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https://www.scribd.com/doc/49228499/PHY4460Relativity
04/06/2013
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K Young
Department of Physics The Chinese University of Hong Kong
December 2000
@ Copyright
Preface
A course on relativity, includingboth the special theory and the general theory, was first offered in the academic year 1994195. It was intended for both final year undergraduates and for graduate students, both on an elective basis. From the very beginning, it was found that no textbook was quite suitable. Broadly speaking, the available books fall into two categories. The first are often qualitative in nature, relying very heavily on intuition and heuristic arguments, and are therefore unsuitable for a course at this level. The second type are exhaustive tomes, exemplified by the works of Weinberg, and of Misner, Thorne and Wheeler. These are really meant for those who intend quite seriously to specialize in general relativity or an associated field, and would be far too much. for a oneterm course. Because of the lack of suitable textbooks or indeed references, it was planned b develop a relatively complete set of lecture notes. These started in the &st year (1994195) as copies of the overhead transparencies handed out to students. In the second year that the course is offered (1995/96), roughly half of the chapters have been turned into more formal lecture notes though of course in a somewhat preliminary form that shall require many rounds of revisions and polishing in the years to come. It is thought that the other chapters will be completed in one more year, and then improvements will be made in the light o the feedback. f The approach to the subject is somewhat different from most textbooks on relativity, Most textbooks try to cover a lot of material, often to the forefront of research; this is true both of the more heuristic texts and also of the more rigorous, exhaustive ones. But if one were to look at the textbooks for electromagnetism (with which relativity has much formal and conceptuaI resemblance), the norm now is to learn the subject in several stages. The first is often an integral approach to the field equations, necessarily restricted to very idealized geometries (spheres, infinite planes). The second round introduces the differential formalism (and in particular the mathematics of vector calculus), but again stays with simple geometries and simple situations (statics in the main). In neither of these stages is the student seriously brought to the forefront of research, but instead, a firm conceptual foundation is laid, with a reasonable degree of rigour. Only in the third stage, which is perhaps taken only by a minority, would the students be introduced to more sophisticated techniques and problems closer to research. The approach in these lecture notes is essentially analogous to the first two stages described above. Just as vector calculus figures prominently in electromagnetism, so differential geometry also figures prominently here. Fortunately, very idealized situations already suffice to discuss the two systems of greatest interest: the Schwarzschild metric and the RobertsonWalker metric. Incident ally, differential geometry is dealt with from the embedding approach. In essence, the only thing that the students are asked to believe is the existence of a finitedimensional embedding in flat space. Though no longer fashionable among mathematicians, this approach is probably easier to grasp for physics students. In the same vein, differential forms are not mentioned, since an extra set of symbols will only burden the firsttime learners. Chapter 8 is optional, and is not needed for the rest of the course. I am grateful to the United College Student Campus Work Scheme for funding to support the typing of the manuscript. I thank Mr Lai Chi Wai, a student who took the course in the first year that it was offered, for doing the initial typing. Mrs Alice Mak kindly performed the
final editing. Both steps are onerous because of the many complicated equations involved. Because it is hoped that the lecture notes will be improved as the course evolves, students (and colleagues) are requested to send in suggestions and to point out errors, of which there must be many
Relativity Pnt roduct ion
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4
How does one phenomenon appear to different observers How do physical laws appear to different observers Experimental basis Consequences and applications
Rotation
2.1 2.2
Derivation of rotational transformation Combining two transformations
Moving Reference Frame
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5
I
Galilean transformation Speed of light and MM experiment Derivation of the Lorentz transformation Choice of units Difference form
Moving Reference Frame
 I1
4.1 Length contraction 4.2 Time dilation 4.3 Spacetime diagrams 4.4 Transformat ion of velocity
Mat hernat ics of fourvectors
5.1 5.2 5.3 54 5.5
Mat hematics of t hreevectors Mat hematics of fourvectors Scalar, vector and tensor fields Basis vectors Differentiation
6
Relativistic Kinematics
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5
Momentum Analysis of collisions Center of momentum frame Relat ivist ic invariants Frequency and wave number
7
Particle Dynamics and Electromagnetism
71 . 72 . 7.3 74 .
7.5
7.6 7.7
Overview Definition of force and Lorentz force law Fourforce Fourvector potential and field tensor Covariant form of the Lorentz force Transformation of fields Maxwell equations
8
Action Formalism
8.1 8.2
General principles Action principle in nonrelativistic physics 8 3 Action principle for a relativistic free particle . 8 4 Action principle for a particle in the electromagnetic field . 8 5 Act ion principle for Maxwell's equation .
9
Gravity as Spacetime Curvature  An Introduction
9.1 9.2
93 .
9.4
Principle of equivalence Gravitational redshift Tidal gravitational force Curvature
qualitative discussion Riemannian geometry General method applied to the sphere Expression for distance .5 11.4 12.general discussion Homogeneous manifolds Other examples 11 Poor Man's Cosmology 11.6 11.3 12.2 12.4 11.7 Displacement vector and tangent plane Embedding in flat space Basis vectors Velocity and momentum Transformation of vectors Gradient of a vector Local Cartesian system and physical components .3 11.8 Introduction Observational evidence: Homogeneity and expansion Kinematics Dynamics The belief in the 1920s The belief in the 1960s T h e belief in the 21st century Other issues and further reading 12 Mathematics of Curved Space 11: Vectors 12.7 11.1 12.10 Mathematics of Curved Space I: The Metric Introduction Coordinates Distances and curvature .2 11.6 12.5 12.1 11.
2 Formation of black hole 15.1 Example of differentiating a vector 13.5 Covariant differentiation 14 Motion of Point Particles Law of motion: Derivation I Law of motion: Derivation I1 Weak fields Cosmological model Deflection of Iight Gravitational redshift Precession of perihelion Conservation laws 15 Black Holes 15.13 Mat hematics of Curved Space 111: Differentiation 13.2 General embedding definition 13.1 Introduction 15.3 Questions about black holes 15.4 Coordinates around a black hole 15.3 Intrinsic definition 13.4 Applications in general relativity 13.5 Infinite redshift 15.6 Motion into a black hole .
1 Introduction 17.calculation Riemann curvature tensor .2 The source 17.4 Conservation of energy and momentum 17.6 Some solutions of Einstein's equations .3 The energymomentum tensor 17.5 Einstein's equations 17.properties Ricci tensor and curvature scalar Examples Curvature tensor and flatness Einstein tensor 17 Einstein's FieId Equations 17.16 Mathematics of Curved Space IV: Curvature Introduction Parallel transport of vectors Riemann curvature tensor .
.
x3). x2. This fact of physics 3 the same whether we discuss it in rectangular coordinates that are horizontal and vertical. polar coordinates.1 Introduction How does one phenomenon appear to different observers Figure 1 The theme in relativity is: How does the same phenomenon appear to digerent observers? Figure 1 shows the classic experiment of Galileo: two stones released at the same time strike s the ground at the same time. The column vector is denoted as . In cartesian coordinates x = (xl.1 1. p etc. Notation for vectors Vectors in 3d are denoted as x. Therefore physics should be independent of coordinates. y. so we first introduce the notation for vectors. or generalized coordinates of any type. Therefore we say Physics is absolute. we must first ask: What happens under coordinate transformations? Rectangular coordinates are often denoted by the components of a vector. To make sure that physics is independent of coordinates. rectangular coordinates that are tilted. Coordinates are arbitrary.
the same vector).e. 'ai XI1 (11) =L . es.x s aligned along the rod. y. to emphasize that "x" is the same (i. Let its tip be x.The components are collectively denoted as si.. ea.x2'. Their components are e l = ith component of ej. j runs from 1 to 3. Notation Some books denote the components in the coordinate system S' as xl' . different components).. z axes. are . y. Sometimes the unit vectors are also denoted as i. they are relative. An index such as i. The length of x is denoted a z. xa = 0 So the coordinate components are different. z and the axes as the x. 4 to the 1axis.k 2 2' X 1' 1 Figure 2 Example 1 Figure 2a shows a rod of length L inclined at an angle in this coordinate system S.'L2n different (i. j. 2axis etc. x 2 = L s i n $ Figure 2b shows a new coordinate system Sf with the 1 . . Then x l = ~ c o s +.j = @. and only LL1". Sometimes we also denote the components of x as z.e. The axes are called the 1axis. s Unit basis vectors are el.
General coordinate transformations lead to general relativity. . and the concepts of differential geometry. Rotation of coordinates 2. Moving coordinates nl 3. We first use the rotation of coordinates to illustrate the ideas. General coordinate transformation (of space and time) 1 Figure 3 Rotation of coordinates leads to the concept of vectors. and the concept of 4vectors.Transformation of coordinates In relativity we deal with three types of coordinate transformafions. 1. Moving coordinates lead to special relativity.
Rotation of coordinates Figure 4 The general rule for the rotation of coordinates in 2d is as follows. We can also write (1.4) in terms of components.x2 cosax 1sina This can be written in matrix form [:"I = [ cos a sins cos a I[ I C I The matrix [R] depends only on the relation between the two sets of axes. .a ) xcos~cosa+xsin~sina x1 cos a x2sin a + xR = xsinq5' = xsin(q5 .3) or (1. It is the same for all vectors x. Let CY = angle between the two frames 4 = polar angle of x with respect to 1axis q5' = polar angle of x with respect to 1'axis xtl = = = = x cos x cos(4 .a ) = xsin4cosaxcos4sina .
Index notation
An index such as i in (1.5) is called a free index. It appears once on each side. It can take on any value (1, 2 in 2d; 1, 2, 3 in 3d). Unless otherwise specified, it is allowed to take on each of these values successively. An index such as j in (1.5) iscalled a dummy index. It appears twice in the same term. It is summed over all allowed values.
Summation convention
To save some writing, every index (i,j, ) that appears twice in the same term is understood to be summed over. Thus (1.5) can be written simply as
Problem I Write out the following equations explicitly in terms of components. Choose any one value for each free index. ( , S = a'b' a) (b) a' = (c) c i k = ~ i i ~ j k (d) ~ i = k j ~ k j k (e) S = A " (f) s = ~ i j ~ j i Problem 2 Write the above expressions in terms of the matrices [A] ,[B], [C] and the column vectors [a] ,[b]. Problem 3 Denote the matrix in (1.3) as [R(a)]. Verify that
where [ I ]is the identity matrix. What is the physical meaning of this mathematical relationship?
Problem 4 Show that [R(a) J = [ ~ ( a ) ~Hence show that ].
Matrices satisfying this condition are said to be orthogonal.
Problem 5 Verify from (1.3) that
What is the physical meaning?
12 .
How do physical laws appear t o different observers
Y
We consider a trivial "lawn. Let there be 2 rods, of length L and 2L, along the same direction. Each rod has one end at t h e origin 0 (Figure 5). Let the other endpoints be x and y. Then the "law" is y = 2 x . According to one observer S,the components satisfy
Or in column vector form
[YI
Multiply by the rotation matrix [R(a)]:
= 2 1x1
or back in component form
, = 2$h' p
(1.10)
Compare (1.7) and (1.10). Or compare (1.8) and (1.9). Although the variables change (yfl # yl), a valid law of physics takes exactly the same form in the two coordinate systems. We say the variables are covarkant (they transform in the same way). We say the laws are invariant (they stay in the same form). Although y = 2x is a very trivial "lawn, this concept generalizes to all laws of physics.
Principle of relativity The above idea is elevated to a principle.
All valid laws of physics should take the same form in different coordinate systems S and St.
I
Thus there are two types of questions. How are the variables in different coordinate systems related to each other? What laws of physics are compatible with the principle of relativity? Only these laws are allowed.
1.3
Experimental basis
The theory of relativity must be based on experimental facts. The special theory of relativity is based on the MichelsonMorley experiment: the speed of light is the same for all observers The general theory of relativity is based on the fact that all objects fall at the same acceleration in a gravitational field. Both facts are known to great precision, and are believed to be strictly correct. They will be discussed in greater detail later.
1.4
Consequences and applications
Although rerativity is very mathematical, in the end we must ask: what are its physical consequences and applications? A very brief summary is given here. Relativistic kinematics and dynamics
Figure 6
Figure 6 illustrates how we can deal with the kinematics and dynamics of particles moving rapidly ( "relativisticaUyn in a coordinate system S. We transform to a comoving coordinate ) system S', in which the particies are moving slowly. In the latter, we can apply wellknown Newtonian laws. The result is then transformed back to S, Actually it is not necessary to do it individually every time. We only need to do the transformation once to establish the laws of relativistic kinematics and dynamics.
Massenergy equivalence
One result from relativistic kinematics and dynamics is the massenergy equivalence E = mc2, which is very important in nlrclear physics and high energy physics.
Relation between electricity and magnetism
F = electric
Figure 7 Magnetism is due to currents, e.g., moving charges. Figure 7a shows a charge q which is movmg as according to observer S. Figure 7b shows the situatio~l seen by a comoving observer S'; now q is stationary. But a stationary charge is only subject to an electrical force. Thus, we can go through the following steps. 0 If we understand electricity, we would know how q moves in S'. 0 By a transformation, we would know how q moves in S. 0 Thus, we would know the magnetic force in S. Such considerations show that electricity and magnetism are closely related.
Problem 6 (a) A positive charge q is moving at a constant velocity v in the +x direction, and enters a magnetic field created by a horseshoe magnet that points in the +y direction. In which direction does the charge accelerate? Which law of physics did you use to arrive at this conclusion? (b) Now go to another frame S' which is moving in the direction +x at velocity v. According to this observer, the charge q is initially static, but the horseshoe magnet is moving towards it at a speed v in the x direction. Since the phenomenon must be the same according to both observers, in which direction does q accelerate, according to Sf? (c) How would the observer in Sf explain this observation? Which laws of physics would he use to arrive a t this conclusion?
Gravity
Figure 8 Figure 8a shows a ball inside a room falling under gravity. It accelerates downwards at g, and hits the floor eventually. Figure 8b alsoshows a ball inside a room. There Is no gravity, but the room accelerates upwards at ao. Eventually the floor hits the ball. If a. = g , there is no way we can tell the situations apart by observations inside the room. This is called the principle of equivalence  equivalence between gravity and acceleration. So if we know how to transform to an accelerating frame, we would begin to understand gravity. The general theory of relativity is in reality a theory of gravity. However, the situation is slightly more complicated in general. Let there be two balls inside a room near the earth. They are subject to slightly different gravitational accelerations (Figure 9). This situation is not equivalent to the room accelerating upwards. So nonuniform gravity makes the theory of general relativity more complicated mat hematically.
Problem 7 Refer to Figure 8. Let the xaxis point upwards and let the broken line be the origin x = 0. The height of the room is h, and in situation (a) the ball is released at rest at the roof of the room at t = 0. In situation (b), the room is at rest at t = 0, and then accelerates upwards at ao. In this problem, assume a0 = g. Let zb(t) the coordinate of the ball, and xj(t) be the be coordinate of the floor.
1. For situation (a), write formulas for xa(t) and zf(t). Sketch them together on one graph. Also find the time t l when the ball hits the floor by solving x b ( t l ) = xf(tlp).
2. Do the same for situation (b).
3. Is the value of t l the same inthe two cases?
Astrophysics
Gravity is especially important both for large systems and for compact astrophysicai objects. (This may seem paradoxical, since '%ompactnmeans small!) We can understand this fact as follows. For a system of n a s s M and characteristic dimension R, the gravitational potential energy is (Newtonian, but roughly correct)
The ratio of this to the rest energy is
If this is not small (i.e., not << I), then gravity is important, in fact so important that it is
necessary to use general relativity. First regard the density p as fixed and the size R as variable. In other words, think of a nearly uniform system, but of variable size. It is then convenient to write (1.11) as
So for R sufficiently large, gravity must become important.
Problem 8 (The mass of the sun is 2 x l3 kg, 1 pc = 3 x 1 1 m, G = 7 x 10l1N m2 kg2) o' 06 (a) A typical galaxy contains 1 " stars, each one like the sun, in a radius of 15 kpc. Find p 0 and 6. Is gravity very important? (b) For the universe as a whole, p w kg m'3, R lo4 Mpc. Estimate E . Is gravity very important?

On the other hand, consider a very compact star of mass M. Suppose other objects are moving at different distances R from it. It is then more convenient to regard A as fixed and 4 R as variable. Then from (1.11) E a Rl and becomes important when R is small. In fact, the Schwarzchild radius of a black hole corresponds to E = 112. A heuristic derivation is as follows. Consider a point mass m at a distance R from a compact star of mass M. To escape to infinity, it must have
KE > lPEl=
GMm R
It relies heavily on general relativity. but is good enough for an orderofmagnitude estimate. Constraining other laws of physics I the laws of physics have to be invariant under the coordinate transformations of relativity. Problem 9 Estimate & for a star of 3 solar mass = 6 x lo3" kg. the laws of electromagnetism become very natural. This is not really legitimate. June 18. For example. Cosmology The most important large system dominated by gravity is the entire universe. f then the laws can only take on very restricted forms. given the transformation of special relativity. Cosmology is the study of the evolution of the universe. Chl2.Using Newtonian physics but setting v is only possible if 5 c. These constraints are useful when we try to guess new laws of interactions.tex. So escape 1 mc2 2 > R GMm We are using a L'mixturenof Newtonian and relativistic physics. 1997 . the maximum KE possible is (1/2)mc2.
.
xl2. they are both denoted by the same x. assume that the relationship between the components is linear. called the rotation matrix. (If they do not. 2. whose coordinates are X = (xl.xl3) in Sf The components are different. and later.23) i S n x = (x'l. also for general relativity. which is trivial. In this Chapter we pretend we do not know trigonometry. The question is: How are the components related? Linear assumption First assume the origins of S and S' coincide.1 Derivation of rotational transformation 2 2' 1 ' x1 1 Figure 1 Basic object The basic object is a point P. Note that the summation convention is employed. 0 transformations to a new coordinate system which is moving relative to the original one (special relativity). . and general coordinate transformations to curvilinear coordinates (general relativity). In this Chapter we use the analogy of rotations to develop some concepts and tools which will be used for special relativity. x2.2 Rotation Recall that we are concerned with three types of coordinate transformations: 0 transfarmations to a new coordinate system which is rotated relative to the original one.) Next. so as a vector. we simply add a shift. but the vectors are the same (see Figure 1). Then the most general transformation is Component not ation Matrix notation Zli =~ i j ~ j [z'l = P [XI I where [R] is an unknown matrix.
i xt ixt i . The invariant condition can be written as follows: Component notation Matrix notation Note: . Ants living on the surface of a sphere would find that Pythagoras' theorem does not hold. In other words. By Pythagoras' theorem are the same. the existence of an invariant places conditions on [RJ.1) would not satisfy f the invariant condition (2.g.Notation We write the i j component of a matrix [A] a [AJij= Aij.5 2 i ["I .. s Identify an invariant Although the components change (e.2). This is an experimental result. ie. there is an invariant. a quantity which is the same in both frames. now derive these conditions in three equivalent ways. We (a) Explicitly in components for 2d Let . [XI] = [xT] 1x1 Condition on rotation matrix I we choose an arbitrary matrix [R]. the result of the transformation (2. xtl # xl).
( x ~ ) ~ as an identity. Derive (2. Explain. Multiplying . Hence we get three conditions Problem 1 Let [R] be given by ( 2 ..then (2. x j x ti .I2 = = (Xn)2 (p2 + q2)(x1)2+ 2 ( p s + qr)x1x2 $ ( s 2 + ~ + (xr2)2 ~ ) ( 2 ~ ) ~ But this must equal u2 = 1 + 0 . (b) In general using index notation xli =p .1) gives Hence .@ k x k  Note we use different dummy indices. 3 ) . x1x2 + 1 .5) and show that the solution is (in terms of s ) Another solution is discarded.
Let us check that in the case of 2d. .33.5).6). both sides are symmetric under j ct k. we get Here.Since they must be equal as an identity. (c) Using matrix notation [x'l = [Rl[xI [x"] = [X'][R'] 0 " = [zm]l = [ x T ][RT] [ X I [x [R] u2 = [xT][ x ] = [zT] [q[x] Thus I 1 Let us check that this is the same as (2.22.31). (2. while i is a dummy index.23.22.[B].12) and 6 conditions in 3d (jk = 11. { [RT ] [ R ] ) j k [ I J j k = But for any matrices [ A ] . {[A] [B]Y [A]"'[B]'* = Hence Problem 2 Show that the matrix equation [RT][R]= [I]leads to the same equations as (2.12.6) agrees with (2. so there are 3 conditions in 2d (jk = 11. As an example. Also.5). for j = k = 1 etc. We put the summation sign back explicitly. jk are free indices.
. Find p.2 Combining two transformations Consider successive rotations about a fixed axis. We know that rotational angles add (Figure 2). Dimension Parameters Conditions Free Parameters 2~2=4 Thus in 2d. obviously the angle of rotation.5). Figure 2 . You will need to choose the sign of a square root.g. T in terms of cx by using the three equations in (2. In 3d. q. of your. the 3 Euler angles). we should be able to express the most general rotation in terms of 1 parameter only. Your answer should be = [ cos a sin cx sincx cos a I ~ 2.4). Problem 3 Of the 4 parameters p. q. we should be able to express the most general rotation in terms of 3 parameters (e.Express in terms of minimum number of parameters Consider the number of free parameters in the matrix [R]. regard s as the free parameter and define s = sina. r. We shall not go into the 3d case in detail. s in (2. choice. Explain the physical meaning.
The order of operations does not matter in 2d. a2).tex. Problem 4 Using (2. 1997 . derive the addition laws for cos(al + al). show that the law of + = Vl 'U2 1. v = tan(a1 2 addition for v's is V + a2). but is imp01 ant in 3d. (b) By the parameter s = sin a. there is a additive but a is additive. this can be stated as follows [R(a2)J R ( ~ I )= [R(w+. we get The rotation [R(cul)Jis done first. So in all these matrix products. the log :a1 sequence is from right to left.VlV2 Ch22. From the result in (a).m)] [ ] Note that if we apply the left handside to a vector x. (a) By the angle a. &(al + Problem 5 Let vl = t a n cwl. v = tan a 2 .9). s is not Secondly. First. Then The second method is inconvenient for two reasons.Mathematically. July 17.8) and (2. Then = [ cos a "na sin a cos cv I c. We can specify the rotation in two ways.
There are two assumptions. Thus it is characterized by 4 coordinates: E = (t. t I= t (b) Lengths are not affected by motion. Each event occurs at a definite time and a definite place. * Vt Figure 2 b .x3) We shall b e concerned with how these 4 coordinates transform between a frame S and another frame St which is moving at a velocity V relatively to S.I In relativity. These will turn out to be incorrect.3 Moving Reference Frame . the basic object is not a point. but an event E. we shall assume and the two origins coincide at t = 0 (Figure 1).1 Galilean transformat ion Let us start with the familiar Galilean transformations. xl. For simplicity. I 1 t I v t 4 I Figure 1 1 3. For example: E = a short pulse of light is emitted from a lamp.x2. (a) Clocks are not affected by motion.
V one way and c V another way. (3.V2/c2 + At (Galilean) 1 .2) are wrong. v ' = dz' dt' 3. According to the Galilean transformation. Therefore. so the Galilean transformation (3.2 Speed of light and the MichelsonMorley Experiment Figure 3 Let the speed of light be c with respect to a fixed observer S.7) is wrong.Then from Figure 2 where s is the cmrdinate of a particle in S and x' is the coordinate in St. experimentally (not by any theoretical deduction). in principle one can detect the absolute motion of the train. So the elapsed time should be + L L . To send a pulse of light to a distance L and then reflect it back requires a time At (Figure 3).V2/c2 So by measuring the time on the train. the speed of light as observed by S moving with the train is c . Now do the same measurement on a "train" which is moving at a velocity V.1) and (3. At' = .2Lc At' = cv c+v c2v2 1 2L = c 1 . The MichelsonMorley (MM) experiment near the end of the last century showed that there is no such time difference. The velocities v=dt are then relatedby dx .
The oneway length of each path is L = 3. without referring to the outside. The following problem gives some typical orders of magnitude. Actually there is no difference. We would be able to determine the velocity V of a train by doing experiments on the train. what is the difference At between the times needed on the two paths? s (b) Express this difference a a phase Ay.Outline of the MM experiment In this case. in the other case it should be c . and (ii) perpendicular to the direction of motion of the earth. there would be the concept of absolute motion.lyear 3 x 1@msl. which is moving in the solar system at a speed V 2nA. 0 N N  Problem I In the MichelsonMorley experiment.V. Rays of light are compared on two paths: (i) along the direction of motion of the earth. Instead. Please read about the details of the experiment.U. This level of accuracy is obhined by means of optical interference. In each case. The latter should be unchanged by the motion. The simplest experiment is this (Figure 4): measure the velocity of light coming from the front and the velocity of light coming from the back. In one case it should be c V. There should be a difference between the two cases. the rays traverse the return paths 10 times. N o absolute motion If Galilean transformations were correct. So the difference reveals absolute motion. assuming a reasonable wavelength. or V/c The experiment Thus the difference expected Gom Galilean theory is V2/c2 had to be accurate beyond this level in order to conclude that there is no effect and that the Galilean transformation is wrong. compare the time for a round trip along the direction of motion with the time for a round trip perpendicular to the direction of motion.0 m. the earth is moving at about 3 x l o 4 m sl. + Figure 4 . (a) According to Galilean theory. the "train" is the earth itself. There is no way to stop this '%rainn and compare the times for V = 0 and V # 0.
0 The speed of light is still c.Fetc. such is not the case. y'. Basic object The basic object is an event E. For this purpose. whose coordinates are E = (t. st2. XI. it is convenient to call time the "zero component".Vectors in 4d are denoted as 5. 33 . x'l.x ~ ) . The MM experiment shows that even for a moving observer: The speed of light is the same in all directions (isotr~pic). x2? in S x3) E = (t'. It wcruld be more compact if we can write the relationship using index notation or matrix notation like (2. 5 = ( X 0 .1). Since the speed of light is a universal constant. we shall use it as the starting point to derive the transformation between moving coordinates. Derivation of the Lorentz transformation The derivation follows very closely the analog of rotations in Chapter 2. it is better if the zero component has the same unit. (Some authors call it the "fourth component". There are 16 coefficients. in S' xl3) How are these coordinates related? Linear assumption We shall assume that they are related linearly: etc.) Secondly.X) = (xO. x2. we define Index notation and summation convention Compare the similar discussion in Chapter 1. Instead of trying to explain this fact. XI. 0. The column vector is denoted as .Actually. it does not matter.
An index such as p. = bp ap = b. We shall construct vectors with lower indices later. [XI] = [Ll [XI Note that [L] a constant matrix. 0 Ys e No A dummy index must appear twice in one term. this does not really matter because they will all work out correctly in the end according to the following rules. runs from 0 to 3.9)] must appear once in every term. Sometimes we also denote the components as t. Its first index is an upper index and its second is index is a lower index. However. it is understood to be summed from 0 to 3: Thus it is necessary to distinguish between an upper mdex and a lower index. The coordinate vector is defined with upper indices.y. It specifies the linear transformation. If an index such as p appears twice in the same term.The components are collectively denoted as xp. a "b. once as an upper index and once as a lower index. ' a pbp ' Yes No Identify an invariant We now claim that the MM experiment tells us that the following is an invariant . the most general linear transformation is Camponent not ation Matrix notation = L . once as zn upper index and once as a lower index. and must always be either an upper index or an lower index in every term. The matrix form looks a little "dangerous" because it does not distinguish between upper and lower indices. General transformation With this convention. xu . x. * A free index [such as p in (3. z. v. a.
Thus these two quantities are proportional: where the proportionality constant may depend on the relative velocity.xtl..x3) = (ctt. In particular (c) Consider reverse transformation Consider the reverse transformation.0. i. at (ct. (3. Unlike the case of rotations. Because the relative velocity is now opposite. we claim that it is equal to Although we write it as u2. xn. the quantity can in fact be negative. because the velocity of light is also exactly c in St: ot2= 0 In other words. . x is different. therefore the proportionality holds always. x2.1). 1 ~ ~ This.0). is true even 1 ~ (a) Proportional Suppose a short pulse of light is emitted from the origin at the time when the two origins coincide.0.2). a2= 0 if and only if ut2 = 0. xl. Let the event E be the receiving of the pulse by an observer. We now argue that u2 = ot2. (b) A(V) depends only on /VI The quantities u2 and on are scalars under rotation. Interchange the role of u2 and ot2. in the transformation are independent of the coordinates. and in general 1xI2# for the Galilean transformation (3.In other words. the coefficients Lp. Although we use the example of o2= 0 to derive the proportionality.e. A(V) is changed to A(V).in three steps. xt3) = (0. So they (and hence their ratio) cannot depend on the direction of any vector. Therefore A(V) depends only on JV]. Because the velocityof light is exactly c in S: (XI)' + (x2))"+ (2")" = (distance))"= (ct)' Similarly.
" In this case . A space where the invariant is given by (3. It is the analog of Pythagoras' theorem in 3d. The invariant is a mathematical way of stating the result of the MM experiment.11). For any vector XP with upper indices. A(V) E 1.15) is called Minkowski space in contrast to Euclidean space.17) p#v The matrix r].Combining (3. so we take t h e The sign cannot change suddenly. (3. Obviously xfpE xp.12). takes the place of Jij in usuaI Euclidean space. 7+wxV To raise an index where r]PU is obviously the inverse of 7. In fact.. with lower indices by 5. so we must always take the sign. is an invariant. . we define the corresponding vector x. Metric and lower indices We can write a2 as p=u=o ~ P Y = p=v=lor2or3 (3. if we change 7 + 8 . we would obtain the familiar results of the last Chapter. It is called the invariant interval.13) Hence (Consider the case of A(V) for V small.) This proves that + + sign. (3.
a subset such as a2 = 1 is a bounded domain.e. [XI* s. the Secondly. and all formulas would be familiar. not to the "fake" i's that are introduced in so = ict. e. [XI* = hJl*@ [XI* hl" = ['. but it is very bad practice.In matrix notation G " [xT] ' h. Thus there is a difference in topology. for these reasons. For such expressions. [XI. (3. sI . and we have expressions such as $*$. the factor i appears..i. Thus. [XI' l . in which we have curved coordinates.. we shall continue with the matrix [q]. a subset such as a2= 1 is unbounded . $* means changing i . the square of the 0 component enters the invariant with a minus sign. i's. and the metric 77 is just a way of taking care of this minus sign.15) . = [l.g.the components can be as large as you want. which is obscured if we LLhide" minus sign. in terms of mathematical structure. Some elementary books do this. because each component is bounded (in fact in this case at most 1). to go from Euclidean space to special relativity to general relativity simply involves Another question is often asked: Can we define so = ict ??? instead? If so. It would be a nightmare to keep track of the genuine i's versus the "fake" i's. which is just the same minus sign as that in (3. The minus sign Actually. in Euclidean space. raising or lowering an index just means changing the sign of the 0 component. why do we need something so complicated to deal with a mere minus sign? The answer is that this notation provides a good stepping stone to general relativity. First.i. they are not really needed once you become more familiar with the notation. for two reasons.15) would appear with plus signs. A matrix [q] in principle has 16 elements.. in quantum mechanics. and qpv is replaced by a more general (and positiondependent) matrix g. But in Minkowski space. . The dots have been added to indicate whether the index is upper or lower. So. But this applies only to the genuine .
Then But this must equal a2 = 1 ( x O ) ~ +O xOxl + 1 .Condition on transformation matrix The existence of an invariant places conditions oa the transformation matrix [L]. Hence we get three conditions on the four coefficients in [L]: . Then x 2 and x3 are not transformed. Let so that explicitly Let x 2 = x3 = 0.23 and we only need to transform xO. The matrix [L]is reduced to 2 x 2. (a) Expicity in components for (1 + 1) d Notation: ( 1 + 1 ) d means 1 space 1 time dimension.( x ~ ) ~ as an identity.x l . Consider a case where the reldive velocity V is along tbe 1direction. We now derive these equations in three equivalent ways. + x/3 .
23) agrees with (322). (3. Also. in particular.Except for some minus signs. note that if we replace q by 6. 1. Let us check that in the case o (l+l)d. these equations would reduce exactly to those in Chapter 2. ( b ) In general using index notation Since they must be equal as an identity Compare with the analogous equations in Chapter 2. r. Problem 2 Derive the results in (3.22) from the 3 conditions on p. q. The minus signs come about because of the minus sign in the invariant u2. the summation goes only over 0. s. these conditions are the same as in Chapter 2. We put the summation f sign back explicitly. Since this reduces to . in (1 +l)d.
( c ) Using matrix notation ['' x] = [L]' [XI* note the Bdots transposed [xtT]' = [xT]' [ L ~' t ] Since these are equal as an identity Let us check that this agrees with (3.23). Half of these correspond to rotation and half of these correspond to relative velocity.But from (3.23)? Hint: note the symmetry under p t a. Problem 3 Consider the other cases and derive the other two equations in (3.. Problem 4 Consider the case of (3 + 1)d. (a) How many conditions are there in (3.22). .22). .20) hence This gives the first equation in (3. (b) Hence determine how many free parameters there are in LP. Explain physically why there are this number of free parameters.
