Presentation1 | Jet Engine | Gas Compressor

Centrifugal Compressor
Centrifugal flow compressors have a single or double-sided impeller and occasionally a two-stage, single sided impeller is used, as on the Rolls-Royce Dart. The impeller is supported in a casing that also contains a ring of diffuser vanes. If a double-entry impeller is used, the airflow to the rear side is reversed in direction and a plenum chamber is required.

Typical Impellers for Centrifugal Compressors


Axial Flow Compressor

An axial flow compressor consists of one or more rotor assemblies that carry blades of airfoil section. These assemblies are mounted between bearings in the casings which incorporate the stator vanes. The compressor is a multi-stage unit as the amount of pressure increase by each stage is small; a stage consists of a row of rotating blades followed by a row of stator vanes. Where several stages of compression operate in series on one shaft it becomes necessary to vary the stator vane angle to enable the compressor to operate effectively at speeds below the design condition. As the pressure ratio is increased the incorporation of variable stator vanes ensures that the airflow is directed onto the succeeding stage of rotor blades at an acceptable angle. From the front to the rear of the compressor, i.e. from the low to the high pressure end, there is a gradual reduction of the air annulus area between the rotor shaft and the stator casing. This is necessary to maintain a near constant air axial velocity as the density increases through the length of the compressor. The convergence of the air annulus is achieved by the tapering of the casing or rotor. A combination of both is also possible, with the arrangement being influenced by manufacturing problems and other mechanical design factors. A single spool compressor consists of one rotor assembly and stators with as many stages as necessary to achieve the design and desired pressure ratio. All the airflow from the intake passes through the compressor.

it is most suitable for the by-pass type of engine where the front or low pressure compressor is designed to handle a larger airflow than the high pressure compressor. With the high by-pass ratio turbo-fan this trend is taken a stage further. The fan may be coupled to the front of a number of core compression stages (two shaft engine) or a separate shaft driven by its own turbine (three shaft engine). For this reason the pure jet engine where all the airflow passes through the full compression cycle is now obsolete for all but the highest speed aircraft.Axial Flow Compressor Although a twin-spool compressor can be used for a pure jet engine. the by-pass flow. hence lower fuel consumption. the remainder of the air. This results in the optimum arrangement for passenger and/or transport aircraft flying at just below the speed of sound. 4 . This arrangement matches the velocity of the jet nearer to the optimum requirements of the aircraft and results in higher propulsive efficiency. is ducted around the high pressure compressor. Both flows mix in the exhaust system before passing to the propelling nozzle. The intake air undergoes only one stage of compression in the fan before being split between the core or gas generator system and the by-pass duct in the ratio of approximately one to five. Only a percentage of the air from the low pressure compressor passes into the high pressure compressor.

Axial Flow Compressor Typical Triple Spool Compressor 5 .

because use at steady operating conditions is inefficient and wasteful of fuel. Where high pressure ratios on a single shaft are required it becomes necessary to introduce airflow control into the compressor design. This may take the form of variable inlet guide vanes for the first stage plus a number of stages incorporating variable stator vanes for the succeeding stages as the shaft pressure ratio is increased . This gives it a further advantage over the centrifugal compressor where these conditions are fundamentally not so easily achieved. Additionally interstage bleed may be provided but its use in design is usually limited to the provision of extra margin while the engine is being accelerated. 6 .Axial Flow Compressor The ability to design multi-stage axial compressors with controlled air velocities and straight through flow minimizes losses and results in a high efficiency and hence low fuel consumption. As the compressor speed is reduced from its design value these static vanes are progressively closed in order to maintain an acceptable air angle value onto the following rotor blades.

Axial Flow Compressor 7 .

Axial Flow Compressor 8 .

Axial Flow Compressor A Typical HP Compressor Rotor Blade 9 .


Turbines 11 .

Turbines 12 .

