometimes vast numbers of wehsites teturned by a search. Lets say you are searching for in formation all the 6th Ar1llloured Division. Typing

in <6't11 Armoured Division' in G@ogle will return websires with either one, two 0 ralJ th ree ,@f the words: '6,h" 'Armoured' (!)1" 'Divisioc'. Typing in '6th +Ao:nomed +Dh"isi:Oll' will instead return websires con tainin,g '6th' and the W:~H'ds 'Armoured' and 'Division', narrowing -down the number of pages returned.

You can also be very specific bytyping double quotes around your search' "6tb Armoured Division" '. The quote marks make the results .match the exact phrase, resulting in .more speclfieally related websites being returned,

Russell Briant's urinter-tbemed German arlliy. Huge amounts oj modification and "arejlll planning have created this superb force.

.. Spray paint cans for base coating • Aitbmsh

o Ne€dle liles for deaning up castings

• Pliers to hold small parts

o Hobby knife to remove mould lines

• .A.iL~brush paint

• Cutting mat to ptoted the table

• Aitbrush (OempreSSQT ~~~~~~~~~~

The quality of tools you buy will be retlecred in rhe quality of product you can produce. By this I mean don't skimp on your tools! Gom! quality brushes will serve YOlL well for a long time if yoo treat them well. 1 he same goes for all of the tools that you will end up buying. It pains me to see someone spend their hard earned money on some nicely derailed miniatures, spend horus painting and modelling ttl only produce an average result because their tools have let them down.

• Compressed air can for airbrush o ACiyUC. floor polish for magic wash • Vallejo paint

o G-clalnp te hold parts together whengiLting models

e Pencils and pastels for weathering (I Paint brushes

9 Gel and radiograph pens for black lining

4) Decal solvent fiDr softening

decals on to raised derails

o Weathering powders

o Pm vice and drills

4) Clippers ~oj· lilting parts off sprues o Two-part epoxy putty for sculpting GD Paint th_inuers

• Super .glue Po.· assembling models and PYA white glue for basing

• Wire for pinning parts together and aerials

Placing It Vallejo paint bottle between your palms and rolling the bottlevigorous/y in a rubbillg motion is a way of mi.y;ing the paint that is recommended by Vallejo.

The clear plastic cavities from Flames 0 War blister packs make excellent paint palettes or water trays.



Mo'Uld lines and Bashing are unfotttl1il:att side effects of the casting process, but are easily cleaned off. The miniature above has been selected to shew particularly bad uLauJ'a lines, Should you ever find a rnodel Iike'thjs get in touch. with us at ctlstomersel'yice@batde&ont. so we can replace it with the quality model you should be getting in e:v:ety pack.

Most of the time a scrape with a hobby bfe or a small amount ef filing with a needle file is all that is needed to clean up a metal ngw:e. Be careful nat to u:uss any details as they will be noticeable en the finished miniature, spoiling a lot ef hard work and effort.


Resin is ul,heren.tly brittle, so cutting it with a hobby knife wiil mest ljl~e1y result in a chunk of resin snapping ofl;: Instead, use a .:file or Dretne! power tool co dean up resin components.

_[fyon do snap oil' a mud guard, do not despair. Resin glues well. so often you can simply .reattach the piecew.ith no one rhe wiser, ¥oucan also repair or hide resin damage with sculpting putty (see page 47). finally, something Iike a damaged guard can be incerperared into the minlarure as battlefield damage. Clever painting can make the damage look recent or old and rusty.


'The metal and resin components ofyour Flames Of Wttt .miniamres may have some residual: powder or eils on them frern the c:asting process. lhis residue needs to he cleaned off to allow the paint to adhere properly to the surface. You can clean it off easily with warm so~p¥water. Rinse the parts well and dry them before painting.

Layout all-your parts after cleaning them up -and. test lit them so that you the whole model fits together. That way yon can decide the order you are go'ing to assemble and paint it, and how, if at all; YOll are goin-g [0 modify it.


PGr heavier rninistures like tanks y~m can mount them on tep of old paint bottles with a piece of Elu- Tack. Make sure ~the paint bo ttle is large and heavy enough that the tank won'r; be too top hearvy. The bottle now becomes a convenient handle to hold y01lJ: rniniaeure while painting and allows them to be set down reT dryiing; IJceyt;!llting any damage occurring to them from hand1in.g during painting. Make sure that yeu UBe enough Blu- Tack that the miniatnre will not fall off during pai ntingit Gall be very upsetting for it to t~l1 off and smash on the ground I

Some painters pl2efer to mount their miniatures on their final bases before painting as their style dQesn1: require lots of derail work and this saves a step later. Many painters that use this method add the filler to the base (see page 64) before painting and 1I1en paint the miniatures.and base together.

British Cromwell tank


There is an age-old debate aJ1l0Mg miniature painters-do you mount the miniatures on their bases befose Q[ after they are painted? Uler€ is flO right answer to this question, The method that you use totally depend's on which method you feel comfortable with.

MO[Jllting infa1ltry miniatures iNdividually on strips of card', Popsicle sticks oil even Flames OfWrtp small bases allows yoa to handle them and have easy access to painting them without any of the miniatures being obscured. by any other. YQU can space them out enough to allow room to paint everx detail 011 each miniature.

Another popular rnerhod for mounting in&ntry (and guns and tank turrets for that matter) is gilling each one to the head of a nail. 'The nails can be slotted into pre-drilled holes in a piece of wood, of Len referred to as a nail board, to hold them upright while they are drying between layers or coats,


Whether you are .mod:i:fyutg a miniature to represent -a particular unit or vehicle, @I just adding extra details Hke camouflage .fIettin& you need to do the medifieations befoIe you start pai.ntlng. If' yeu ilo the lllod1f1i:cation,s .on top of paint, it could result ill the modifiearien materials being easily knocked olI, taking the paint with It, Doing them first allows y:bur changes to bond to asdl'itl: surface.

There are many simple modifications that you can do to you.: miniatures. You can add simple battle damage lilw bent mud guards on your tanks,or mote complicated changes like swa,pping all the .heads Ofy@'UI lnfautty to different headgear, or sculpting stowage like camouflage nets and rolled-up tarpaulins,

If you are really Into it, you can even convert one gun into another as Russell Briant did with his 10.5cm GebH40 guns!

Soviet Naval Infantry


If yau want to add more variety to your army, then simply buy two or rnnre diflhent platoon packs for your force and mix the miniatures.

Shown in the photo above, Casey has combined a Soviet St'reillovy Platoon (SU702) with a Soviet Naval Platoon (SU722) and a Soviet Greatcoat Platoon (SU720) fora more varied look.

2. Drill a small hole into the neck, and one into the donor head.

3. Glue in a small length of wire as a pin to strengthen the joint.

4. Glue the donor head. in place. Use Green Stuff to .fill any small gaps.

1. Select an appropriate miniature and carefully

remove the head.


1. Carefully cut the heads off the .figures. Be Sur€! to choose models whose heads stand away frem the test of the model as ·tlris will make the transplant easier.

'The easiest way to Gut the head off (s to run a knife blade around the model's neck, graduaI1y cutting deeper, unti] the Jlead pops off on its awn. Don't hold the heads in pliers unless you have soft paddj,ug around the head as well, otherwise the beads will get squashed and become misshapen.

2. Once your 1igw'es an: headless take Y01tl craft kttif~ a ud make a small indent whef~ ye'U want to pin the new head, This will make it easier to keep your drill bit centred.

Use a pin vice (a small hand-held driilL bit holder) te drill the IwJe. Place the pin-vice

tip into the indent and d rill a hole 1/16" to 1/ ~'~ (2 to 3mu\}) deep into Lilt'! neck of the miuiarure. Do the same to lhe donor head.

3. Glue a: short lehgth of wire into the neck of your miniature. Cut the wi re off so that a small pin p£0trudes for the head to mount on. Dry fit the head onto YOLI r ligure [0 make sure the Length of wire is correct.

4. CaFeful'l'y apply glue to the end of the wire that is sticking out of the model, then plat::e the head on the wire. Adjust the head to the Mlgle that yot! want before the glue sets. Any 'excess glue is easi [y soaked up with a piece of scrap papel·.

Ifthe head leaves a gap DEI one side of the neCK, fill the hole With a day piece of Green Stilff.