22). Your answer should be 1 ~= 1 [ cosh a sinha .sinh a x0 csinha = Vcosha . You will need to choose the sign of a square root.21)) regards s as the free parameter and define s = . s in (3. We need to relate the two. But it is more usual to use the relative speed V.sinh a. Explain the physical meaning of your choice. Find p. Problem 5 Of the 4 parameters p. The situation is similar to the case of rotations and is left as a problem. Let S be moving towards the +Iaxis at a speed V relative to S.Express in terms of minimum number of parameters We do this only far (1+1) d. r . 0 ) Put this into the transformation + cosh a x1 0 = . q . Relate to relative velocity I t is true that we can use a to specify the transformation. q .sinh a cosha 1 Note that the two offdiagonal entries have the same sign. r in terms of a by using the three equations in (3. Thus the origin of St is described by (t'.sinh a(&) + cosh c r ( V t ) xfl = . 2'1) = (t'.
For "ordinary" speeds. derived this way has the same form. relating x"' to xO. . 0 The "offdiagonal" terms with P both have the same sign.26) where (3.m.28) For small V.or x" to xl) always have a sign. but with P + P. for relative motion near the speed of light. IPI < 1. Whether the "offdiagonal" sign is or .26) It is conventional to define P as the dimensionless relative velocity in this way.e.29) + + . we get the usual form of the Lorentz transformation Problem 6 Verify that [L(a2)][L(al)] = [L(w + m)]. + ~ 1. From (3. Problem 7 Show that when two transformations are performed one after another. For example.r FZ 1.+y . Problem 8 Start from (3.. For V FZ c.29) and solve for xO. Show that the reverse transformation x1 xtl. from the second equation in (3. P FZ 1. for which the Galilean transformation should be valid. Signs The signs can be remembered as follows: 0 The "diagonal" terms (i.tanha =  (3. Putting these back into [L].is easily determined by considering V + 0 . the relative velocities P "add" as Hint: Use the addition law for tanh a. in terms of xtO.
29).Vt) = (xl .l)(xl . Problem 9 Explicitly find the coefficients of the transformation if S is a spaceship travelling at V = 9.The sign of the Vt term is easily checked with reference to Figure2. Similarly. and write it as The first term is the Galilean result and the other two terms are corrections. consider the first equation in (3.1) correction is the same as (3. Otherwise it would contradict many experiments and observations in daily life (all concerninglow speeds) which seem to confirm the Galilean transformation.Vt) (y . this is negligible. The (7 .Vt) + The first term is the Galilean result and the second term is the correction. So let us check the nonrelativistic limit (V 4 0) and estimate the correction to the Galilean law. Nonrelativistic limit Although the Galilean transformation i. Write the second equationin (3. while the last term gives a fractional correction . it must be nearly correct if the relative speed V is low.30). The fractional correction is about 11 For a nonrelativistic transformation ( 8 < 11.29) as xtl = 7(x1 .s conceptually wrong.0 x lo7 msI relative to an observer S.
Now suppose x1 and t refer to a particle moving at velocity v : xl/t = v. (This must not be confused with the velocity of the frame V. A stone is released at t = 0. x..30). and the origins of the two observers coincide at t = tf = 0.31). xb) for the event E. Problem 10 (a) S is an airtraffic controller at the airport and S is an aeroplane flying at 300 msl (1000 kmhrl). . Estimate the percentage error (3.px') are there because we do not use the same unit for the zeroth direction.. estimate the percentage error (3. It would be much smarter to use the same units for both directions and get rid of k. Let the event E be the stone hitting the ground.4 Choice of units Analogy A stupid surveyer measures distances along the eastwest direction (xl) in m and distance along the northsouth direction (x2) in km. x = 0 and falls to the ground at a distance h = 10 m below. . 3. x) of E.) for the event E. Give (t. (a) Give the coordinates (t. If the Galilean transformation is used to describe the relationship between S and S'.tL) and (xi . in (ct') = y(ct . and g = 10 m s'. according to the Lorentz transformation.g. In the same way. (b) Another observer is in an elevator moving uniformly upwards at V = 3 m sl. according to the Galilean transformations. Problem 11 Choose the x axis downwards. the factors of c that appear. (b) A passenger is walking on the plane at v = 3 m sl.) Then the correction is where is the dimensionless velocity of the particle.xk) to at least 1 significant figure accuracy. e. (c) Give the coordinates (t. Give the coordinates (tb. His "Pythagoras theorem" would read a2 = ( z ' ) ~ k 2 (x2 )2 = invariant + where k = 1000is just a conversion factor to get his measurements into the same units.
0 m = 3..0 m 3.3 m 1 unit .1 unit 1 ns 1 unit This is convenient when dealing with high energy particles. When we get a final result. time = 3.00 x lo8 msl (b) Convert an energy of 10lo kg to conventional units Actual units There are certain unitsin which c is really 1.Choice of c =1 We can get rid of c by setting All formulas become simpler. c= 1 light year = 1 unit 1 year This is sometimes convenient in astrophysics. (b) Measure time in ns and distances in units of Then c= 0. Example 1 (a) Convert a time of 3. we simply multiply by a suitable power of c ( = 1).0 m to conventional units. .distances in lightyears. which typically travel distances of a few m in times of a few ns. (a) Measure time in years and. that is dimensionally "wrong"..
1 "tick" = 1 period of the wave T Each wavelength of the wave is defined as 1 "rod". Then x. 1 AxIP = LpvAx" . consider another event B. The modern definitions of length and time standards ("rods" and "clocks') both rely on atomic transitions. consider relative velocity V = p c along the x1 direction and denote x1 + x .Standard of length and time When we come to general relativity.5 Difference form Consider an event A. Consider a particular atomic transition A + B which ernits electromagnetic waves. Each period of the wave is defined as I "tick". 1 "rodn = 1 wavelength of the wave X Thus c== X T lCCrod" =1 1 "tick" The actual definition uses more complicated numbers. 3. = LP" x. In units c = 1.32) For example. Similarly. Define the difference then. x O + t . it will be very important to give a clear prescription of how length and time (i.e. distances in spacetime) are measured. we get immediately (3. but the idea is the same.. with coordinates x: in coordinate system S and x z in coordinate S1. because the transformation is linear.. Conceptually it is easiest to imagine the following.
The differenceform is often convenient for applications. we can also write The difference (and differential) form has another advantage. Ch32.e. in terms of small displacements Axp (strictly speaking infinitesimal displacements d d ' ) general relativity looks very similar to (3. Correspondingly. consider we From (3.32) . spacetime will be described as curve&.35). i. 1997 . When we come to general relativity.tex September 29.. So locally. because we want to consider the interval between two events.(3. But if we look at a small portion of a curved surface. instead of a2. it is nearly flat.32).
A rod of length Lo is fixed on the train. Then The condition "at the same time" is crucial. we use units with c = 1 and put Operational definition of "length" For S to determine the length L. and 0 measure the coordinate xg of the other end of the rod (event B) at the same time. "At the same timen means Use of Lorentz transformation We have two (reverse) transformations that can be used: Ax' = y(Ax . 4.4 Moving Reference Frame .@At) Both are correct. What is the length L as seen by S? To save some writing.1 Length contraction Figure 1 1' Let S be an observer on the ground and S be an observer on a train moving at V = PC. We cannot measure one end now and measure the other end one year later (the rod is moving!) and call the difference the length.I1 This chapter starts with the Lorentz transfarmation derived in Chapter 3 and discusses some applications. But which one is more convenient? . Some further concepts and mathematical tools are developed. he has to a measure the coordinate X A of one end of the rod (event A).
This can be seen from the other equations for the Lorentz transformation.Since the rod is at rest in Sf. it is impossible to have simultaneity in both frames (At = 0 and At' = 0). AxAd  Simultaneity So we have two events which are simultaneous in one frame (At = O). Thus simultaneity is not an absolute concept.. What would happen if we use (41) instead? Would we get L = yLo (an increase in length)? No! Because At' # 0. but not simultaneous in another frame (At' # 0).p At ) t L o t L t 0 ~ Since 7 > 1. In general. Ax' = y( Az . e. (4. simultaneity cannot hold in both frames. Because the two events satisfy At = 0. At' = 7(At .2) is more convenient.PAX) If two events do not occur at the same place (Ax # 0).g. . Ax' = Lo always. In fact we can solve for At': At' = (i ) . We always have to specify usimultaneous according to which observer". the rod appears contracted.
Problem 1 An aeroplane has a length of exactly 50 m. (a) When it is flying at 300 m s' ( 1000 km hrl), by how much does it appear to be shortened when observed by someone on the ground? (b) What if it is flying at 10%m sl?
Problem 2 A train of length 2 Lo is travelling at a speed P. Observer S is on the ground, and observer S' is on the train. S' stands in the middle of the train (x' = O), and according to him rn at t' = 0,he sends two pulses of light, one forward and oae backward (Event .A); rn the first pulse reaches the front of the train, and is reflected by a mirror (Event B); rn the pulse refiected from the front returns to the middle of the train (Event C); rn the second pulse reaches the back of the train, and is reflected by a mirror (Event D); rn the pulse reflected from the back returns to the middle of the train (Event E). (a) Give the coordinates according to S', namely t2, xk; tb, xb,. .;th, xh. (b) Are B and D simultaneous? Are C and E simultaneous (i.e., do the two pulses of light reach the middle of the train at the same time)? (c) Find the coordinates according to S, namely tA,XA;tB, XB, tE, X E , by using the Lorentz transformation. (d) Are B and D simultaneous? Are C and E simultaneous (i.e., do the two pulses of light reach the middle of the train at the same time)? Discuss the relationship with the answer in
a;
('4.
Problem 3 This Problem continues with Problem 2, but tries to analyse the situation according to S directly, without using the Lorentz transformation. Check all your answers against Problem 2. (a) What is the length 2 L of the train according to S? (b) Draw a sketch showing the situation at time t ~ (For convenience, just show the front half . of the train.) Based on this diagram, show that v t ~ L = ctB. Hence find t ~ . (c) Likewise find to. (d) Also find the times tc  tB and tE  tD for the return trips. (Hint: These times are respectively equal to tD and tB. Why?) (e) Hence find t c and tE. According to this calculation, do the two pulses return to the middle of the train at the same time?
+
Lack of symmetry
In relativity there is supposed to be no privileged frame (such as a frame "absolutely at rest"). All reference frames and all observers are supposed to be equivalent (Figure 2).
We are equivalent
b
0
Figure 2
If this is the case, then should we have both these statements:
(a) Length in S (L)
.
< Length in S' (Lo)
and by reversing the roles of the two observers
(b) Length in S
(Lo) Length in S (L) <
Statement (a) is TRUE (as derived above). Statement (b) is FALSE. So why is there such a lack of symmetry?
d
I am special
0
Figure 3 The reason is as foliows. There are three things: S, St and the rod. The rod is at rest in S'; it is not at rest in S. With the rod, the symmetry is destroyed. The frame St is special. It is moving together with the rod.
Paradox
Many of these concepts are combined in the following paradox. There is a hole of length Lo on the ground. A rod also of length Lo is moving rapidly past it. The observer S is fixed to the ground. The observer S' is moving with the rod (Figure 4).
Figure 4 According to S, the rod is contracted to L < Lo. So at the same time, he pushes the two ends of the rod down (Figure 5). The rod passes through the hole.
Figure 5 As seen by S Now what happens as seen by St? The rod is stationary, of length Lo. Now the hole is contracted to L < Lo  the concept of symmetry (Figure 6a). Yet the rod must still pass through the hole  this is an objective fact! How can this happen?
Figure 6 As seen by S' The answer is that the two events A, B shown in Figure 5 are simultaneous in S (At = O), but are not simultaneous in St (At' # 0)  simultaneity is not absolute. In fact, from (4.6), At' < 0, i.e., A occurs before B. So the sequence of events is as shown in Figure 6a, b.
4.2
Time dilation
Again let S be anobserver on the ground and St be an observer on a train moving at V = pc. A clock is fixed to the train. Two ticks of the clock are separated by an interval At' according to S'. What is the time interval At according to S ? Agam we have two (reverse) transformations _that can be used:
At' = 7(At  PAX)
Again both are correct. But which one is more convenient? At1 is given. 0 Because the clock is fixed to St,the two ticks occur at the same XI : Ax' = 0.
The observer who is not comoving measures a longer time  time seems to be dilated. Again there is no symmetry. St is special. It is the comoving frame.
Twin paradox
Consider twin brothers S and S1who were initially together. Let them carry identical clocks. S1travels at high speed to a distant galaxy, and comes back. Which of the two clocks show a longer time interval? In this case the two clocks are at the same place both at the beginning and also at the end. We know that a moving observer appears to measure shorter time. The paradox is this. S thinks Sf has been moving, so At > At'. But S thinks S has been moving, so At' > At. Only one of these can be true. So how is the paradox resolved?
If St has travelled to a distant galaxy and come back, then he must have experienced
some acceleration. Acceleration is absolute; it can be determined even by a person locked in a room. So it is an absolute fact that S' has been moving, and not S. The situation is n d symmetrical. So At > Att. We have mentioned "clocks". But the aging process is just another uclockn (further explanations below), so S has aged more. There is clear experimental proof. The "twin brothers" are radioactive nuclei or elementary particles. Let them have an average lifetime T at rest. One group (S)is at rest. After a time t , the remaining number is
is where No is the original number. Another group (Sf,') sent around a circular accelerator at constant speed V = PC. The time elapsed according to this group of observers is only t' = t/r. So the remaining number is
If y >> I, there would be very few decays. We can also say that the apparent average lifetime has been increased from T to yT.
Problem 4 Muons ( p ) have a meao lifetime in their own rest frame of 2.2 x travelling at 0.90 c. (a) What would be their apparent lifetime? (b) How far would they travel (on average) before they decay?
s. A beam of muons is
Different clocks
In the twin paradox (including the example of muons), we find that the moving clock "slows down". This is true for different kinds of clocks, e.g., 0 clocks made of light pulses bouncing between mirrors, 0 atomic clocks based on electromagnetic oscillations associated with an atomic decay process, 0 quartz watches, 0 clocks such as the decay of muons which are governed by the weak interaction, 0 clocks such as the decay of other particles that are governed by the strong interaction, 0 biological clocks that control aging. Can we show explicitly that each one of these "slows down"? The simplest are light pulses bouncing between mirrors. We know the law: speed is always c; so we can analyze the situation in detail, and indeed we find such "slowing down". See Problems 2 and 3 for example. The other clocks are too complicated to analyze in detail. We can adopt two approaches. First, we simply invoke the Principle of Relativity. If, in a moving frame, a biological clock does not "slow down" to the same extent as a clock made of light pulses, then by simply measuring the discrepancy we can detect absolute motion. (The discrepancy can be measured
by a person locked inside a room; he does not need to look outside or refer to another observer.) In other words, we can define a preferred frame as the one where these clocks agree. Such a state of affairs would contradict the Principle of Relativity and is therefore not allowed. Secondly, we can study the basic laws that govern these clocks. For example, quartz clocks, atomic clocks and even biological clocks are controlled by electromagnetism. (Biological processes are really chemical processes; all chemical processes are really electric interactions consider for example the binding of a hydrogen atom.) Thus, if we can prove that the laws of electromagnetism agree with the Lorentx transformation, we can then ensure that all these clocks do indeed "slow down" as predicted. Likewise, if we can prove that the laws of weak interaction and strong interaction agree with the Lorentz transformation, those clocks would behave in the same manner as well. In this course, we shall study the laws of electromagnetism in relation to relativity. Weak and strong interactions will not be dealt with, but they too agree with the special iheory of relativity in the same way. In other words, we can deal with these issues at two Ievels. We deal with one phenomenon at a time (eg., Problems 2 and 3). We have to do a bit of this to gain a feeling for what is involved (and there will be some more of this in the rest of this Chapter). This is the typical approach in elementary courses. But this is an unending process; after we have discussed N phenomena, you can always raise the (N 1)th and ask for an explanation. 0 We deal with the laws that govern these phenomena. For example, once we have dealt with the Lorentz force law and the Maxwell equations, there is no further need to worry electromagnetism. about any individual phenomena inv~lving
+
4.3
Spacetime diagrams
In this section we adopt the notation
Diagrams
Figure 8
B1. It is usually shown as 90" (Figure 8b). You should imagine rotating Figure 8b about the t axis t o turn x into y and z . The t axis and one spatial axis (x) are showo. An event is represented by a point P in spacetime.. The point 0 need not be the origin. These lines should be regarded as cones if we imagine rotating the diagram about x the t axis. but it is also valid to show it at some angle (Figure 8c). B' or B" (or from B. i. The angle between the x. we can refer to the difference Ax/"between P and 0. spacetime relationships are iIlustrated by spacetime diagrams like Figure 8b. Similarly.e. the other two are understood to be the "into the page". t = x as shown by the broken lines in Figure 9. They are light cones: if light is emitted from 0. A point P is located by its coordinates. The point P is located by its coordinates.e. Then instead of the coordinates x'' of P. The 90" angle between the x.. t axes has no physical meaning. Light cones Figure 9 Construct 45" lines in the spacetime diagram. Relative to 0.Purely spatial relationships are illustrated by spatial diagrams like Figure 8a. This shows 2 of the dimensions (x. P x l > lAtl (4. on the surface of the cones. B". t = x. i. it travels along a path 1 1 = ct = t . B'.10) Therefore it is impossible to sent a signal from 0 to B.B" to 0). y axes has a physical meaning. This is because such a signal would need to have a speed . y) and the third (2) is out of the page. Spacelike separation Consider points such as B.
and B" cannot influence 0 even though B" is in the past (At < 0). Points in this region of spacetime can have no causal relationship with 0.11) implies that the spatial component is larger. the separation is purely spatial.which is impossible. Proper distance From (4. This is because such a signal requires a speed . given a spacelike separation Ax". Show that for a suitable choice of P ((PI < I). we arrive at the following understanding of As for a spacelike interval: If Ax" is spacelike.At = 0 or At < 8 in the spacelike region are not invariant. the point B is displaced from the origin 0 by (a) Draw a spacetime diagram. Problem 6 In the example of length contraction. it is always possible to find another frame S in which At' = 0. in the sense that if Axp is spacelike. or from C to 0. The best way to see this is to write (4. the two events are the measurements of the positions of the two ends of the rod.12). In contrast. In fact. Therefore we sometimes call As the proper distance. (b) Another reference frame S' is travelling at V = pc with respect to S along the xaxis. What is the proper distance between these two events? Discuss from both frames of reference. Relative to 0 .e. Therefore it is possible to send a signal from 0 to A. so we call such intervals Axp spacelike.11) as which is clearly an invariant condition. This condition is invariant. B is simultaneous with 0 ) (b) What is the value of Ax' in this case? Do this in two ways: (i) by explicitly using the Lorentz transformation and (ii) by considering the invariant quantity AS)^.i. The quantity As is equal to the spatial distance IAx'l in this frame. Timelike separation Consider points such as A and C. . there is aframe St in which the two events are simultaneous (At' = 0). and label the point B. and also Problem 3. Problem 5 In reference frame S. Note that 0 cannot iduence B even though B is in the future (At > 0).then so is Ax'p in another frame. The condition (4. At' = 0 (in other words.. conditions such as At > 0. on it sketch the light cone.
it is always possible to find another frame S in which Ax' = 0.e. Show that for any choice of p with 1/31 < 1. i. Ax' = 0. (c) Show that for a suitable choice of P (ID1 < I). We call AT the proper time interval.. . and negative for a timelike interval. given a timelike interval Axp.e. and label the point A. At' remains positive. Suppose the two events are two ticks of a clock. and can influence 0. on it sketch the light cone. i. Again we can see this through the invariant condition (As)' = (At)' + (AX)' < 0 (4.Points such as A are in the future lightcone. and can be influenced by 0. Points such as C are in the past lightcone. This condition is invariant. the point A is displaced from the origin O by (a) Draw a spacetime diagram. the two events occur at the same point. Go to a frame St in which the two events occur at the same place. as if the clock has not moved. (b) Another observer St is travelling at V = pc with respect to S along the xaxis.. In other words.13) In fact. then so is Axt" in another frame.13) implies that the time component is larger. It is therefore better to write this as We shall use As for spacelike intervals and AT for timelike intervals. Another way of writing invariant interval Remember the definition This does not mean that this quantity is always positive. Proper time Let two events have a timelike separation Axp. the clock and observer S' are moving together. The quantity AT is equal to the elapsed time At' in this frame. Problem 7 In the reference frame S. Both of these quantities are real. (d) What is the value of At' in this case? Do this in two ways: (i) by explicitly using the Lorentz transformation and (ii) by considering the invariant quantity (As)'. in the sense that if Ad' is timelike. they would be complex and inconvenient. so we call such intervals Axp timelike. We never use As for timelike intervals or AT for spacelike intervals. The frame Sf is called the comoving frame. It is positive for a spacelike interval. The condition (4.
Lightlike separation Finally. AX) and Ax = VAt So Note that the proper t i n e is always less. the trajectory is a straight line in the spacetime diagram.( ~ t ) ~AX)^ = 0 (4. these are nothing new: they are just like displacementtime graphs you learnt about in secondary school. Then Ax" = (At. for example.17) + (4. How about the slope? Since it cannot move faster than light So it must move along a timelike trajectory. Actually. to Figure 10. Since Ax/& = cona stant. a point on the lightcone satisfies At = ]Ax1 Such an interval Ax' is said to be lightlike and is described by the invariant condition (As)" = (AT)' = . . say starting from 0. The slope is larger than 45". as shown in Figure 10a.the t axis is drawn vertically First ~onsider uniformly moving particle. This relation is just the reverseof timedilation. except that they are turned around by 90 deg .18) Particle trajectories What do particle trajectories look like on a spacetime diagram? Refer.Consider a particle moving at a speed V = PC.
.=tana x This is a line lying in the first quadrant. But every small sectionis nearly straight. So the situation is as shown in Figure l l a . x' = cos a x y' = .21) and (4. then the trajectory is not a straight line (Figure lob). .More generally.22) are perpendicular (see Problem below). . and each section has a slope of more than 45". Moreover. the y'axis is defined by x' = 0. Likewise. Y .sin a x where 0 < cr + sincr y + cos cr y < 7r/2. Relation between reference frames First of all consider rotations.g.21) This is a line which lies in the second quadrant. if the motion is not uniform.= cots Y x (4. e. The 2'axis is defined by y' = 0. the lines defined by (4.
The t' and x' axes are therefore as shown in Figure 11b.= cotha x t (4.21). But as we stated earlier. not the third) quadrant.g. Likewise determine the quadrant assignments for the lines in (4. Note that the two sinh terms have the same sign. (4.22).25) do not make a right angle..24) This is also a line lying in the first quadrant.22) where 0 < a. 0 = t ' = coshat . (4. Problem 8 (a) The positive XIaxisis defined by y = 0 and I > 0 Show that the line lies in the first (and ' ' . The x' axis is defined by t' = 0.= tanha t x This is a line lying in the first quadrant.25). (4.24) and (4. e. t' = coshat sinha x x' = .s i n h a t + c o s h a x (4. (b) Show that the lines (4. The lines (4.22) are perpendicular .Similarly consider Lorentz transformations.24).sinhax . the angle between the t and x axes has no physical meaning.21) and (4. Likewise the t' axis is defined by x' = 0 . and it does not matter.
Consider two observations of the particle. According to Galilean transformation (Figure 12). between 4. dxr vr=dt (same t ! ) 1 u=v'+V I Galilean So this problem is also called the addition of velocities. (Incidentally. We present two derivations of the correct law. Let a particle P have velocity v' as seen by St.25) are not perpendicular and that the angle (4.24) and the taxis. . we consider the transformation vr + v here because the reverse would be the subtraction of velocities. For simplicity we consider all velocities along the xdirection.O B l ? (e) Redraw Figure 11b if 0 > a.(c) Show that the lines (4. v= ax dt . The first makes direct use of the Lorentz transformation. which is a little bit less convenient. What is its velocity v as seen by S? Thisis the problem of the transformation of velocity. (d) What happens to the t' and x' axes in Figure l l b if . and in particular the separation Axp.26) is not correct according to relativity.) Derivation using Lorentz transformat ion The transformation law (4.4 Transformation of velocity Figure I2 Let the frame S' move with velocity V = pc with respect to 5'.23) and the xaxis equals the angle O2 between (4.24) and (4.
. . then (4. then obviously 1 J If either the velocity of the St frame (V) or the velocity of the particle (v') is much smaller than c.28).1~) ~ instead of 300 m s' . (5) transformations. Thus the law of addition of velocities does not contradict our LL common sense". Hence. Problem 11 Start with (4. (c) Repeat again if the two given velocities are 2.Ax = 7(Ax1 + PAt') At = .27) Note that t and t' are different. 5 ~ ) . (b) Repeat the above if these are spaceships and the two given velocities are 3 . Show that the result can be obtained by v t v'.. Find the percentage difference in the two results. Problem 10 Let V be fixed (say 0 . which is based on experience and experiments at low speeds.0 x lo8 m s'(2c/3).y(pAx' + At') (4. .29) cannot lead to a velocity larger than c. in the same direction. Problem 9 (a) An aeroplane is flying at 300 ms' (. or otherwise. It sees a second aeroplane flying at 300 msl relative to itself. V + V. 0 lo7 m s'(0.29) reduces to (4.lo3 kmhrI).Ax' At However Ax' Ax = v . @= V: . Divide the equations in (4.28) and solve for v' in terms of v and V.= v At At' and in our units of c = I . according to (i) Galilean transformations.8Axf+At' + @At'  Ax1/At' + p PAx'/Atf+l ' If we want to restore the factors of c. show that (4. . The sign of & on the right hand side can be easily deduced with reference to (4. Find the velocity of the second aeroplane Lorentz according to a person on the ground. Ax .26).Plot v vs v'.26).
This derivation has the advantage that it is obvious that IPI < 1. especially the use of the "angle" a. The resultant should be equivalent to a single transformation with relative velocity P obtainect by In terms of (4. Writing this out cosh a .sinha .sinh a 2 sinh a 2 cosh a 2 cosh a .30) "adding" & and a. Multiple addition of velocities As an example of the addition of velocities.sink a1 cosh a 1 1 Take the 00 component cosh a = cosh a 2 cosh a 1 + sinh a 2 sinh irl Hence we see that in composing two transformations.s i f i a cosha tanh cr = p I Now consider two Larentz transformations in succession. At any instant t . Problem 2. According to this .sinh Qcash a ] [= cosh a 2 . because it is tanh a. This makes the parameter cr very convenient: a =a 1 Now use (4. in the following sense.sinh a1 1 .31) and the addition law for tanh: + a 2 which is exactly the same as the addition law (4. Also compare with Chapter 2.25) that a Lorentz transformation is represented by [Ll = where [ msh a sinh a .9). and let V = 0 initially. A second advantage is seen when making many transformations. The proper acceleration is a = constant. with relative velocities pl. exactly like the angle in rotation. instantaneously comoving with the spaceship. P2. Let the velocity of a spaceship be V. we consider the following example.28). let there be an inertial observer S' with velocity V.Derivation using two transformations Recall from (3. Note the analogy with the case of rotations in (2. the parameter a simply adds.
(b) For T co. we get . and the velocity AT relative to St: + By inspection. This velocity is obtained by "adding" the velocity of the S' frame. V ar . More precisely. Using the "angle" a We consider a series of comoving frames at different times. after a time At'. where tanh A a = p = AT Since AT + 0. we can solve (4. it is already clear that V can never reach 1 in any finite T .so dV/dr t 0 and V no longer increases. RHS. the spaceship has gained a velocity Av' = aAt'. t e2a~ 1 e2aT 1 + = tanh a~ t 0. (a) For r v. 0. soit is really the proper time interval AT. The transformation from one to the next involves increasing cr by Acr. Problem 12 Integrate the above equation with the initial condition that V = 0 when the result is T = 0. what is V at any time? First of all we note that At' is measuredin the comoving frame. V. and the question is: What is V(T)? Using law of addition of velocities Let the velocity at T AT be V + AV. which is the expected Galilean result. The reason is that when V 4 1. 1.35). and show that V= Note two limits. Given that a = constant. So it is convenient to measure all times in terms of r.observer Sf.
e.e. But the velocity transforms in a complicated manner becausewe divide by At (see (4.. the result would again transformlike a 4vector.16). and At is not an invariant.Since cu is additive. i. The displacement Ax" = (At.. If we divide by an invariant quantity instead.28)).36). a quantity that is the same in every frame. and we are led to define the 4velocity up by Ax" =AT Or.9). The obvious choice is the proper time AT. taking infinitesimal intervals But using (4. the components are Hence .27)(4. we get In particular. the overall result is equivalent to and the final V is V = t a n h a = tanh aT in agreement with (4. Ax) transforms like a kvector. like (3. i. but the mathematics is much simpler.
its "length" must be an invariant.tex. September 29. What is its value? Ch42. 1997 .Problem 13 Since u p is a 4vector.
A long displacement is not a straight arrow. In curved space (e. time. mass density. We start by reviewing the analogous mathematics of 3vectors. 5.5 Mathematics of FourVectors In this chapter we gather in one place the mathematics of 4vectors. .g. electric potential.1 Mathematics of threevectors A 3scalar is any quantity that remains unchanged under a rotation of axes. in other words the displacement. and cannot be thought of as a vector. ~ where the matrix [R] is independent of the vector. the components change according to A Z ' ~ R ~ A X [Ax'] = [R][Az] = .. a short displacement is a straight arrow. Figure 1 Its cartesian coordinates are We discuss a short displacement rather than the coordinate x (which would be a long displacement starting from the origin) because eventually we wish to generalize to curved space. We shall come back to this point later. and is a vector. the surface of the earth). Examples: mass. temperature. Transformation laws Under a rotation of axes. Basic 3vector The basic 3vector A x is a line joining two neighbouring points.
4) is a 3vector by definition. ti V ~'j. a 3scalar). a condition is imposed on [R]. or rn multiplying or dividing a 3vector by a 3scalar (or invariant). we can write this in a more complicated way as .7) To anticipate some other development.AX = A X ~ A X .j  b11= [Rlbl (5.e. is a 3scalar.. so is the mass m. ice.v 2 . Condition on [R] Since the length has to be an invariant (i. From (2.Other 3vectors Any three quantities vi = (vl. v3) which transform in the same way. Obviously 3vectors may be obtained by rn adding or subtracting 3vectors.6jk  9 PTI[~1[I1 = (5.6) @jkk . The time elapsed. So the velocity and the momentum are also 3vectors.. Length of a vector The length of a displacement vector A x is As: AS)^ = A x . The length of other vectors are defined in the same way. At..
y = ziyi (5. called the dot product. we have to check 3 . Sij is a t e n s o r We cannot simply write down any 32 quantities t i j and say it is a tensor. Consider the Kronecker S. where x . y is also a 3scalar. In every frame In other words 6lij = @ j . y be two vectors and define the following nine quantities as the basic rank2 tensor. Its transformation law is General rank2 t e n s o r Any 9 quantities t i j which transform in this way is called a rank:! tensor. Is it a rank 2 tensor? According to (5.11). Now the following is a 3scalar u. Basic rank:! t e n s o r Let x.9) Since this is a 3scalar for a n y a. H i g h e r r a n k tensors A rank 3 tensor is 33 quantities which transform as ttijk =Rd~jrn~kn~lrnn The definitions for higher ranks are similar. We must check the transformation laws.Dot product Consider a vector z = x + c y where a is an arbitrary scalar.it follows that x .
if there are masses m a at positions x. Example of a rank 2 tensor Consider a mass m at a position x.. and Because xixj is the fundamental rank 2 tensor Sij is a tensor x2 = )xI2 a scalar is so I i j is a rank 2 tensor. ..g.N . ..k l ~ j k 6 1 k (5. The case of contracting until there are no indices left. cr = 1.14) But this condition is exactly the same as (5. In fact this is the moment of inertia tensor. we consider an example. The generalization to more or fewer indices is obvious.. Contraction theorem Instead of stating this theorem generally.16) fi = C ma(&'. leaving a free index i.8) (up to a trivial relabefig of indices). . The theorem states that this remaining free index i transforms like a vector. in analogy to (5. the dummy index j is contracted away. In other words. More generally. is already known. So b'j is indeed a tensor. e. To prove this Thus y' transforms like a vector. Then z j is a vector.x y j ) ( I then this is also a tensor.17) y = t jxj giving a scalar. Let t'j be a tensor and be a vector.#j = gij . and (5.
the conditions are not quite sufficient. ' Problem 1 It is given that and that cp is a scalar.s. must be equal even if we peel off the factor tnm: xli = Rim zm This then show that x transforms as a 3vector. (As stated above. Again we deal with an example. xi is a vector.) . Let tij be a tensor and be any three numbers.Reverse theorem The reverse theorem is also true. To prove this.h. then the r. then ' first we have XI tj (5. State the necessary conditions clearly. But we also have By comparing the last two equations. and if these hold for several different tensors t (we leave it as an exercise to determine how many different t's are required). Prove that y' is a vector.20) is also a vector. Further suppose that it is known that y ' = t i j xj holds in every frame and y transforms like a vector.
the components change according to AzlP= Lp. Its cartesian coordinates are Ax" = (Ax0. Ax) Transformation laws Under a transformation. [Ax'] = [LJ [Ax] (5.22) where the matrix [L] is independent of the vector. Note that time is not a 4scalar.Ax" . Note that rotations can be regarded as a special case of Lorentz transformations.2 Mat hematics of fourvectors A 4scalar is any quantity that remains unchanged under both a rotation of axes and a transformation to another uniformly moving frame. with O t h e r 4vectors Any four quantities . AZ'. Example: the mass (also called the rest mass). Basic 4vector The basic 4vector AS is a line joining two neighbouring points in spacetime.Ax1. in other words the spacetime displacement. a x 3 ) = (At.5.
f'"= qpu is the inverse matrix. v u . We adopt the following names.  Metric The matrix qpU is defined by Lower indices Define In (5. Note that (As)2 may be or 0.. = (i) vector or a contravariant vector ( ) vector or covariant vector a . Obviously 4vectors may be obtained by 0 adding or subtracting 4vectors 0 multiplying or dividing a Pvector by a kscalar (or invariant) "Length" of a vector The length of a displacement vector Ax is defined through The length of other 4vectors may be defined in the same way. +. and in fact also to tensors. vp = v.e.27). [v'] = [L] [v] is a Cvector by definition. vtP = LP. The definition (5. i.which transform in the same way.27) may be applied to any vector.
we choose them to be all down.. where cu is an arbitrary scalar. p { [ ~ TW In = IdW l[d The "inner" indices must be paired.28) We do not need to specify whether the indices in the matrix form are up or down.y' be two kvectors and define the 16 quantities as the basic rank 2 tensor: pu = x p Y V To be specific. 71~vx'l~ (5. Basic rank2 tensor Let 5.g.y' is also a 4scalar. . These are related to each other through the raising or lowering of indices by qPy and q p y . [L Dot product Consider a 4vector z'= 5 T I.29) Since this is a Cscalar for any a. The "outer" indices must be consistent.. lr [slP&luc = [771PU + cry'.23) and (3. [LT] [TI [Ll = [d (5. Now the following is a &scalar where xey= . one down.e. it follows that i . called the dot product.Condition on [L] Since the length has to be an invariant (i. The rules are as follows. this is a ( ) tensor. e.24) f)puLpp E"' = VPU . and we can likewise define tpu =X p h (i) tensor t p u= x p y y (: ) tensor etc. one up. a condition is imposed on [L]. From (3. a 4scalar).