Turbines The losses which prevent the turbine from being 100% efficient are due to a number of reasons. shown diagrammatically in the figure below. gas leakage over the turbine blade tips and exhaust system losses. The µdegree of reaction¶ varies from root to tip. being least at the root and highest at the tip.5% loss would be incurred by aerodynamic losses in the nozzle guide vanes. The reason for the twist and change in stagger angle is to make the gas flow from the combustion system do equal work at all positions along the length of the blade and to ensure that the flow enters the exhaust system with a uniform axial velocity. A typical un-cooled three-stage turbine would suffer a 3. This results in certain changes in velocity. with the mean section having the chosen value of about 50 per cent.5% loss because of aerodynamic losses in the turbine blades. It can be seen that the nozzle guide vanes and turbine blades are twisted. pressure and temperature occurring through the turbine. A further 4. 13 . the blades having a stagger angle that is greater at the tip than at the root. The total losses result in an overall efficiency of approximately 92%.

This is achieved by controlling thermal growth and thus maintaining minimum blade tip and seal clearances 14 .Turbines General Internal Secondary Air System Principal areas that require cooling are the combustor and turbines. Cooling air is also used to control the temperature of the shafts and discs. to ensure an even temperature distribution and therefore improves engine efficiency.

Turbines NGV and Turbine Blade Cooling Arrangement 15 .

Turbines Development of HP Turbine Blade Cooling 16 .

Turbines HP NGV Construction and Cooling 17 .

Turbines Turbine Cooling and Sealing 18 .


Methods of Jet Propulsion .Turbojet Turbojets are the oldest kind of general purpose jet engines. Turbojets are quite inefficient (if flown below about Mach 2) and very noisy. Turbojets are still very common in medium range cruise missiles due to their high exhaust speed. low frontal area and relative simplicity. a turbine (that drives the compressor) and a nozzle. 20 . Two engineers. although credit for the first turbojet is given to Whittle who submitted the first proposal and held a UK patent that was widely read. Turbojets consist of an air inlet. Frank Whittle in the United Kingdom and Hans von Ohain in Germany. The air is compressed into the chamber. a compressor. heated and expanded by the fuel combustion and then allowed to expand out through the turbine into the nozzle where it is accelerated to high speed to provide propulsion. developed the concept independently into practical engines during the late 1930s. a combustion chamber.

Methods of Jet Propulsion .Turbojet 21 .

Turbojet T-38 Military trainer F5 Military fighter A typical small single-shaft axial-flow turbojet engine. afterburning variants can reach up to 5. Military versions produce up to 2. The engine. sectioned for display. depending upon additional equipment and specific model.Methods of Jet Propulsion . two-stage turbine on right. combustion chambers centre. weighs from 300 to 500 pounds (140 to 230 kg). Flow is left to right. giving it the highest thrustto-weight ratio of any production turbojet in the world. First entered service in 1960. 22 .950 lbf (13 kN) of thrust dry. 8-stage axial flow compressor on left.000 lbf (22 kN) thrust. the GE J85.

The rest is transmitted through the reduction gearing to the propeller. where the gases exhaust to atmospheric pressure. The hot combustion gases expand through the turbine. a turboprop consists of an intake. Fuel is then added to the compressed air in the combustor.Methods of Jet Propulsion . compressor. Air is drawn into the intake and compressed by the compressor. The propelling nozzle 23 . Further expansion of the gases occurs in the propelling nozzle.Turboprop In its simplest form. turbine and a propelling nozzle. Some of the power generated by the turbine is used to drive the compressor. where the fuel-air mixture then combusts. combustor.

Turboprop Propellers are not efficient when the tips reach or exceed supersonic speeds. 24 . wider cross section of the propeller. allowing the propeller to maintain the most efficient orientation to the airflow around it. air flows past the narrow leading edge of the propeller. As the airplane starts moving forward. The gearbox is part of the engine and contains the parts necessary to operate a constant speed propeller. When an airplane is stationary with the propeller spinning (in calm air). For this reason. thus maintaining velocity. This is analogous to a car operating in low gear: when you get up to speed you want to slow down the engine while still putting out enough energy to keep the vehicle moving. This balances the trade-off that fixed-pitch propellers must make between high take-off performance and high cruise performance. A shallower angle of attack requires the least horsepower but the highest RPM. creating greater drag. This is the most efficient configuration as the drag forces on the propeller are the lowest. This is accomplished in an airplane by increasing the angle of attack of the propeller. A constant-speed propeller is able to rotate along the longest axis of the blade to take a sharper bite of air with respect to the airplane. a reduction gearbox is placed in the drive line between the power turbine and the propeller to allow the turbine to operate at its most efficient speed while the propeller operates at its most efficient speed.Methods of Jet Propulsion . This means that the propeller moves more air per revolution and allows the engine to spin slower while moving an equivalent volume of air. This differs from the turboshaft engines used in helicopters. where the gearbox is remote from the engine. the airflow begins to push against the front. because the propeller is not moving very much air with each revolution.