Kneadatire Duro {commonly known as Green Stuff) is a two-part epoJo/ putty that is available at most Flames Of war stockists. It is prepared by squashing equal parts of the blue and yellow components together. You know when they are well mixed because the putty becomes a uniform bri.gbt gt'een colour, Once mixed the putty will stay workable for about 2 hours and will set hard in about 8 hours.

There are other brands of epoxy purtyavailable liJ<e Procreate and Mi1Iiput. All of them have their own unique characteristics making them better for different types of sculpting.

Green Stu ffhas a tacky COilS 1 sten cy that adheres well to your miniarures. Once you have the basic shape on the miniature, allow the putty TO harden slightly, then sculpc.extra details on llsing something sharp like a cocktail stick, darning needle, or a proper sculpting teol, You will need to keep the soulpting tool wet to stop it sticking in the putty.

Gj'ee,l-sttiffhas Inany uses and will become an invaluable tool once you get used to using it. The uses of Green Stuff include:

• Fixing chips or damage

• Adding camouflage nets and ether extra accessories to vehicles

• Sculpting extra uniform details and equipment on 6gUF~

• Sculpting scenery on bases


As with mounting ligures ror painting, there is an age-oJd argument between undercoating with white or black paint. The supporters of white undercoats claim thar white allow-s the top colours to be more vivid and dear. 'TIle pmponellts of black undercoats say that it is easier to use techniques like black painting{see page 78) this way. Of course, both are right.


Airbrushes and spray carts are the mast COIll.JllOU ways of applying an undercoat. to miniatures. However, because the spray will nor get into every crevice, you wiJJ still need 'to touch up the undercoat with thinned black paint to get a complete coverage. Don't worry if your undercoat is slightly see through in places. The recesses will have plenty of paint in them and the base coat will cover the rest,

Personally, with the strong colour pigments of Vallejo paints, I would recommend tile Later option IULe! srlck to, black as the colours are still vivid 011 a black undercoat,

After spraying on the black undercoat it is usually necessaL1' to go bade over' the areas that were .rnissed with thinned black paint.

It is still best to apply the colour intwo or three thinned coats than trying to get complete coverage with one heavy coat.

Another method is to use your base colour as YOUL undercoat colour, 111is method works well if you follow up with an ink

or magic wash (see page 80).


The base coat is the first layer of colour, On a tan k it will usually be one colour, although on an soldier's uniform it will be different colours fOJ: various parts of the uniform. The colour of i·eal-life. tanks and uniforms varied enormously ~ue to the low quality of the pigments used, so don't worry if yom· colours aren't an exact match to the recommended colours.


For many of the painting teoluriques people use, an-airbrush Of spray can be a quickway of getti~ 11 base coal done. Remember though, it is far better to apply a few thin coats to build up the colour, than to apply one heavy coat that obscures details on the miniature.Tn the IOhg fun It is much faster to take the time to get a good result on the finished. mode].

This German Kiinigstiger heavy tank has been base coated using the block painting method (see page 7S). Although tedious on very detailed miniatures, block painting gives a strong contrast between the black undercoat showing in the recesses and the base coLoIIT painted onto the panels.

The Soviet IS-2 heavy tank has had a pretty heavy coat of black ink applied. over a green undercoat. The benefit of inks and magic wash

(see page SO) Is that, when it dries, it graduaUy increases in pigment density around the details and in the recessed areas, producing a gradual colour rather than the harsh lines of black lining (see page 76).

miniatures tlie



Highlights and shadows give your miniatures visual depth by ligbming rhe colours on the raised surfaces that reflect tile most light, and datkel1ing the colours in recesses td create the deeper shadows in those areas. One of the odd things about scale is that both higlilights and shadows are much stronger on big items than small ones. lhls means that you have to paint them on your mlnsarures "to get them to lool{ like mal "tanks andsnldiers.

The best toaklor determining-where highlights and iliadmvs should be applied is to study the fl1jruanu:€ under a btight overhead light. This will show you aI!l the natnral highlights and shadows tb:at you wlll need to emphasi-se in your painting.

A simple systeHl is to choose a compatible bighlight and shadow colour for yom base colour -and use the blending technique (see page 80) to shade hetWeen the shadows and the highlights.

You can go With snbtJle hlendillg for a smooth transition or a more stark effect like thaL used lJ¥ Antti 'Heiskanen (see page 9).


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"l~ ~..., The demonstration above shows how to use Middles-tone (882) (Dl,f,fl/lelgelb, the German equipment colour from 1943 1:0 19r45) with thehigh.hght and shadow system.

Here is a Jist of colours cnmmonly used to paint Flames OfW1ilr miniatures with sui table highlight and shadow colours. Use a 1: 1 mix of the base colour and either the highlight or shadow colonr for the intermediate colours.

SIJaqow Base Highlight
Gteen Brown Middleseone Buff
E879) (882) (976)
Dlad, GenuanCdey Grey Green
(950) (995) (866)
Russian Gttlen Lul'nvafFe Russian
(894) Camo Green UnlfQr=
(8,250 (924)
US DarltGreen Bnl\VII Viulet l{baki
(893) (887) (986)
English. Khaki Grey Khaki
Uniform (880) (988)
llS ));lj·lt G.·ecn Gel'm,m Green Grey
(893) Fieldgrey (886)
lS30) .
German Camo linglish Kh,ald Grey
Medium Brown Unifu"m (880)
(826) (9,zl)
Eng~ish Khalcl German
Uniform t988) Came Beige
(921) (821) This Soviet 15-2 heavy tank.has been highlighted using the wet brushing method (see page 79) of applying the highlight colours in very thin layers, decreasing the coverage with each layer so the lighter colours build up more ill the centre of the large flat areas.

The German Koniptigerheavy tank.has had a highlight dry brushed (see page 79) over its base colour. You can see how the inrermediate and lighter highlight colours pick out the raised detail, particularly the textured Zirnrneritanci-rnagnetic paste.


There are quite a few alternative methods to the highlight and shadow system, and eacli one has its own merits depending on your own painting style.

One method is to use the shadow colour 3'S your base colour and then work up the highl.ights through some er all the rest of the system. This is particularly useful jf you are inking at magic-washing yeur miniatures at the base coat stage.

Anonher method is to go much mere extreme ill choosing the highlight and shadow colours, This gives you a much stronger colour COntrast for a more dramatic look.

"With ]5tlltfljiglll'(!s, two layers 0/ highlightin{iSo_ft'i,I sl,:tficitmt. It's a simplified approachltop~i1/.ting rI, model using layers' ,UJ.h.f.Tf! ygy f!'lll'l',#rive /01' f{ realistic look when the Jig~i:;~e .is inspected at oneJoot. range. Wh~tJ'~I~ stl'lI'e for is to optimise h()lVtk~figrf!y'~/oo_&o_n the gamillgtable. "


An alternatfve to USIJJg a st'[nu:ale highlight co tour 1 s Co 111 i:x a JjglneJ' co I OUI" into yom base colou r for the highlights. White is th e pbvi ous choice but I think it is too harsh and use uffwhite, buff, khaki or a similar colour.

There are many other stYles and techniques. TIle Internet is a gteat place to discover new techniques, tips and sheet cuts. It can, also provide-a wealth otlnformation on historically correct colours and markings. Try searching fat 'AFV modelling' in GOGgle or another Internet search engine, Most of the results you get are Ior larger-scale plastic kits, but most of the information provided applies equally to small-seale kits and is always in~pi[ati{)llal.


Although a flat surface lUar appear smooth, if you look at it a microscope you will see that it appeats as .rough as sandpaper, This mieroseeprc roughness will stop a. deG:al from settling properly, allowing light to J.'€f'lect: behind it causing 'silvering'. With silvering the transparent film of the decal becomes noticeahle, .euining rue pailIltcdt-fl)ti look yeu are trying to achieve.

You can prevent silvering by painting an area of dear gloss varnish or acrylic floor polisb {such ali FutnJte or Klear) to pFOvide a nice fIat surface for The decal to sit on.


Once the gloss varnish is dry, it is time to apply the decal to the model, Cut the decal sheet S0 that each decal that yOlJ are gping to use is 011 its own small piece of backing paper.

Wet-slide decals, like the ones used With Plames Of Wtu' miniatures, require about 30 seconds suhmersion in lukewarm water to release them from the backing paper and activate the adhesive.

Use tweezers and a painrbll11sh to manipulate the decal into position. Then use the.corner of a dry paper towel to absorb the excess water.