35) Hence In other words.keep indices in usual way The second way is to rewrite (5.e.34) The first way to view (5. i.34) as . qpu LVp = VpV qUPLVp Lp4 qpu 3 (5. Higher rank tensors A rank 3 tensor is 43 quantities which transform as tWP = LP.. and for lower indices. L L ~ P P Y Y P P 7 The definitions for higher ranks. Transformation law for covariant index How does a covariant (i.The transformation law for tpVis General rank2 tensor Any 16 quantities tpVwhich transform in this way is called a rank2 tensor. lower) index transform? We can view this in two ways. Ax: = qpVAxtU = qpV LVp AxP = qpVLVp P u A x u ~ definition of lower index transformation of AxP definition of lower index (5.e.. transform by [L].34) is that the two [rl] factors simply raise and lower the indices on [L]. are similar.
. is a (i) tensor If q. we must have ~ p " Problem 2 Show that (5. The second point of view is particularly convenient when we want to show that contracting an upper index with a lower index leads to an invariant. Also show that is a (i) tensor. .28). using the fact that [qT]= [qt]. we have used two relations: From (5.38) illto (537) Thus: transform by [L'1 rather than [L]. is given by (5.40) follows from (5.28) Also Put (5. In the above.26) in every frame is to be a (i) tensor.Now the matrix in { ) is.but on the right.
What happens if we raise one index in qpY? h general So putting t + 77 Problem 3 Show that qp. Then tPY be a (20) tensor and x.3) in 4d spacetime. Scalar field in 3space Consider for example the electrostatic potential p.) tensor.. a function of z' (i = 1. the index notation automatically keeps track of everything. then x. be a ( ) tensor.. Summary Although at first glance the mathematics of 4vectors looks slightly complicated.42). Let covariant vector.Hence P.2. i. a is a (k) vector. Scalar.1.e. or a function of xp ( p = 0. i.. It is a scalar field.e.2. vector and tensor fields A field is a quantity that depends on the position. Also state clearly the conditions for the validity of this theorem. Problem 4 Prove the reverse theorem: If in (5. Again we consider an example.3 Scalar. is a ( :) tensor. it is known that tp" is a ( ) tensor and yr is a (k) tensor. The proof is similar to the case of 3vectors and is left as an exercise. This is really all that needs to be remembered.e.The tensor qp. .3) in 3space.41) is identical with Contraction theorem P. is a (. i.. 5. as defined by (5. By this we mean: Field: to every point P there is a y(P). a contravariant ve=tor. y ( P ) has the same value in aIl frames.
xn) xn. but different functional forms. xt2.xR) in St. and coordinat& (z". x3) = (pt(xn.44) can be written more explicitly as (P(xl. then (5. Example of 3scalar fields The following are some examples: electrostatic potential. fluid density.x3) in frame S. Example 1 The electrostatic potential is Under a 45" rotation of axes So p and pt have the same value. x2. x2. .Figure 3 Different functional forms Suppose the point P has coordinates (xl. temperature. pressure.
xO) = LpyA ~ ( xl.e.e. or alternatively. each event).e. In terms o coordinates. There is no known example of classical scalar fields. by "all frames" we mean all frames rehted by a Lorentz transformation.46) becomes f A ' ~ ( Xxtl. a scalar field in spacetime would have the same value. This is what we shall do later in this course. There has to be a special reason (roughly speaking some gauge symmetry) in order for a field to be longranged.48) follows. . it can be "felt" far away and detected classically..48) transforms like (5. the functional forms can be quite different.46) B=VxA (5. where X is typically of nuclear dimension. Scalar: cp(P) has the same value in all frames. the potential goes as l / r and the force goes as I/?. This special reason holds for some vector and tensor fields. A) as defined by (5. but eannot hold for scalar fields. xt2. (5.. In exactly the same way. the potential goes as ( l / r )e'IX. In this case. Rot ations may be considered special cases of Lorentz transformation. A ~ ( P ) A ~ ( P ) ) . (5. If the field is longranged. we can postulate that there is a 4vector potential Ap and show that (5. Then Aj' is said to be a 4vector field.. i. Z ~ x3) Again. there is a number cp(P).46).Scalar field in spacetime In the same way. Ap(P) = (AO(P). suppose there is a quantity y such that: Field: to every spacetime point P (i.~ ~. Suppose at each point P in spacetime (i. x2. such that under a coordinate transformation where [L] is the transformation matrix for coordinate displacements. in different reference frames. but different functional forms. there are 4 quantities A1(p). event). The most important example is the Cvector potential in electromagnetism: Ap = (cp? A) where cp is the scalar potential and A is the vector potential. Vector fields We skip 3vector fields and come directly to 4vector fields. If the field is shortranged.48) We can either try to check that (9. Therefore such a field would be difficult to detect classically.
APu(P) = (5. i.49) Then Apv is said to be a (i) tensor field. 0 e z = j .. v =0. each event).50) ..) Basis vectors in spacetime Likewise in spacetime we can define basis vectors e'o..4 Basis vectors Basis vectors in 3space In 3space define basis vectors el=:. Then in analogy to (5.) These are illustrated in Figure 4. G. 5.1.e.&. Tensor fields of higher rank are defined in a similar manner.& (Note that vectors in spacetime.(x) on flat spacetime. there are 42 quantities Ap"(P) such that under a coordinate transformation p. es=G Thus a general displacement vector is (In 3space there is really need to distinguish upper and lower indices. The most important example is the gravitational field in relativity. are denoted by ' rather than boldface letter. Cvectors. L".e.3 Atp"(P) Lp. Weak fields can be regarded as a tensor h.2.Tensor fields Suppose at each point P in spacetime (i.
then we can write x Think of A P as the displacement of a point P when one of the coordinates ' is changed by Ax. Going to the limit Ax1 t 0 and generalizing to other components Sometimes. for example.. only x1 but keep the other components fixed. x3 fixed) x2. if we denote a point by P. Properties of basis vectors Consider two displacement vectors AZ.Figure 4 Now if we change. Ay' On the other hand . then AZ = Ax1& (xO.
the vector as a whole does not change.By comparison we see In other words Incidentally..g. Ax0. AyO)to zero.) 1 4 16 .Axv)Zpl At the same time A5 = Axv& Comparing coefficients of Ax": ev = Lpv Z. in "natura1" order. Transformation property Under a change of axes. even though the components change. we can reduce all these statements to3space by just setting all time components (e. This is illustrated in Figure 5 in the case of rotations. Figure 5 Thus A5 = AxlG1= (Lp.' = GILpv (We write it in this form so that the repeated indices are next to each other.
spacetime. and Ax" is a theorem. Differentiation of a scalar We start with a scalar field p(x) and compare its value at two neighbouring points. we only need to em ember that the lower index in $ behaves just like any lower index.. The case of 3space is easily recovered by setting xO= 0. (i) tensor. we shall not put an arrow on x.5 Differentiation Consider a point x = (xO. in this section all displacements A x are understood to be infinitesimal. Then Here we introduce the comma notation Now Acp is a scalar. This is exactly the same as the transformation of a lower index in (5.x3) in spacetime.Multiply on the right by [L'1. by the inverse contraction . x2. Hence. it is multiplied by the inverse matrix on the right. 5.e. In anticipation of the discussion on curved xl. i.39). Moreover. In short.
. .The gradient operator In other words.63) The crucial point is that $ (i. : . Figure 6 AK = K(x+Az) . they are the same at x and x Ax. operator is P. 3 transforms like a . (!) tensor opemtor.[AP(x)ZP] + (5.e. & in the case of 3space) are constant vectors. The corresponding (i) tensor Differentiation of a vector Let A(x) be a vector field and consider the difference in value between two nearby points (Figure 6).i ( z ) = [AP(x Ax)ZP]. as illustrated in Figure 7: + 3.
Hence where by definition AAp = Ap(x Let us take the p component in (5. The right hand side A(A1) means 0 Take the 1 component at x and x Ax (two numbers). Let p = 1. Let us specify clearly what we mean. 0 In the result take the 1 component. m (AA)' = A(Ap) (5.tex.63) = u p = A(Ap) This is an important (and wellknown) concept. must be a Ch52. 1997 . December 29. 0 Subtract the two numbers. it teaches us how to subtract (and hence how to differentiate) vectorssimply do it component by component. (i) tensor and dxv is also a (i) tensor. this shows that A'. in the above expression Since (dA)p is a tensor.64). The left hand side (AA)l means 0 Take the vectors at x and x Ax (two vectors).65) + + dA = d (ApZp)= (dAp) Writing out the change dAp AplVdxvt$ We read off (dA)p as the coefficient of e'.65) states that these two processes are equivalent. = coefficient of + Ax) . The relation (5.Ap(x) + in (5. We can write this in differential form. In effect. 0 Subtract the two vectors.
.
T ( G ) . b) and Newtonian kinetic energy = ( 1 1 2 ) ~ (mass) x (velocity)2is also conserved. Let us specify more clearly the requiremeot that laws take the same form in all frames.] . Find the velocities of a and b before the collision. Start with the velocities in (a) and use the Galilean transformation for velocities. find u and v. Then we should get the same law in S'. [This is L1(N). and also after the collision. v respectively (Figure 1 . as seen by this observer. [This is 7(G). Momentum Newtonian momentum + Galilean transformation First we show that Newtonian momentum (L(N)) is compatible with Galilean transformation ( I ( G ) ) . we come to forces in the next Chapter.] (b) Another observer is moving to the right at velocity V = 115 units. they move along the original direction. In symbols 61 . Suppose we transform to frame S by the transformation law 7. (a) Before Figure 1 (b) After Problem 1 (a) Particle a of mass 1unit is moving at a speed of 113 unit and hits particle b of mass 2 units at rest (Figure la). because it is more fundamental.L1(N) I Yes It is easiest to illustrate with an example first. Assume Newtonian momentum = (mass) x (velocity) is conserved.] (c) Check whether momentum and kinetic energy are conserved in the frame S'. or in shorthand I L(N) . [This is L(N). at speeds u. After the collision. How must these laws be modified in ordm that they take the same form in all reference frames? In this Chapter we concentrate on the conservation of momentum. which we denote as L'. and 0 the law of conservation of momentum when there is no external force.6 Relativistic Kinernatics The theme of relativity is: All laws of physics must take the same form in all reference frames. Two important laws of physics are: 0 Newton's second law F = ma. Let there be a law L in frame S.
they movedong the original direction. The problem comes from the fact that velocity does not transform linearly. Start with the velocities in (a) and use the Lorentz transformation for velocities. Problem 4 (a) Particle a of mass 1 unit is moving at a speed of c/3 unit and hits particle b of mass 2 units at rest (Figure la). at speeds u. Assume only that Newtonian kinetic energy is conserved in every frame. and Newtonian kinetic energy = ( 1 1 2 ) ~ (mass) x ( ~ e l o c i t y is~also conserved. [This is I ( L ) . it is easiest to iflustrate with an example first. as seen by this observer. and also after the collision.1 (b) Another observer is moving to the right at velocity V = pc with P = 1/ 5 units. Find the velocities of a and b before the conision. namely . Assume Newtonian momentum = (mass) x (velocity) is conserved. and that Galilean transformations apply. defined a where ii is the $velocity.] We do not need a general proof: one counterexample is enough. You can make use of the results from Problem 1. Newtonian momentum + Lorentz transformation But we know that we should not use Galilean transformation. We are led to consider quantities that transform linearly under the Lorentz transformation. For this purpose. ) [This is L(N). or i n shorthand Again. but the Lorentz transformations (T(L)).Problem 2 Prove the above relationship in general. After the collision. s consider the kmomentum of a particle. Problem 3 We can be even more ambitious. We next show that Newtonian momentum (L(N)) is compatible with the Lorentz transformation ( I ( L ) ). Prove that Newtanian momentum must also be conserved. find u and v. v respectively (Figure lb).] (c) Check whether momentum and kinetic energy are conserved in the frame St. [This is C(N).
1. consider a collkion where c may denote a after the collision. Under a Lorent z transformation.1. In other words. . then. v / c << 1. . In shorthand To see this explicitly. relativistic 4momentum (L(R)) is compatible with the Lorentz transformation ( I ( L ) ) .3 PfP=0 p=0. 7 + 1.2. p=o.3 so momentum is also conserved in the St frame.3). For nonrelativistic speeds. The conservation of momentum in frame S takes the form Define then PP=0 By (6.2. and the spatial components reduce to the ''ordinaryn Newtonian momentum. and d may denote b after the collision. then it is also conserved in another frame.This quantity has the following properties. we also have . p' transforms linearly: Fourmomentum + Lorentz transformation The linear property ensures that if p' is conserved in one frame.
The reason is that it suggests (incorrectly) that all Newtonian formulas can be made correct by changing m + M. . Then il p = Mv takes the usual Newtonian form. pzmv . m / d n Figure 2 Time component Next consider the time component of the Cmomentum This is also conserved. in a way that it is intimately related to the conservation of momentum To recognize what p0 is.Spatial Components The spatial components of the kmomentum are p = mu or Some books call m the rest mass. consider the nonrelativistic case v << 1. and M = m7 = the relathistic mass. and wl not be adopted here. This is an extremely bad convention. The behavior of p = I p 1 is as follows: (Figure 2) F o r v < c .
Thus it is never possible (if m # 0) to attain the velocity of iight. there is an additive constant E = mc2. The kinetic energy IC is defined as the energy E minus this constant E = mc2 I C so that nonrelativistically + but generally . It is recognized that up to an additive constant. 2 (6. it takes an infinite amount of energy (if m # 0) to reach velocity c. we see that even at rest. and also specialized to a case where m does not change. p0 is the Newtonian kinetic energy (approximately).) Thus we call the energy E: The behavior of the total energy = E in (6.E+m In particular. Figure 3 Kinetic energy From (6.= const 1 + mv2 + .11).11) We have restored the factors of c (= I). Forv<c. (So far we are not considering any potential energy.11) is as follows.E=mc2+~mv2+. 0 Forv+c.
and the factor c2 is just an LLexchange rate". in obvious notation We can distinguish two situations. he finds that rn can be converted into E. and the total mass is not conserved. . Analogy The equation E = mc2 is famous. for example the collision hetween billiard balls. Let us assume that in a certain country there are only (a) paper money in bills of $1000. It is common to say that mass is converted to energy. Then. the additive "constant" is not really constant. Later. A Martian who arrives in this country first discovers two separate conservation laws governing monetary transactions: (a) the law of conservation of paper money (m). at a rate E = m x 1000. An equivalent equation is Q = Am c2. has been converted to energy. we can say that a certain amount of mass. and (b) the law of conservation of coins (E). in the analysis of collisions. and that really only the sum of the two is conserved. Heuristically. and there is an effect. the modern view is that mass is energy. Then b This is the familiar situation. and (b) coins in $1. it is usually more convenient not to separate out the kinetic energy. Am. and that they are quite different things. say ma = m.Application t o collisions Consider energy conservation in a collision a + b 4 c + d. However. it is possible that new particles are created. (a) In "classicaln collisions. Let Then In these cases. the masses do not change. This point of view is best illustrated with an analogy.. (b) In the collision of nudei and elementary particles. m = md. Actually.
relativistically we have 2m By eliminating v. .22). Relation between E and p In Newtonian physics we have p = mv I .p2 In the same way. (See Problems below) Problem 5 Derive (6. or anything important. restoring the factors of c. from the simplest to the more complicated: linear. The conversion rate is not fundamental. The conversion between the two is not a real transaction.Paper money and coins are conceptually the sane. an elastic collision is one in which the particle identities (and hence masses) are unchanged. E = . In an inelastic collision. elastic linear. It is just a consequence of the fact that we use different units for paper money and coins. This relationship can also be derived by the use of the invariant PPP. E =2 2 mv By eliminating v.. the particle identities (and hence masses) are changed. It is best to think of the "conversion" between mass and energy in the same way. inelastic In relativistic collision theory.23) from (6. we illustrate the analysis of collisions through a series of examples.2 Analysis of collisions In this section. inelastic oblique. we get a direct relation between E and p. elastic oblique. we get or. 6. new particles may be produced.
write down enough equations for the unknowns. Solution' B y using the conservation of momentum and energy. elastic collisions Example 1 Refer to Problem 4 and solve for u. We leave the rest as as exercise. since Since there are two unknowns. 0 0 Linear. 0 solve the equations.In general. all velocities are very close to unity and it is inconvenient to quote their value. The last step is only algebra and not physics. 0 Momenta and energies are more directly. it is often better to analyse the situation in terms of momenta and energy rather then velocities. 0 For high energy collisions. we need two conservation laws: . v relativistically.measured and are usually quoted. However. as illustrated below: a Mass m Momentum P Energy E The unknowns are pc + b c + m d M 0 M C p J p J i Ed M J% . There are several reasons. pd. Nevertheless there are some standard tricks. we have the following equations for u and 2). We need not regard the E's as unknowns. We now do this for a general elastic collision in a straight line. there are several steps: count the given and the unknowns. It may be messy but not conceptuany important. 0 The result would be applicable to massless particles (like photons).
because the extra solution pd = 0 is easier. pc = P .[2(E + M)MP] pd = 0 The terms without pd have cancelled. (Actually there are two solutions even before squaring. + + With these in mind.26) Square both of these Subtract This is a quadratic equation for pd. From (6. E = . Collect terms: [(E + M)' . we can now proceed. i. The first square bracket can be simplified. 0 If this is the case. pd = 0. ..to recognize and remove.27) From (6. 0 We need to square these equations. it is better to eliminate pc and solve for pd rather than the other way round. 0 Squaring leads to a quadratic equation and there will be two solutions. d 2 p: M2.) It is obvious that the extra solution describes no collision at all. because we know that pd = 0 is a solution. the energies by E2 = pp m2.The general tactics for solving these equations are as follows. and eliminate. This is guaranteed.p2]p: .e.
inelastic collisions Many collisions involve the production of particles. the masses make no difference. Solution E + M = E' E ~ + ~ E M + M ~ '~ = E ( P 2 M2) 2EM + M2 = p2+ (4M)2 + + 2 E M + 2 M 2 = 16M2 E = 7M = 6. all the momentum is transferred to the second particle. Example 2 Antiprotons were first produced in the following reaction: P + P + ~+P+P+< Momentum P 0 P Energy E M E' At threshold. Show that in this limit. Find the threshold energy E. pd. This can be understood heuristically as follows: At very high energies. The mass of the proton is 0. Problem 7 Redo this derivation in the Newtonian case and solve for p.e.29) reduce to the same result. and therefore behave like a single particle of mass 4M.. Problem 9 Show that for very high energies ( E >> n. The most famous is the production of antiprotons (p). a t the minimum energy required to produce p. the four particles in the final state move together without any relative velocity.29) to solve for Ezample 1.Problem 6 Use (6.28) and (6.. nearly ail the momentum is again transferred to the second particle. i. Problem 8 Show that if the two masses are equal. (6.28) and (6. so the equal mass case must be applicable.94 GeV/c2. Can this be derived in a simple way? .58 GeV . Linear.M).
and we can have a simpler expression E= Mn .35 GeV Example 4 Consider the same reaction e. and MI= 1.94 GeV.and the A move separately and we can no longer regard the system as a single particle. Mass Momentum Energy em + P + P E M 0 M E l m W El em + A M' . the e. in which an electron hits a proton at rest.M2 2M = 0. Solution Again.e. So the situation is as follows. and produces a A. E = m. m z 0. Find the energy of the electron after the collision.24 GeV.p + e.. with mass m + MI Check: If M' = M . The electron energy is 18 GeV. + + Solution After the collision. This is what we expect. In this case.5 MeV. the reaction is possible no matter how small the kinetic energy. What is the minimum energy of the election for this to occur? e Mass m Momentum P Energy E + p + A * M 0 m Ml M P El The masses are rn = 0. at threshold we may take the final state to be a single particle. M = 0. i.Example 3 Consider the following reaction.A as in Ezample 3.
Problem 11 Return to the general case described by (6. E = P. N 2 GeV = 17. The energies E' and W can be expressed in terms of the momenta.2EE' Q2 = ( P . let us neglect the electron mass: m We further assume Pt = 0. Square this equation and express En in terms of Pt2. E' x lP'l > 0.2EtM . Find the value of E' in this case. and square w2 = (E M E')~ = E2 + M 2 + Et2 + 2EM .We regard P t and Q as the unknowns. El2 . Hence obtain the algebraic solution for PI. These are given by the conservation laws: Solve for W and Q.1 . Explain why there are two solutions.PI2 = m2. . then E' 0.65 GeV 2 x 0. E2 . we have Et = 18 + Problem 10 Suppose the electron bounces backwards. In order not to get too involved with the arithmetic.Q2 = Ma. (This has to be checked later.94 = Pt.P2= m2. So we need two equations.) Then In the present case.31).942.p'j2 = p2+pn2PP' + Subtract and use W 2.
#J where q5 is the angle of recoil. Thus we need 3 conservation laws: As usual. Q. Q Figure 4 P M + M 0 P P + M P Mass Momentum Energy M P E M Pp 3. elastic collisions Example 5 A proton (mass = 0. J Et W The three unknowns are PI. while the target proton recoils without changing its identity.Et)' = E~+M~+E~+~EM~E'M~EE' + + Q2 = (P .94 GeV) travelling at momentum 30 GeV hits another proton at rest. and (c) the direction of recoil of the target proton. The energies can be expressed in terms of the momenta.Pt cos 19)~ (PIsin 8)' = p2 pf2 2PPt cos 8 Subtract + Move aLl Et to the left . Find (a) the final momentum of the incident proton. The incident proton scatters at 3 5 O . we first solve for W2 and Q2 w2 = ( E M .Oblique. (b) the final momentum of the target proton.
Find the increase in wavelength AX. The other solution is: + + + + p' = 2M(E + M ) P cos 8 (E+ ) . so obviously everything is conserved. inelastic collisions We st art with a decay problem. thus one solution is P' = 0. Q' Figure 5 . Example 6 A Z0 particle (M 90 GeV) is travelling with momentum P = 150 GeV. e.2 ~ ~2 COS~ e Once this is obtained. Find the angle between the e+ and the e. It decays into e+. (The two particles exchange roles. The energy of the photon is E = hc/X. 4 = 0. Problem 12 Complete Example 5 and give numerical answers. I Problem 13 A photon strikes an electron (mass rn) at rest. The constant term cancels. which involves only 3 bodies.) Thus it is seldom necessary to solve a quadratic. Q = P. 0blique. the other parts are trivial. This is the famous formula for Compton scattering.Square and use En = Pn + M2 (E M ) 2 ( ~ RM2) = [(E+M)M + PPcosBj2 (E M)~(P" M') = (E + M)lIM2+ 2(E + M ) M P P f cos B f p2 cos28 pa This is a quadratic equation for PI. and is scattered at an angle 8. where h is Planck's constant. It could have been guessed from the start that a solution 3s P' = 0.
857 0 = 30.30" tan8 = + Next determine the momentum P of X: P = 20 cos 7.15 GeV Figure 6 Solution First determine the angle 0 by considering the y component of momentum 20 sin 8 = 15sin(l8" ..14 GeV for p and T .94 GeV and 0.70" . 18" .30" = 34.82" where the masses are 0. but the momenta of the final particles were measured to be 20 GeV for p and 15 GeV for T . SO cos 8 = P . Find the mass of X. p 20 GeV n.8) 15sin 18" 20 15cos 18" 0 = 7.96" Example 7 A neutral particle X decays by .8 = 10.70" + 15cos 10. The angle between them was found to be 18". 20 = 61.respectively. was not observed.578 . J F = 0. The original particle X. being neutral.Solution From the conservation of energy and momentum In this case rn 3 0.
The target proton recoils. In one event.69 GeV .17 x 1. Solution Figure 7 Let X have momentum and energy W.523 x M' = 1. the electron is scattered at l o .94 x 1 . Find MI. and is excited to become a new particle X with mass MI. we find M~ = 0.2EE1(1. For simplicity.2 x 18 x. Hence P = E. we ignore the electron. PI = E'.El) .cos 8 ) In this example. M~ = M~ + 2 M ( E .56 GeV This is one way to determine the mass of unstable particles.mass. with an energy 17 GeV. Example 8 Electrons with energy 18 GeV hit a stationary proton target.94~+ 2 x 0.Also determine the energy E of X The mass M of X is M =d n = 5.
the momentum of each particle. Electrons that are scattered at that angle enter the detector. and (b) the total energy in the CM frame. Solution In the laboratory frame.So a plot of the number of events.3 GeV. each E' corresponds to a value of Ma. 6. N M R =. Example 9 A proton with momentum 3 GeV hits another proton at rest. This frame is called the center of momentum (CM) frame. Figure 8 Problem 14 In Figure 8. and the total momentum are The energies are .These experiments are usually done in the following manner. From (6. Find the velocity P of the CM frame. versus El gives a distribution of Mn values. and their energies El are measured. Also find (a) the momentum of each proton.3 Center of momentum frame Suppose we go to a frame moving with velocity P . Find the uncertainty in the mass M'. the width of the peak is AE' = 0. Assume parameters as in Example 8. A detector (called a spectrometer) is placed at a fixed angle 8. N. Any particles that are produced will appear as a peak in this distribution. such that the total momentum of a colliding system is zero.33). The concept is illustrated in the following example.
Figure 9 For these reasons. it is often convenient to do the cahdation in 3 steps. a part is related to the overall forward motion. the total energy is The momenta of the individual particles are Thus the picture in the CM frame before the collision is as shown in Figure 9a. We see that of the total energy Et = 4.. In this new frame. We want this to be zero. 0 Transform back to laboratory frame.084 GeV in the lab frame.771 GeV is really available in the CM frame. Only the part E: = 2. Because the momentum is zero after the collision. Find the final situation in CM frame. 0 Transform to CM frame. for creating new particles. The next Ezample considers this in a general way. e.g. Energy in CM frame Refer to Example 9. .We now transform to a new frame. the only possible situation is as shown in Figure 9b.
Example 11 In a colliding beam experiments. travelling in the opposite direction. What would be the equivalent beam energy if the same experiment is done in a fixed target situation? Take a. which is by definition in the CM frame.Example 10 A particle of mass M and energy E hits a target particle also of mass M. M 1 GeV.d % ? 2E allinunitsofGeV = 4 x lo4 E a 2 x lo4 GeV . Find the tot a1 energy E* in the C M frame. a proton beam of energy 100 GeV collides headon with a second beam of the same energy. Solution The total momentum and energy in the lab frame are The transformation to the CM frame is given by The total energy in the CM frame is Note that as E + co E* cc So increasingthe beam energy ( E )in a fixed target experiment is very inefficient compared with colliding beam experiments. Solution E * = J m .
.6. find the energy E* in the CM. and the only relativistic invariant that can be constructed..e.. a quantity which is the same in every frame. The real physical situation should be expressed in terms of a relativistic invariant. Momentum is zero by definition s = Pip" = E * ~ 2 M ( E = +M) In fact.where the mass of the pion is rn and the mass of the proton . 0) 0.g.. For a collision such as N the total 4momentum available is.4 Relativistic invariants Available energy From the last Example. 0. E 2 x lo4 GeV) in the lab frame actually corresponds to a much smaller energy (e. Find Solution P p and s in the lab frame and the CM frame. it is clear that specifying the energy could be misleading: alarge energy (e... E* 200 GeV) in the CM frame. is M. i. Example 13 Consider the reaction ?r p . is Example 12 Refer to Example 10. and the proton is at rest. + Solution . If the energy of the x is E. P" ' = (E*.g. this is a simpler way of doing Example 10..
We see that some momentum is transferred from the beam particle to the target.E ) . E' cos 0) Q = (El. 0. but recoils. and may even break up. Thus we define the Cmomentum transfer The relativistic invariant is Example 14 Refer to Example 8 and find an expression for t in terms of the incident energy E. but deflected. Solution Pa = (E. E'cose. 0.E. the scattered energy E' and the scattering angle 6. 0. Assume that E and El are large enough that the electron mass may be neglected. 0. Figure 10a shows that particle b was originally at rest.Momentum transfer Figure 10 Many scattering events are of the type where c is the same as particle a. E) pc = (El. where the wavy line denotes the transfer of momentum (often of other quantum numbers as well). as shown in Figure 10a. This is illustrated more clearly in Figure lob. Efsin8. E' sin 8.
(a) From quantum mechanics s Since @' i a 4vector. 8 = 0..k x) . is a peak in any coordinate frame). is already known to be a Pvector . e. k) There are two ways to see this.(E' sin 6)' . 1997 . 6. For example.(Elcos 6 . @ = cos(wt .E)' = .t = (E' .cos 8) Note that t is the same in every reference frame. is invariant. therefore kp is a 4vector. hence kpx.5 Frequency and wave number The (angular) frequency w and the wave number k of a wave also form a 4vector: kp = (w. cos 6 where is the phase.E)2 .27~. k p must also be a kvector. But the phase is an invariant (a peak . but the right hand side refers only to the laboratory frame.are the peaks. (b) A wave disturbance goes as.g..El2. But x.E2+ 2EE1cosB = 2EE1(1 . (Contraction theorem).tex December 29. Ch62. .2E1E + E2.
So we shall focus on this force in this Chapter. For example. but have a special reference frame in which the force law would be simplest. i. e. 0 It reduced to the usual momentum ( p = 1. 0 It is conserved. consider the force F on the mass m in Figure la. Figure 1 However.3) when v << c. . The situation is different for electromagnetism. Therefore i t remains for us to deal with (b) and (c) in this Chapter.they do not assume the same force law in all reference frames. F = kx far a spring The three together determine motion.e. Vacuum is the same to all observers. There is not much point in discussing the relativistic version of these forces.7 71 . velocities which are not small. and will be simplest in the frame in which the table is at rest. Our task is to generalize all these to relativistic situations.the frame in which M is at rest. Take a spring as an example: which gives the equations of motion. There is no such thing as a special frame in which the vacuum (or "ether") is at rest. This force has a special frame .. The force is due to the electric field E and the magnetic field B. 0 It transforms simply under Lorent z transformations.. There is no reason to believe that the force law in other frames would be equally simple. Next consider the force F on the mass m in Figure lb. Part (a) is already accomplished in the last Chapter. Particle Dynamics and Electromagnetism Overview Newtonian mechanics cont ains three elements: (a) Definition of momentum p = mv (b) Newton's second law F = d p l d t (c) Some force law.g. which exist in vacuum. We have introduced the concept of a 4momentum p" pP = 4% 7v) This has the following properties. This is a frictional force due to the table. most forces are not relativistic . Therefore the laws of electromagnetism should be the same in all reference frames.2.
P) and define force as We emphasize that F does not transform simply. The relativistic transformation of these forces is therefore of central importance. For this course we shall be concerned with them. Then it is found. . In order of decreasing strength. One hundred and fifty years ago. later we shall see the experimental consequences. that the force on a charge q is in obvious notation. This law is well known in the nonrelativistic case ( v << c). they are: the strong interaction. Hence.which is one of the successes of relativity. First. or in reverse. All these forces are transmitted by fields (like the electric and magnetic field) which reside in vacuum. This result can be understood at two levels. The other two . 72 . while the weak interaction has a range of approximate fm. even for large velocities. Everything remains valid. but we ignore these for the moment. experimentally. but not in macroscopic. how we integrate them. Definition of force and Lorentz force law We start with the relativistic definition of the 4momentum P* = ( E . two are short ranged: the strong interaction has a range of about 1 fm (1 fm = lo'' m). they are manifested only rnicroscopicaliy and in quantum phenomena. as will be discussed below. and thus have no special frame. and to some extent also the strong interaction. responsible for nuclear binding 0 the electromagnetic interaction 0 the weak interaction. responsible for P decay 0 gravitation (How we divide the different types of forces. classical phenomena. depends on the level of understanding. electricity and magnetism would be regarded as two types of interactions.) Of these four interactions. Secondly we can ask how this law fits into a more consistent overall picture. Recent research has unified the electromagnetic and weak interactions through the standard model.2).electromagnetism and gravitation . provided p is taken as the relativistic momentum (7.are long ranged and manifested macroscopically. there are 4 fundmental forces.To take a broader view. now they are regarded as unified . we can simply accept it as an experimental fact.