The rather slower bypass airflow produces thrust more efficiently than the high-speed air from the core. 25 . the lower speed also reduces thrust at high speeds.Methods of Jet Propulsion . Part of the air-stream from the ducted fan passes through the core. This makes them much more efficient at subsonic speeds than turbojets. providing oxygen to burn fuel to create power. Turbofans have a net exhaust speed that is much lower than a turbojet. and somewhat more efficient at supersonic speeds up to roughly Mach 1. and this reduces the specific fuel consumption. All of the jet engines used in currently manufactured commercial jet aircraft are turbofans. Turbofans are also used in many military jet aircraft.Turbofan A turbofan is a type of aircraft gas turbine engine that provides propulsion using a combination of a ducted fan and a jet exhaust nozzle. but have also been found to be efficient when used with continuous afterburner at Mach 3 and above. the rest of the air flow bypasses the engine core and mixes with the faster stream from the core. However.6. They are used commercially mainly because they are highly efficient and relatively quiet in operation. However.

Turbofan 26 .Methods of Jet Propulsion .

Fan nozzle 27 . High pressure compressor 5. Nacelle 2. Combustion chamber 6. Low pressure compressor 4.Twin-Spool High Bypass Turbofan 1. Core nozzle 9. High pressure turbine 7. Fan 3. Low pressure turbine 8.

which consists of more stages of turbine. This is referred to as a free power turbine. consisting of the compressor. as the propeller is not attached to anything but the engine itself. In contrast. combustion chambers with igniters and fuel nozzles. a gear reduction system. turbo-shaft engines usually drive a transmission which is not structurally attached to the engine. and shaft output.Methods of Jet Propulsion . The transmission is attached to the vehicle structure and supports the loads created instead of the engine.Turboshaft A turbo-shaft engine contains a gas generator section. The main difference between a turbo-prop and turbo-shaft engine is that a turbo-prop is structurally designed to support the loads created by a rotating propeller. 28 . and one or more stages of turbine. The gas generator's function is to create the hot expanding gases to drive the power section. In most designs the gas generator and power section are mechanically separate so that they may each rotate at different speeds appropriate for the conditions.

Turboshaft The turboshaft is a version of the jet engine that powers nearly every helicopter built today. To address this problem. Helicopters also typically operate at much lower altitudes than aircraft where dust.Methods of Jet Propulsion . sand and other debris can easily be sucked into the engine. Although the engine shaft rotates about the horizontal. the key difference between the turbo-shaft and turbo-prop engine is that the turbine not only drives the compressor. but the shaft is also connected to a gear box that drives a helicopter's rotor blades. 29 . the gear box contains a sequence of gears that transform that motion to a rotation about the vertical axis as required by a helicopter main rotor. As previously discussed. most turboshaft engines are equipped with a particle separator that filters out and expels the unwanted dust before the air flow reaches the compressor.

Methods of Jet Propulsion .Turboshaft Schematic of a turboshaft engine particle separator 30 .

Airflow Systems 31 .

Airflow Systems 32 .

Airflow Systems 33 .

Airflow Systems 34 .

the engine functions as a conventional turbo-jet with the afterburner lit. the turbo-jet is shut down and the intake air is diverted from the compressor. This engine is suitable for an aircraft requiring high speed and sustained high Mach number cruise conditions where he engine operates in the ram jet mode. the afterburner is inoperative. by guide vanes. 35 . and ducted straight into the afterburning jet pipe.Methods of Jet Propulsion ± Turbo-RamJet The turbo-ramjet engine combines the turbo-jet engine (speeds up to Mach 3) with the ramjet engine which has good performance up to high Mach numbers. During take-off and acceleration. As the aircraft accelerates through Mach 3. The engine is surrounded by a duct that has a variable intake at the front and an afterburning jet pipe with a variable nozzle at the rear. at other flight conditions up to Mach 3. which becomes a ram jet combustion chamber.

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