To finish off, use a paint brush to ¥ply some decal setting sclution to the decal while it is still moist. Setting solutions like Soivaset and Micro-Sol can be found at .nrost hobby stares. lhey act as a solvent 1;0 soft-en the decal 'Ibis allows dl;e decal to conform mone doscly to, the surface of" the miniature, making it look raose natural and realJr giving it that paintedon look.

To get a decal to CGmO:IID to deep detail like Zim1J'le1'# or raised details like rivets, use a paint bFUSh to gently pLess t1~e decalinto the details w.hile it is still soft. Be very careful tho~h.~as the decal will easily deform or rJP.


WL1ile there are many- decals available, they can't cover every marlcing that was used. Additional markings like unit er division markings, bridging weighT classes, air recognition symbols, crew-applied names, shoulder patches and rank chevrons can add that extra somethlng te your miniatures, You can add as many of as few as YOD like. Of course all the extra markings wiU

I have painted skulls on. to the helmets of these Fjnlllsh Jager to help distinguish. the platoon from the rest of my Finnish army.

increase your painting time, but the result can look spectacular, especially Lf you are representing a unit that has very recognisable markings, One thing to consider when adding extra markings Like shoulder patches and rank

Wayne has added specific unit patches and rank chevrons co these German miniatures to Idenufy them as a Croarian unir,

Here Anrti has enlarged the unit patch and omitted the detail that would be to hard to reproduce, without losing the look of the odginal.

chevrons, 1S that there needs to be a certain level of sinrpllficatien at this scale. Look for the aspects of the ttlatking~ that make them unique, and concentrate on portraying those elements-and, ifnecessary, enlarge the marking slightly so that it can acttlaUy be seen,

A white gel pen, found at most stationary stores, is excellent for writing patriotic slogans on Soviet tanks.

Wayne used historical photos as reference to paint the slogans OJl this T-34 tank. Thin the paint with a little water and practice the slogan before attempting it on yom miniature.

German Bergepanzer III recovery vehicle


FOf light rust a simple dry-brush with a rust celoured paint is sliifJicient. Restraint is important here-a Iitde bit goes a l(mg way!

For kea rus r, first paint the tasted area with.a mix of d.iluted .PVA glue and abrasive cleanser (like Ajax) to form a .f011gh surface. Undercoat this area with dark brown, then gradually dry brush the area with successively lighter shades of otang~-hfOwIiL nIS{ colours.

Rust streaks can also be applied willi thi.s method. Remember thoughl such streaks will only be evident when a vehicle has been left sitting in. the [am or than is quite old.


By grime r mean that black, greasy sludge that usually builds lip on engines and tbJngs which get lubricated a lot, and around engine exhausts, rt gets trampled over engine decks and the paths the crew take to g~t into their respective hatches. It is b asi cally a mixture of oil, dirt and soot.

The best way to simulate thids with a wash of black ink, or a light dry brush, of black paint. Obviously if you have depicted your tank fresh from the factmy with little wear or damage, IDe amount ef grime present would be a le1:

Jess than a vehicle [hat has seen months of combat and shows a lot of wear and tear.

Soviet T-26 tank


Gue method fOJ: oreacing convincing mud is to mix. ready-mixed plaster £iller (called spackle in Arnerica) wlilieanl:t-coloured paint and a drop €II two of PVA white glue. Mix if( all together until. yeu get a consistency that is lIke toothpaste.

Now that you have this rand .mixture, find a goad l'eference photo of me vehicle you are weathering and appJy tile mud usill;g a paintbrush so that it matches the photo.

Once the mud is set, dry-brush it W~tb_ a (rghter shade of the earth COlOlU.


Oil and fuel stains are best replicated with washes (see page 80). The main effect of petrol nnd other fuels is to wash off dust and grime, $0 the trick to a good fuel stain is its effect on ally previous weathering, Therefore gas and oil stains should be the last cHeet applied.

fluel stains don't have much of a colour, but 11 dark .. green wash looks pretty good. on mosl base colours. Of course oil stains should he wash of dark brown-black or straight black Ink,

To get a really good stain, you need to do a bit of research on the Internet and in techaieal books on tanks to find the position of the fuel and oH tank filler holes and lubrication points on YOllr tank or vehicle. Theil consider how or why the stain otiginatecL Was it a leaky transmission housing, or Luel spilled dtp'ing a fill-up or oil change? Then paint a stain 1:0 match the cause.

Phil used a stiff, short-haired brush and stippled (see page 80) the dust-coloured paint on to the up per S urfaces, making sure that there was only a small amount of paint on the brush at a time.

He then used the same colour thinned down with water to paint streaks down the sides where water has washed the dust off the top surfaces.


Dust is p£ObabJy the most cornanon {emu of weathering 011 vehicles, I will discuss a few methods here few porf raying the varying degrees of dust.

old R€<lVY Dust

Use suecesslvely built-up layers of thinned pale earth-coloured paillt far heavy coats of ·dust !.hal have bC(JU on the vehid€ for some time. Brush lhb mixture on, leering it, collect around rlvees and in crevices. This is the exact opposite to f he usual dry brushing rnethed. which accentuates raised detail with lighter coloured paint, However, it is far more realistic. Whell dust is blown or rubbed €Iff of a vehicle it tends to Slay :llqllnd rivets and in crevices and nOL Ofl raised surfaces.

Fl:esh Heavy Dust

Spray thtnned pale earth-coloured paint 00 (he top surfaces of the miniature with an airbrush. It is important to refer te reference

ph0togra,phs and to work slowly, as it is easy to end lJp with a model that looks. as ifit bas been sprayed with earth-coloured paint.rather than just being dusty!

Lighc Dust

Apply grcriuHi-up artist's chalks with a large sefc brush fora li,gll't coat ofdnst, then blolW off any excess. 'Most vehicles b<i:l1ent frem 11 Light coat of dust unless they are ill whrter, jungle, or other extremely wet eondtrions.

Soviet JS-2 tank


A paste of simulated modelling snow, {)1' household baking soda, and PYA glll-C an be painted on te simulate wet snow, For dry snow, use the same mixture, hut then sprinkle on more simulated snow of baking soda ovee the top. For thin, ftozen snow, dry brushing white paint (possibly with the faintest hint of blue) on the model works well. Build the paint up in layers, trying riot to get toe much on the raised details,

Another aspect co take into account when setting you vehicles in a snow theme is that the ground can easily become a quagmire of mud and slush. In these conditions, tanks and vehicles will generally have a liberal coating of thick wet mud righ1 v:p to the top of thetracks 01' wheels,

Baking soda is a good alternative to simulated snow products.

Soviet T~34 obr 1942 tank


Usually in snow conditions vehicles and guns are camoullaged in white. 'Ihis was usually a water-based lime rnixtuae wh kit was easily washed off with water ill Sp1·ing. This whitewash was brushed. on with paint brushes, mo-ps, brooms, rags or even slopped on directly [rom the bHeket!

The best method for sirnulating whitewash is to applrthinned~out'white paint with a brush

This German Panzer TV H tank has an. even a,pplication of white wash ,vith a thick layer of rriud around the tracks andlower side skirts. Mud

has even been thrownup onto the back of the turret and engine deck!

using the wet-brush technique (see page 79). As with any weathering, always ref€f to photos to keep your rniniatures realistic.

TIle ease of t:emoving the white wash meant that it came off veIl' easily dnring normal operational wear and tear, To represent this, tty to avoid whitewashing the edges and raised detail parts and any places where crew would be lihly tie wear it off as they clamber in and our of their vehicle.

Dry artisr pastels are another method of creating a wh itewash effect. Grind a white pastel into dust witll some sandpaper or by scraping it wid'! a hobby knife. Mec the dust with a bitofwatef to make a tlrin paste. Apply the paste liberally to the miniature. TheIl when it is completely dry, u-se a stiff hard brush to wear the pastel off on the edges. 'Ihe key to this method is to(;) seal the model afterwards (sec page 68) to step it wea.ril1g off even more. 'The sealer wiH tone the chalk deWlil quite a hit. $0 it pays to overdo j~ a bit.

US M7 Priest HMC self-propelled gUll_


Afrer many hours of exposure to the sun's UV radiation paint lightens, and in extreme cases, bleaches or flakes o£f eocapletely TIus is most obvious in the African desert and the Russian Steppes,

These effects are more pronounced in the summer months, so checking references as to time of'year and lecarion IS imp~rtaot.