What does R depend on? Consider two moments t and t At. Solution Forvxc. and compare the momenta.99 c and (b) 0. p=myvzmyocy (4 = 1 J ~ ~ Z F = 7. the magnitude of the momentum does not change. only its direction changes.9999 c.Deflection in a magnetic field Consider charged particles passing through a magnetic field B.09 . 7 Note that R is not proportional to mu. Therefore the trajectory is an arc of radius R. the momentum vector has changed direction by Ad. Example 1 Compare the radii of curvature for particles travelling at (a) 0. say out of the page (Figure 2a). In this time. Since the magnetic field does no work. so (Figure 2b) + But since the angle changes by 2 r in a period T.
for the particle to attain velocity c.This kind of experimental observation verifies that it is correct to use the Lorentz force law with the relativistic momentum myv. the fact that velocities cannot be larger than the speed of light is built in. and Note that T can be interpreted a s the time taken. according to Newtonian physics. in general. Thus. . and the situation is given by line 1. the denominator 1. For large t . t Figure 3 For small t. Motion under an electric field: parallel case Consider a charged particle travelling along a constant electric field E. which is the Newtonian result. where we have assumed that the motion starts from rest. the velocity saturates at v 1. Also. qE can be replaced by the force F.
The first equation can be analysed simply: because the force is perpendicular to the motion. thus v. Therefore where we consider of any force F perpendicular to the direction of motion. The first term is zero.11). Put this into (7. and y = constant. is constant as well. because the instantaneous value of v y is zero. Next carry out the differentiation for (7. the energy does not increase. Motion under the electric field: perpendicular case Consider a particle moving originally along x.We can analyse the motion in another way.6) Thus the effective mass is increased by y3. but subject to a constant electric field along y. Thus .
. Recall that velocity is Although Ax transforms simply as (the spatial components of ) a 4vector. and transforms in a complicated way. For this reason. It is not true that all Newtonian formula can be made correct by replacing the mass m by the "relativistic massn M = my. Therefore v is not a kvector. the denominator At is not a Cscalar. There is a very important lesson. Instead. the result is guaranteed to be a 4vector. the idea of a "relativistic mass" is seldom used nowadays.Magnetic deflection belongs to the second case of forcebeing perpendicular to the diT rection of motion. We are led to define the Cforce Explicitly.such a replacement works for perpendicular forces but not for pardel forces. it is better to consider the 4velocity This involves dividing a 4vector Ax'' by a 4scalar.5). it is also seen that the radius o curvature is modified by a factor of 7 (not r3). and will therebre transform in a simple way. and from (7. For exactly the same reason transforms in a messy way.
we start with the postulate that the scalar potential vector potential A together form a 4vector field 4 and the The proof of this postulate will come from the transformation of the fields. i.Since the rate of change of the energy E is the work done per unit time. then the'covariance properties f would be more apparent. From the *otential we can form the field tensor By construction. thus I we can state the Lorentz force law in terms of Kp rather than F.v. = B3 In general . this must be a tensor. 7 4 Fourvector potential and field tensor . F .. The components are as follows = (V x A).e. To discuss electromagnetism.
In explicit matrix form
The first index is the row, so Fol is row 0, column 1, i.e., the entry El.
7.5
Covariant form of the Lorentz force
We claim that the covariant force Kfi defined by (7.15) is given by
Let us check this component by component. First of all, note that u p = (7, yv), u, = (7, yv).
KO
A
q~Ouu, = qFOiui
(Y
can only be 1,2,3)
= qEi(7vi)
= y(qE;)vi = 7Ev; = y ( F  V )
Thus, combining (7.14) with (7.21), we have the law of motion in covariant form
Assuming that Ap does indeed transform like a 4vector, and hence that transform like a
(i)
Fp"
does indeed
tensor, it is guaranteed that (7.22) leads to the same physical consequence
in every reference frame.
7.6
Transformation of fields
Figure 4
I '
Consider a frame S' moving at speed V = pc along the xdirection, relative to a frame S. The Lorentz transformation is given by
and all other entries are 0. It is then straightforward to work out the transformation of the fields
= There are only 4 choices of ( p v ) ,namely ( p ) (0 O ) , (0 I), ( 1 o), ( 1 1). So
, q
= ( L ~ ~ L ~ ~ ~ ~F L ~ ~ F LO^~ ~ L ~ ~ LOILIOF1O L~~~ =
(LO,,L~~
+
+
+
l l )
 LO^ L
~ ~ ) F O ~
= 1 7  (yP)(yPjlEl 7 = y2(1  P2)~ 1 El =
The only allowed v is v = 2.
Likewise
E; = y(E3
+ PB2)
Since @ can be regarded as a vector in the +z direction, all these can b e summarized as
Here field
1 and I refer to the direction of relative motion, ie, that ..
of /3. Next for the magnetic
The only nonzero term is p = 2, v = 3.
B: = r(B2SPE3)
Likewise
B; = r(B3  PE2)
All these can be summarized as
B', = ~ ( B r p x E l )
Example of field transformation
Figure 5 We consider how the same phenomenon appears to two different observers, in order to illustrate what happens under field transformations. Consider two capacitor plates which create an electric field
Let a particle of mass m and charge q traverse this space at speed v (Figure 5). In the lab frame S, this particle experiences a force in the y direction, and accelerates at
(See (7.13).) Now go to the comoving frame St. What are the fields?
Note that a magnetic field appears! In the comoving frame, the particle is nonrelativistic, so Newtonian mechanics apply:
Although there is a magnetic field, it does not matter, because the particle has zero velocity in the comoving frame, and hence does not couple to the magnetic field. Are (7.25) and (7.26) consistent? To check this, we see that
(t' is proper time)
 dt' 
Hence (7.26) becomes
~ L = f qE  Y dt2
7m
which is identical with (7.25). An important aspect of the field transformation is that E and B are mixed. They are really different aspects of the same thing, i.e., different components of the field tensor F p Y .
Checking invariance
This example shows that we can check invariance (i.e., that phenomena appear to all observers in a consistent way) by three different methods. We can check one phenomenon at a time, as in this example. There are infinitely many phenomena to be checked. We can check the noncovariant equations of motion, again as in this example. a We can check the covariant equation of motion, which is much simpler. We check these once and for all.
Relativistic invariants
Out of the tensor Fp",we can construct two quadratic invariants. The first is
Consider the two terms
Next consider the two terms
'1
This transforms like a Cscalar, i.e., it is the same in every frame.
If there is a pure B field (E = 0) in one frame, then Il > 0, and it is impossible to transform to another frame so that it becomes a pure E field ( B = 0), since the sign of Il would be changed. The reverse is also true. In a plane wave, I I = ]El, SO Il = 0. This is consistent since a plane wave (Il = 0) B stays as a plane wave (I; = 0) in every frame. To introduce the second invariant, we have to start with the dual tensor
The totally antisyrnmetric symbol is defiiled as
E " " ~ ~
= +I,
iT p u a P = even permutation of 0123
ifpua~=oddpermutationof0123 if any two indices are equal
E ~ = 1, w
E ~ V a P = 0,
It transforms as a tensor.
(i)
tensor  this is left as an exercise. Thus
P
transforms l i b a
Problem 1 The transform of the totally antisyrnmetric tensor in another frame is given by
and we want to show that this is exactly the same as P " P 9 Take, for example, p = 0, u = 1, p = 2, a = 3, then d'"Pu = 1, and we need to prove:
Prove the above identity. (Hint: Consider determinants. Also, you need to make an assumption on a sign.) To see explicitly what
pp"
is:
Thus
7 7 Maxwell equations . Hence Again. . this must be the same in every frame. we see With p. and we now see that this condition is the same in every frame. we can construct another invariant To evaluate this. Now we deal with the second part.Referring to (7. a plane wave is characterized by B . 0 How do the fields affect the charges and currents . For example. The theory of electromagnetism consists of two parts. consider .E = 0.Maxwell equations We have dealt with the first part relativistically.Lorentz force law How do the charges and currents generate the fields .20).
at positions X(. each of magnitude q. Suppose there is a single charge q at position X. X). Hence (p. We can now write down Maxwell's equation in two groups. and contained in a volume A' x L'. You can work out a more physical proof through the following Problem. . ' (c) Show that J p and J'" are related exactly by the Lorentz transformation. = q63(x. Find J'p. Then Integrating this over space gives the correct charge. (b) Now go to a frame which is moving at a speed along the length direction.together form a 4vector. and check that they give the correct result. the current density is J = charge density x velocity of charge = qvS3(x . Next. The charges are not moving. where we have introduced X" = (T. we show that the charge density p and the current density J . The more general case with charges q. the charges are (i) moving at a speed P.Four Current First. in a rectangular volume of area A and length L.X)~ (. vat) = (dt. Problem 2 (a) There are N charges. where A' = A and L = LIT. dx) = dxp Hence it transforms like a 4vector. Find J'. J) oc (dt. To see this. We insert the factor where T is an arbitrary constant time. This is a formal proof.~ ) d t t J = qvS3(x X) S(t T)dt Now 6 3 ( ~ x ) s ( ~ T ) = S ~ ( X Pxlr) is a scalar.) would be but it is sufficient to deal with thetransformationproperties of a single term. We simply write down the covariant form. In this frame.X) where v = dX/dt. we have to write down the expressions for p and J.
0 VB=O (b) Missing index is spacelike. 1 (V x E.Homogeneous equations First.e.37).39) .no magnetic charge 0 (7. p = 2. For. We can also write (7. Then (7. this equation is trivial.Faraday's law are components of the same covariant equation (7. a.38) . recall that ~p&u = ~ f r v o pP F " ~ 1 Since p .example. v. if any 2 indices are the same.So it recovers (7. (a) Missing index is timelike. = B. once we choose v.37) gives which is a trivial identity.37). let the indices be p = 1. So we only have to consider the case of all 3 indices being distinct. v = 2. . ) at a Thus the two homogeneous Maxwell equations: (7. e. it is just the missing index among dfiFQP. have to be all different.g... i.37) in terms of the dual tensor as follows: To see this.
42) .F" = 4n~' VxB=4nJ+E dt Thus the two inhomogeneous equations: (7.Inhomogeneous equation or we can write it as where a ax'.41). v = 1 B.Gauss' law (7.' a a a a (a) v is timelike.e.Ampere's law with displacement current are again components of the same covariant equation (7. Maxwell's equations are a . there is no p = 0 term. i. To summarize. e.g.. 0 Note. (b) v is spacelike.43) ..
we can make a change . dP(A"+ a" .g.avap)A = pV since the order of differentiation in a mixed derivative does not matter.P A P ) + (a'dv .AP+d'A .on Ap and not affect the physics. e. For example because the six terms cancel in pairs. it is invariant under the gauge transformation. The inhomogeneous equation becomes Gauge transformation The potential is convenient. In other words.. but contains "too much" information.In terms of potential then the homogeneous Maxwell equations are automatic. FPW .called a gauge transformation .P ( A P+ P A ) A) = ( P A " . A = PA'. Summary All of electromagnetism is contained in . and let A' . Since classical electromagnetism depends only on F*". We can make use of gauge transformations to choose any value of d . Let A ( x ) be a Cscalar field. the two terms underlined.
tex.Ch72. December 29. 1997 .
.
However.= F = q(E+v x B) at This is not covariant.the least action principle. and go back to Newtonian mechanics in onedimension. it may still look slightly unnatural. therefore well suited to discussions in relativity. particularly simple. The second method. Consider for example the motion of a charged particle under the influence of an electromagnetic field.1) This is explicitly covariant. Now we come to the third way of doing dynamics . so that the Lorentz force law comes about "naturally". Newtonian mechanics I I I XI I I 22 2 Figure 1 Forget about electromagnetism for the moment. which is slightly better.1 Action Formalism General principles Different ways of specifying dynamics We have now come across two ways of writing down the dynamic evolution of a system. Suppose it is given that . and then specialize to electromagnetism. which is explicitly covariant. We start by reviewing the general properties of the least action principle. is (8.8 8. The first method is dp . The variable is x ( t ) .
xl) and (t2. Advantage of least action principle Figure 2 . such as (8. Consider any path P between (tl. Least action principle 1. even though it is usually the independent variable (Figure 1). or a Newtonian equation.x2). e. and select the one whose action is minimum. 3. Each path P corresponds to a function [x(t)]. we draw t vertically.. we say that the correct path is the one which satisfies the differential equation of motion. or V = kx2/2. For all cases we shall consider. It need not be the correct path. The least action approach takes a completely different point of view. together with the conditions (8. S is made up of contributions A S for each segment of path (additivity assumption).3).1). this means determining the correct path (solid line) among all possible paths (say the broken line) in a tx diagram. To conform with the usual practice in spacetime diagrams. Consider all possible paths.What is x(t) in between? Graphically. In the equation of motion approach. F = kx. eg. S is called the action. This is the correct path. 2. for a spring.g. Give a way of calculating a oumber S[P]= S[x(t)] for each path P = [x(t)].. The system is specified by F(x) or V(x).
we need only consider a small segment of path. when using generalized coordinates . the principle o least action is specially f convenient for discussions in relativity.2 Action principle in nonrelativistic physics Choice of action We consider a single particle of mass m.x) and of length (At. where invariance is a central issue. Figure 8. Ax Figure 3 The action A S must be proportional to At: L is called the Lagrangian. see Figure 3. and even in Newtonian physics. (a) Because of the additivity assumption.. Here we are thinking of a Lorentz transformation. centred at ( t .g. 8. as D = LAt . e. If the action S ( P ) does not depend on the coordinate system.A path P is independent of the coordinates used to describe the path. Thus. Figures 2a and 2b show the same path P in two different coordinate systems. We shall continue with Newtonian physics. then the principle of least action will seleck the same path in any coordinates. Ax). and how to obtain the equation of motion from S. Generalization to higher dimensions is straightforward. It guarantees that the physics is invariant. and discuss how we can guess the form of S. see Chapter 4.otherwise it is difficult to verify that the equations in different generalized coordinates give the same physics. moving in 1 dimension under a potential V ( x ) .
only the ratio bo/a2 matters. x. 5) and moreover assume that L is linear in V(x). The term alx would change sign under reflection (x + . The lower order expansion should be adequate for small velocities (f) The term a0 would contribute which is the same for all paths satisfying the boundary conditions. (e) Expand A. B are unknown functions.(b) L can only depend on t. x and Ax/At = 5 L = L(x. It is not allowed if the physics is reflectionsymmetric. al = 0. L = L(V(x). then t does not appear. (d) Assume the system knows about the position x only though the potential V(s). B. and we shall set it to zero. where A. It is irrelevant for picking the minimum. (g) The lowest order guess is therefore We shall show that the choice gives the Newtonian equation of motion. (Actually. since multiplying S by a constant has no effect .x ) .) . t ) (c) Assume the system has no explicit time dependence.
EulerLagrange equation We now start with and derive the Newtonian equation of motion. Let x(t) be the correct path. 77 is considered a small quantity (Figure 4). be a neighbouring path. Z Figure 4 Since the neighboring paths must satisfy the same initial and final conditions q(t1) = q(t2) = 0 Now compare the two actions . and let z(t).
M o r e general form of action We shall later come across more general forms of action. To save some writing. It may or may not be the same as the Uordinary" or mechanical momentum p. Thus we are left with I the original x(t) gives a minimum. This f means [ ] must be zero: which is t h e Newtonian equation of motion. because of (8. r)(t) is usually written as 6x(t). and to unify notation. then A S must vanish for all first order changes. we can integrate by parts (AB t AB) and not worry about surface term. So let us derive the equation of motion for a general L. Hence We call dL/% the conjugate momentum r.The first term can be integrated exactly.8). .
and x + x. For a free particle.3 Action principle for a relativistic free particle We now consider relativity. Therefore. f The . the choice is much more limited. So think of Figures 13 as spacetime diagrams. so there is no dependence on x..e. The reason is that A S is invariant. but with two differences: Because of Lorentz invariance. (b) There is no dependence on t. i. If the particle is free. It is no longer so natural to use L. Choice of action Consider a single particle of mass m. Conceptually. and multiplying S by an overall constant does not change which path gives the least action. we can focus on a small segment Ax" (Figure 3). . Ax"Ax. < 0. So this constant is a matter of convention. (a) Because of the additivity assumption. I we double a small interval.8.sign must be inserted because AxpAx. A point is now denoted as xp and the segment in Figure 3 is Ax" = (At. it is better to deal directly with the invariant quantity AS. (d) Additivity implies linearity. every position is equivalent. (e) The proportionality const ant does not matter. but At is not. this is the only term. moving in 3 dimensions. A S can only depend on the product AxpAx. We now try to repeat the arguments in section 2. Since the segment represents a possible path. it must be timelike.. A S must be doubled. (c) By Lorentz invariance. but start with a free particle. Ax). So L = AS/ At is not invariant. < 0. Hence A S depends only on Ax". IAtl> IAxl.
1I). From the is EulerLagrange equation (8. With the Lagrangian. we then get dt We see that the relativistic momentum emerges very naturally. Equation of motion: noncovariant approach Let us divide and multiply by dt: We know that S is invariant. But now we have written it in a way which is not explicitly covariant . .We shall next discuss how to deal with such an object.13). because of (8. where v = x So the conjugate momentum .~r exactly the same as the mechanical momentum p.2. we can immediately apply the result of section 8.
The boundary conditions are Now consider a change . we shall not deal with the latter. In using a path parameter. and express x = x(t)_. For simplicity. we use t as the independent variable. O<s<l The path parameter has no physical meaning. For example we can have t = s+0.3s2 x = sin xs y = cosxs z = o . the four components of x' have the same status.v = v(t) etc. this does not impose any real restrictions.13) as We assume all paths are labelled on the interval [sl. we then write (8. With a pathparameter s. 0 < S' <1 x = sin ~ ( s l ) ~ y = coS?r(~')~ z = o It describes exactly the same path. but simply with different labelling. so such a different treatment of one compooent is not elegant. there are really two types of invariance that needs to be preserved: 0 Lorentz invariance (plus any other invariance of the dynamics). However.Equation of motion: covariant approach In the noncovariant approach. s2]. Because of the freedom to relabel.3(s')~ . and let x p = x'(s). we can let s = sI2 t = + 0. For example. and 0 Invariance mder relabelling such as s + s'. A better approach is to use an arbitrary path parameter s as the independent variable.
label each point on the path by the proper time r elapsed along that path. Then dx" . Also call %(s) = 6xp(s) Thus the equation of motion is As indicated.Note that we have used different dummy variables in the different products.22) simplifies to I ' T = proper time .20) to discard the integrated term. . this is valid for any path parameter s. Integrate by parts and use (8.dx.1 ds ds and (8. T h e equation of motion becomes simpler if we choose s to be the proper time interval: 1 any s In other words.
4 Action principle for a particle in the electromagnetic field Choice of action We assume that there is a kvector field Ap(x).(x)Axp where q is a constant. which describes electromagnetism. Since the form is not covariant anyway. but it does not correspond to electromagnetism empirically.(x) is to be evaluated at xu = (t. let us separate the time and space components in the second term. Ap = (4. (b) For a small segment of path. (We could ask: what sort of theory would be obtained if there is some 4scalar field? It would indeed be a simpler theory.25) is written as f Ldt.A) .x). We further assume that Ap enters linearly. Hence Equation of motion: noncovariant approach I S in (8. ASI is linear in A ' linear in Axp (additivity assumption) e a Cscalar The only possibility is ASI = qA. then Note that A.. which will turn out to be the charge. ie. (a) We assume the effect is to add a term to S. where the interaction term depends on Ap.8.) We now construct the action step by step.
The EulerLagrange equation is dt a Mi .. The conjugate momentum will turn out to be diEerent from the mechanical momentum. at ax. d x .)+ q v j ( a A j dAi) ax. and choosing s = r =proper time . But first note: L # KEPE. Thus from (8. . showing that the latter is not general.21). . axj where Thus the somewhat odd looking Lorentz force law comes naturally from the very simple term SI= q J A .We can now use the standard techniques to derive the EulerLagrange equation. where So is the same as for the free particle case. Equation of motion: covariant approach Now we rederive the equation of motion using an explicitly covariant approach.
6~. and Here '= dlds.~"AP)k.29) and (8. upon choosing s = T .30) Hence which is the Lorentz force law in covariant form. this is equivalent to = (PA" . or. and discarding the integrated term. 13 ..Secondly.. ' = d / d ~ Hence Combine (8. Under a variation The change is Upon integrating by parts.
since s is general. In contrast. we must go back to the first line. 8. we have to refer to E and B (or Ap) at an arbitrary spacetime point. we write the particle label in ( ) so as not to confuse with a spacetime index. we can always rescale one of the paths. can be changed to x. the two paths in Figure 4. we only need to be concerned with E and B at the position of the particle. (b) The action of a group of free particles is therefore We allow a different path parameter for each particle. But this is not possible if all paths are labelled by the proper time to start with. Combine d3xdt + d4x Then . in actual calculations. Insert a factor 6 3 ( . (c) The interaction term is now However we can also rewrite it in the following way. This is possible if they are labelled by s . since we have assumed that the range of s is the same for all paths. Also. e. whether or not there is a particle at that point.x(~))@x 1 ~ = Insert a factor bra) t (dxral/dt)dt With the J3(x . Can we set s + T from the beginning? The answer is no.. the argument of A. when we were concerned with only the Lorentz force law. we now let xra) = spacetime position of particle a x" = general spacetime position The reason is that when we talk about Maxwell's equation.)).A technical note We put s (a general path parameter) + T (proper time) only after the variation. Instead. The second form is a shorthand only.x(.5 Act ion principle for Maxwell's equation Overview and notation (a) Previously we used x" to refer to the spacetime position of a particle.g.
change x +x(.36) are equivalent. Hence The two forms (8. give the Maxwell equations. Choice of action Let us now try to guess the action SF. this will lead to linear equations. since So does not depend on the fields. are not gaugeinvariant (PA" Note that the + a"AP)(apAv+ a"Ap) &) (A ApA. The second form is more convenient when we want to vary Afl(x) at an arbitrary spacetime point. The first form is more convenient when we want to vary the particle paths. following quantities.36).But (See (7. since SF does not depend on the particle positions. then A" can only enter through F'. We shall derive this in the rest of this section. We have already derived this. In general + + The first [ ] comes from So and SI. although at that time we did not include the label a. This assumption is based on the principle of superposition. I t should The second [ ] comes from SI and SF. (a) We assume it is quadratic in A'. (b) We assume there is gauge invariance.Ap(x) + AD(x) SAP(x) must be zero. the first order variation when changing xra)(sa) + xra)(sa) 6xra)(sa).34) and (8. for example. It gives the Lorentz force law for particle a. (d) We now want to add a third term which depends only on the fields: SF = SF[Ap(x)] Then For this to be a minimum.)). .35) and (7.
and it does not change anything. (a) The unit of S is [energy][time]=Js. We can see this as follows. This unit has nothing to do with electricity. (b) A term in Sr goes as Ldt. changing the value of Ic corresponds to changing units.(c) It must be a 4scalar. we have to change all 4 components of the potential. and only reflects a choice of units for electromagnetism. a2k Therefore. If we choose to measure q in Coulombs. J. i. $+al4 (c) Of course. .e. for This means qq5 must have the unit of energy. L = KEPE. 4 This can be compensated by k . say esu [q1[q5] = esu x J esu' In other words. so (d) Under such a transformation FPYFp. we can choose to measure q in some other units. the choice of k has no physical meaning.2 ~ p " ~ P . The only choice is proportional to So let us assume I I The constant k will be specified later. then [q][$] = C x J C' However. This is readily seen from S = example. to preserve Lorentz invariance. we can make a transformation q+a!l. Choice of units In fact.. a .
A simpler example We shall be concerned with performing a variation on a field variable A p ( x ) . V6d . Figure 5 The electrostatic potential #(x) is prescribed on S: There are no charges in V. let us first consider a simpler example. To introduce such an idea. Consider a region of space V bounded by a surface S. We now show that this also follows from minimizing the energy Let be the correct solution. What is 4(x) in V? We know the solution is subject to the boundary condition. and consider a small variation 6U = Now consider the identity /y d 3 x v 4 .
then (8. 0 Change sign.Put this into (8. In this case (Vd) .45) has to be zero for any 64. Hence 4 satisfying . 4 is the correct solution. This is really the same as the familiar integration by parts The rule is a Move the derivative to "the other" factor.V1(6$) This is zero because 64 = 0 on the surface. + surface term + surface term = 0. and hence '7'4 Derivation of Maxwell's equation Figure 6 . so there is no variation on the surface. In other words. ( V 6 0 = .43) The first term has the form (Gauss' theorem) = {d~.[V (VC)]64 If / udv =  / du v . we only consider those the boundary condition.
The term So does not matter if we vary only A.pu = JV 4k Compare with (7. S2.apSAV aV6Ap) = 4F.44). G(FpVFpu) 2FpUSFpV = = 2Fp.(.4 ~ 4k Note that in these units .. 1 = .i. This will allow us to discard the integrated surface terms. The integral is over a region of spacetime bounded by two timelike surfaces Sl and S2(Figure 6). hence Interchange p t .e.. The values of Ap(x) are specified on Sl.  v and interchange upper/lower indices 1 a..aVSAP = 4(aY Fpu)SAp surface term + because of symmetry This has to vanish for all SAP.
tex. January 22.Summary 0 All of electromagnetism is contained in 0 This form is obviously Lorentz invariant. 1998 . Ch82.
Figure 1 The field E is a property of the region of space. under the iduence of gravity g. The ratio is q N m unit of force unit of inertia Free fall Now consider objects in free fall. But the different drops have different ratios of qlm. (Figure 2).9 9. it is the same for every drop.1 Gravity as Spacetime CurvatureAn Introduction Principle of equivalence Millikan oil drop experiment Consider doing a Millikan oil drop experiment (no gravity. no viscosity). e. They will accelerate. Figure 2 We have . oil drops. where there is an electric field E (Figure 1). So they accelerate differently. Oil drops of mass m and charge q are introduced into the space between two capacitors.g.
But convention we take it to be 1. All objects accelerate at exactly the same rate during free fall. e. Energy gravitates Each atom (N 1 GeV rest mass per nucleon) contains of its rest mass as nuclear binding energy (..The factor rn on the left comes from Newton's second law. The ratio m.) This means rng/miis a universal constant. Since mg/mi is unity to an accuracy of 1012. The factor m on the right comes from the law of gravitation F = G M m / R 2 = m g . = gravitational mass If the ratio of mg/m. measures the unit of force. and to an accuracy of at least 1 part in 1012 nowadays.= 1 is not an accident. There is no reason why they should be the same. It measures inertia.g. this means that . (This was known to a few percent at the time of Galileo.is different for different objects. and about o its rest mass as electrostatic binding f energy (N 10 eV per nucleon. 13. In other words.6 eV for H). = inertial mass m. it is like q in ( .1 MeV per nucleon). all objects accelerate at the same rate. Postulate The starting point of general relativity is that mg/rn. So let us denote them as m. therefore we believe it is exactly 1. ) and 91. then they would accelerate at different rates. We omit the experimental determinaiion of this fact. /mi = exactly for all objects. Yet it is well known that in free fall.
The situation is observed by two people: (a) This observer thinks there is gravity. but the floor accelerates up.Energy gravitates the same way as "ordinary" matter. and 1012/108 lW4 This is known to an accuracy of 1012/103 for electrostatic energy. (iii). The immediate consequence is that even light (photons) will exert a gravitational force and will also be affected by an external gravitational force. and the observer accelerating with g'. We believe it to be exact. there is no way to tell the two situations apart. so the ball travels in a straight line. The principle of equivalence states that it is impossible to distinguish between a uniform gravitational field g'. For an observer inside the boxes. the floor will rise and hit the LLfloating" objects. but the box is accelerating upwards. In Figure 3b. Figure 3b shows another enclosed box not subject to gravity. (b) This observer thinks there is no gravity. . with an acceleration a = g. all at the same acceleration g. (ii). Principle of equivalence  Figure 3 Figure 3a shows an enclosed box in a gravitational field g. so the ball travels in a parabola. An example Figure 4 illustrates the trajectory of a ball at three instants (i). Various objects are falling down. lo' for nuclear energy.
In fact. (iii) the ball is on the floor again. by observation inside the boxes. it is not possible to tell (a) and (b) apart.Both observers agree that (i) the ball is on the floor. (ii) the ball is a distance h above the floor. (ii) (iii) Figure 4 .
fdling under theinfluence of gravity and no other force). (If the field is nonuniform. not the acceleration of the mass m. (b) Imagine a freelyfalling observer (i. every mass m is subject to a ' pseudoforce F. It can be transformed away by going to a freely falling observer.2 iio = $. According to the falling observer: Total "forcen on mass m = gravitational force pseudoforce = mg' (mZo) + + Ifthe observer is freely falling. Then all other objects would appear not to be accelerating. e. and this vanishes. . and therefore there appears to be no gravitational force.Other ways of stating equivalence principle There are two other ways of stating the equivalence principle. a uniform gravitational field is in a sense not "real".. then 9... Gravitational redshift From the above. This statement is easily understood by reference to Figure 3. If the observer has an acceleration tio. a nearby ball feels a stronger field.e.e. There is another way of expIaining this result. Therefore it is relatively easy to understand. i. We use the symbol Zo to emphasize that it is the acceleration of the observer. the physics appears to be the same as if there is a gravitational field g = Zo.) This statement is related to "weightlessness". A freely falling observer cannot detect a uniform gravitational field. An important phenomenon in this regard is the gravitational redshift.g. then of course it can be detected. = mij = mZo 4 ..
I 9 Figure 5 We wish to ask the following question: A photon of frequency w is emitted at z = 0 and "climbs" t o z = h. then gh + @ = gravitational potentid . the work done is Hence the energy at the top is This must be related to the frequency at the top as Ew' = E' = fiw(1. What would be the frequency w' observed at the upper position? Wegive two arguments. Using work done The photon at z = 0 has an energy and hence a "massn In climbing to height h.g h / ~ 2 ) w' = w ( l .gh/c2) More generally. if g is not uniform.
This argument relies on the principle of equivalence: it assumes that photons ("pure electromagnetic energy") gravitates in the same way as ordinary matter. we have used the "uncorrected" rn. The reason is that in calculating the work done. (Moreover.Also we work in units where c = 1 So. these Newtonian ideas are not valid to high order. the frequency is lowered . Note that /@I << 1. in "climbing up".a redshift. A typical example might be Even for the field of the earth from ground level to infinity The above argument is only correct to first order in @.) Using Lorentz transformation t=t Figure 6 .
The two balls are initially separated by Az(0). Now. put this approximate answer back into the right hand side of (97) 2nd term ( 1 / 2 ) ~ ( h / c ) ~ 1gh 1 . Suppose there is no gravitational field. I£ this is the case To check whether (1/2)9t2 is really negligible. k) is a 4vector. it is indeed correct to neglect (1/2)9t2. by the time the photon is received. as shown in Figure 7b. Since Jc = w / c Since we deal with IPI < 1 giving the same result as before. The photon has travelled h + f gt2 in a time t. The gravitational redshift has indeed been verified in the laboratory.= @ lst term h 2 c2 2 Provided 1@ 1 < 1. 9. and remembering that kp = (w. Both balls will decelerate: . and after some time. the separation remains the same: Aa(t) = Aa(0). Then the emission of the photon (t = 0) and its reception (t = t) would be as shown in Figure 6. Note that the correction is typically one part in 1014 or 1015. rising the Lorentz transformation. the observer is already travelling at a speed N N Therefore. and the experiment is extremely difficult. The at graphs are parallel straight lines.The second argument relies on the principle of equivalence in a more explicit way: Replace the gravitational field g by an upward acceleration of the box. Then both balls move uniformly. so d =h 1 +p t 2 We claim (1/2)gt2 is negligible. Next suppose there is a u n i f o m gravitational field g. Wehaveassumedthat the box initially had zero velocity.3 Tidal gravitational force Let us imagine throwing two balls upwards (Figure 7a).
it is impossible to distinguish this situation from an accelerating observer without gravity. Finally. The trajectories in Figure 7d are not parallel.The trajectories would be as shown in Figure 7c. According to the principle of equivalence. The lower ball experiences a stronger field. as shown in Figure 7d. Figure 7 9 . except for a moving observer. So in a sense. the separation remains the same Az(t) = Az(0). but still parallel. The separation Az(t) increases: Az(t) > Az(0). and its trajectory will bend more. suppose there is a nonuniform gravitationalfield. After time t. The paths are curved. there is no intrinsic difference from Figure 7b. such a s near the surface of the earth.
In short A uniform gravitational field is equivalent to an accelerating observer. Refer to Figure 8 and imagine the shaded sphere (solid earth) rotating. (b) The strength of the effect due to the sun would be GMS where Ms = mass of sun. every point on earth would come across H once and L once. R : R. (a) The earth rotates once a day. there is one high tide every 12 hours (approximately). Likewise the effect due to the moon is GMm R : where Mm = mass of moon. There are two problems with this explanation. = distance to sun. The paradox of tides sun Figure 8 Let us look at a naive explanation of tides (Figure 8). = distance to moon. In fact. The opposite side forms low tide L. Thus there should be one high tide every 24 hours. and cannot be transformed away.e. independent of observer. the difference in g'between one point and another point) cannot be eliminated in such a way: it is a "realn effect. In each rotation. The inhomogeneous part of the gravitational field is called the tidal gravitational field.. The sun attracts the water on the near side.high tide H. forming a bulge . and also can be eliminated by transforming to an accelerating observer. but the oval (the oceans) not moving. It must be attributed to the gravitational field. . An inhomogeneous gravitational field (i. The reason for this name is explained below. the lunar effect is stronger. R. The ratio is But in fact.The final situation is not equivalent to an accelerating observer. The fact that the two balls move apart is an objective fact.