For simple everyday fading, add a small amount of a lighter shade to YOllr base colour and apply it With the wet-brush technique to get a stteaky appearance, or dry brush it on for a dustier look. Pragressively add mare at the lighter colour to the base colour to represent stronger bleaching.

The effect will be most visible on the upper and raised surfaces that would have the most exposure to the suns rays, so concentrate your efforts there.

German Panzer II F tank

German Tiger I E tank

show depending on the vehicle. On German vehicles for example the bare metal is first primed in a zed-oxide paint, rhea the top coat is sprayed ever top of that. To siwuJa:te this you would paint an area of a red-brown colour to represent the primer coat follewed by it smaller amount of a rust colour if you are simulating older damage, with a final small amount ef a metal colour where the main paint damage occurred.


Although applying weal' is relatively straight forward; siruulati ng worn paint realistlcally requires some thought. What caused the wear? "Where did the wear occur? How old is the paint? Did the wear oceur before or afller other clamage or weathering?

'!he Panzer Il light tank shown above has bad ~ coat of mud painted over its original dark grey paint to blend it in better with the desert where it is _fighting. The harsh conditions of the desert have blasteo off a great deal ()f the mud, revealing the original colour underneath, 'This effect was aeh ieved by painting the dark grey over the top of fue mud colour when'! the wear would most likely to o ccur, Notice that the markings Were never covered with the mud, so they are placed en a: neatly painted square of dark gtey.

When paint Is worn down to the meta underneath there is a series of colours that will


, I

This ts shown well in the Tiger I heavy tank shown above. Here the damage bas chipped of bits ef the textured Zimmerit coating revealing the primer undernearh, with bare metal showing wheee, the primer has been W01'n off toe.

As always, photographie references will be most helpful in gettiag a good resnlt,

The dust has settled over the, fuel stains on this vehicle.

Here the stain has happened after the dust settled on the vehicle.


The idea of chronology of weathering is for YOll to consider 'the order in which each we;l1:herlng effect took place in relation to the omer weathering effects.

A ft(el $1lain OJ] a dusty vehicle would wash the dust frm'll the area of a fresh fu.el spill, but would probably be more dirty than the test of the vehi(.?te if the vehicle gQt dusty after the fuel spfJ1 oeeurred as' tire dust sticks more realiJ:ilr tothe wet 'area.

¥Ou can use your wttathlilring to tell a Slot;y-, especially if you are representing a historioal force at a spH;ific battle. Did the 'Vehicles have to cross a .river before the battle? Have the vehicles been nghting i'D the harsh desert?

Altb:ough it is a suht:J.ety that most painters will not bother with, a litde planning af the chronology of your weathering can al'J_d an extra sense of realism to yont farce.


An important callsideration when adding weathering is whether it is apprepriare fQr your force. Fo:r example, a US Sherman tank landing an D-Day isiti), goitl~ to he covered in thick mud aad have rus-t stains as this ls its first battle.

Compare this to a German "Panzer after months of figl1ting-on the' Eastern front. It has

endured many battles and p0ssihl'y stiilllOH:ecl Er-om. neglect as Wf;U as the harsh eIem:eJ')ts. It GOuld be afFected byaJl the weatlJ~emllg effects that we h_a:v:e discussed at some stage d!t:tiing it's long, hard career,

Use trus to make an. info_tined dedsian as, tp, hruwyQIiJ are going to a;ppTl'lach weathe_ring and detailing on yoU); foree. Remember, 1ml can add' as ffillOft Or as li-ttle wead)e,ring as you want to yom; n.U:niatuJ'e,s!

- ... " ___

11 "


I ~

, I


, ,




The plastic Flames Of ~r bases ate moulded t@geilier in a plastic frame and, -Wheil removed from tlle frame, they leave a pie<;e oftbe plastic fefld. This needs to trilnmed or filed to get a nice, smooth finislL to the edges of the base.

Bevelling the edges of miniatures' cast on bases make it easier to blend them in with the fJ·Olmdwork.

Scoring or sanding the top surface of plastic bases before the miniatures or basing material is applied helps adhere them more

rmlytotbe base.


There is a great variety of basing materials available' from Y(i)ur local hobby store or model railroad store, These include:

• Fine sand

• Fine stones or chips

• Coarse stones or chips

• Static grass

• Flock

• Ready-mixed plaster filler

• Simulated snow effects

• Loag grasses

• Lichen

• Coloured foam

Three of the biggest manufacturers of scenic materials also have good websites. Woodland Scenics products can be viewed at SiJHor products are at WwuJ.scen'Cryexp1?Ss. com, alld Gale Force Nine products are at

With such a range. it is easy to choose basing matel'ials that suit the theme of your army (see page 41). You don't want to have nice flourishing green grass bases if YOUl' force Js supposed to be fighting in the bitter depth of the cold winter months!

I f~ • • ,



As well as the eommercial basing products, •

there are lots of i:hil1,&s around your house and yard that also make. perfect basing materials.

Baking Soda mixed. with PYA white glue and water for snow.

Dirt mixed with PYA white glue wand water for mud.

Some ofthes€ are:

Brush bristles for tall grasses and. radio aerials.

Fihehair clippings from your razor mixed with PYA white glue and water for dirt.

Dried tea leaves from the pot f())t dead leaves, OJ: painted green for live ones.

PYA w:h ice glue j'O,· Water ia puddles,

• Lichen off trees for small bushes.

• Various ingredients from the spice rack foi' grolmd cover and deoayiog fo.llage.

• Rolled IIp tissue paper soaked in PYA white glue Jor tarpaulins.

• mall pebbles or rocks f(n

rocks and ouldess,

• Match sticks lor sawn timber.

• Clean kitty litter fo'f rocks and stones.

'" Finely corrugated cardboard for coerugared irOJ1.

As you can see, the ¥,ossibiLities wt:e Limited only by your imagination and ingenuityl

• Small twjgs and sticks for fallen branches and tree stumps.


Fixing your miniarures to their base requires a little bit of planning. It pays to set out a platoon at a time and sit the figures on the bases as yon would like them to see how they look. Yeu want the llgnres to they are interacting with each other and the situation around them, so play around with different combinations and positions until yeu get one that works.

Before you glue your figures to their bases, tal .. e one last look at the platoon diagram in their IntelligenceHandbook to make sure that yon haye the right Dumber of ligures on each base and the right comblnarions of weapons.

When you are completely happy, carefully glue each figlrte in place. Most glues can be used. to gLuey.our miniatures to the base. Each ba.'i. its own pros and cons. Super glue sets very quickly but the bond between lie metal nriniature-and the plastk base can be vuy brittle and a hard knoek could sflap it free. PYA white glue has more elasticity; but takes Ionger to dry. Hot glue. ha,s some flexihility and drles quite fast, but can be messy to use, In the end, its -up to you which one you choose.

1 <aim going to explain the two most commojJ methods for appl)'iilg grolJiRd CQ'V'er to your rni:niauue bases: sand, ,and ready-mu.ed plaster

fillet. $:(nd Ground Cover

nun down sorue I'VAwhi:te' glue and apply it Ilbel'i!.l1y te the base with 'a brush.


'The .first step to bas ing yaurlT;Lodels is ap'p1yi:Qg the ,:gronod cover. This is the basic C(i)vering that 'VVilt represent thedlivt OLl the groued, As well as prO"Viding texture, an important fun£tion OF this layer is to ta:is-e the ground level to the same level as the.moulded-en bases gf the miniatures.

Using small squares of card you can raise some miniatures higher than otJiers on a base to mtlke the groundlevelless uniforrn:fJI level.

Sprinkle sand over the wet glue and shake off the excess. Lea"e the.gJ ue to dry.

You m:ay Ilave to build UP. a few layers to raise the ground level to the ,right height.



R-eady-mixe4 plaster FiUer GrolUld Covet:

Use a small spatula or palette I,:,nife to spread readYdnixl;ld plaster fillet over the base, -Use an old paint brush and water to smooth out unwanted lines and marks.

A couple 'If drops of PVA white glue mixed into the plaster will belp stop it, from

cracking as it dries. -

Once your ground cQ,Vcr is dl'Y! rOil can paint it an earthy colour and then dry brush it with a lighter shade. MaI~e sure that the celours mateh the .resr of your aall)) y@u-r overall theme and your terrain boards.

Mix some brown P'!i.'!.U!1!'! ~&!J}!f!fY~!!!J~~4' plaster filler to tint-it toanearthy;colour:i

:_1h{s',U!##§!!:.veyou haVing to paint-hard to;' itt. ata-reas·when it, dries.