(b) For an observer falling with the elevator..80.e.Before we give the correct explanation. i. what would he say about the direction and the magnitude of the "gravitational" force? The correct explanation for tides is similar. Now look at the total "force" in this freelyfalling frame. Problem 1 A very tall elevator is undergoing free fall downwards. (a) What is the net force pseudoforce experienced by a mass m at the three points A. B and + C? Pay attention to the directions. However: the whole elevator falls at an acceleration given by the strength felt by the centerofmass. and is illustrated in Figure 9. feels g = 9. and R is determined by the distance from the sun or moon to the center of the earth B. The total "force" on a mass gravitational force + pseudo force GMm (R (R + r)2 + (mall) + r)2 R2 GMm GMm . with an acceleration I This is the centripetal acceleration of circular motion. being farther from the center of the earth. at 9. Because the elevator is tall.80. the bottom of the elevator A feels g = 9. sun or moon e Figure 9 The earth is freely falling towards the sun (or moon). the top of the elevator C.79.81 (all in units of m s . it is useful to consider a simple analogy.. different parts experience different strengths of gravity: the middle of the elevator B feels g = 9.~ ) .
So the ratio of the solar effect to the lunar effed is This explains why the lunar tide is stronger. in the gravitational field are called tidal gravitational forces. or inhomogeneities. Figure 10 (a) We see there are two bulges.1 I)..GMm R2 ( E) =2. So in each day. + 9. which is best represented (e. (c) From (9.GMm .4 Curvature To summarize the discussion so far: A uniform gravitational field does not matter. Figure 7d) by the divergence or convergence or lines which "should ben parallel.G M m R3 T We have taken the direction towards the sun as positive.10). so this is away from the sun. For the point A.not GM/R2. and meets two high tides. What remains is the tidal gravitational force. we see that the entire effect is due to the diflerence in gravitational force at two positions.g. .[ ( l +) . Thus high tides are 12 hours apart. R2 M 2 . every point on earth rotates once. (b) From (9. we simply change r + r GMm r ForceA = 2  R3 which is towards the sun. we see that the effect goes as GM/R3. R and R r . Thus differences. it can be transformed away by the principle of equivdence.
So how do we explain the convergence or divergence of lines that "should be" parallel? Note that we are referring to lines on a spacetime diagram.. Thus the principle of equivalence allows the spacetime explanation. This is possible because all lines that start together (i. the zt plane in Figure 7d. = m. and in fact makes the spacetime explanation natural.e. so all particles (so long as they are at the same point) will experience the same acceleration. e. on the yx plane (Figure 12). this happens because m. the acceleration is proportional to qlm. electric forces. 0 We can say that it is due to the underlying spacetime curvature. even when they start off parallel. e. In this case. we cannot blame the effect on the underlying spacetime. t (a) Gravity (b) Electrostatics Figure 11 Spatial analogy The central theme is Figure 7d .. The whole idea of general relativity is to adopt the second approach. .two Eries on the zt plane diverge. So particles lines that start together will in generai diverge (Figure l l b ) . which is different for different particles. There are two ways: 0 We can say there is a gravitational force (or more precisely different gravitational forces) acting on the particles. If this is the case.g. let us look at a spatial analogy...g. Note that this would not be possible for other forces. To make the introduction of curvature more natural. i ( 0 ) ) will always keep together (Figure lla). same z(0).
Y Ax' C * a A C 4 5 Ax Figure 12 Two persons are on the xaxis. along y. the situation would be very like Figure 7d: two lines which "should be" parallel have diverged.we would have Ax' = Ax. Their new separation Ax' would be larger. through the same distance. Let two persons start at these points. as shown in Figure 13. What is their separation Ax'? "Normallyn. separated by Ax. consider the surface of the earth. Choose the xaxis to the east and yaxis to the north. They move in the perpendicular direction. However. this comes about because of Euclid's axiom on flat space: parallel lines maintain their separation. Figure 13 If we draw this on a plane (Figure 14). and again move by the same distance. 14 . and two points on the same latitude (say 30°S).
Obviously the second explanation is better. 1997 . is curved.e.. a The xy "plane" is curved. In the next few chapters. In exactly the same way. spacetime. Ch92.Figure 14 There are two "explanations" for this phenomena: There are "forcesn acting on these persons.tex. we shall develop the necessary mathematical apparatus to handle curved spacetime. i. December 30. we try to explain Figure 7d by saying that the zt plane.
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0 The points are labeled by N coordinates (xl. 0 The distance between neighboring points is given by Pythagoras' theorem We "usually" think of our space as E3. the surface of a sphere is locally like a Zdimensional plane E2. we need to develop some mathematical concepts. .. .Chapter 13 0 differentiation . . + + We 'usually" think of spacetime as M3v1.. Nomenclature We start with two familiar concepts: Euclidean space and Minkowski space. For this purpose. I: The Metric Introduction The last Chapter provided physical motivation for describing spacetime as curved.Chapter 14 0 curvature .this Chapter 0 vectors . dimensions (to be denoted as MN1N 2 ) has the following properties. Minkowski space Minkowski space of (Nl .1 Mathematics of Curved Space. with the squares of the first Nl coordinates appearing with signs. we to shall avoid it since the curved object in question is often spacetime. .sN). Therefore we shall use a more formal term: a manifald M is a set of points which is locally like an Euclidean space or a Minkowski space (Figure 1).SO a sphere is a 2dimensional manifold.Chapter 15 These concepts together form the basis of differential geometry. Euclidean space Euclidean space of N dimensions (to be denoted as EN)has the following properties. .signs. The distance between neighboring points is given by a generalization of Pythagoras' theorem. namely 0 distance and metric .&).xN). For example. and the squares of the last N2 coordinates appearing with .10 10. t The points are labeled by N = Nl N2 coordinates (xl. Mathematicians sometimes use the generic term LLspace'' refer to a curved object.
We see that S2(a) is really a part of E3. it is very easy to describe anything on S2(a). This is called the embedding approach . This is called the intrinsic approach. To do so./ like flat space Figure 1 Example Consider the 2dimensional surface of a sphere of radius a. in order to get a more intuitive picture.. and are independent of the extra dimensions. 0 Ride in an airplane and fly above the earth. as people did many centwies ago. 0 Stay on the surface. There are many ways of embedding it in higher dimensional Minkowski space. 0 We shall use the embedding approach in intermediate steps. and in terms of this define N coordinates. However. Since we know the geometry of E3.e. denoted collectively as . 0 But in the end we aim for expressions that do not involve the extra dimensions or the embedding. 10. As a compromise we shall do the following. we need to label the points on the manifold M. i. the actualmanifold M we are concerned with is 4dimensional spacetime. we shall also refer to ants living on the surface of a balI. So we must make sure that our results only depend on properties on M. The intrinsic approach is more difficult: people many centuries ago could not easily tell that the earth is round. the results will be intrinsic. Embedding view vs intrinsic view We can describe the surface of the earth in two ways.the manifold A4 = S2(a) is embedded in E3. to be denoted as S2(a). draw a coordinate patch on M (Figure 2). all the extra dimensions are fictitious and meaningless.2 Coordinates First. We can think of this as the earth.
4) (Figure 3b). and use rectangular coordinates (xl. y) (Figure 3a). coordinate indices cannot be lowered. . In this case. 0 The same manifold M can be described by different coordinates. x2) = (I. and an important issue is how to ensure that the physics is independent of coordinates. Example Bl Take the same manifold as in Example A l . Examples Example A1 Let M be 2dimensional Euclidean space E2. 0 The coordinates are described by upper indices. in fact the different components can have different units.. x1 and x2 have different units. 0 Do not think of x as a vector.Figure 2 The following properties will become clear through the examples below. but use polar coordinates (xl. x2) = ( r . There will be no such thing as X I etc. this will be explained in detail in the next Chapter. 0 The coordinates need not have the unit of length.
4). x2) = (r. For each latitude. For this.6) .and take the north pole (8 = 0) as the origin. 4. (h).latitude 4 = longitude Imagine ants living on a small region of linear dimension L << a near the north pole.. in which (Figure 4a) 8 = 90".5) The latitude is labeled by r rather than by 8. space would appear to be nearly flat. Thus. In this limit. Again. l Ezample C Take the manifold M to be S2(a).The two examples describe the same thing. we go on to the next example. The relationship between Example C1 and Example Dl can be seen from Figure 4b: r is the radius measured through the plane containing the latitude. and the ants would "normally" describe space by either Example A1 using coordinates z. which is different from the linear transformations considered in the early part of the course. Use the same coordinate patch of latitudes and longitudes as before. or simply a + oo. define circumference = 27rr (10.e. S2(a). The relationship between r and 8 is r = asin8 (10. the coordinates are (xl. Ezample Dl Take the same manifold as in the previous example. or Example B1 using coordinates r. each kmgitude is labeled by 4. and the relationship between the coordinates is This is an example of a general coordinate transformation. mathematically we can say L/a + 0. i. It is therefore convenient to cast Example y C1 in a form such that the limiting case becomes apparent.and use polar coordinates (0.
3 Distances and curvature . What is the advantage of Example D l over Example CL? In Example Dl. 4) and Q = (r dr.) Thus in these coordinates. see (10.w. This is the same as the case of flat 2dimensional space in Example B1. in particular the property that Example Dl approaches Example B1 when a .$ d4). which also uses one length r and one angle 4. we have + + (In all such formulas. we use one length r and one angle 4.1).We note two properties. 0 Rather. But here we first introduce the main ideas by means of an example. We shall later see more clearly the connection between the two. so using Pythagoras' theorem.16) below.. in fact. through comparing Example B and Example D.qualitative discussion The central theme of differential geometry is: 0 We can tell curvature from the distances on a manifold M. and the brackets will be dropped whenever there is no danger of confusion. 10. These two distances are perpendicular. All distances can be built up from a knowledge of infinitesimal distances between neighboring points. The radial distance is dr. Hence r is called the circumferential radius. In the next few Chapters we shall develop this concept mathematically and generally. Refer to Figure 5. . . etc. distances are not given by the simple formula in (10. dr2 means (dr)'. it is defined in terms of the circumference. 0 The same definition can be made for any space that has rotational symmetry about one axis. Examples Example B2 We continue with Example 3 and try to write down the distance ds between the point 1 P = (r. 0 The parameter r is not the distance s from the origin (measured along M). and the tangential distance is r dgi.
the distance is r d4 = a sin 8 dq5. where a is the radius of the sphere. the two distances aTe perpendicular. Again. Refer to Figure 6.Figure 5 Example C2 In this case. which corresponds to the longitude changing by A4 = 27r. so + + Figure 6 6 . we first notice that the length of the latitude is 27rr = 27rasin8. The distance along the northsouth direction is ad8. To calculate the distance in the eastwest direction. 4 d4). So for a small longitude change d4. we want to find the distance between the point P = (8.d) and Q = (8 do.
determine f . Let us fist do it graphically in a general way.e.Example D2 In this case. this derivation is valid for any surface that has rotational symmetry about one axis. The eastwest distance is the same as before: To find the northsouth distance.10) and (10. rather than 0 and 4. Measure the circumference of each circle (i. and denoting f ( r ) = h ( ~ )we . For any such surface. .. If f is always unity. but not equal.e. If f is not unity. refer to Figure 7. The two are proportional for infinitesimal displacements. but in terms of the coordinates r and 4.11). find the differencein circumferences and determine dr.11) Figure 7 In fact. Measure the perpendicular distance between these circles. From this. we want to describe the same distance as in Example C2. Combining (10. the ants living on it can make the following measurements on the surface. intrinsically. the space is flat. and hence determine the parameter r. a For two neighboring circles. and determine whether the surface is curved..have ~ (10. i. the set of points equidistant from the origin). the space is curved. whereas the perpendicular distance ds2 is measured along the surface. The parameter r can be considered to be the radii of the circles projected onto a plane. so ds2 = hdr where h = h(r).
Find the radius of the sphere. if the ants on this sphere started their mathematical education with Euclidean geometry. Example C makes it obvious that we are taking about a sphere .Formula for a sphere We now derive the formula for f ( r ) in the case of a spherical surface. In particular. Problem 1 Some ants live on a 2dimensional surface which they know to be spherical. 0 Example D is more convenient because we see that the distance reduces to Example B when a + oo. both properties are important. which will be important later on. They measure the circumferences of two nearby concentric circles to be and the perpendicular distance between these two concentric circles is found to be 0. . This is one reason why we often need to transform between different coordinate systems.6).001 000 200 km. In the end. it is much easier for them to think in terms of one radius r and one polar angle 4. From (10.11) is J and consequently w Thus the distance formula can be written as Let us compare the two choices of coordinates for the surface of a sphere.all points are equivalent. we have dr = acosOdO Hence the perpendicular distance ds2 in (10.11) is dsz = ad8 = cos 6 dr Hence the factor h ( r ) in (10.
0 The u axis is horizontal. we show that the Riemannian expression for distance is the most general one if the manifold is obtained by embedding in a higherdimensional flat space. U Figure 8 Refer to Figure 8. To emphasize this point. In the next two Sections. we now give an example which contains a cross term. are the variables. b. Although such is often the case when there is a high degree of symmetry. while a. 7 are constants. In this Section. 1 . this is not a general property. Riemannian geometry 04 Riemannian geometry is the study of manifolds on which ds2 is given by a quadratic expression of the displacements dxp. The transformation to rectangular coordinates is given by Note that (u. A l the examples discussed belong to this category. v x2) Problem 2 Find ds2 in terms of du and dv. ) = (xl. 0 The v axis is inclined at an angle 7 to the horizontal (7 # 7r/2).This example shows that Curvature can be determined intrinsically on a manifold M by measuring distances. The coordinate grid consists of the following. Example E2 All the examples given above lead to expressions for ds2 which do not contain cross terms. and marked with grids at a constant separation b. and marked with grids at a constant separation a. l we generalize these examples and give the general expression for the distance. .
+ +g N N d ~ N d ~ N Note that we have broken up the two terms associated with B. Once the metric tensor is given. Problem 3 Write out g. Thus In shorthand we then have We shall later come across many formulas involving many indices. without reference to the "extra" dimensions of the embedding. We see that the line element reduces to the case of special relativity if g.". diagonal matrix. we write the above in the schematic form Line element and metric The whole subject of differential geometry begins with the quadratic expression (10. but may depend on position. These coefficients together . many formulas in general relativity can be obtained by the reverse replacement T~~ + 9.Consider two neighboring points P and Q. ie. 4 vPv. In fact. and it can be confusing when you first see them. (We have not yet explained what is a tensor. The coefficients g are by definition symmetric.where the latter is the constant. So to start this habit. with coordinates The distance ds between these two points is given by a quadratic expression ds2 = Adxldxl +~ ( d x l d +~ x dx2dx1)$ (10.18) where the coefficients A. this will be done in Chapter 13. the geometry of the manifold has been specified intrinsically. B. the indices can always be worked out quite simply or by reference to a book. Let us write this more systematically. B are not constants.) Relation with special relativity Compare with the distance expression in special relativity. ds2 = g l l d ~ l d ~ lg 1 2 d ~ 1 d ~g22 1 d ~ 2 d ~ 1 + + . form the metric tensor. D and E.20) called the line element... Note that B is defined so that it multiplies two offdiagonal terms. It is important to concentrate on the overall structure and forget the indices. .. for each of Example A. C.
z). we put the radius last. and give explicit expressions for AYs. we give the formalism in general. we have introduced ax a0 ax (10. . (We denote the radial coordinate by R. We now show that this must be the case if the manifold is em%edcledin a higherdimensional flat space.) In the last Section. Step 1 We start with Euclidean space in 3 dimensions.22). to distinguish from r in Example D2. in the next Section. In this Section.) The rectangular coordinates are related to these by Step 3 In view of (10.4. The distance is Step 2 Introduce polar coordinates (8. y .5 General method applied to the sphere (This Section may be skipped in the first reading. we postulated that ds2 is given by a quadratic expression in dxp.24) Problem 4 Write down similar expressions for dy and dz. etc. R ) .10. for reasons that will be apparent later. Also. we have the differentials. we show this for the special case of the surface of a sphere. and denote the coordinates as (x. Both Sections may be skipped if you are willing to accept the postulate for the time being.23)  3 Axe = RcosBcosg5 Az4 = RsinBsin$ a4 dx  aR EE AxR = sin B cos 4 (10. for example dx = (R cos 19cos 4)dB + (8 sin 0 sin +)d4 + (sin B cos 4)dR = AxedO + Ax4d4 + AxRdR For later convenience.
Thus there could in principle be terms proportional to de2. and l R2 ds2 = ~ ' d f ? ~ sin20d42 + + dR2 (10.9) on the sphere. but using polar coordinates.step 4 Put these expressions into (10.25) This still describes flat Euclidean space E3. we consider another example as an exercise. all we need to do is to set R = a = constant dR = 0 Then (10. Note that we have dropped all terms that involve dR from the very beginning. The result will be a quadratic expression in the 3 differentials do. Because the final result must be a quadratic in de and d4. In the next Section. it turns out that a l the cross terms cancel (this is not a general property). Step 6 The expression for the distance can be written in a way that is easier to generalize.25) becomes This is then the distance expression (10. But as a warmup. . we shall deal with this problem in general. we have in the final form defined the coefficients as gee and go4 etc. dR. the space is still flat. In this case.dBd#. There are only two coordinates left. Step 5 To reduce to the surface of a sphere of radius a. Problem 5 Derive the above expression for ds2. because on a sphere R is constant. d#. using the coordinates of Example C2. etc.21). One poht should be noticed immediately: although the line element is not of Pythagoras form.
general discussion (This Section may be skipped in the first reading. . . we have denoted the partial derivatives as .xM).zM). (10. In particular.+ (fi M )2 Step 2 Introduce new coordinates (XI.31) = + . Go through the above steps and find the distance expression on the spheroid. 10. Step 1 We start with Euclidean space in M dimensions. . the formula for the distance contains cross terms involving da dr. . and denote the coordinates as The distance is ds2 (zl.) Now we can develop the above method for the general case.32).. Every step below is the exact counterpart of the corresponding step in the last Section. d. Also note that before we set a = 1. set b = a and try to recover the result of Example D2.6 Expression for distance .Problem 6 A spheroid is defined by Introduce a general set of coordinates r. we have the differentials For later convenience. The rectangular coordinates are related to these by Step 3 In view of (10. a by The spheroid is given by a = 1.
35) becomes ... the summation convention will be used on the Greek indices. xp = cp = constant dxp = 0 Then (10. there could be terms proportional to (dxl)l.g.M (10.. e. From now on. This still describes flat Euclidean space EM. alll we need to do is to set the last M .M coordinates are set to the given constant values in evaluating these expressions.. the dimensionality of the manifold M: Step 6 The expression for the coefficients can now be written as follows.. and (b) the values of the last N . .36) . dx1dx2.step 4 Put these expressions into (10.v=o The only differences are that (a) the sums go only up to N rather than M.. and the indices are understood to go up to N. .31). new coordinates. etc. we can write such a quadratic expression as  which defines the coefficients g. Most generally. p= N+1.dxM. .N coordinates t o constants.but using the Step 5 To reduce to the surface of the manifold M. The result will be a quadratic expression in the differentials dxl.
and (c) isotropic. go back to the case of the sphere S2(a). . The last two conditions are very stringent.. an example of offdiagonal g. we see that Although most of the examples we deal with in this course have diagonal g.40) allows offdiagonal g. Then some signs have to be changed in (10. 0 It is 3dimensional.7 Homogeneous manifolds In the next Chapter we shall deal with cosmology. We take Cdimensional Euclidean space E4.By comparison with (10. but otherwise the results (including (10. Now the generalization is obvious. all directions are equivalent.. We should also mention one minor generalization: in some cases (including all cases referring to spacetime). as well. 0 It is homogeneous: all points P are equivalent. This has been described in Examples C and D. and there are only three possibilities. Closed manifold If a Zdimensional manifold is (a) closed.24). can be seen from Example E2.24) and in a few subsequent places.38). Problem 7 In order to understand the abstract notation.. In the rest of this Chapter.. 0 It is isotropic: fIom a given point P. We take 3dimensional Euclidean space E3. it is necessary to embed not in Euclidean space but in Minkowski space .40) to obtain the explicit expressions for g. the general expression (10. 10. Cosmological models of space have the following properties. and substitute these results into (10.otherwise there is no way to have ds2 < 0. The only remaining degree of freedom is the radius a of the sphere.e. In fact. The only remaining degree of freedom is the radius a of the sphere. then there is only one possibility. and (c) isotropic..38) without any sign changes) remain valid. (b) homogeneous.. which we describe below.. (b) homogeneous. Again there is only one possibility. Calculate all the transformation coefficients Ai. forget time for the moment. In cosmology we need to first describe space by itself. and in it embed the surface of a 2dimensional sphere S2(a). we give some examples of metrics that are important in general relativity. We need a 3dimensional manifold that is (a) closed. as in (10. i. and in it embed the surface of a 3dimensional sphere S3(a).
41) if we set a = oo. or (b) one length r and two angles 8. F l a t manifold An even simpler possibility is flat 3dimensional space.because in the limit a + oo.16).the surface of a large sphere is nearly flat. so again. 0 It is not immediately obvious that this manifold is homogeneous and isotropic. because (10..To describe points on S3(a). The line element in polar coordinates is which is the same as (10. so the manifold is curved. but this property becones apparent when we realize that this is the surface of a sphere.e. i. r is the circumferential radius. which gives the third possibility. we can write both of these cases as where k = a2 > 0 for the closed manifold. it clearly reduces to flat bdimensional space. This is not surprising . Open manifold If k = Ik(. and k = 0 for the flat manifold. 0 But the radial separation is not dr.. By analogy with (10. In fact. it is easy to see that the line element is I 1 We note the following features. But this property is easily proved by showing that this is S3(a). ie. The latter is closer to our Uusualnthinking . associated B with d and d#). This clearly shows that the latter is a limiting case of the former. we can either use (a) three angles. .e. the singularity could be a singularity of the coordinate system.4. we can put kr2 = +lklr2 + ( r / ~ ) Then the metric is ~. This argument is not a proof.41) suggests that there is a maximum value of r. r = a. 0 The parameter r sets the scale for all distances in the tangential directions (i. the "usual" E3 that we learn about in high school Euclidean geometry. 0 One can guess that the manifold is finite and closed.. This then suggests that the case k < 0 should also be possible.
so that it will "inheritn most of the relevant properties.e. i. 0.we again recover the flat manifold. To anticipate this development.. it is often better to concentrate on the ratio r / a . we have introduced an arbitrary length parameter a.+ sin' 0 dip') Note that in the case of the flat manibld. we introduce the new coordmate r" = ria. 1 to denote the three cases. i.The embedding description of this manifold is a little complicated. and put the line element as 1 dsY = 1 . We introduce the parameter K = +I. it is simpler to regard this as the "continuationn of the previous two cases. which does not matter since it appears only in a term multiplied by I< = 0. a increasing with time. the manifold is infinite and open. f flat open I closed Figure 9 Uniform treatment It is convenient to write the three cases in one unified way. However. The parameter a in all cases will be called the scale parameter. because we need to start with a Minkowski space. r will increase together with a. we have .e. The positions of the galaxies will expands with it. I a = oo. This manifold is again homogeneous and isotropic. The situation is illustrated in Figure 9. But (10.. We shall later deal with an expanding universe. which should be constant.44) shows that there is no limit to the value of T . In terms of this. For this reason.I<(r/a)2 + r* (do.
is where the first term describes the time elapsed. Here G is Newton's gravitational constant. we shall at least describe some of the properties.e.g. Because the space is homogeneous. now on a Cdimensional manifold. there could be expansion or contraction. this reduces back to the Minkowski metric we studied in the earlier part of this course.8 Other examples Schwarzschild metric Example G2 In electromagnetism. In general relativity. (This is a heuristic statement. . i. We shall simply write down the metric here. we have to add two ingredients. but essentially correct .which is also valid outside any spherical distribution of mass. outside a star. the corresponding situation is the gravitational field or metric generated by a point mass M . the simplest situation is the field generated by a point charge q . There is an additional coordinate... the only effect now is that the spatial part may be curved. Although we do not give the derivation here.so that the line element becomes which has the advantage that the scale parameter a is factored out. RobertsonWalker metric Example F2 To go to the description of spacetime in cosmo!ogy. All the next Chapter will be devoted to discussing how a ( t ) varies. If K = 0. So the line element. e.which is also valid outside any spherical distribution of charge. 10.) 0 The scale parameter a depends on t. namely "time" t . the derivation of this metric (and indeed also of the RobertsonWalker metric) will be given in Chapter 16. the time elapsed is the same in all places.
we should get the weak field case.G M / r . Since f ( r ) # 1. clocks move faster or slower in different places . This is discussed below. (expressed without dimensions). The meaning is as follows. Consider a test particle of mass rn at a distance r from a star of mass M. we do not get (10.e. But in fact. The last two terms involving d0 and d# measure tangential distances. I f we reduce (10. and is applicable in the solar system. + ChlO2. The departure from flat Minkowski space is given by the ratio E r GMIr. and estimate the order of magnitude of cf. The radial separation is not dr. The f i s t term is not simply dt2.50).Far away ( r + oo).48) to first order in a. and R = r . spacetime is almost %at. + Problem 9 Show that the Schwarzschild metric reduces to (10.a consequence of gravitational redshift. if we do this naively (i. this approaches flat Minkowski space. It has a similar structure as (10.G M . E = Weak fields Example H2 If the gravitational field is weak. We have Potential energy = GMm/r Rest energy = mc2 = m Hence we see magnitude of PE rest energy When this ratio is very small. the proper time elapsed is not the same in all places. In other words. identify r as the circumferential radius. or close to earth.12).tex. This form is valid to first order in @. which is often convenient. Ifwe increase t by 1 unit. the appropriate line element is where the spatial part has been written in rectangular coordinates. assuming r2 = x2 $ Y 2 z2). and as usual.50) to first order if we identify x2 y2 $ z2 E R2. January 5. space is curved. It can be shown that in this case. Consider the Schwarzschild metric and identify @ = . 1998 . and use Newtonian mechanics. Problem 8 Consider the earth as a test particle in the field of the sun. we should be able to describe the situation entirely in terms of the Newtonian potential @ (such that m@is the potential energy of a test particle of mass m).. but with a specific form of f (r).
.
Distance scales We first give a rough idea of the distance scales.5 x lo1' distance to sun I distance to closest stars 1 3 x 1016 1 1 x lo8 L size of galaxy loz1 3 x 1012 loz4 3 x loi5 distant clusters "size of universe" loz6 1 3 x 1017 1 I I 1 1 0 0 0 We shall talk about features averaged over distances large compared to the size of galaxies. because these concepts were too tentative. The "size of the universe" (more appropriately the Hubble distance to be defined below) is about loz6 m 1010 light years. say loz3 m lo7 light years. and is especially Cosmology studies the universe in th concerned with two questions. The corresponding characteristic time is 10'' years (10 Gyr) or 3 x 1017 s. recent advances have made these ideas much more reliable.11 Poor Man's Cosmology (Earlier versions of this Chapter dealt with the classical model of cosmology without a cosmologicd constant or the idea of idation. this Chapter has been totally rewritten in 2001 to reflect the new understanding. this includes the history (e. the origin and age of the universe) and the future. large compared to the separation between galaxies. i.g. in order to bring students taking even this introductory course dose to the frontier of research.e. eraged over large distances. 1) indicating the topology (spatially closed.) 11.0.  Limitations of present approach This Chapter gives an introduction to cosmology using minimum mathematics and without the full apparatus of general relativity . I I L i n m I Tr. 0 The temporal development is described by the t dependence of a(t). The spatial structure of the universe is characterized by two parameters: (a) a discrete parameter (K = 1. ..1 Introduction The problem of cosmology ge. All numbers given below are ordersofmagnitude only. in fact.. To each characteristic distance L we also associate a typical time TL = Llc. flat.the "poor man's" approach. (b) a continuous parameter a indicating the "size of the universe". in s 3 x 10l9 at om lo1o 6 x lo' 2 human being 2x10' radius of earth 6 x106 5 x lo2 1. Accordingly. open). However.
When the equation of motion is integrated once. .2 Observational evidence: Homogeneity and expansion Isotropy If we observe the universe in the large (beyond the local cluster). Here the dots schematically represent galaxies. we believe in the principle of cosmology: Our position is not special. We simply state this result ( a d discuss its significance).0 0 Although spacetime is described by Einstein's equations. The universe looks the same in all directions . We need ooe result from general relativity: K t is the same as the constant K describing the spatial structure. It turns out that vacuum may generate an additional effect with two peculiar features: (a) it is repulsive. we caa use mostly Newtonian ideas. by focusing on a small volume of space. T i effect is hs known as the cosmological constant A. 11. but the situation in Figure l b is not allowed. Figure 1 Principle of cosmology Although we can observe the universe only from one point P. and (b) the density p' is constant as the universe expands.it is isotropic. the constant of integration K' is like the total energy in onedimensional motion. This gives correctly the effect of the gravity of matter. and sometimes in the popular press as dark energy (not to be confused with dark matter). but the derivation will have to wait till Chapter 16. These two effects the attraction of matter and the repulsion of vacuum determine the acceleration. Thus the situation in Figure l a is allowed.
. *  4 *. so Although H is called a constant. . . see Figure 3 (the Hubble diagram). a # . . '. . . .. .  I ... . . Expansion .. . * * . . .. Figure 2 Homogeneity So isotropy together with the principle of cosmology implies that every point is equivalent: e The universe is homogeneous. ' .. ' .Therefore the universe must also be isotropic when viewed from any other point Q. :p/. . ' d * . ... : 1 ' I . ' .. . . but only the former is isotropic from all other points Q as well. .Hubble's constant By the 1930s. . . but the situation in Figure 2b is not allowed . observations have shown that all galaxies are moving away from us... . Moreover.. . .. . Thus .. . . actually it may change with time. . The unit of H is [velocity]/ [distance] = [time]'. their velocities v are proportional to their distances s from us (Hubble's law).. . . . . . Figure 3 only shows what we obtain now .. .it could have a different slope a billion years ago (see below).. ... .* . . '.. . . . . . ..  * * . for nearby galaxies. .: . Thus where H is Hubble's constant. Thus the situation in Figure 2a is allowed. .. .. . It is convenient to define T r Hl. . . . ....both are isotropic from P. . . ' . .. ... .. . . .. = . b ' .
Thus. Find v. The most important "standard candles" until recently are Cepheid variable stars.' . the conventional unit of H is km sl M ~ C . where z is defined by c.00 x lo'* W m'. 0 Velocities are expressed in km sl and distances in Mpc (1 pc = 3. the slower they pulsate. Astronomers do things slightly differently in two trivial respects. These stars pulsate. the larger they are.] (b) For galaxy A. We adopt the convention that now is t=O and all quantities at t=O are denoted with a subscript 0: H(t=O) E Ho. So the observed period in the variation of light intensity can be used to infer the absolute luminosity. estimate Ho and To Hi1. Figure 3 We next indicate how distances. velocities m d Ho are determined observationally. assuming L is fixed). Problem 3 Using the above data. they plot the redshift parameter z (closely related to the velocity v) versus the apparent magnitude m (cx log 1 or logs. . and its absolute luminosity (energy W (a "standard candle"). [Hint: 1 = L/4xs2. find an expression for the redshift Here A. is the wavelength of an optical line when emitted and X is the redshifted wavelength that is received.26 light years).45 x apparent luminosity (energy received on earth per unit time per unit area) is measured to be 1 = 1.1.] Problem 2 (a) If a galaxy is receding from us at a velocity v << parameter z in terms of v / c . Problem 1 A certain galaxy A is known to be of the brightest type. the redshift is measured to be z = 0. [Hint: the angular frequency and the wave number form a $vector. 0 Instead of Figure 3. and also the brighter they are.H = H(t) and T = T(t). Find its distance s from us. Its emitted per unit time) can be assumed to be L = 1.
Scientific American. with retarding force kv. Decades of improvement have resulted in estimates of 50 . Astrophysical Journal. (a) Show that the equation of motion is (b) Hence show that the velocity and position of particle i at time t are given by (7= k/m) (c) Compare diflerent particles at the same time ..edu/ApJ/journal/issues/ApJ/v553nl/524l7/524l7.way too high. Freedman e al. as illustrated by the following analogy. Thus.. i.. and the characteristic length scale is the Hubble distance Lo = cTo. To E 14 Gyr (11. 11.journals.e. recent measurements1 v 3 i 4*5 have pinned it down to f 10%: Ho E 70 km sI M~C' .sciam. the motion is not uniform.plot v.March (1998) 5http://www. Problem 5 A collection of beads i = 1:2.com. we shall use the above value without quoting ranges around it. against s. at fixed time t.The earliest estimates by Hubble in the 1930s gave Ho of about 500 units . evaluate To from Ho.uchicago. 533. Changing H . However. Show that the plot is a straight line.gov/astrophy/9801080 4W.e. i. and express H in terms of 7 'W.lanl. where v is the velocity and k is the same for all the beads. Freedman. L..specialissues/0398cosmos/O398freedman. Using these scales. all relevant physical quantities can be expressed in dimensionless parameters.Analogy Although s = u T . However.3 Kinematics In this Section we discuss the kinematics. the description of how various quantities change with time.web. but to keep this introductory account simple.100 units. . L.html . many of which we shall discuss below..pdf 3http://xxx. H = v / s is independent of i. The parameter Hosets the scale for all quantities in cosmology. Astronomical measurements come with considerable mcertainties. still a factoroftwo uncertainty. the initial velocities of the beads are different. all have the same mass m and are projected to travel horizontally in the same viscous medium. 47 (2001) t 2http://www. the characteristic time scale is the Hubble time To = Hi1.3) Problem 4 As a simple exercise in the conversion of units.
where Zi = K/V is independent of time. The open case ( K = 1) is like the surface of a saddle. we stand at one point on the piece of paper. To generate such a surface. then T is more (less) than the age of the system. 1. To do so. only three types of spatial structure are allowed. namely. For simplicity. (However this description is not exactly right. since not all points of a saddle are equivalent . and down along the yaxis. Is T = H' the same as the "age" of the system? (d) Compare the situation at di8erent times. Think of. which is just the radius of the sphere. Show graphically that if there is deceleration (acceleration).Zdimensional space. introduce an arbitrary velocity scale V (say the mean value of Show that the distance and the velocity can be written as x). if we draw a circle of radius r l . all points are equivalent. Such a surface is characterized by a radius of curvature a. With this analogy.l . we give a qualitative discussion of the spatial structure. and the universal scale parameter is independent of i. the circumference is exactly 2 ~ 7 . The closed case (IC = 1) is like the surface of a sphere. Sketch a(t) versus t. flat or open. we stand at one point on the piece of paper. The flat case (IC = 0) is like a flat piece of paper.and t. On the sketch of a(t) versus t.0. Does s cc v indicate uniform motion? Explain.) . and bend the paper up along the xaxis. draw the tangent at the time t and relate T = Hl to the horizontal intercept. On such a flat piece of paper. If we take a crosssection along either axis.unless we embed the surface not in 3dimensional Euclidean space but in 3dimensional space with a Minkowskilike metric. see Chapter 10. Spatial s t r u c t u r e Because we believe the universe to be homogeneous..e. we can now consider the problem of cosmological expansion. Does this graph indicate uniform motion? (e) Show that H(t) = a(t)/a(t). we reduce to an analogy in one lower dimension . To generate a spherical surface. corresponding to K = 1. To make this Chapter selfcontained. there is a radius of curvature a. i. a(t) as a dispIacement. and bend the paper down in all directions. closed. The circumference of a circle is less than 27rrL. The circumference of a circIe is more than 2xrl. and focus attention on a universal scale factor.
Scale parameter Consider a flat spatial structure as an example. and to r" in Chapter 10.ime. So draw a spatial coordinate grid that also expands with the universe (Figure 4). and physical quantities must be independent of the arbitrary scale B. so a = a(t). (a) In Problem 5. a can be one grid.16). Let one grid (or any fixed number of grids) be a. Thus we have the freedom a(t) t Ba(t). The reduced coordinate is analogous to 5 in Problem 5. (b) In the present discussion. notice that there is an arbitrary multipiicative constant in a(t). We shall fix the scale only when we come to (11. . etc. this changes with t. It remains to consider the evolution of a single function a(t) .the scale factor of the universe. Figure 4 However. or two grids. Since all lengths expand together The galaxies are "stuck" onto the coordinate grid. Space (or a Zdimensional analog) is like a sheet of rubber that is being stretched. the velocity scale V is arbitrary. D' stances r can be expressed as T = fa(t) and the statement that galaxies are %tuck" to the coordinate grid means that The reduced coordinates ? are independent of time. All distances are magnified by the same ratio as time increases.
then the expansion accelerates. the expansion goes on forever. (Curve 2) a If gravity is weak. (Curve 3) a If for any reason there is net repulsion. the distances si to galaxy i and the corresponding velocities vi are given by (compare Problem 5) From this we obtain two definitions of H.eventually back to a point. (Curve 1) In the marginal case. the possible behavior of a(t) is shown schematically in Fi. (Curve 4) Figure 5 Hubble constant Figure 6 Because of (11.me 5. gravity slows the expansion to zero rate eventually.4).General form As the universe expands. namely . the expansion will have a maximum and the universe ultimately contracts . a If gravity is very strong.
8) Note that q can change with time. t = 0. In which case is T larger? In which case is H larger? (b) To be more quantitative. Problem 6 Let q = aaman.1) or Figure 3. In particular. (c) Suppose that present measurements give T(0) = 14. in principle.0 Gyr. (a) By requiring q to be dimensionless. and allows H to be determined from data at one time.1 Gyr ago. Deceleration p a r a m e t e r Until recently. So conventionally we talk about the deceleration a. T(At) = 13.e. it allows H to be determined from the time T = HI illustrated in Figure 6 . Problem 7 (a) In Figure 6.where u 0 The first of these is just the same as the observational evidence in (11. but not 4)) because gravity is attractive. This is illustrated in the next problem. determine r and n. . the tangent is drawn for the "present". 1 Determination from t h e data: Conceptual definition Conceptually. The second relates H to the evolution of a(t). n (E) Show that the freedom in scaling a(t) I+ Ba(t) does not change q. cases 1 to 3. and the present value is denoted as qo. and an earlier civilization on earth left a record that 0. prove that Thus. it was believed that the expansion is decelerating (i. or better yet the dimensionless deceleration parameter q defined by P I q =  (11.8 Gyr.. we can determine H(t) for all past times and hence aiso the deceleration. Estimate qo. q can be determined if we know H in the past. Assume there are no errors in the data. Draw another tangent at an earlier time t = At.
for the nearest galaxies) gives the present value Ho . A test particle m at the edge of this part of space (Figure 8) satisfies . But first we need a model of the dynamics. then the earlier data would have a larger slope. so we assume a form of a ( t ) (and hence of H ( t ) ) with a few parameters. Because there are other minor complications arising from the propagation of light in an expanding universe. in p~actice does not plot s versus v but magnitude versus redshift z one (or Inz). For example. with i: << 1. 0 In particular. Figure 7 The modern methodology is more refined: Measuring the slope for every part of the Hubble diagram in principle gives H for all times in the past. but from the theoretical line corresponding to q = 0. Therefore the slope for the distant part of the Hubble diagram gives H in the past. if H was larger in the past. 11. within a distance r = r'a(t) of the origin. Assume all particles are L L s t ~ to k n coordinate grid.e.. Such a small part ~ the of a curved surface is nearly flat. So the deviation of the Hubble diagram upwards or downwards determines q. so ? is independent of time. 0 0 0 Light from distant galaxies was emitted a long time ago. So the deviation does not refer to the deviation from a straight line. Moreover. and fit the Hubble diagram to determine these parameters. and Newtonian concepts apply. this is too difficult.4 Dynamics Newtonian formalism Consider a small part of space. In practice. We give a much simplified and qualitative account of the actud determination of deceleration. e The slope of the Hubble diagram ( v versus s) gives H. the slope near s = 0 (i. the Hcbble diagram is not strictly linear even if there is no deceleration. as shown in an exaggerated w2y in Figure 7.Actual determination But we do not have past records.
p decreases inversely as the volume: In the earlier history of the universe (when radiation dominates). and should not appear in the final result. we find that ? cancels: Thus we get an equation for the scale parameter a(t) without reference to f . For this reason. This should be expected . Figure 8 Vacuum repulsion However. But using r = r"a(t). and p is the density. Here we have assumed as usual that all the mass inside acts as if it is concentrated at the origin and all the mass outside has no effect. Einstein's equations allow aoother effect: Vacuum contains another density p1 which repels. this would not be true.r" is an arbitrary choice. .10) becomes instead Matter domination As the universe expands. with a "gravitational" constant GI.where M ( r ) is the total mass inside this small part. instead p would then scale as la)^.12) is called the assumption of matter domination (as opposed to radiation domination). (11. where r" is independent of time. Thus (11.
e. two grid.15). the latter is like a spring with the opposite sign.11) then gives This can be thought of as the Newtonian equation of motion for a unit mass.vacuum does not get "thinned" as the universe expands.15) gives (11. wavelengths expand proportionately .e. etc. Henceforth we define a not to be any scale factor. Thus p' = constant and we d e h e the cosmological constant A = 4. Cosmological constant On the other hand. show that differentiating (11.16) with respect to time gives (11. equivalently and more simply. then p = ( no. photons).15) and (11. in the sense that the spatial metric is (see Chapter 10) . i. the density p' has always has the same value .. Or. Equation of motion Putting (11. The conservation of energy then leads to The second and third terms on the left are the potential energy and 11"/2 is the total energy. Problem 9 Show that integrating (11. But K' cannot have a simple meaning if a is arbitrary. subject to an attractive inversesquare force oc a2 and a repulsive Hookian force oc +a. and have no meaning.13) As the universe expands. Result f r o m general relativity Both (11. of photons / vol x 7iw (11. Hence derive the property that p = po(ao/a)4 for radiation.14) The individual factors G' and p' are introduced only for a heuristic discussion.16). but the "size" of the universe. a being one grid.Problem 8 If the density p is due to radiation (i..the nodes of an electromagnetic wave axe also stuck to the coordinate grid.rrG1p' (11.16) are valid for any definition of the scale factor a.12) and (11.l4) in (11.
. i. Choose the present size of the universe as the unit of length. then a is just the radius of the sphere. If I< = 1 (topology is like a saddle). Note that I< gives the spatial structure whereas I<' affects the temporal development.The physical interpretation is simplest when K = $1 (topology is the surface of a sphere). Simplifying the equations We now simplify the acceleration equation (11. even though it is still correct (see below). Incidentally the scale of a remains undefined (and unimportant) for K = 0.16) as follows.e. a key result from general relativity: The constant K' is exactly the same as the constant I<. without proof. then a is the radius of curvature. define the dimensionless size variable Choose the present Hubble time as the unit of time. and in fact .e..15) and the velocity equation (11.20) are to be chosen so that these two equations take the simple form as above. Now we quote. Henceforth write I< instead of Kt. define the dimensionless time variable Define dimensionless const ants Then the two equations can be written as The omitted proportionality constants in (11. this is now no longer important. general relativity relates the two. however. i. namely the distance where the curvature becomes significant. This used to be an important result. accoding to current understanding.
We need two pieces of input to determine their values. it causes acceleration. We can write a similar one for any other time.25) explains why we chose the constants in this particular way. Interpretation of t h e constants From now on we refer to RM. Next consider its magnitude (irrelevant in the case K = 0). So it is necessary to have some physical interpretation of these dimensionless constants. flK relates to the spatial structure.25).21) . and it is conventional to represent all possibilities on the OMflAplane. OM gives the amount of "normal" gravitational attraction due to matter. Ra. there are only two independent constants. We have .25) refers to the present.23). The latter have simply evolved from the "originaln ones. To do so. First consider the sign of OK. space is closed.flA(r*)and OK(r*)rather than the present ones. Problem 11 Show that (a) dR(r=O)/dr = 1. inflation (see below). go back to (11. K. flat or open according to whether OK is negative.22) and note that the LHS is (H/Ho)2. (11.21) and (11. Since OK cx K.22) and (11. it causes deceleration. e. (b) (1/R)dlR/dr2 = (H/Ho)2q in general and (c) (1/R)d2 R(r=0)/dr2 = go. OK instead of Gpo.g. OA gives the amount of repulsion due to the cosmological constant. Moving this factor to the other side. Hence. Therefore eventually we should try to explain the values flM(r*). we get  We should imagine that these parameters were "set" as initial conditions at a very early time r * by other processes. (11. The key equation (11. zero or positive. evaluating at the present.22) become The simple form of (11. Because of (11.Problem 10 Derive (11. as explained below.A..
where M is the solar mass and r is the distance of the earth to the sun. as explained separately in the next three Sections. except for two purposes: 0 The luminous contribution as in (11. then this tells us the percentage of matter in the universe that is dark.29) InK  kg rn3 . A topic of current research interest is: what is the nature of the dark matter. The new effect is G'p'r. T h e mass p a r a m e t e r Previously.The age of the universe is to  To. then most of the universe is visible. Can we search for its effect in other situations? Consider the example of the earth in orbit around the sun.. it was increasingly recognized that there is a lot of dark matter in the universe . 0 If we have another way of determining f l M .e. Thus age of universe size of universe But light from any galaxy farther than do would not reach us. this would give O M . people tried to obtain iIM by "counting" the arnoxnt of matter. and this small part will appear as nearly flat.30) gives a lower bound to f l M . Thus. T h e big question The big question in observational cosmology is: What are the values of these parameters? It turns out that our belief has gone through three main stages.1 (11. This method gives approximately (with very large errors) po laK  O KI ( size of visible universe size of universe (11. but in the 1970s and 1980s.30) Much effort went into refining the estimate. "counting" is now abandoned. flM N 0.which would be missed in any cccountingy'. Together with Ho. i. and how far they are from us (using the Hubble relationship). The ratio is . Thus 1 1. po. 1 AU. Vie can estimate the mass of galaxies.and the size of the universe is ao. and how is it distributed in the universe? O t h e r effects of t h e cosmological constant The cosmological constant A describes a new type of "gravitational" interaction. note this increases with the size of the system because the density rather than the mass is constant. Thus we know the density of matter in the universe. The "normal" gravitational effect is GM/r2. then only a small part of the If universe is visible. If I << 1.
5 The belief in the 1920s Steady state When Einstein first proposed the general theory of relativity in the 1 9 2 0 ~ ~was not known it that galaxies are moving away from us. see below).  _ 11. Thus Einstein concluded that a there is a significant positive cosmological constant.25) give Thus and in fact all three are of order unity. p Dividing these equations we get Ratio N kg rnW3 103 kg m3 Thus the cosmological constant cannot be detected in small systems.24) and (11.25) is (daldt)' in such dimensionless units. and we cannot use Ho = 0 to set the scale in the definition of OM.where p. then H = v / s = 0. Value of the parameters However. Hence (11. po p. we need to be careful on one technical point. If all velocities were zero. The L H S of (11. therefore it should be 0 instead of 1. . we take Ho to be some arbitrary scale. an. People thought that the universe was in a steady state. so  Ratio = G'p'r NG'p'r3 GM/r2 GM G' p' G. we shall see later that that O M and On are the same order (why this should be the case is a separate issue. On the other hand. OK. and a the spatial structure of the universe is closed. Rather. say Ho = (10 Gyr)l. = M/(47ra3/3) loe3 kg m3 is the effective density of the solar system if we imagine the mass to be distributed uniformly within 1 AU. Therefore both the acceleration and the velocity are zero.
so that the density of matter remains the same. it is misleading: there was never any "explosion". The contraction would end up in a "point": t h e universe must have begun by expanding from a tiny volume and a huge density . 11. Any deviations from an unstable equilibrium will grow rapidly. because we now believe that (a) the universe is expanding. as we "reverse the movie". it is unlikely that the universe remains static in a position of unstable equilibrium. (Although the name is now established. but (b) A # 0. matter is created. Eubble observed the recession of galaxies and established Hubble's law (Figure 3). for a long time.16) as the conservation of energy. He said that he should have believed in simplicity and dropped A. the idea of an expanding universe was so contrary t o entrenched belief that. Big bang If the universe is expanding. The terms associated with OM and are the potential energy V(a). then he could have predicted that the universe expands.In retrospect the steadystate model is unlikely. but expanding. When Einstein learnt of this result. I Cosmic microwave background More importantly. This shows that the universe is not static. and we go back in time ("reverse the movie"). as the .) However. Then. He was only partially correct. he said that including A was the biggest mistake he ever made. becomes very hot.) The time from the big bang to now is the age of the universe. skeptics engaged in a series of rearguard action. Could these be gravitational redshifts instead? But it is difficult t o understand why gravitational redshifts would be correlated with distance.the big bang. The amount and spectrum of blackbody radiation at these early times are determined by the temperature alone. Sketch V(a) and state whether this is a stable equilibrium. (See the next Section. He claimed that as the universe expands. Problem 12 Refer to (11. then a is at an equilibrium position: VJ(a) = 0. If there is no acceleration. before it was discovered by Hubble. 0 Some questioned whether the observed redshifts were due to the Doppler effect. Hoyle and others tried to reconcile expansion with a steadystate universe. Of course the cosmological model is only approximate. the universe is getting compressed and like a gas. This theory of continuous creation ran into so many difficulties that eventually it was given up. then the universe would contract.6 The belief i the 1960s n Expansion observed In the 1930s. with a lot of blackbody radiation.
24) and (11. where p. the spectrum peaks at a wavelength of 2 mm. the radiation cools . and it was therefore difficult to see how much the curve bends. Therefore much effort went into the estimation of qo. it was also assumed (actually on no solid evidence) that StA = 0. q > 112 (the universe is o observed to be decelerating at a sufficient rake). The second equation tells us that the universe is spatially closed (aK< 0) if and only if !IM > 1 (there is "sufficient" mass in the universe). The best that could be said was which was not very helpful in settling whether qo > 112. In the 1960s. Why should there be such identical radiation coming from everywhere in space unless the various parts of space were once in close contact (more about this later)? This discovery and its interpretation killed the steadystate models and established the bigbang model. in terms of G and Ho. or equivalently. At this temperature. the critical value qo = 112 can be understood from a purely Newtonian example (which of course does not contain the cosmological constant).) . Its temperature was found to be about 3 K. Give an expression for p.. such radiation was discovered (entirely by accident). so the phenonemon is now called the cosmic microwave background ( C M B ) .73 K. and give the numerical value based on Ho = 70 units. now it has been determined with great accuracy to b e 2.universe expands. So there should be scme cool (temperature a few kelvin) blackbody radiation left in the universe today. Problem 13 Throw a ball of mass m upwards from the earth. is the critical mass density to make the universe closed. N Value of the parameters The key equations (11. so qo came from comparing the slopes in two nearby portions of the Hubble diagram. (However this result is valid only if CIA = 0.36) has the simple interpretation "acceleration = gravitational force". Problem 14 Show that StM can be written as po/p. therefore the critical density is no longer much referred to. The estimate was poor because only relatively nearby galaxies could be measured. namely in the microwave range. Define q in the same way as before.but cannot disappear. Denote the distance from the centre of the earth as a . Incidentally.25) then become The first relation (11. Show that the ball will escape if and only if q < 112.
73 K). a district (say 1 km x 1 km). this gives N . Overall. incidentally this gives a good measurement of our absolute velocity. We can transform to a frame to remove this effect. and for all practical purposes can be taken to be exactly zero. all that we can see) has a highly uniform temperature. if the chart shows ATIT < it must be the chart of a tiny portion of HK. 0 Most of this is due to our absolute motion in the universe: the motion blueshifts (increases T )the radiation in front and redshifts (decreases T) the radiation from the back. or in other words. ATIT lW3. 0 There is net repulsion and thus the expansion is accelerating. There are however tiny inhomogeneities ATIT. and can be characterized by a temperature T (x 2. But i t seems definite that On is nonzero and positive. But the mystery is: why are the mogeneity is A T I T < fluctuations so small.7 The belief in the 21st century Value of the parameters Current belief can be summarized by It is believed that Q K is very very small. the remaining inhodue to thermal fluctuations. we conclude that it must be a tiny portion of the whole universe. or even a tiny part of a room (say 1 mm x 1 mm). a street (say 100 m x 100 m).11. probably as small as 1 mm x 1 mm. The qualitative conclusions are as follows. Referring to (11. We shall next explain the evidence for these beliefs. 0 The universe is nearly flat ( a K m 0).1.) Since all of the visibile universe (i..and the size of the universe at the time when the CMB was emitted by matter. Homogeneity problem (Horizon problem) The CMB coming from any direction in space is a blackbody spectrum. we have to estimate the distance that effects can propagate . (To make this vgument more precise. why is the CMB so homogeneous? The problem and its resolution can be explained heuristically by an analogy. 0 The universe will therefore expand forever. The uncertainties in flM and ahare at least 0. 9 The cosmological constant is more important than "normal" gravity. Suppose you are given a temperature chart (without scale factor) of a part of HK: it could be nearly all of HK (say 10 km x 10 km). There must be a relation between ATIT and the scale .the horizon .in particular. and also some of the consequences. 0 In the new frame (at rest with respect to the universe as a whole).29). all the way down to a part of a room (say 1 m x 1 m).e. The reason is that we expect the thermal processes that homogenize the temperature to operate only on small scales.
Quantum field theory suggests that inflation probably occurred from s to . This ratio is many orders of magnitude smaller still. Then the appropriate equation to look at is (11. and it is very large. (b) flat (K = 0). We note that (11. and we would have to explain this very very small number E(T*). However. As a ratio. Spatial structure no longer important A major question of the 1960s was the spatial structure of the universe: Is the universe (a) cbsed ( K = I). negative or exactly zero. Flatness problem The universe is nearly flat in the sense that OK is small.22) only give the size relative to the present. or (c) open ( K = I). Inflat ion Both the homogeneity problem and the flatness problem have to do with: Why is the size of the universe so large (compared to its age)? The currently accepted solution is that the universe at an early stage went through a short period of very rapid (in fact exponential) expansion.25) can be interpreted as three contributions to the KE (the LHS). We may as well assume it to be flat. The actual size must be multiplied by the scale (11. but its magnitude is so small that it does not matter whether it is positive.21) and (11. the evolution is governed by O K . First. from the spatial point of view.This is called the flatness problem.Size of the universe This in turn means that the size of the universe is A more stringent bound will be given later. whether it is a sphere.41). of which the curvature term KtK is by far the smallest. in fact the time T* when these parameters were "set". flat or a saddle. we can only see a tiny part of the surface (the visible universe). like a saddle with a radius of curvature ao? However. Second. we are (reducing the dimension by 1 for a simple analogy) like ants living on the surface of 2dimensional surface.26) and the relevant ratio is where R = R(r*) << 1. from the temporal point of view. But we can make a similar analysis at an earlier time T. (11. We may as well take it to be exactly zero. Then we cannot tell (and do not care about) the sign of the curvature. like the surface of a sphere of radius ao. More precisely. this question now becomes essentially irrelevant. called inflation.
In fact. in particular the angular distribution roughly speaking telling us how tightly correlated in space are the fluctuations.lanl.) In any event.de Bernardis et al. The physics of inflation cannot be discussed beyond this superficial level without quaztturn field theory. the measured pattern of fluctuations can be used to fit the parameter values.the deceleration i parameter q or something equivalent. Nature 404.. so that matter and radiation were in the universe was much smaller (R contact. in an increasingly sophisticated fashion.~ Notice that CMB has contributed in three stages to cosmology. Corroboration It may come as a surprise that the universe is (very nearly) flat.perhaps we do not need to learn so much Riemannian geometry if space is flat! (But spacetime is not flat. Recently. The density fluctuations at that time can be calculated using our knowledge of the properties of the matter at that time (a plasma). The extraordinary isotropy of CMB shows that the visible universe is a small part of the whole universe. 955 (2000) 8http://~. The very existence of CMB suggests a big bang.lanl.gov/astroph/OO05124 . OK is so small that we shall take it to be exactly zero. It gives OK x 0 with a high ~onfidence. different parameter values lead to different patterns of fluctuations seen today. it may be a bit of a disappointment . we have to trace back to the time when and denser.s after the beginning of the universe. Thus i d a t i o n supplies the initial condition that a starts off very very large and OK is very very small..gov/astroph/0005004 ghttp://xxx.e. July 2000 7P. How did the fluctuations come about? For this. these lead to predicted fluctuations in CMB. In fact. N (aM. and the size of the universe to be effectively infinite. 171819110 Supernova observations With OK = 0.lanl. the redshifts and distances of another group of "standard candles" .gov/astroph/0005123 10http://xxx. a time in the past when the universe was small and hot.a class 6Physics Today. and during this time the linear size of the universe increased by at least a factor ~ 1 (making E ( T~ lo'' 0 ~ ) immediately after infiation). How these then propagate to us now can be traced by solving for the evolution of photons in the universe with parameters fin). we still need one more piece of data to fx the parameters . Turning this around. is there other evidence that OK w O ? Here we come back to CMB and look at the tiny temperature fluctuations ATIT. The details of the tiny fluctuations of CMB provides information on the way the universe is structured and the way it has expanded since the CMB was created. leading to the theory of idation. i.
3 .51 (1998) 12http://xxx. because this quantity is directly measured. Recall that wavelengths scale by l+z. I This means there must be a repulsive force. Recall that wavelengths scale as l+z.have been carefully measured. together with the size of the universe.and this is one of the technical breakthroughs). so even those at very large distances s can be observed (if one can catch them during their brief existence . OA > 0. Most of these SNs are in the range z = 0. The SN results give whereas f l K = 0 gives   llS.25). with one case as large z = 0. so these observations probe the ancient history of the universe. Thus the paper is entitled "'Discovery of a Supernova Explosion at Half the Age of the Universe and its Cosmological Implications". 0.5 for the case of the largest z.e.83. In other words we determine the LHS of (11.'' 112*13 SNS are extremely bright objects. The great surprise is that the SN data show that  The expansion is accelerating: qo < 0. i. Light from very distant objects came from a long time ago. on account of the value z.. Perlmutter et al.39).gov/astroph/9712212 13http://~~w. So the light observed originated when the universe had a size relative to the present ofl/(l+z) 0.lanl. it also follows that the age of the universe was roughly half of the present value. but to a time when the size of the universe (relative to now) is R = R. (111. in effect we determine the acceleration at the midpoint z.0. the results "provide a record of changes in the expansion rate over the past several billion years".7. Nature 391. We can give a little bit more detail.25. yielding the combination    The coefficient of f l M turns out to be 1 by accident. Remember that the curvature is related to the deceleration: the more deceleration. With data extending much further on the Hubble diagram. the more the curve bends upwards. The SN data are centered at ~ redshifts z s ~ 0. in a heuristic way. of the data. Assuming nearly uniform expansion (which is correct as an orderofmagnitude estimate).g~v/~~pern~va . So the acceleration q thus determined does not refer to the present.. Since we compare the slopes at z z s and z = 0.24) at this value of R. and the fitted parameters (assuming OK = 0) are given in (11. It is conventional to express distance and age by the redshift z. this allows the curvature of the diagram to be determined much more accurately.5.of supernovas (SNs) . As the authors of these papers say.1bl. together with the size of the universe.
then (11. In contrast. even 1 Gyr.14 113 The expansion is not always accelerating.. including the age of the universe. there was deceleration. and latest results can be obtained from severaI sources. they will no d ~ i l b be refined and updated t in the years ahead. so the proper question to ask is the relative magnitude of the analogous terms in (11. So we have to understand This is very very small and is very much of a mystery at the moment. In fact. the rise and decay of the brightness curve is timedilated by the same redshift factor l+z.7. Why these values? Although we now have a good idea of what the values of QM and flA are. Can we predict or understand them in some way? It may seem LLnatural" that Q M and RA have the same orderofmagnitude.26)) at the very early time T* when the initial conditions were set. one Although these numbers are basically right.so . Refer to (11. we do not know why. so matching thiscurve to the LLstandard" expected gives another way of determining z.e.e. the expansion is accelerating only for and before the universe got to this size. giving a very good crosscheck on the nature and intrinsic brightness of t h SN. it is found that the age of the universe is almost the same as To.39). this argument is misleading. i.24). We mention only one example.22) completely determines the evolution of the universe. RA = 0.3. We defined these parameters for convenience for now. because of the crosschecks possible. Therefore the brightness curve over time reveals the dynamics of the explosion.21) or (11. Detailed kinematics and age of universe If we take the parameters in (11. Moreover.25) look simple.. to make (11. Astronomers now regard the SN results as quite reliable. Normal stars hardly change over times of 0 1 or .39). i. There is nothing special about now.their luminosities change in days. when R was very very small. SNs have very short time scales . With the values OM = 0.and these together give the results in (11.
Age of universe is to z 14 Gyr However, the ratio to/Tois not necessarily unity.
Problem 15 ( a ) Take (11.21) with the "initial" conditions R(r=O) = 1, dR(r=O)/d~= i and integrate the equation both forward and backward numerically. Plot R versus T . (b) The size R becomes zero at some negative time TO. Give an accurate value for TO. Give the age of the universe to = H&, in Gyr. Do this problem for three sets of parameters (OM,CIA): (i) (0.0,1.0), (ii) (0.3,0.7) and (iii) (1.0,O.O). Problem 16 Another way of determining the age of the universe is to use (11.22). Show that it can be written in the form
Cixry out the integral numerically and hence find TO as well as to ili Gyr. (The integral is not singular at the lower limit, but a bit of care is needed for accurate answers.) Again do it for the three sets of parameter values.
Summary
We summarize how our understanding of cosmology has evolved since Einstein formulated the general theory of relativity. For simplicity we do not show uncertainties in the currently accepted values. 1960s
I
Present
&I
11.8
I velocity
acceleration q 1020 Gyr 1020 Glyr unimportant 14 Gyr size
.
t"__
Other issues and further reading
In this short introductory account we have omitted many topics  both aspects that are now regarded as known (but complicated and involving knowledge of other branches of physics) as
well as problems that are still open. Also we have glossed over the observational techniques that have led to the determination of the cosmological parameters. To fill in some of these gaps, we give a very brief sketch of the current belief in cosmology, in chronological order.
Quantum gravity e r a
At a time of s and before (see Problem 17 below), quantum gravity must have been important. What is quantum gravity? In classical mechanics, the position x has a definite value; in quantum mechanics, we talk about the probability amplitude $(x) instead. So similarly, in classical general relativity, the size of the universe a (more generally the metric g,,) has a definite value; in quantum gravity, we talk about the probability amplitude +(a) (or more generally $(g,,)) instead. No proper theory of quantum gravity exists at the moment  there are too many degrees of freedom and summing over them (as you would have to do in quantum perturbation theory) gives nonsense. Some attempts have been made t o get an approximation by throwing away most of the degrees of freedom, and keeping only one or two (e.g., only a). The most famous of these speculations is due to Hawking and others16 and made popular in his book A B i f History of Time. However, this book is not recommended, as it gives a totally wrong re impression about how scientists actually approach these problems. Many alternate proposals have been given, including one by Suen and Young.17 However, none of these are likely to be correct, because there are too many unknowns before we get to such early times and small sizes. Works such as these are just attempts to push our current theories as far as posssible, as a way of exploration.
Problem 17 The typical length scale lp where gravity becomes essentially quantum is called the Planck length, and the corresponding time is the Planck t i n e tp = epic. We expect lpto depend only on G, fi and c: lp= ~ " f i ~ c Find expressions for lpand tp and evaluate their values in MKS 7. units.
Inflation e r a At s to S, inflation occured. For this era, we need quantum field theory but not quantum gravity, i.e., spacetime can be regarded as classical, but all other particle degrees of freedom have to be treated like quantum fields. This is an exciting testing ground where high energy physics and cosmology intersect, but much remains open. Postinflation e r a After inflation, the development is basically known, even though details are still being finetuned. This era began at very high temperatures (lo1' K say) and densities. Everything was in thermal equilibrium, for which all qauntities can be calculated in terms of the temperature. As the universe expands and cools, protons, neutrons and eventually nuclei are formed. This
16See, e.g., J. B. Hartle and S. W.Hawking, Phys. Rev. D 28, 2960 (1983) 17W. M. Suen and K. Young, Phys. Rev. D 39, 2201 (1989)
takes places up to a time of 200 s. A very good account is given by Weinberg.18 This account of the era after inflation remains basically correct even though it was first written in 1977. Thereafter, the evolution is well described by our equations (11.24) and (11.25), except that up to 10'' S, radiation dominated. At about 1015 S, galaxies formed. The present time is about ,10l8 s or 10 Gyr. See for example Figure 28.1 in Misner, Thorne and Wheeler.lg
Further reading
For further reading, especially of recent developments, a good text is Bergstr6m and G ~ o b a r . ~ ' For historical interest in original works, there is a nice collection of reprints.21 Developments in the last few years are best found on the web, using a search engine to look for key words such as "cosmological constant". The resources include the following types: Electronic versions of original papers and preprints, for example at xxx.lnl.gov/astroph. Most of these are probably too diEcult for students in this course. 0 Electronic versions of semipopular journals such as Nature, Science, Scientific American, Physics Today. 0 There are also web pages of astronomy and cosmoIogy courses in various universities around the world. Some useful sites are given below. Nature maintains a "Science Updatesnz2, and there is a similar one at Physics Webz3 and at Lawrence Berkeley Lab2*. More general sources include Physics Toda y25 and Science News26. Survey and news can be found at27. There are pedagogical introductions to the cosmological constant28~29~30~31, work3', and the flatness problem33. the SN Many of these are crosslinked as well. With knowledge developed in this Chapter, students can begin to access much of this exciting new development,
Chll3.tex; January 8, 2002
lSS. Weinberg, T e First Three ~ i n d e s : ~ h Modern View o the Origin ofthe Universe, Basic Books (1993) f 19C.W.Misner, K. S. Thorne and J. A. Wheeler, Gravitation,Freeman (1973) ' L Bergstrom and A. Goobar, Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, Wiley (1999) O. ' E W . Kolb and M . S. Turner, T e Early Universe: Reprints, AddisonWesley(1988) l. h 22http://ww~.nature.corn/nsu 23http://physicsweb.org 24http://www.lbl.gov/ScienceArticles 25http://www.aip.org/pt 26http://~~~.sciencenews.org 27http://www.cosmologymodels.com
28http://~~~.Id.gov/abs/astroph/9807128
29http://~~Per.colorado.edu/michaele/lambda.html 30http://pancake.uchicago.edu/~carroll/encyc 31http://astron.berkeley.edu/~jcohn/chaut/references.html 32http://~~~.Ibl.gov/supernova 33http://archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/Cyberia/~osmos/~latness~roblem.html
12
12.1
Mathematics of Curved Space. 11: Vectors
Displacement vector and tangent plane
The object of this Chapter is to define and study vectors on an Ndimensional manifold M, for example the surface of a sphere of radius a: S2(a). Recall the familiar case of Euclidean space. We start with the definition of a primary vector, namely the displacement; then a l other vectors (velocity, momentum, force, electric l field, etc.) follow from it, and have the same transformation properties. We did the same thing earlier for Minkowski space in special relativity. So as before, we have to start with displacements.