,. , •• - - .,_ - _a. .....


']]]is stage Can be fun and really makes your bases stand our, Adding things like debris, walls, tree stumps, rocks, bushes, and faMen branches to am bases give~ the force extra character. YOI,1 can add as few or as many extra terrain bits to your bases iTS you want.

Have a look at ]ol'1n Boulrn:'aod's gall elY OIl pages 36 and 38 to see the inspiring additional terra in on h is bases. B iswork is a good example of how forward plannillg and having.a visual theme can teally make YOll[ stand out from the rest.

You can add things like broken brick walls, helmets cut offefspare miniatures, tank tracklinks, Or anything else that could represent battlefield debris. Let your imagination go wild, but try and tie your theme tog!,!fuer fot your whole army. Russell Briant's GebiJJg8jage1' company (see page 61) is atli excellent example of a well-based, but tightly-therned force.


If Y@1.1 ate gl)ing to add gtass to your base lIDs is the tim€ to do it.

StatiC' grass, flock, or ground foam ate all ruaeerials chat wOJ'Jt well for simulating grass. Static grass, in my opinion, is the best option for convincing g1'ass and T would recornerend ge:ttmg a variety of colours to suit the rigk-r time of year and cl i mate For the fer{)@ you are tnaloog.

To apply sta tic gr~s] pot it in a small contairrer @I' jar and give it a geod shake (I) eharge it up with .scatic electricity. AppJy small tand'om b10bs of watered-down IJVA white gille to yoUI' base with a pai,1tbr~,sh. Lightly sprinkle the static grass Qve!,' the base, then 110Id the base upside-down and vlgorOllslyshalce off the excess static grass, TW'Jl the base over and held it up to eye level and geo dy blow the static grass to get the last of it to stand up.

Once che glue 1'8 dty YOll can give the static grass a very Jjght dry-brush with a llghte.r colour .i£'Y'ou wish t@ briHg aqt its colour.

Try mixing two colours o/static grass together to. :11'1l1ke the grass; 011 J10ur bases look less~rl{forl11' :~I':f0f?{ft tlJ~tinfeOjye~r iilwhichyiJlJr"aVniy. ~ugiJt, its 'battles.

Yl:nJ.C bases are now cempiered, to a gaming standard that [0aks good and enhances and unifies the l00lc of ymrr complete army.

I Wloocll~nd,lScenics."and SiLjloTpro_dyce_!,a ~~r)1 .good l;dilg~ pI tallif/iis" :t;lu1npi.and othel'; scenics thatare vflJ,"easyto glue onto the, bases .. ' :,Luith PYA __ white glue ant( great6i§f_l.h.ll/:'~f:tbe., realism oly-our bases. Try Looking for' these"; products at )Iom; lo_caj.hobby orrno.d_e{:tqiliofl)'

store Or" on the lniernet: -.

-':':_'-~. ~ .. ,. ""-~"-,,- ... -._.:-:~-~,-,- .. ':--~ -.,.,-~ ,


Winter bases can be done yelY effectively a'S demonstrated by Russell Briant's force shown on page 61. T@ get .nj~ effect, appLy a mix of watered-down PYA white glue and some simulated seenic snow (found in most good hobby scores) crbaking soda in patches to your base and on the upper surfaces of ailily debris that yoa want snow to !have settled an. For the base shown abCince, Jeremy painted watered-down, PVA while glue in patches on the base thea sprinkled d~.e snow on top.

Depending on how cold 10U want the bases to look, you €ould try dry brushing the base with white or a very light blue before you add the snow. Then add multiple layers of snow, allowlng each layer of PYA white glue and snow to dry beloee adding another,

Aveid adding grass to the base, except for a few sparse areas to give an Autumn or early Spring feel if you want: it.


The barren nature oithe No_rthAftican desert and the D-Day. invasion beaches L~ easy to represent and offers a stFongvisual theme.

111e first step is to smooth off your ground cover. Add other details like ripples in the sand and footprints while the plaster is soft, 1£ you are using ready-mixed plaster filler as your groun.d cover, YOIl can a!lso glue on small patches of sand to represent shingle.

Now paint the base in a sandy colour, Find reference photographs from the llbrary or Internet to see the colour of the sand where Y'mr trOQPS f(mgbt. Paint and highlight the shingle grey.

Carving the shape of a~ootsolrr into a . length of balsa wood or plastic sprue will allow YORto press footprints into the ground· cover while it is still dnling.


To Itepresent the brutal fighting that went on during the m.any battles In towns ami cities, you can tailor your bases to look like the troops are fighting amongst the concrete and brick rubble and shattered timber fi:anl€S of a city under siege.

For his Stalingrad Croatian force, Wayne has used €QrrLLgated card to rep resent [Oon ng i rOD, and railway ballast for broken bricks as well as a brick wal!I feund in the GermaJ] and Soviet sniper packs,

To bring It aU together, the ground cover is made up of layers of saud painted gr!ly. Wayne also used spars€ patches of dead-coloured grass to represent the winter season the force is themed for.

.l used a mix oiPVAwhiteglue and modelrailway ballast to add broken brick-wall rubble at the baseof'the brickwork on this German 8.8cm FlalG6 gun. I also added empty shell cases, a small fuel drum and an ammo box to the base. before adding some patchy static grass. To give the whole team a di fferel]t lookfwm everyone elses', I mixed some modified greatcoat-we~ing Germans into the crew.

Jeremy captured the add feel of the Mediterranean with the basing on this Getman lO.5COl howitzer, He painted the base in various earthy tones and only used tnfts of long grasses in matching earthy colours. The lack of lush green grass emphasises the dry climate and the lack of any vegetation at all under the gun depicts the base as a well used static position churned to dust by the crew.

Je.relllY created a unique objective with his destroyed 7.Scm PaK40 gunand crew. He represented the dead crew by cutting off their bases and pushing them into the ready-mixed filler before it was dry; The craters were , scooped out of the filler and some sand 'was scattered around the crater edges to look like the loose dirt thrown up by the explosions. The dirt is positioned, to look like it has Battened the gJ'ass.





After spendiag a lot of tirne r~~eardl.i!l1g, assembling, modelling and painting your miniatures, the last thing you wanr to. see is them.covened in pamt chips or: lYave the paint rubbed off after y<'lll have had a couple of games Wid] them.

A coat of a good quality varnish or sealer will also .rernove the shine frOll waslIes and inks -and can reduce the ,silvecing on decals. It also gives y@ur miniatures an even finish over the whole.surface, as well as applyillga very batd: coating thar will help resiu: d:am:age frODl handling and aecidents.


l?eo-ples oplntons va:ty gi'eady as te wbich sealer isthe best. This is made mote difficltlt because each country produces its OW]] sealers, as the compressed solvents in the cans m:al{es them difficult to ship elsewhere.

The best option is to. buy a can of matt spray sealer from yout local hobby shop ur art sljpplieJ' and try it on a painted test Fie(i;c to see jfyou aJ·t!h~pf'Y with the .result,

Perhaps the best ailllicefor sealers is, .fllUJa_ys follow the-- instf'1!.4tionsth_1{1! aO,rtlt! with t:he product'ifyrnt teant good res1.l1ts!

Most varnishes come ill three stylg,s: matt, satin and gloss. Gloss varnishes produce a -very hard, shiny, reflective surface, while mall varnishes prod uce a very d ull, non-rellecri ve surface, Satin varnishes filII somewhere in between,

Most military paints nrc matt to avoid reflections giV"iilg the ranks position away. This means that a matt sealer is what you should use, ahhol,gh so roe peopl eli kc to apply a coat 0f gloss sealer first for gl'l:alcr protection.


Spray cansof sealer are the most useful as you can varnish a lot or III i nint llrt!S in a frattioll of d,le time it would take to seal them with brush on varuisl»


Brush on sealers allow YOIl to contml how much varnish goes en to yow miniatufes benet, so yeu to PUt on 11. thicket protective coati:ng, although this can he very time consuming if you have a lor of miniatures;

"' - .

comp'lex multi-


A German StuG N assault gun in a very complex hard-edged camo,

Camouflage was applied to vehicles during the war in many yaried ways: by the factory" making the vehicle, in the field by the crew, or by a repair depot. The finish also vat jed enormonsjy depending on the skill and 'artiseic talent a!' the perllon applying it, what was lLsed to mill the paint (fuel, oil, water, and t.uJk were all used arrjmesl], and the tool used to apply the paint, be it an aitbFash, paint brush, (ag, or even a tree branch!