"Usual" definition
On flat space, a displacement from A to B is represented by the straight line joining the two points; it is a straight arrow  the most important property of a vector (Figure la). But on a curved manifold, the displacement from A to B is not a straight arrow (Figure lb); it cannot be called a vector.
Proper definition
4
However, each small part of M is nearly flat, and infinitesimal displacements dx are vectors. They can be represented by straight arrows (Figure 2a).
Figure 2
Let the coordinates of the neighboring points be
Then the vector
d;: has components
The following points should be noted. (xl, . ,xN) is not a vector. 0 (dxl, ... , dxN) is a vector. (That is why we write the arrow over the entire combination, as in &, rather than as dz'.) The different components may have different units. For example, if we use polar coordinates x1 = t9,x2 = 4,x3 = R (see, e.g., (10.16)), then [dxl]= dimensionless, [dx3] = length. Tangent plane
In Euclidean space, say E3, the points belong to E3, and we also think of the vectors as belonging to E3. But for a curved manifold M, we should not think of vectors as belonging to M. We should think of the displacement & as belonging to the tangent plane at x, denoted as Tp(x) (Figure 2b). At a given point x, T,(x)is a flat space, like Euclidean or Minkowski space, so all vector operationscan be defined in the usual way. (We shall come to a few of these below.) But in general T,(X) T,(y). # So vectors in different tangent planes cannot be added or subtracted naively. This will be the focw of the next Chapter.
Example of a vector Consider M= S2(a) (see, e.g:, (10.20)), and
In words:
Start with the point (6,$). Move an infinitesimal distance (dB, d4). 0 This displacement is the vector. Thus the vector is specified not just by (do, dd), but also by (8,d). In physics, we need not distinguish between infinitesimal displacements and sufficiently small finite displacements. For example, we can think of the displacement from Hong Kong to Macau as a vector on the surface of the globe.
12.2
Embedding in flat space
An expression such as (12.1) becomes easier to visualize if M is embedded in a higherdimensional flat space, say of M dimensions, M > N.
Step 1: Cartesian coordinates and unit vectors Let this space be described by the cartesian coordinates
and corresponding unit vectors
~ l ?  ?u  
+N
e.g., I,
j, f
The uIlit vectors satisfy
Step 2: Change to generalized coordinates Now change to a new set of generalized coordinates
and reduce to the manifold M by setting the "extra" coordinates t o constants (e.g., see (10.26) or (10.36)) xp = cp = constant dxp = 0
In other words, any point
x = (xl,. .,zN) on M is now thought of as the corresponding point x= in the larger space.
. . xN, 'N+l.. . ,p)
Step 3: Vectors In the larger space, x itself is a vector, and we can write it as 6:
(All sums over i are from 1 to M:)Hence a small displacement is
. so from now on.The unit vector ? are constant. in terms of the underlying Cartesian basis vectors. in terms of the underlying Cartesian basis vectors. . d)) in 2d polar coordinates means precisely this. &* =a for p > N.5)) In this example. however. if the displacement stays on the manifold M. Now change to the generalized i coordinates (see (10.34)) so we have d ! = dx* (C A'. + z' = X ~ + ~ ~ + Z ~ d.$) Example B3 (Compare each step with the derivation of (12. i. In general. Example C3 (Compare each step with the derivation of (12. p = 1. the sum over p is understood to be from 1 to N only. so they are not differentiated.. = dzi+dyj = d(r cos )) d(r sin )) j = (drcos) .e.8) j + d(a cos 8) k . As before.rsin4d)) i +(dr sin 4 r cos 4 dd) j = dr (cos ) sin 4 j) +d) (r sin 4 r cos ) j) :+ + :+ + The vector dx = (dr.M. we write out a general vector on the surface of a sphere of radius a. the sum is over the dimension of the larger space. 2 = xP+yj d . define (see (10. we write out a general vector on a plane using polar coordinates. = dx 2+dy j + d r & = d(a sin 0 cos )) i + d(a sin 8 sin )) (12.33)): The index p is understood to be summed.5)) In this example.
.= (acosBcosddBasinBsin4d4) I +(a cos 6 sin 4 dB a sin 0 cos # d # ) j +(a sin 9 dB) k = dB(acosBcos#~+acosBsin~~asins k) +d$ (a sin 0 sin q5 a sin 0 cos q5 j) + :+ The vector = (dB. Thus Example C 4 U'e continue with Example C3. Define the basis vectors e'. So . d 4 ) means precisely this. We have said earlier that Zfl is just the coefficient of d x p in the vector d. The general definition of the basis vectors in terms of the embedding space is General intrinsic definition It is also useful to have a definition of the basis vectors without reference to the embedding. 12. Define the basis vectors coefficients of dB and dq5 in d5.5). Thus & and Z+ respectively to be the General embedding definition Refer to (12.3 Basis vectors Example B4 We continue with Example B3. and Z+ respectively to be the coefkients of d r and d$ in d5.
keeping all other components fixed. . the above equations mean the following. Move a little bit Ax" along this line. The result is a short vector Kx.52) nad (5. In words.15).that is the meaning . so this is an intrinsic definition.. The one remaining degree of freedom describes a line.. changes.g. Thus. Choose p (e. 0 Then $ t is a vector in the direction of increasing xp. mathematicians sometimes write simply Regard this as just a shorthand for (12.. along which only x. p = 1).. but is only a point P. Note that a11 these operations can be performed on M. Length of basis vectors Consider Example C4 and (12.g. =  (12. Set all coordinates other than x p (e. not a vector. of the partial derivative.11)..From this we obtain e. Its length is the displacement per unit change in x".14) The point x is a vector in the embedding space. on the manifold M . we also write ep=  (1215) Since P is just an arbitrary point.xN) to be constants .53) for Minkowski space. Compare with the analogous equations (5. s2.
What is the dot product between two basis vectors? Embedding derivation Intrinsic derivation We can derive the same result even more directly by using the intrinsic point of view. we see that .(dz" e'. we note that the distance between neigbouring points are ds2 = &.$ E'. Are the basis vectors orthogonal? What are their lengths? In general. we see that The natural basis defined above is not an orthonormal basis.) = (. = (dxPZZ).) dz"dxU But we also know that this should equal Comparing these two expressions. First.Problem 1 Refer to Example B4.
but we still say that the timelike basis vector has a length 1. in special relativity. .This implies that the lengths of the basis vectors are The absolute value sign is inserted to deal with timelike vectors. however. then all dt should be replaced by d r .) Let us see what this means in terms of the example of polar coordinates on a plane. Problem 2 Continue with Problem 1 and check that the dot products agree with (12.the infinitesimal displacement dx. For example.4 Velocity and momentum 4 So far we have concentrated on the primary vector . here we illustrate with more familiar examples in curved space only. thus the velocity and momentum are also vectors. (If we are in a curved spacetime.1 7). goo = 700 = 1. 12. Example B5 For polar coordinates on a plane Thus we identify the components of the velocity as where v4 is recognized to be just the angular velocity w. Ewe consider a curved space or curved spatial coordinates (not spacetime). then time is an invariant.
25) are constants. There the transformation (8. xfP = a ~ v x Y (12. R) which is of course nonlinear. Another example is on the curved surface S2(a). On a general manifold M. z ) + (8.Likewise the momentum components are It is also interesting to calculate the components with lower indices. and the relation between Example C2 and Example D2 (see Chapter 10). e.. Because the metric isdiagonal. y.g. under rotations and Lorentz transformations. we considered only linear transformations of the coordinates. . $) is given by r = a sin 8. so we must consider completely general coordinate transformations: The simplest example is the transformation (x.#) + (r.5 Transformation of vectors Generalized coordinate transformations P~eviously. Problem 3 Show that pb is just the angular momentum J. the calculation is simple. 12. which is again nonlinear.$. there is no special set of cartesian coordiwhere nates.
If. transformation a . is a constant matrix. This definition ensures that the contraction of an upper index with a lower index gives an invariant. even though the coordinate transformations need not be linear.. On different tangent planes a".more precisely a () vector. forms a vector . If. A lower index is transformed by [b] = [&]I on the right.N). .25). . The proof is analogous to the case of the linear transformations in special relativity. . a". Vectors with lower indices Recall from (5. can be different. the differentials transform as e The infinitesimal displacements transform linearly. On a given tangent plane T. where xp 4 XI". just like (l2.Vector transformation Under the general transformation (12. General definition of a vector Consider N quantities v p ( p = 1.more precisely a To summarize () vector. So consider N quantities v. ( p = 1. defined at the point x E M. An upper index is transformed by [a] on the left. defined at the point x E M. under a coordinate then vp forms a vector .26).(z). under a coordinate transformation they transform as then v.N)..39) that vectors with lower indices are to be transformed by [b] = [a]' on the right.
We note that dxp has two meanings: 0 It is the p component of d>.Higher rank tensors Higher rank tensors are objects that transform in the following way. i. A. and compare dxp and dx.vdx~dxY an invariant. : t = tPubPp buY (12.. i. (See below. with the matrix [a] and the inverse matrix [b]. Thus. must be a (i ) tensor. so defined is a tensor. e vp can no longer be used to raise and lower indices. (dx)'. the contraction theorem works as before. tPa t w = uppaYu .. essentially everything derived in Chapter 5 about the transformation of Cvectors can be taken over. It is the change in the coordinate xp.e.g. (dx). Lawering of indices We define and similarly for higher rank tensors. and indices cannot be lowered. and dx' is a is Hence it must transform as vector.) In particular.e. has only one meaning: It is the p component of dx. The transformation matrix [L] for a Lorentz transformation is now replaced by a general transformation matrix [a].. But i t is not the change in a coordinate x. in general there is no such thing as a coordinate x..31) Comparison with Lorentz transformations Even though the coordinate transformation is general..e. In contrast. i. the vector transformation is linear. so g . By the contraction theorem.. dx. with two exceptions. d(zp).. e. The displacement vector Return to the displacement vector. Coordinates are are not vectors. Metric tensor Since ds2 = g. 4 ..
x2).(x)dx" where Now d@is a scalar and dx" is a () vector.34). . an exact diflerentialj.. By Taylor's theorem d@(x)= @. Hence define (12.6 Gradient of avector Let @(x)be a scalar field. where A = A(x1.x2)..e. it must be done by the inverse of g.Problem 4 (a) Consider the differential Adz1 Bdx2 in terms of the coordinates xl. We have This is of the form (12.35) or more explicitly The raising operation is then 12.. SO . x2.) (b) Now consider Example B2.. . If it is to be the change in a certain quantity F (i. Can we write dx2 as the change in a certain quantity F? Raising of indices Since raising is the opposite of lowering. It is the gmdieni of @.. we would have + Show that a necessary condition for such a function F to exist is dA dB .. B = B(xl.ax2 ax1 (Hint: Compare mixed second partial derivatives. is a () vector. with x1 = r and x2 = 4. with A = 0 and B = r2. and consider its change.
but they are not necessarily unit vectors.. Most of the examples we have dealt with are in this category. = lGl = define unit basis vectors d . the basis vector & points east. Solution = . (c) What would you say are the easterly and northerly components of v? Let us now discuss the situation generally. This means that the lengths of the basis vectors are given by I..We therefore (12.2 sin 8 cos 8 COS' @>dJ a@ a0 a@= 2 . by m. Calculate its gradient. Figure 3 Problem 5 (a) On a flat 2d plane. Suppose we have a diagonal metric (at one point): ds2 = g l l ( ~ 1 )$ g22(dz2)2 2 +.40) . In any event. A certain vector u' is given by Find v1.7 Local Cartesian system and physical components In many situations we encounter metrics that are diagonal. and the basis vector & points north.26). 12 = 3 respectively (Figure 3).Excmple C 4 Let = sin28 cos24 on S2 (a). they are not unit vectors. we consider diagonal metrics. in this Section. The concepts are in fact very simple. However. by a coordioate transformation. This means that the basis vectors are orthogonal (see (12. it is always possible to make the metric diagonal at one point xo. v ~ . Thus.v2 as well as v 1 .84 4 sin20 cos 4 sin 4 12. but have lengths ll = 5. and can be illustrated by the following Problem.
.. e. we have Moreover. the physical components would have unit m sl for every component.g.43) Because these are physical components (e. January 22. p i and terms of r and w. for a velocity. We therefore identify the coefficient of the unit basis vector as the physical component of the vector v': PI = (12. for any vector 5. Example B6 For polar coordinates in 2 d Problem 6 For polar coordinates in 2 d.Thus. express v i in terms of r and w.998 . the physical components all carry proper units.tex. the easterly and northerly components).g. Also express #. Which of these is conserved? in Ch122. 1.
. and the velocity vector ii.g. j are constants as illustrated in Figure la. The reason is that . to denote vectors. We first describe.1 Example of differentiating a vector Consider 2d flat space. we differentiate component by component. through a familiar example.13 Mat hematics of Curved Space. we shall use a common notation. therefore. a d the resulting gradient is a vector: However.) In other words. 13. then we show how the differentiation should be done. (a> Figure 1 . e. (We shall be using examples from 2d and 3d space to motivate the formalism for spacetime. why this is the case. The basis vectors I. differentiating a vector is more complicated. v' rather than v. 111: Differentiation From the last Chapter we see that differentiating a scalar is easy.
this is the main feature in this Chapter.see the two sets in Figure lb. and Z4 introduced in Chapter 12 are not constant . the basis vectors e". and Z+ are given by so the spatial derivatives of the basis vector are and the time derivatives are . Therefore the derivative is The second line is new. In this example. I In a general coordinate system.Example B7 Now go to polar coordinates: where the basis vectors e'. By continuing with this example. we shall see that this extra contribution is actually familiar. the basis vectors are not constants. and must be differentiated a s well.
what is the result? (Note: calculate to first order in a only.. construct unit vectors pointing in the x direction.O) and another point Q at (cos a.like (dZ/dt)r on the LHS. First take the /I component and then differentiate .) Problem 2 What can you say about the "extra" term in the coefficient of Z+ in (13. First differentiate a vector and then take the /I component . the coefficient of e'. what is the result? @) If we first take the r component in each vector and then subtract. when we differentiate a vector we do not simply differentiate the components. The acceleration is given by the first of these two operations acting on the velocity. which can be seen from (13.r ( ~ d )= rw2: it is just the centripetal acceleration. a).like dvr / d t on the RHS. where sin 0 < a << 1.11). but 0 there are additional terms due to the change of the basis vectors. The extra term in (13. . i.11) is . This example shows that for curved coordinates (in flat space or in curved space).Hence using the chain rule we have We shall pay attention to the radial component.e. At these two points. These additional terms account for the difference between the following operations. ~ Problem I Take a point P at rectangular coordinates (1. (a) If we first subtract these two vectors and then take the r component.10)? .
Warning Although I?. read off all the components of rt.13. In general.7). with (xl.. and ??&in this example? . .12)).2 General embedding definition We see that all the complication comes from the changes in the basis vectors. but we shall not use the latter terminology since we shall not go into the theory of pforms in this course. We shall not discuss its transformation properties. Algebraic d e h i t i o n Go back to (i3. it is not a () tensor. look at its 4 component (in general the p component). Problem 3 [Example B8J Continue with the example of polar coordinates in 2 d. 0 Take the basis vector in the r direction (in general the p direction).7). what can you say about the relationship between I'z. In particular.? .Differentiate it with respect to 4 (in general the v coordinate). 4 ) . It is clear that all the extra terms come from contributions such as The coefficientsin (13. Thus we can define these coefficients by the general formula I I It is also useful to write this relationship in the following form: I J The coefficients. carries 1 upper index and 2 lower indices.. once they are known. The Christoffel symbols tell you how the basis vectors are changing. 0 The result is still a vector. A more modern mathematical term is the connection 1form. you can differentiate vectors and tensors.. x2) = (r. These coefficients are associated with three directions. From (l3. the RHS will be a sum over p (the two terms in (13.12) a s an example.I are called Christogel symbols.12) tell us how the basis vectors are changing. Take the second coefficient l / r in (13.
From this diagram. both are unit vectors. we see that de'. e..Geometric interpretation Figure 2a shows two basis vectors e'. Write down a descriptive statement sirrdlar to the paragraph just before this Problem.g. (a)The displacement vector is From this. in terms of the rectangular basis vectors.7). in terms of the rectangular basis vectors.4. &. express the basis vectors.$. e. (c) Eliminate the rectangular basis vectors and express the above derivatives in terms of 8./dq5 c +Z+ x + + Problem 4 [Example B9j (a) What can you say about the Christoffel symbols in Example B8 from the statements in the above paragraph? (b) Draw diagrams similar to Figure 2 for the basis vector 2+. at slightly different* angles q5 and q5 dq5. (b) Next calculate all the derivatives. similar to (13. R and Ze. thus ae'. Figure 2b shows two basis vectors e'. . with (xl. at differentradii r and r dr.. Z4. Problem 5 [Example Cq We now try to do the same thing for polar coordinates in 3 d.x2. R). The difference is in the i?$ direction. (d) Hence determine all the Christoffel symbols in this Example.x3) = (8. Then say what other conclusions you can draw from these statements.g./dr = 0.
How do we know that the Christoffel symbols thus calculated is independent of the embedding. we shall be interested in M being spacetime. You can also check the intrinsic formula by compazing the results in this Section with the results in the last Section. and is +). Remember ihat e The dummy index X is summed over. we have to develop an intrinsic formula for the Christoffel symbol: a way of calculating it without ever leaving the surface of M. However. go* is the inverse of g. the derivation is given in Appendix A. Problem 6 [Example C6] Consider the surface of a sphere of radius a. The embedding space must be very high diti~ztensional least 5 dimensions.These two Examples concern curved coordinates in flat space. This is described by two coordinates (6. and elimioating all R components of vectors.3 Intrinsic definition The embedding definition given above is intuitive.by just embedding it in flat space. 0 Commas denote differentiation. We simply quote the result here and learn to use it. change in terms ofthe constant basis vectors of the embedding space. and relates the Christoffel symbols to how the basis vectors e'. So it becomes quite (at difficult to visualize what is happening in the embedding space. For these reasons. there are some disadvantages to this method. possibly many more). readily obtained from the previous Example by setting R = a = constant. and is an intrinsic property of M? 0 Eventually. Find all the Christoffel symbols for this Example. But it is now easy to discuss curved space . .. the same manifold M can be embedded in two different flat spaces. This formula implies that I is symmetric in its two lower indices: ' . 13. Embedding is not unique.
the only allowed value of X is X = r.15)) we show the example of polar coordinates in 2 d.+ = g.To illustrate the use of the intrinsic formula (13. The metric is Find the Christoffel symbols.4. Compare with the results of Problem 5. ~ 2'. it is easy to obtain the inverse matrix Moreover. Problem 9 [Example 031 The sphere of radius a can be described by different coordinates ( r . . NOWconsider In the above.4). Problem 8 [Example Cq On the surface of a sphere of radius a Follow the above steps and calculate the Christoffel symbols intrinsically. = Problem 7 Continue with the above Example and calculate all the Christoffel symbols. and g4.. is .4 = 0. Compare with the results of Problem 3. 9 4 4 . the only nonzero derivative of the g. Example BlO The metric is Since this matrix is diagonal. where r = a sin 0. since go* is diagonal.
g.. 2). . y.. (b) Write down all the nonzero elements of g. . in terms of a and h. (b) Write down all the nonzero elements of g.Walker metric] The RobertsonWalker metric for describing cosmology is given by the metric (a) Write down an the nonzero elements of g.. . . Problem 10 [Example H3: Weak fields] For weak fields. g (d) Calculate the following elements of the Christoffel symbols.2GM/r) and B = B(r) = A(r)l. B.. B etc. This discussion will be structured as a series of Problems. a star) by where A = A(r) = (1 . l . and Problem 11 [Exumple F3: Robertson.13. and we shall a s s m e that iP = @(x.. . " (c) Find a l the nonzero elements of .4 Applications in general relativity We now apply the intrinsic definition to examples in general relativity. do not use the explicit form of A and B. In the following. ' (a) Write down all the nonzero elements of g. (d) Calculate the following elements of the Christoifel symbols. A'. Problem 12 [Ezample G3: Schwarzschild metric] The Schwarzschild metric for a point mass M (e. but just express the answers in terms of A. (a) Show that (b) Hence calculate r:. " (c) Find all the nonzero elements of g. to first order in a. we have.
21) Compare vectors Another method is to compare the two vectors directly.be linear in the displacement components dxp.18) . i. we therefore define the proportionality constants by @(x dx) . .0).g. so @(x + dx) . Cornpisre components We can first take the components (say the p component) at these two points.5 Covariant differentiat ion Differentiating a scalar Differentiation just means comparing a function at two neighbouring points x and x Consider first a scalar field a.Ap(x)  dAp(x) = AP.23) In particular. i t is easy to see that these coefficients are just partial derivatives + (13.u(x)dxv which defines the it covariant derivatives Ap. Now ccnsider a vector field A(x).e. 0. consider the difference Ap(x + dx) . and compare its value at two neighbouring points.(x)dxV (13. this must again be linear in the displacement. we again have AP(x where + dx) .. . e.e..(x).17) This difference must. There are two ways of doing this comparison.Jx)dzp By considering the case where dxp has only one nonzero component.. we take its p component. + ax) . the difference in its values between the two points is @ (x + dx. dx = (dxl.~ ( x ) ) i (&(x)) = AP.i ( x ) 1 dA(x) 4 (13.. and subtract.@(x)r d@(x)= @. take the difference vector: i(x + dx) . Differentiating a vector + .@ (x) E d@(x) (13.Ap(x) G dAp(x) Since the component A1 is just a function like @.. i..13.
.We shall now use an example to emphasize the difference between the ordinary derivative and the covariant derivative. ' (b) What is dA? What is its r component? Hence find AT. i.4) = ( 1 .26) = (A'.14)for d G : + A'de. c Y ) .) dd"'.+. Therefore the covariant derivatives A'.21) for dA" and (13. Use polar coordinates and compare the two points P = (r.. where in thesecond line we have interchanged the dummy indices p and p in the second term. Problem 13 [Refer also to Problem 1 1 In 2 d.) = APiY dxY dz" From this we can read off the covariant derivative Transformation properties We consider the definition Now the LHS are the components of a vector.. the coefficient of G: (di)' = (Apvu +API':.) = Ape. We use (13. d x " ) ( 13.dxU)Zp = + A (I?~.udx")Zp + AP ( ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ + API'.. d l q x ) = dAPe. a vector field is defined by = everywhere. 4. and dx" are also the components of a vector.4 + d4) = ( ~ . transform like a () tensor.e.+ A : + Formula for covariant derivative We now derive the general formula for the covariant derivative of a vector field z(i(z). where a is regarded as infinitesimal. (a) What is A at each point? What is dAT? Hence find AT.. Now let us take the p component. O ) and Q = ( r dr.ZPdxY) ' (A'.. d&x) = (A'. and then come to the general formula for the covariant derivative.
Differentiation of higherrank tensor fields Consider a tensor field which is a product of two vectors: C'Lv= A. Thus.30) Its covariant derivative is obtained by appending a Christoffel symbol term to each index: c ~ cpvlUrpuV = ~ .34) is .Bv (13. .j. v. A general point 5 in the embedding space is a The basis vectors in the curvilinear coordinates are We are here concerned with the changes in these basis vectors. . Step 1: Express in t e r n of coordinates without using basis vectors We start with cartesian coordinates 2 and unit vectors 2. . j. .. do not appear in the end. so we consider Now the inverse of (13. However we shall not go into this derivation.32) where @ denotes an exterior product. Appendix A In this Appendix. an intrinsic expression is one in which the indices i . P C + ~P This is readily shown by considering the tensor Cpv+gG'. The cartesian coordinates of the embedding space are denoted by indices i. . we derive the intrinsic definition of the Christoffel symbol from the embedding definition.. while the coordinates of the manifold are denoted by Greek indices p . + p C.P ' PC (13.
and we get Thus we read off the Christoffel symbol as It is convenient to introduce the (nonstandard) notation (13. This allows (13.(Sums over Greek indices are understood. without mentioning the basis vectors. .) Put (13.36) into (l3.40) is still not intrinsic.39) The last quantity is symmetric in the two lower indices because of the property of mixed partial derivatives. from Chapter 10.35). because the embedding cartesian coordinates ?still i ? appear. To eliminate them. we start with the following expression for the metric.38) t o be expressed compactly as This is a simple expression for the Christoffel symbol in terms of the two sets of coordinates. Step 2: Ezpress in t e r n of metric The formula (13.
) = = = c (.J (.43) and changing j I+ i.J (:) (.Differentiating with respect to x X then gives Now from (13.J (p) (..44) in (13.40) = c (. the remaining factors can be expressed and . by (13. we have used the fact that are inverse matrices.42). From (13.41): xi. we have Now put (13. The Christoffelsymbols can be taken outside the back in terms of g.) 6: (i") In the above.
and allowing the Greek indices to range over only 1. p ) would range over 1. d).p g p v . while the Latin indices (e. I). rG~%l = 5(gp*. Take B + C .51). it expresses. ~ ) Multiplying by the inverse matrix gXu = guX This is the relation that we seek. Now permute the three indices p. R). 3 or (x. 2 or (6. Thus the Christoffel symbols obtained.g.. 2. To be explicit where a curved manifold comes in. and :I is therefore intrinsic.. refer to curvilinear coordinates in 3d flat space. Chl3l. i) in the intermediate steps would range over 1. this is an intrinsic expression.A. January 26. 2. Here. 1998 .g. let us consider the case of a sphere embedded in 3 d. There are three pairs of terms as shown.? in terms of the metric and its derivatives.Thus we get The cartesian coordinates no longer appear.v 1 f gb. 3 or (6.g.4. the whole discussion is restricted to the surface of the sphere.. However.tex. y. and the same expression now refers to a curved manifold. by just setting R = a = const. the Greek indices (e. e. (l3. v and A.
14 Motion of Point Particles Electromagnetism consists of two parts. How does the gravitational field act on the particles? We answer this question in this Chapter. We shall derive the equation of motion for point particles.Then the law of motion should be The momentum does not change. then we can forget about gravity locally.1 Law of motion: Derivation I The central theme of relativity is: Once we have taken account of spacetime curvature. rn How do the particles (which give rise to energy and momentum) produce the fields? The answer is the Einstein field equation. rn How do the fields act on charges and currents? The answer is the Lorentz force law rn How do the charges and currents produce the fields? The answer is the Maxwell equations Similarly. Mathematically Figure 1 . there are two parts. and regard the particles as Lcfree". which we deal with later. and then apply it to rn Weak fields rn The cosmological model rn Deflection of light rn Gravitational redshift rn Precession of perihelion rn Conservation laws rn Motion in the vicinity of a black hole (next Chapter) 14. in gravitation.
Figure 1 illustrates two neighbouring points A. and will be called the "magnetic" part.1) means . It is proportional to v N P. the m on the right is the gravitational mass m G .pB FA = 0 In other words we subtract the two vectors. Gravity couples to 4velocity quadratically.. B on the path of a particle in spacetime. in gravity part of ' the force is proportional to the spatial components of the velocity.3) (apd ( p p )+ ~ ~ p p " d= P0 = x Divide by the proper time d r for this interval (14.Force An alternate expression is Compare with the Lorentz force law: The structure is very similar.4) We can write this in terms of the coordinate xp: put pp = m d x p / d ~ + mrEP.+  d p . ~ 0 In electromagnetism. 0 The m on the left is the inertial mass rnr. so  (14. Likewise. the part of the force that depends on the spatial components of the velocity is the magnetic force. We have m r = r n automatically. then take the components. with The statement (14. 0 is analogous to the field tensor Fp. rEP . These terms go as v i P and vivj P2.
the action for each small segment of path is. this is actually more convenient for calcuiations. 1 r The fact that mI = m ~or..is . and qp = 0 at the endpoints. 14. the principle of equivalence. There. in the J. is This property comes out naturally.Geodesic equation A second way is to cancel m from (14.Ax)1/2 = rn(~x~Ax~)'~~ = m(qpVAxpAx V )112 dS = m(qpydxPdx v )112  (See (8. equivalently that m cancels in (l4.) In flat space.e. the metric tensor is In curvilinear coordinates (and hence also for curved space) the generalization of distance is simply qpVH gpV So (14. based on the principle of least action.6). First review section 8.) We now give a second approach. i. 6S = 0 under a firstorder change where q p is small.8) should be modified to .2 Law of motion: Derivation I1 (This subsection is not needed for the subsequent material. for flat Minkowski space. Introduce any path parameter s The correct path is the one that makes S stationary. A S = m(AS.3.9).13) for example. The change.
vlpxz In the second term. Since qP(s) is arbitrary. }qP = (14.15) simplifies to dxp dx" 0 dr d r .14) equal to The above is for any arbitrary path parameter d s . In the first term in { } First term = 1[ dxp dxY ]1/2 {g.[ ds { dxp ]llzgpV q" + surface term In the last step we have changed dummy variables v + p.where [ ] denotes the expression under ds c.12) + (14. 6xY = qv. terms The two ds d6xP dx"  ' dxP d6xv ds ds have been combined. Thus the two terms together yield . we can integrate by parts. we put { } in (14.15) [ ] = 1. hence the factor of 2. I we choose in particular ds = d r f d r 2 = gpydxPdxY then in (14. and (14.13). = [ Secondterm ] 112 g pdxPd$'z v x d = . where { zero. Since the expression is under the integral sign.
say f B. p . v2 = O(E)as well. ] .e. (b) Using Newtonian mechanics. we also limit to slow motion. For bound orbits.) Carrying out the differentiation But dgPp  dr . [Hint: consider d(p r)/dt.9). 14.(We shall come back to this in section 14. Problem 1 (a) Estimate the numerical value of B and v2 for the motion of the earth around the sun.8. Express d(p r)/dt in terms of and v2. for a bound orbit.. r stays within bounded limits. consider a particle in a weak gravitational field.3 Weak fields As the first application. For simplicity. the first term inside the bracket can be Hence Multiply by guP which is the same as (14.QPPPZ dx" Hence Since (dxp/dr)(dxY/dr) is symmetric under p written as ct v. r)/dt) 1 5 2B/T + 0. So for long times T. I (d(p . The calculation is carried to first order in E . i. derive a relation between the timeaveraged value of @ and of v2. The gravitational potential @ is regarded as a small quantity: B = O(e).
gravity is analogous to Coulomb's law for static electricity. 8 .4 Cosmological model Figure 2 We now return to the RobertsonWalker metric. the error is only 0(212).SO we only need to take Q(eo) in which x"xp. To this approximation.This means we only take v = p = 0 and Hence So we recover the Newtonian law of motion. The spatial coordinate system ( F . If I = +I.1) = O(v2) = O(E).The velocity is 0(e112). 14. . SOin the fist term.) In the above. Also r = O(E). space is like the surface of a C spherical balloon with radius a ( t ) . (6) can be thought of as being painted on this balloon. if we replace d / d r t d l d t . Note that I?& (both lower indices being time components) is like the electric field. and expands with the balloon (Figure 2).d / d t and d / d r differ by O(7 . can be neglected. ' = d / d ~ .The equation of motion is (The 0 component is not needed.
In fact this shows that we rely only on the following properties of the metric: .19) can be an exact solution to the equations of motion.20) d%P dx" ? + pP.21) reduces simply to by differentiating (l4. gtt. From the metric in Chapter 13. . and gttjt = 0.9) have to be checked: dt2 First we note that from (14.19) and check that it satisfies the equations of motion. galaxies) are "stuck to" the coordinate grid as the latter expands. because gtt = 1.22) Hence the second term in (14... since d?/dt = dO/dt = d$/dt = 0 by assumption. in the first term we note. $(t) = const (14. the motion of particles may be different.0 dt2 Hence we only need to check for all p r& o A for all p This is verified from Chapter 13.* = 0.dxp = 0 dt dt dx" dt 1 0 v=t otherwise (14.4lthough the coordinate system expands with the balloon. X must be t .e.19) and (14. Moreover. We claim that particles (i. More directly we use the definition In the first two terms. because g.. that r$. 622. Hence the solution is (up to an irrelevant additive constant) The equations of motion (14.22). is diagonal. We shall assume (14. In the last term. O(t) = const . Mathematically we have to show ?(t) = const .