Thismakes The application of camouflage a very tricky subject to cover with any sect of authority. These factors which could result in vastly different. loolcing vehicles in the same unit, a totally unified look across a whole division, or anything in between.

Knowing this though, )lOU soon realise that the only way to do it right is to do YOW: OWll research and 1ind examples of the cam.ouHage you are go:ing to paine in the theatre that yuu are modeJiling.

1n this section J will explain the techniques that you can ttSe to recreate the camouflage In your photographs on your miniatures.


If you want to airbrush 3. h-ard~edged patteru, you need to use a rnask, This workshy blmiking out areas while the paint is applied, so that when the paint is dry and you remove the mask, dlJe edgimJ colour is revealed.

Hard-edged cam.ovflage is camouflage where there is a distinct sharp line between any twa calours, It is very ecrnmon. (especially in facrory-painred camouflage::) and probably the easiest to reproduce.

You can apply hand.-edged cameullage directly OIl to your base coat before highlighting and shading. A block-painting technique (see page 78) works well fQf a solid look, wm,ile wet bfusMm.g (see page 79) the canumflage en in Jayers gives it a worn or waslied-our look. Once your camenflage is painted on, YOll can highlight, shade, and weather it just 1:ike you would with the base coae,

Apply me liquid mask in thick random blobs.

ApIJ1y the C.'lI110 with an airbrush or paint brush.

When drycarefully remove the mask with tweezers.


Gile masking method fer hard-edged €aDlouflage uses artist's masking fluid. sometimes referred to as liquid mask. Spray or paint the mask onto the. model where you want the base coat to remain, £hell spray the camouflage onto the miniature. Remove the mas:k and, bey presto, instant c~m0u8a'ge.

Make sure that you follow the instructions on tbl:! tndiSking fluid a1'ld try it out on a test 17/ i nil' ture first.

Annther method is to use Blu- Tack in the same way. The only difference is that you place strips and blobs of Blu-Tack em the model instead of brushing it on.

John Boultwood's gal/e,), on pages 36 and 38 show excellent use of foliage used as camouflage.

Crews often used tree branches to help their vehicle Mend into the surroundings. Woodland Scenics and SiHlor make a wide range of scenic material that makes excellent folia;ge camou£l.age on yoar "chides too.

Choose foliage colours that match the timeframe and location for yeur aU)lYs theme.

German. Sd K& 251/1D half-track


Sofb-edged camouflage is created when an airbrush is used to camotrllage a vehicle, lea"ing the edges softly' feathered.

You can. techniques like wet brushing (see page 79), stippling (page 80), and blending (p~ge 80) W simulate the look of air-brushed. camouflage. Although these won't produce an. exact duplicate of the eff~ct of an airhrush, they do produce a sotte}! and their messy look helps represent a rushed application in the &eJd.

Use the same techniques as for hard-edged camouflage, but leave the paint'at the edge of the camouflage sligl1tly see through. Apply the camouflage after the base coat stage so it will be"Wi~ the rest of your- miniature.

These rechniquesalsoworkfor other barrlefield application methods Iike tree branches and .tags as you can create a really rough look,


Once you get the hang of airbrushing (see page 82), producing airbrushed came is relatively easy.

Make sure you have good reference photos or a strong image in mind. of the style that you want to reproduce. As usual, always practic€ the method on a spare mod.el or paper before stad:ing Oil you-r miniatut(;)Cs. of rue goad abeut airbrushed' <iamouflage styles is that psactisally anything' gdes! Styles varied from fine wavy or 'scribbled' lines to broad hands or swatches of colour,

It is best to apply me airbrushed carne after the base coat stage so it can be included in the weathering of the rest of the miniature.


Infantry camouflage uniforms are quire varied and you cannot expect to get an exact duplication Qf any specific carne style at such a small scale. Instead YOll need to concentrate on the aspects of the camouflage pattern that makes it visually lI11i<Jue. Study lots of photographs of the uniform. Study how die colours are combined. Look at things like WaS the brown overlapping tlie green or the other way around? Is the pattern regular and geometric or random splot(lhes(

Although it seems complex and -cricky at first, paintiag camouflage uniforms gets easier with practice. Get some spare figures and experiment uncll you find a way ofreprodncirrg the camouflage the way you like it. You will prohably find that }lOU need to simplify the camouflage pattern slightly and paint it over seale to make it work. Widl practice you will find: a rnethod that works and is CLP-ick and fun to apply.

JagdpanZer IV/70 rank-hunter Ambush pattern, late 19'14-1945

Ferdinand assault gun

Green pl1ttern over dark yellow, July 1943

]agdpaJlzer IV tank-hunter Three-colour banded auTIO, June J 944

U304(f) leSPW half-track Soft-edged three-colour camo, June 1944

Panther tank

Red-oxide undercoat with green camo, November 1944

Tiger 1 E heavy tank Three-colour mottled carnovjune 1944

T-34/85 tank

Captured and repainted in Finnish camo, 1944-45

Sd K& 25 1I1D half-track Brown over dark-yellow, Italy; 1944

Beutepanzer (captured) KV-le tank Dartt yellow stripes over Soviet green, 1942

ex~ect to sp,end


While you can plu>t.ogmph miniatures with just about any camera, you will get far better results with a camera that allows yOLI to control the aperture and shutter speed, and a macro setting is. invaluable, The best cameras forminiature photography are SLR {Single Lens Re£lex)camcras that let you look duough dIe lens to cOD1pose yow' shot.


Digital cameras offer much more f:lex:tbUity when ii' cernes to 1Uiniab.rrepho.togl'aphy. You can see the resul ts of your photos almost instantly on a compuler or in the camera

itself. 'TIlis lets you take a lot more practice shots ,'While setting up your photography environment, allowing you to improve yeut ability much faster.


The megapixel rating of a digital camera describes the maximum size that, a photo it takes Can be.ara.given j·esolL1tion. fior example a 3-megapixel camera has a sensor in it that contains a matrix of about 1500 x 2000 tiny sensors. Multiplying these together giv-el' 3,000,00(1) pixels or 3 megapixels. Each nne, of those tiny sensors re&lstersilie light in that area and together they become the Jrnage.

on a few details tliat

A com purer rn onitor typically has a resolutlon of 72 dpi (d0ts pee inch), so a 3-megapir1cel photograph will translate to an image that is 1500 pixels / 72 dpi = 20.8" (53cm) high and 2000 pixels / 72 dpj = 27 . .8" (70.scm) wide. Since this is bigg_er than most monitors, the .image will display perfectly on a monircr.

Most printers have a uesolutiossof 300 dpi, Oar 3-megapixel IJhotograph now becomes 1500 pixels / 300 dpi =" Y'(12.5cm) high and 2000 pixels J 300 dpi == 6.1" (1 7 em) wide.


As you can see, the biggest advantage of having a higher-megapjxel camera is that YOll get blgger images. Wnen pllOtogl'aphil1g miniatures this allows y.ou to take photos from further away to get a good picture, and then crop them. to get yOlU' 11 rial image.


Most. digital Cameras have a maC10 mode (indicated by a small flower leon, see above). Mi'lCTO mode tells the camera to faGUS on the closest object rather thllll the whole field of view.

You can overcome the lack of a macro setting by taking the pboto from !1trther away and thea cropplng th(:l photo, bot geod results-are mud} easier te achieve wi til a macro serr in,g,


Most digital cameras have both optical. Zoom and digital WOrn, Optical zoom is the amount of magnification the camera lens can make without loss of quality (usually 2x or 3:~l Do not use digital zoom for miniature ph,otOgtaphy, .all it does is st1!e1;ch the size of each pixel re sulti ng in a bJo(ll~ and generally pO~l:-qua1ity photo.


Lighting is something that is overlooked in miniature photography, but for good images you need light, lots of' Ught.

You need not buy an expensive professional lighting rig as two or three inexpensive desk lamps will snffice if used in the right way. Arrange them by putting two in front. one on each side, to llght the fttJ:Q£ of the miniature. Position the third one above and slightly behind the tninia&r-e with the bulb angled sllghtly forwal'd.

As well as the amount of light; you need to consider the colour of the light. Normal incandescent 11gbt bulbs are quite warm and yellow, while Huorescent lights are D€lIlJlally very cold and harslr. For the best results use daylight bulbs, available from most convenience or .laardware stores" as these provide a much more neutral Ught.

virtuallr all but rue most inexpensive cameras will have a tripod mouuting point. 'Ihis is a simple screw opening on the bottom ofilie camera where it connects to a tripod.

Tripods range ill size and price, but gem:rally a small inexpensive tripod will do the job fer miniature photography.


The most Important thing in muuature photography is getting the miniatures in focus, Most cameras will have ante-focus that will focus OIl the miniature, as long as the it is well lit and rhere is nol!llillg else in ilie shot that will distract the camera. Using the macro setting will allow you to get closer to the miniature, filling the frame of the shot, while still keeping it" in fscus.


The next: most important thing is depth of field. This is the depth of the picture that is in focus, A good depth of field will keep the whole shot in focus, while a limited depth of field will leave the bont: or back (Dr both!) of your miniatures out of focus. There ant two ways to increase the depth of field. You can either

move the camera further back and then crep the picture, er yeu can set the apertuteon your camera: to a smaller setting.

Always record the settings and lighting positions that worked well. This will help you create a successful set up.


'The image above shows the limited depth of field of Jolufs ,c:unera from this close to the miniatures. Those in the foregrouad an.d background are out of fOCUSi or blurry. Only the minlatunes between the dotted Hues are properly in focD.<;".

If the centre af the picture was the only paf\ that John wanted, then he could cmp it our and produce an eXEerlent dose-up picture.

rp. on the other ha nd, he wanted the whole scene in focus, he would need 1:0 move ,he camera further away from the miniatures and crop me picture to the: ,part that he wanted.

Most cameras can lnCt()as~ their depth of field by reducing-the lens aperture, Check the user manual.for yOlU: camera, to find if you can.

However, jf you use a smaller apel'tl.1te, it will mean that less light will enter the camera, so the exposute timehas to Increase to allow more l'igkt in. Fortunately o. most cameras that allow manua] aperture serti ngs 'ha~e an 'N setting that will aurerrracically adjust; the exposure time [0 snitthat.aperrure setting:

A .longer expo.sure time requiresyou to keep the camera vet-ysteady to avoid a shaky; blurry linage. Put the eamera an a tripod 01: small bean bag and use the "timer so you dOfrt shake the camera,


Oace you have taken your _photographs, you want to shew them. to peeple, right? What hetterplace to de that than the Plam-es Of War forum? Thefirsttbtogy:ou-ueed to dais to resize the picture so that it can be down'loade(Un a reasonable time. YO'l1l' camera's software will prQbabJ:)' havea feature to do thi~, otherwise you can use image-editing software like Adobe Phctnshop or Microsoft Pho'i:opaint. Set the image size to around 40()~60Q pixels wide and save the picture in a format such as JPEG or GIF that can be displayed 0.11 a website.

'Ihe next thing you need to do is put the pict:lJte file somewhere on the Internet, this is called ~mage h(i)sting. 'There are many sites around that oA~er free lmage-hostiog services. Two popular ones are{ju~·ket. 6'om and 11Il.fl'I,u:!lkkt:t·o'm .. Create 3.I:l aecourn on one of these websites and foJhJ\'V the Instructions to upload your images to tbehosting site,

The fin,al step is to tell everyone; where to Ioek to see your pictllIes. Maire a new postin g In t:he ga:Nety section of the FbJ:Jn1;'.l' OjWLtl·fomm. III your posting put the following HTML tag:

<imgirc=o i'hup.'/lwZIlW.jljckr. /,'(J'/In/ac(){!urJ'f/pI.(;Pu1'(.jpe,g";>

When someone clicks at] this t~lg" it will take tbeJip straight to your p'icrure. The tricky hit is that you have to replace 'account'<with the name aryan.: account on the 11Ostin:g·site. and 'pkture.jpeg' widl the name €If your picture. The real ugwiJJ look semethlng.ltke this:

"i:irng src» ''ht.o/dlwU)w.fli~kr. cllm/dit;,n!~'herman.jpeg">

An ea",y way to get the addsess of rom raotograph is to g~ to your image-hosting website, right-click on the picture, and select 'Copy Image Address' [tom the menu, Then all yon need to do is paste the copied address in. betWeen the quotes in the fag.

If yeu have any trouble with 'tlris ptocess, there is a topic 01] the !urlHi1' galJery that will ta1k you ,through rhe pr.ocess step-by-scep and explain everythiAg you need to know.

British Sherman III tank Italy; 1943-1944

British-Sherman ITI tank Italy, 1943-1944·

US M4Al Sherman Italy, 1943-1944

British Sherman III tank Nonh Mrica, late 1942

New Zealand Sherman nr rank Italy, late 1944

British Chur.chill ill rank Italy; late 1944

British Grm't.t tank North Africa, 1942

British Crusader III Tunisia, late 1942



Edge highlighting is the technique of applying a fine line of a colour that is 1tghtet than your base coat to all the edges on a model as a Rnal stage. You can see dl1S dearly in Glen Tarbers work (see pages 21 to 26) an d to a lesser exrerrt in All.ttl Hetskanen's (pages 6 to 10).

"£hilS technique adds a oontrasting sharpnes$ te the edges of a model that makes the-model really stand out at a distance. Althotlgh not particularlj- a realistic te~hniqDe, edge highlighting gives a model a unique visual a_p._pea:1 and can make ail atmy really stand out 011 the tabletop battLe6.eld.

BLACK l!1t-fING.

Black lining is the application of a finely painted or drawn line to define areas and detail", after the b ighlighting has been done. Tom W~se: (see pages 28 to 35) is a strong; exponent of this technique while Michael Wieske uses it more subtly (page 11).

You need to really thin yout paint (and possibly add a drop of acrylic floor poJisb) and use a brush with a good point for black lining.

A fine-tip Rapidograpb technical pen (1 would recommend trying a O.3mm tip to start with) is an excellent tool for black lining instead of a brush and paint.



Bleck painting or panel painting describes the method of paln ting where you carefully paint in each area leaving a thin black lime of the undercoat showing in recessed panel lines and around any detail YOll want to make stand out Mild look sharper. Both Anrti Heiskanen (see pages 6 to 10) and '1'00'1 Wise (pages 28 to 35) use thics technique.

Although time consuming an complex or deratled miniarures, patient and careful LJ,~e of this technique will produce wry results at any level of paintdug experience. I'd reeommend this. method fOT a novice painter and experienced painter alike.


Wet brushing or blending- is a technique where you. graduallybulld up the base colour by adcIJng layers of well-t.hinned paint (typically at a ratio of 1 part paint to 10 parts water), This allows yon to control the colour so yon can achieve things like to treaky co lonr for faded or warn base coats,

Clemens Gebel (see page 2) uses wet blending extensively to highlight and shade the smaller details of his models,

Other painters use wet brushing to good effect fOJ: realistic soft-edged caJllou1lage and oil stains,


Dry brushing Is a technique in which you. load a brus]; with paint and then, with a clean di'y cotton cloth or paper rowel, you wipe off the painT gradually nrrtil there is only a small amoun t left, With a light, sweeping motion the bsush is dragged across the. surface of the model leaving fine traces of paint on the top surfaces and raised details andy.

Cle;tRens Gobel (see page Z) and Michael Wieske (page 12) both use cL:y brushing to highlight their work,

The keY' to dq brushing highli;ghts is to use successively l~gltter G6101ltS, working the paint 01'1 less each time to achieve a nice Mend of colour, Save the lightest colour ~or the main edges: and. most prominent detailS.


Airbrushing is not so much a teehnique as a teal. As such it requires specialist and sometimes expensive equipment) but the end result can be very professional depending OJ) the skill of the user. It produces a perfect blend of colour with .minimum effar:t.

Glen Tarbet (see pages 22 to 26) am! john Bouitwood (pages 36 ro 38) botll use their airbrushes a lot in their painting,

Airbrushing can be quite technical, so see the Airbrushing Basks section oil page 82 fat mate details.


'These C\iV~ techniques p1:o'l!lll,ces a resulesimilar to black lining blLt wi:th a less definitive Iiae, Use them to add contrast to details by running a line around the detail and into panel recesses.

Inks can be used straight from. the bottle fO!" a dark, heavy line or watered down and built up inlayers to produce weallierillg effects such as dirtand stains.131adcinks work well QJ) many colours, but can be too strong on others. Michael Wieske. I!Ises dark brown ink 00 his da.rk-yellow' GerD1an vehicles for instance,

Magie wash isa mixrnre of acrylic floor polish" water, and ink or paint that produces a much smoother transition of colour thanplain ink. I suggest startin.g with a ratio of 20 patLS Boor polish, up to 20 parts water, and a few drops ofiak Or paint. .It-y it: on a test model first and .adjust the mixture to achieve the result YOll want.

Gelman Wespe self-propelled gun


Stippling blends two colouxs together, but does so 41 a patcb¥ way rarher than giving a smooth gradient.

Load a stifFj short-bristled, brush (a cut-down old paint brush WOI:'k$ well) With paint and then wipe our most of the paint with a rag or cloth, much like dry brushing. Them use a stabbing motion 1:0 apply the painr, WOL'k.iJ1g from the centre €If the area to be stippled out to the edges.


The dear acrylic floor polish used to make the magic wash mixture is known by different names around the world:

Klear (United Kingdom, New Zealand), Klir {France}, Pronto (Switzerland, Germany), Future {United States}, and Pledge One Go (Australia).


Layer blending ill a technique' is where yea paint successive thin layers or painueach one smaller and lighter than the last to transition smoothly from one colour to another in gradual increments,

FOl; the "cartoonish' look faV'Otu'ed by Antti Heiskanen (see pages 6to 8J you only-need two or three layers . For a more refined approach such as John Boultwood's (pages 36 to 38). layetin.g eould involve up to ren individual colour steps for a vety smooth and gradual colour shift.

W'hen highlighting using this technique, you need to -think about where y:om light source would naturally be. Build up fJ;om the darker shadows under overhangs, through the middle tones en the sides to the lightese tones on the best-lit, surfaces.


United States Theatre, MediUirran,ean

Hurricane n D

Great Britain Theatre: North Africa

Jll 870 Stuka

Germany Theatre: Russia

11-2 Shturmovik

Soviet Union Theatre: Russia

I I'

choice as to ilie



'TIle basic principle b hInd an airbrush 1.'i to deliver the paint, thinned to the right viscosity, by means of pressurised air through a s@J\ies of coataois-designed to let you adj ust the am.ou nr of paint bei:ngapplied.


Single-action airbrushes have one button that controls the volume of the paiml air msxture that: is beingap.plied. Depressing the button works like an gn/off switch. Fine detail can be aohieved ~th a tittle practice, but a singleaction airbrush Is best fIYt large, broad areas of colour or when used with a mask. It 1.S a perfect tnel far IHl'dercoatingand base coats.


Double-action airbrushes have a button that depre'ses to centre] the paint £1m", and slideS' to control the air How. 1his allows Illany more cpmbinations of paint/ail; mixtures. It a:lsoa110ws yon to change from painting broad areas to Iine IiJleS with a simple finger movement while yon are worki.t-xg.


Slngle-action airbrushes always feed [he paint from a j<lr or container mounted below the airbresh, This system :relies on the air ptressme creating a partial vacuum. to suck the paintup i nto the air Row,.

Double-action airbrushes often use a grav.ity Feed. 111ese airbrushes have a cup fot'the paint mounted GO top of the airbrush. This allows the paint to :flow into rhe airbrush from its own weight, requiring less ail; pressure. The lower air pressure gives better €ontrol, an effect most noticeable when. doin,g :fIDe detail work

The best airbrushes use internal mixing where the paint and air ase mixed inside the airbrush body before leaving the 1107.fLJe.

Some airbrushes use external Jnixing where 1Jhe mix takes place at the nozzle :resllJllillg in a less uniform mix.


You CM1 use either pressurised cans of ail' or a EOHLpresSQr to 1'11.0 your airbrush. J would recommend you use a compJ·essor as it can be set ~LJl to provtde the constant I(j to 15 psi needed re get the best RunniLlg your aii:brush ofF a tank that i's fil'led by your compressor is even better as it reduces the likelihood of preSSlll'e changes causing your paint to splarret.


To get the des ired constant 10 to 15 psi pressure you will Reed a good~qllaJJty; adjI1stableair regu(acer. Make sure Y@i:hr regulaEor hasa bl,ilt in water trap or install an in-line water trap and filter mer the regulator, as compressing it forces the moisrure out of the air. If the water reac.hes the airbrush, you will get an uncontrolled, very thluned down mix of paint that will most J ikely min all yo·tu: .hatd work,


I would reocmruend a good-qtfa(jty doubleaction airbrush. I have generaJly found that a cheapairhrnsh. will produce cheap results.


You can bl1Y paint pre-thinned and sold as aitbrusl'l colours, or thin your normal acrylic paiat with distilled water or special airbrush thinners. Bodl will require additional thinning duriJlg use as the thinning agent evaporates over time,

Thinning paint to the right viscosity will be a trial-and-error exercise, so take notes (,Jf your results for future reference. The best gllideLrue is flo aim fer a consistency like that of milk,


It is imperative that you dean your ai£br~sh tll'Orol.lghJyafter each. and every use. This will extend the life of your ait·bnIsh COtlilpOncnts and allow you to produce a clean result. Refer to the airbrush documentarion for the best method 1)G dean your brush


... and practice some marc. Exercises like cormecting clots with a :fin_e line and painting small regular controlled dots can be good fOl' famil.iari:~iog yourself with the handling efi your airbrush, Another good idea is to have Some old minlatures lying around to practice 011 before wo.rkin.g on yoU!:/ina] models.


Airbrushes work by atGr(lis)J1,g the pasat, This resufts ill a very 'fine mist of paint particles floating around your work place. Inhalatlon of "his atomised paint could cause Ioug-rerm health pwblems, sa it is essential to use your airbn.ish in a well-ventilared ateaand to wear a Jace mask to lil'ter out the paint particles.


Loads on jn£otmat,ion on 'airbrushes and airhrushi!Og is available on rhe Internet and in most 1ibraries .

.A col!Jple ofgreatairbTushing websims thatwil!l ghfe yell some more details andl a1rbmshiRg techniques lliIie:


This chart c[Qss-[efermrces the current Flames Of Wtl1' Vallejo range with the British (BS) , German (RAL) , and US (FS Of' Federal Standard] If you want to contsibure to this list to make it as extensive as it can be, then please e-mail anyadditionalinfQttll<·



8@1 Brass

810 Royal f'lu_pJe

815 Basic Skintone

8'1 G Lntt Uniform.

819 I;taqisan:d

821 Getman C~g.


822 German, Cam_e.

mad~ Brown 823 Luftwaffe &mo.


824 Getman Camo.

Orange Ochre

825 Germaa ~o. 8(:)25

PaI(') Brawn

826 Germ,an Garo.e. SCCl.a 8()Q2

Medium Brawl] 830 Ge[maa .Fieldgtrey

833 Germ.a:n Came.

Bright Green

836 London Grey

845 S\1llIJIiy SkinT@lle

847 Bark Sa.rl(,J

ssa Medhun Olive 851 863 865







34 7021

HAL Federal



36081 36270 30051 20062 30U8 3Q219 31090

Englbh Uniform Japan (Jillfor[A Russian Unif01"ID

r BS r RAL Federal

866 GEe_en Gl't~y

870 MedillllL Sea Gn~y-

87J Leather Brawn

872 Chocolate Brown 8n 874 875 Bei,gf'! BroIDl 8 79Gtreen Brown

880 Kh:ili Grey

881 Yellowweeu

882 Mlddlestone

884 StOj)e Grey

886 Gteeo Grey

887 Brown ¥iolet

888 Qliye_Gn~y

89Q 893

89~ Russian Green

897 Breoze Gl'een

901 Pastel Blue

90"6 Pale Blue

9(i)7 Pale Greyblue

913 "Y'ellew Ocht:e

914 Gteen Ochre

915 Deep Yellow

916 Sand Yello:v;r

Getman Untto m

7030 7002 7013 60136 611)03



3@87 24,079 34(i)82




928, Light Flesh

929 ...Alliarantha.Red

93:0 Dark Blue

94e Saddle Brown

947 Red

948 Golden Yellow

950 Black

951 White

_ 9.§5 FlatiFlesh

961 ,Skymue

97{) Deep green

976 Buff

977 Desert Yellow

979 Germ, Cam.

DarkGFeen 983 Hat Earth 98{Flat Brown

986 Deck Tan,

988 KI~aki

989 SkyGmy

995 GeTll'lan Grey


35352 36473 :33434,


G31 SCC15

3031 1017 90(14 9016

30111 31350




8008 8017


Z64'96 30277 364~3 26044