The reason is that. $1) to galaxy 2 at (72. N d e that we say "can ben. and the ray will be deflected by an angle a. and not LLmust be". 14. In that case ?. then the path would be a straight line: Figure 3 However. there are also solutions that move with respect to the coordinate system. If gravity has no effect. This is clearly allowed physicdly . gtt = constant.4 are not constants. gravity distorts spacetime around M. 02. Referring to Figure 4. Thus this calculation shows that galaxies can be "stuck to" the expanding coordinate system.5 Deflection of light htroduction Figure 3 shows schematically a ray of light passing at impact parameter R close to a mass M. depending on initial conditions.we can launch a satellite at high speed to travel from galaxy 1 at (?I. we see that a is simply related to the asymptotic momentum Figure 4 . 0.fix = 0 for X # t. 01.#2).
and note that r = O(G). PC.e. Thus from Hence We therefore arrive at a very simple interpretation: The deflection of light directly measures the curvature of spacetime as expressed by r. Consider /I = y. for the straight line path. rectangular coordinates would be convenient.i. .In short. we have to calculate the change in pY. so the other factors can be calculated to O(Go). Equation of motion It is most convenient to write the equation of motion as where p is the momentum of the photon. Thus we get where to be slightly more general we consider a particle moving at velocity (14.. The calculation is made simple by two observations : We calculate only to first order in G. Because of the nearly straight path (Figure 3).27).
e.GM . Note that the orderofmagnitude of the effect is (say for a test mass m) mc2 which is a typical generalrelativistic effect.. it will be adequate to use the weak field approximation from Chapter 13: hence Evaluate a a=. but a fast particle (P 1) would sense the "magnetic" components as well. i. r = d We have inserted a factor 1/c2to get the units right. In polar coordinates. Thus (14. T Q'Y = GMY 7 m The integration goes along a straight line y = R. and which give rise to velocitydependent forces.. i. and .29) and the corresponding simple interpretation is only valid in rectangular coordinates.. I? = O(@'). /3 = 1. Note that a slow particle ( p << 1) would only sense the "electric" component. rest energy Deflection of light For light. I? is nonzero even without curvature.Here it is important to stress another advantage of the rectangular coordinates: I # 0 is only ' due to curvature. I = O(G).e. those with one or more lower spatial indices. ' ie. This formula is valid whenever the particle goes along a nearly straight trajectory at nearly constant speed. Since we need only O(G).
and naively put /3 = 1. Nonrelativistic limit Suppose the particle is nonrelativistic.e. Again we need only calculate to first order in the field. light is one of the hest ways to detect such a force. The reason is that we would have missed the I.: contribution. However.34). i.33) becomes Let us try to recover this result by Newtonian physics. for a ray passing close to the rim of the sun. It was one ofthe triumphs of general relativity. i. then the answer would be off by a factor of 2.This value is appropriate for R = radius of sun. and referring to Figure 3. In Newtonian physics. which would be negligible for P << 1. if we 0 do the Newtonian calculation. So ? the experimental observation verifies that there is a velocitydependent ''magnetic" force which corrects Newton's law of gravity.. Start with .6 Gravitational redshift Consider a photon that "climbs" through a height z. Then (14. This is the 'Lmagnetic" contribution. Hence.33). Of course.31). the second term in (14.. 14. putting into (14. and was so confirmed in 1919. and will lead to (14.e. which is always valid which is just the first term in (14. IPI << 1. in a gravitational field @(z).26). Of course this can only be observed during an eclipse.
hence I This is the formula for gravitational redshift. . pz = pt Choose p = t in (14. w oc E. dz = dt dpt We have. we can calculate pYdxP for free space. . for weak fields + (I?:. + r.2@(41Pt(0) [1 For simplicity we have assumed @(0)= 0.) ptdz = o Hence ~ ' (=4 .Because I' is already firstorder. + 2 r . correct to O(@). But since the metric goes as the physical energy is E= Thus mpt@)pt = (1+ I I For a photon.36).
14. la/ < 1. a relationship between r and $. As an example #. using the above relationship between d l d t and Hence show that the equation for the orbit (i. let us prepare the ground by reviewing the Newtonian results on Kepler orbits. But first. a solution is where e and ro are constants.7 Precession of perihelion Preparation We now consider the precession of the perihelion of the orbit of a planet. Problem 2 (a) Show that the equations of motion for a particle in a gravitational field are (Hint: the second equation is the conservation of angular momentum.) (b) Use the angular momentum equation to show (c) In the radial equation. by how much would the perihelion (the point of smallest r) advance in each revolution? .. replace the dependent variable by and replace the independent variable t by d/d#. In terms of a. What is the meaning of e and of ro? (e) Show that the orbit is closed. and the second term in the first equation is the centrifugal force. without t) is (d) Hence show that (by a suitable choice of the coordinates). (f) Suppose that the relativistic corrections result in where.e. This is mathematically more complicated because we have to evaluate to O(G2) in the intermediate steps.
( .( )d2r + ) 2 0 = A dr r sin2 0 A ()2+() 2A B' dt dr 2 (14.Metric The metric is that due to the sun.47) d28 2dOdr + d r dr2 r d r sinOcos9 0 = 0 = . A dr ' d2r 0 = dr . I?. The 4 equations Putting these into (14. we get the following 4 equations. ds2 = B(r)dt2 + ~ ( r ) d r + r2d02+ r2sin2Bdq5' ' Equation of motion The equations are d2xC" dxYdxp dr2 + There are 4 such equations. 0= r&~z Evaluation of I ' The nonzero elements are r 1 =r t B' .45)..46) (14.. corresponding to different choices of p..2A. rtr= = 2B Problem 3 Derive the results shown above for I?:. regarded as a point particle. r:@ cot 0 .
from (l4. Constants of motion The last two equations can be integrated once. d4 r2.50). the 8 equation is no longer necessary. .52).51). dt B ( r ) . but specialized to 8 = 1712. From (14.= I< = constant d7 Simplify radial equation We are now left with the radial equation (14.= J = constant dr Obviously J is the angular momentum/mass. Put A = Bl.Problem 4 Show the derivation of these 4 equations. A'/A = B1/B.43). Moreover. the above can be simplified. TOeliminate (dtldr)'. Reduce to equatorial plane Since the planet moves only in a plane. we use the definition of d r . say 8 = w/2. From (14.
58) together with (14.53).d$/dr = J/r2.58) is equivalent to motion in a potential The ratio between the two terms is Ratio .Put this into the last term in (14.2GMI. Solve effective Newtonian system If we drop the last term in (14. ) J2 r2 2 d4 r 2  v = O(E) 2 0 0 Thus we arrive at the following interpretation.(.. Introduce and from (14.53) . The (drldr)' terms cancel. Effective Newtonian system We need to sohe (14. the inner planets will be affected more.55). B1/2= G M / r 2 . so we use exactly the same technique.58). Thus. it would be exactly the same as the Newtonian case. Relativistic corrections lead to an extra effective potential that goes as r3. where we have pui in for B = 1 . The radial equation (14.r .
60) and (14. # = 2nn The path is closed (Kepler's first . ~ ( 4= ) (1 GM J2 + e cos #) r uo(1 + e cos 4 ) (14. redefine what we mean by # = 0).58)' we have The "extra" postNewtonian term are underlined.e..Then putting (14. law). Let Au($) oc cos 4 The sin 45 term can be ignored by adding a constant phase ji.63) has a coefficient exactly 1. i.61) into (14. because r(6) = r($+27r).e. Introducing a constant e (which will turn out to be the eccentricity).63).64) This means r is minimum whenever cos 4 = 1. Note that the u term in (14.. Newtonian limit Let us first ignore the last term in (14.
63) becmes We choose u o so that the first [ ] vanishes.e.. Then where 3(GM)2 J2 Thus. a= Au(g5) = uoe cos(1a)+ where we have used (I . Then u2 FJ u.Correction Again we assume that Planetary orbits in the solar system have small eccentricities. + 2u0Au(g5) and (14. following the same procedure as before.a Hence I 1 If q5 = 0 is one case of minimum r . the changes in u are small compared to the mean value of u: 1Aul << uo.2a)lI2w 1 . i. then the next occurrence is $ FJ (l+a)2n Thus the perihelion shifls forward in each revolution by .
only to lowest order in the eccentricity e. i.8 x radians/revoIution Express in another way. (In the above.) . as I' per century: 64 = (4.8 x 10'' m T = 88 days = 7. we have assumed a nearly circular orbit. Further..71) This makes it very clear that it is a relativistic correction.Apply to Mercury Eliminate GM by Hence 64 = 6n (14. Putting in numbers for Mercury r = 5.6 x lo6 s 64 = 4.e.8 x lo'' x N 180 x 36001') 7r x 100 x 365 cent 88 ' 41" cent' A more accurate calculation gives 43" centl. we express it in terms of radius and period.
is constant. then p.8 Conservation laws In classical mechanics.16). then p. then a simpler derivation follows directly from (14. there is a wellknown theorem: If xff does not appear in the Lagrangian. change P + a and collect terms The first. To prove this. because they multiply the symmetric pPpu. In the last term.2. Write a similar expression for the shift per century. If g. Now multiply throughout by m. if you had followed Section 14. and not to pa . then p.in this case there is a difference. is Note that we refer to p. and give a numerical value for the prefactor b. . Hence write the advance per revolution 64 as Find the exponent n. z". if r is expressed in AU.Problem 5 The result (14. the two are related by Kepler's third law.72) is written in a form that depends on both the orbit radius r and the period T. 14. consider In the first term we have used the geodesic equation (14. Incidentally. Hence we are left with So if gpu is independent of xu. However. (In this case there is no need to distinguish between upper and lower indices. second and fourth terms cancel..5) for $. is conserved. is indeperident of conserved.) Now we have an analogous theorem for the motion of a point particle in a metric gp.. and note that gap contracts with gPr in r to give 67. and in the second term we have used the chain rule.
tex. December 22. Use this result to derive the gravitational redshift. (a) If the metric is independent of 4.Problem 6 In fact.. Show that this is just the angular moment urn. then pt is conserved. (d) The metric for a star is also independent of t . 2000 . several results obtained previously are special cases of this general theorem. (b) If the metric is independent of t . Relate the conservation of p4 to the constant of motion J. then pd is conserved. (c) The metric for a star is independent of 6. Ch144. Relate the conservation of pi to the constant of motion I .
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g... But if the physical radius is less than &.g. Example Consider a star with the mass of the Sun: M = M. then the BH condition can be satisfied in the exterior.. Heuristic argument A BH is a region of space where gravity is so strong that nothing can escape. It is however acceptable for an orderofmagnitude estimate. Thus we conclude: If a star of mass M collapses to a radius R < & = 2GM/c2. i. the BH condition r < & is never satisfied in the exterior of the star. The above is a mixture of Newtonian concepts (e. (1/2)mv2) and relativistic concepts (e. we describe the spacetime around a black hole (BH). 1 GMm mv 2 > 2 r But since v 5 c. then it becomes a BH. a necessary condition is r > &. A test mass m at a radius r can escape only if KE > IPEI.e. Then Thus a star has to collapse to a very small size to become a BH. Anything closer than & cannot escape. a particle farther than & could escape if its velocity is high enough. If the mass M (say a star) has a physical radius R larger than &.1 BIack holes Introduction In this Chapter.15 15. where I I where & is the critical radius. which is not really legitimate. Consider a mass M at the origin. v _< c). = 2 x lo3' kg. and briefly discuss the motion of point particles near a BH. not even light hence it is "black". The form of the potential assumes a point mass M.. .
What determines the size of a star? How is a black hole formed? Figure 1 The size of a star is determined by the balance between two forces (Figure 1): the force of gravity pulling in. But in quantum mechanics that is not the case. T1 and gravity. If particles are confined to a box of length L. This is illustrated in Figure 2. Degeneracy pressure NkT v cx T Pl. with . which therefore cannot support the force of Figure 2 So let us go to the limit of T = 0.2 0 0 Formation of black hole Next we give a qualitative and brief discussion on two questions.15. Normal star In a normal star such as the Sun. and the pressure force pushing out. and the star starts to collapse. the pressure is due to the hot gas: p=When the nuclear fuel is exhausted. Classically. P cx T = 0. the corresponding wavefunctions must exactly fit into L.
the particles cannot be at rest. Recall that the momentum delivered per collision with the wall is 2p. then are where the typical momentum is p is  pmaX (say up to a factor of 2). This motion gives rise to degeneracy pressure. accounting for the two factors. occupied. is a sphere of radius . Thus N particles would occupy V and V. To estimate the typical momentum p of the particles. if there are many particles. each state occupies So similarly in 3D. we note that in ID. protons or neutrons) into each energy level (Pauli exclusion principle). each state occupies where V is the volume in space and V. is the volume in momentum space.. they have to fit into highly excited levels (large n) with large momenta p.where and the factor of 2 accounts for spin.and the corresponding momentum is We can only put 2 particles (electrons. start with the formula in kinetic theory It is better to write this as which is valid even relativistically. Thus.. Even at absolute zero. Assume all states in momentum space up to pm. To derive the degeneracy pressure P. V. Thus the typical momentum . ie. and the freqnency of collisions is 1/(2L/v) cc v.p .
where . Nonrelativistic case We use (15. This formula clearly shows that the effect is quantummechanical.5) and convert pv I+ pc for the ultrarelativistic case.n = N/V is the number density. Thus since n oc V' R3 for a sphere of radius R. Ultrarelativistic case We again use (15.5) and convert pv t+ p2/m: Thus since the number density goes as n oc Vl R3 for a sphere of radius R. .
setting the degeneracy pressure CR5 equal to (15. so the particles must occupy a large volume V. forming neutrons . hence they must move at high speeds. which caa be estimated as iorce area GM2/R2 4x R2 GM2R4 P . and the star further collapses. if the star is very heavy. called the Chandresekhar limit M.11) gives the limit Note that R disappears (both sides go as R4). Now setting the degeneracy pressure CR5 (the value of C is different) equal to (15. If the mass is too large.J N In the nonrelativistic case.11) gives However. But this does not work if i l l > M. the ultrarelativistic case (v H C) provides an upper limit. White dwarfs So when a star exhausts its nuclear fuel. we have to go over to the ultrarelativistic case. it becomes supported by the degeneracy pressure of the electrons. in momentum space. In other words. Neutron stars As the star further collapses.. there is a pressure that can support gravity. Eventually. This stage is called a white dwarf. R becomes very small.in effect the inverse of Pdecay: . The star has to further collapse. the white dwarf is unstable. the electrons get "squeezed7' back into the protons.. The spatial volume V is small. representing the maximum M.Balance of forces The pressure force must balance against the force of compression generated by gravity. Thus to summarize Even at absolute zero. and we get a constraint.
and is very dense. then nothing further can support the force of gravity. This question can be approached within the framework of a static spacetime.14) would not be d i d at &. we would recognize [ as the time. We assume a star has been formed that is smaller than &. We shall see later that once the star collapses to less than &. a How can gravity be so strong that it manages to overcome the pressure and cause a star to collapse to < &? What happens during the collapse? a Once the BH is formed. and the angular terms are omitted because we shall consider only radial motion. i. so that do = dq!~= 0. otherwise (15. what are its properties? a What is the observational evidence for BHs? In the rest of this Chapter. Then a BH is formed. We can make several related remarks.3 Questions about black holes We can ask various questions about BHs. This stage is called a neutron star. this characterizes timelike displacements. c = 1. called the Schwarzschild radius.4 Coordinates around a black hole Recall the Schwarzschild metric external to a mass M where & = 2GM. BH is A formed only if the physical radius is smaller than the Schwarzschiid radius.physics cannot depend on which letter of the alphabet we use. 15. We recognize t as the "time" not because it is called "t" .15) as ds2 = dt2 dq2. we assume that the BH is formed and is no longer changing.and a neutrino escapes. the collapse cannot stop. Clearly something funny happens at &. which would be inside the star.e. and likewise the spacetime around it is not changing. we shall deal with only the third question. and the star collapses to a radius less than &. If we write (15. One then has a collection of neutrons only. The example earlier shows that the Schwarzschild radius is 3 km if M = Msu. and it has to collapse all the way to a point. A change in t (dt # 0) leads to ds2 < 0. What is time? Let us now examine the coordinates near the BH. + . If the mass is so large that it exceeds the Chandresekhar limit for neutron degeneracy pressure. It is useful to go back to the case of a flat Minkowski space.. 15. The star is then supported by the degeneracy pressure of neutrons. and try to understand the spacetime and the motion of particles near it. ignore y and z.
so we recognize t as the time coordinate. B > 0.. so we have to call r the time coordinate. It can flow only one way. 0 Figure 3 Light cone Next consider the light cone. See Figure 5 below and the arguments immediately following it.. Thus. 0 For r < &.. i. time "flows" only into the future andnot into the past. changes in r leads to ds2 < 0. Thus the roles of t and r are reversed for r < &.) The situation is illustrated in the spacetime diagram in Figure 3. (We shall later give a heuristic argument why it is not the reverse. For r > &. This can be seen because 0 The time coordinate has only one sign. B < 0. particle trajectories can only go along dr < 0. the last equation can be expressed as for a particle trajectory.e. defined by ds2 = Bdt2 giving + B'dr2 =0 . Let us apply this chain of reasoning to the Schwarzschild metric. this is the "usual" situation.e.e.0 Particie trajectories are timelike. i. i. The coordinate r is time.
1. it is a black hole.5 Infinite redshift We show that a photon climbing out of a BH.1. 0 Trajectories are nearly "vertical" (i.thus. Particle cannot come back out from r < .0. Figure 4 Particle trajectory Figure 5 Particle trajectories have to point in a timelike direction. will suffer an infinite redshift when detected at spatial infinity.0.2. r becomes the "time" coordinate and can only decrease.9.0. One case is shown for you in Figure 4.that a photon falling in will suffer infinite blueshift when it arrives just outside &. once inside r = I& = 2GM. starting from just outside I&. The surface r = & which divides the "inside" from the "outside" is called the event horizon. 2. Therefore the situation must be qualitatively as shown in Figure 5. paying attention to the angle it makes with the vertical.Problem 1 On a tr plane (draw t vertical).. 0 Trajectories point "inwards" (ie. Thus. Which side of the light cone is timelike? Determine this by checking the sign of ds2 in each region.e. in the t direction) near &. It is easier to derive the reverse .5. in the r direction. with dr < 0) near r = 0. sketch the light cone at r / & = w.. 15. .
We can also give a heuristic argument that leads to %earlyn the same result. there is an infinite redshift.?)Ii2 Actual result . iiw(oo) = energy at co = energy at r .m A @ = fiwfiw c2 GM T = iiw I . So when r + Ro. when the photon reaches &. we have w u ) = ) = w(ly) w ( 1 . so from the last Chapter.work done = iiw . Reversing the argument. since E = iiw. there is an infinite blueshift. ( ):: Heuristic derivation Using units where c = 1. In other words.We start by noting that the metric is tindependent. pt is a const ant: pt = constant r E  (15. if a climbs out of the BH starting from Ra.19) We pay attention to pt and the physical energy E: The physical energy E is essentially the geometric average of the two: The above equation for r Thus t co shows that k is just the energy at infinity: 2 = E(m).
The latter will be done in the next Section. This is obviously a perfectly smooth surface.called the Kruskal coordinates. with no singularities anywhere.. we have g44 = 0. a set of polar coordinates with the poles defined in some other place. x). the surface is actually perfectly smooth. It is only a coordinate problem .g. This is apparent from the metric as well: gtt = 0 and g. the problem at r = & is only a singularity of the coordinate system.. not of spacetime itself.because the regular transform of regular coordinates must be regular. . and show that nothing singular happens at T=&. e. or is it just a problem with the coordinate system? The former is a problem with the geometry of the surface (e. But we emphasize that the transformation between regular coordinates (Kruskal) and singular coordinates (Schwarzschild) must itself be singular .g. a kink. there would be no problem. Now in polar coordinates so at the poles (0 = 0. I this is the case. just to prove this point. There are two other ways of seeing whether there is a real problem at r = &. the origin in the XY plane).g.) Calculate the motion of a particle into a BH. Calculate the physical components of the curvature tensor. then one should be able to transform to f a new set of coordinates in which there is no singularity . As a second example. But there is nothing special about the poles. so long as it is finite. The former is a rather tedious calculation and we shall omit it.The two agree to first order in GM. corner.the polar coordinates become degenerate at the poles.. Is this a physical problem. consider the surface of a sphere of radius a. In just the same way. (In fact. = oo at T = &. As an example. It is easy to find another set of coordinates which is regular there. We shall find that it is zero at r = &. edge). The only problem is with the coordinates. consider a plane: ds2 = dx2 + dy2 Now transform to so that Although we have gxx = 0 and g y y = co at various places (e. We shall not write out these coordinates. Coordinate singularity The above result suggests that there is some sort of singularity at T = &.. the latter would only be a problem with the grid we draw on the surface.
where t is obviously the time. Because the metric is independent of t . So let Then the leading behavior is This means that there is infinite time dilation as the particle approaches the event horizon. we have pt = constant G E  Thus We shall only.) Now from the metric The term on the left is negligible.6 Mstion into a black hole For simplicity.be interested in the qualitative behavior as r + &.15. because as T + co.r 1 and dtldr 1 / we get    . it takes only a finite proper time dr to fall through the event horizon. consider only radial motion. ~ From dr1d. and we have In other words. Each unit of proper time dr becomes an infinite amount of time dt according to a distant observer. so that d8 = dd = 0.the metric becomes the standard flat Minkowski space. (We know that t is the time measured by a distant observer.
Once it falls inside the event horizon. Naked singularity? On the one hand. i. There is a question whether general relativity allows naked singularities. and assume it has already collapsed inside the event horizon (Figure 6). it seems to take forever .. but to an observer at infinity. . 0 Next consider a spherical star that is collapsing. and by the previous argument. and the whole star collapses to r = 0.t 4 m. because we have already shown that dr can have only one sign (it is like a "time". Consider a single particle. The question is not completely settled.what takes one period of a photon still appears as one period to the distant observer. because & just reaching r = I already takes t = m. it takes an infinite amount of t to fall through the event horizon.the motion is. the particle has to end up at r = 0. Note however that we can never see this motion from the outside. this is the same effect as the redshift . must keep falling to r = 0. In general. Thus E +0 + Physical singularity at t h e origin Although the event horizon at r = & is not a real singularity. In fact. Thus we have infinite density and a real singularity. the above result still holds. the process of falling through the event horizon takes k i t e time according to a comoving observer. Look at a tiny part of the star near the surface. In this example there is an escape: the singularity exists cannot be seen from the outside. one can show rigorously that even if the star is not spherically symmetric. It is just like one single particle. This argument applies to evey part of the surface of the star. This is the BH singularity. the origin r = 0 is a real singularity. To summarize. On the other hand we do not like singularities in physics we believe all physical quantities should be finite. Thus. We say that the singularity is "clothed" and not "nakedn. We make this argument in three steps. Figure 6 So ultimately all matter falls to r = 0.e. it has to keep falling inwards.''slowed down". in other words the future light cone points towards dr < 0). we know there must be singularities in general relativity (the spherically symmetric BH is one example). but the period is infinitely redshifted.
e. i.Blackholes have no hair The star inside the event horizon may be very complicated.. no complications or "extraneous" properties. This is called the property that "black holes have no hair". 2001 . the charge Q and the angular momentum J.the mass M .tex. January 22. But we cannot see any of the complications frorn the outside. Chl51. How much can we tell from the outside? It has been shown that we can tell only three properties .
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? Can we say that a space is flat if g. Since the extra dimensions of the embedding is a mathematical artefact. yet the space is flat.1 Mathematics of Curved Space IV: Curvature Introduction Extrinsic and intrinsic curvature We speak about the curvature of a space. The former depends on the embedding.16 16. using quantities measured on the space itself? Figure 1 Metric? Can we use the metric g. So how can we define curvature intrinsically...and the latter is quite arbitrary. or a manifold. the latter does not..(if it is locally Euclidean) . g. = 6 . is not constant. or g.. The metric is no good: it mixes the properties of the space with the properties of the coordinate system . or spacetime. and the intrinsic curvature seen by an observer confined to the space. = q. . is constant? No! Consider . (if it is locally Minkowski). or more generaly if g. physics can only depend on the intrinsic curvature. What exactly do we mean? There are two ways to define curvature (Figure 1): the extrinsic curvature seen by an observer outside the space. polar coordinates in two dimensions: In this case.
Let P = the north pole Id = 0 deg E on the equator N = 90 deg E on the equator Each of LP. (All such diagrams project a possibly curved surface onto a flat piece of paper.LN L = 3ax1nt L (16. consider the exterior angles. We conclude that the surface of the earth is not flat . Refer to Figure 3. P Figure 2 As an example. Exterior angles Equivalently. so do not rely on "normal" geometric intuition. consider a triangle on the surface of the earth (Figure 2).L P Ext LM = wLM Ext LN = w .Sum of angles Another definition is intuitive and well known: the space is flat if the sum of the interior angles of any triangle is exactly a. .which is correct. L M and L N is w/2.) In obvious not aton. Figure 3 C E ~ ~ Ext LP = w . So the sum of interior angles is 3w/2.2) Thus. the sum of interior angles is w if and only if the sum of exterior angles is 27r.
the We turn by a. By letting N t m. Imagine that we march along the polygon. . Initially. But at the same time. carry a rod represented by a vector A. Figure 4 This idea can be given mother interpretation. the path can become any closed curve. the rod i and the side & make an angle L(R. and keep its direction fixed .this is called parallel provides a fixed reference (because it is not changing) against transport.2 Parallel transport of vectors Introductiox Again consider the surface of the earthand walk around triangle MNP. Do we turn exactly 2n? In Figure 2. At the point N. through an angle al. We can further generalize.&) given by .Generalize to polygon We generalize this idea to a polygon of N sides (Figure 4): the space is flat if and only if the sum of exterior angles a. is 2n.we turn a total of 3n/2 in going round the triangle M N P . A Figure 5 Refer to Figure 5. Then the rod makes an angle L(X. 16. for a total of answer is no . The direction of which we measure the direction of walking.. at each vertex.G). at the point M. This qualitative discussion leads us to the key idea of parallel transport of vectors. a. the side turns from & to &.
Going around. 0 At P. Z = 2)if and only if for flatness is whether parallel transport around a closed loop brings a vector back to itself. Thus we have (Figure 7) 0 A A ' 2 . So the condition Thus returns to the same direction (i. we have To be more precise. turn to walk dong P M . The rod 2 remains always at 90 deg to the path.e. the rod stays pointing west. the rod points west. The situation is illustrated in Figure 6. March along the equator to N. towards the pole. When we get to N. = north = west . = 27r. The rod was along NP. let us denote the final direction as written zs 2.4) should more properly be so a. Step 1 Step 2 North t Step 3 P ws et North M t I Figure 6 t Start at M with the vector pointing north. The rod started pointing north (towards P) and stays pointing north. When we get back to M. 0 Turn to walk along N P . (16. so it is pointing north. which is now pointing west. As we walk along.the triangle. the rod makes 90 deg with the path (the equator). xi Example Return to the example in Figure 2..
) More precisely. because both vectors refer to the same basis vectors.e. around a closed loop. if and only if Figure 8 The difference vector The two vectors and ri' are defined at the same point.Start (north) End (west) +@J Figure 7 t M around A space (manifold) is flat if and only if the parallel transport of every vector every closed loop gives hack the original vector 2. instead of following follow its component AP and compute the total change..i. doing vector substraction is the same as substracting components : A and the question is whether this is zero. So. we . so their difference is also a vector. (The difference between two vectors at different points is not a vector.
Reduce t o small loops As with the usual proof of Stokes' theorem.. as indicated schematically in Figure 9. infinitesimal) loops.8) Figure 10 . This quantity must be .e. Figure 9 We therefore consider a small "rectangle". AA1 may depend on A2 etc. whose vertices are where f.g. and consider AAp.. (16. the above computation can be reduced to checking small (i.A. and to the sides f and rj: AAp oc A"C"qP All the indices are different and independent because. We now take a vector around the loop: A j B t C + D . e. fi are infinitesimal displacements. proportional to itself. hence vectors (Figure 10).
Therefore they relate to the underlying ma~ifold and run over 0. similar to the displacements..in particular. The last two indices p and a refer to the displacements. R is a vector. it is zero in all coordinate systems. the range of the p . 2 = imaginary).we deal with just one component and not the vector. it is a property of the space itself.1. v indices could be different..1. which carries 4 indices: Tensor character We have already stated that AA is a vector (because it is the difference between two vectors at the same point). Crucially. On the right hand side of (l6.3 in the case of spacetime. a Because p and v are the same type of index. the vector is a tangent vector. Contrast with the property g. Therefore by the contraction theorem. more specifically # . which would have only two directions (1 = real.3 in the case of spacetime. The total change is the sum of the changes in each small step: . = const. we can consider the parallel transport of other vectors. Rfi. so the indices again run over 0. it is often convenient to put them both "together" as subscripts: A Evaluate i n t e r m s of metric Remember that we need to calculate the total change of Ap around a closed loop . So whether the curvature tensor is zero is an objective property independent of the coordinate system.. e. this implies that under a coordinate transformation. T h e indices We note several properties about the indices.. transforms linearly .3 Riemann curvature tensor .g. In such cases. In this case. is a tensor.2.calculation Definition We are led to the definition 04 the Riemann curvature tensor.2. a complex number (a quant ummechanical wavefunction). if it is zero in one coordinate system.. Rp. In other applications. and so are the idnitesirnal displacements C and q. this is not an objective property of the space itself.16. 0 The first two indices p and v refer to the vector being transported..  a (i) tensor.9).
we have suppressed the index p. similar t o the usual derivation of Stokes' theorem (see Appendix).19) with the definition of the curvature tensor in (16. When this is put into (16.But we know that under parallel transport.A. the line integral around the loop in Figure 10 can be changed to a surface integral. .. we find . where in the last stepwe have interchanged the dummy indices A t v in the second term. which we eliminate via (16.17).A*) dz" A " .12)' now written as 0 = (dz)" = giving + I'~. Finally. 0 = (dA)' = dAp + 17~pA"dzP Putting this into (16. comparing (16. namely But since Cp = I'cPAv we find (16.11). = I'.9)' we find which is the crucial relation for calculating the curvature. we have where in C.15) This expression contains the derivative of A". Now.
sag f nonlinear The important property . A n t i s y m m e t r y in last two indices The curvature tensor satisfies which can be proved in two ways: Explicitly from (16. consider the scalar S = g. is a tensor.properties We now summarize some important properties of RPupU. Clearly.4 Riemann curvature tensor ..20). + By noting that p H cr is equivalent to interchanging the two displacements C and f ..23) 4 To prove this.. Thus.21) and the curvature tensor is obtained by another differentiation as well as a nonlinear term .to be proved later .A"BU. Tensor character We have already stated that from (16. if it vnaishes in one coordinate system. We parallel transport both vectors and hence S. so .9).is that the space is flat if and only if the curvature tensor is identically zero.m+rr . R". which is in tLrn equivalent to traversing the loop in the reverse direction. it vanishes in every coordinate system. A n t i s y m m e t r y in first two indices The curvature tensor also satisfies &vpu = Rupp~ (16. 16.Discussion Recall that the Christoffel symbol is obtained by differentiating the metric. schematically r ag R  (16. constructed out of two vectors A and . a scalar does not change under parallel transport.
g. thus proving . because when we complete the loop. Now use the curvature tensor to express the changes in the vectors upon parallel transport: where we have lowered the first index in the curvature tensor using the factor g. we get 5 indices: RPvmp. so superficially there are N4 components. which is in fact not difficult. There is also no AAPAB" t a m because we are entitled to consider a small loop. the square bracket is zero.23). We shall skip the derivation of these numbers.There is no Ag. ( and ij. If we perform a (covariant) differentiation on the curvature tensor.. Symmetry in pairs We state without proof that the curvature tensor is symmetric under the interchange of the first pair of indices with the second pair: Cyclic property We also stzte without proof the cyclic property: f x the first index and add the cyclic permui tations of the other three... .. Finally. A.. each of the 4 indices can take on N different values. But because of all these identities. change the dummy variable by X H p in the first term and X I+ v in the second term: Since this has to be zero for arbitrary (16.B.. returns to the original value. this amounts to 44 = 256 components .which is a lot. For N = 4. the result is zero: Bianchi identity Finally we state without proof an identity concerning the derivative of the curvature tensor. the number of independent components of the curvature tensor is as follows. and hence calculate only firstorder changes. Fix the first 2 indices and add the cyclic permutation of the other 3. the result is zero: Number of independent components In N dimensions.
We do this by contracting a pair of indices in the Riemann curvature tensor. We choose to contract the 1st and 3rd indices.5 Ricci tensor and curvature scalar Motivation The Einstein's equations will take the form Curvature  Source (16. but these are identical and summed): C~rvature scalar We can further construct a scalar by contracting the two indices in the Ricci tensor: . the source is the energymomentum tensor . on the LHS.a rank 2 tensor. etc. contracting the 1st and 4th is the same as contracting the 1st and 3rd. since these two indices are antisymmetric.) the Ricci tensor Thus we define the R c i tensor ic Rvp = RpvClp g p u R p v o p = Symmetry It is readily shown that the Ricci tensor is symmetric (interchanging the two indices v and p above is equivalent to interchanging the 1st and 3rd index. It is easily seen that this is esse~tially only choice. up to a minus sign. Thus.Table 1: Number of independent components of curvature tensor 1 dimension Ipcomponents I 16. (Contracting the 1st and 2nd indices gives zero. we need to construct a rank 2 tensor as well.30) where as will be discussed later.
for the following reason. and (pcr) = (12): The only nontrivial element is ( p v ) = (12) We should have known this beforehand. with (xl. our explicit computation in (16.. Polar coordinates on a sphere We take polar coordinates on the surface of a sphere of radius a.16. and the metric so that the metric components are 911 = a 2 . the curvature tensor is R " . $). x2) = (T.. This space is flat. = 0 because ag = 0. So there is a Cartesian coordinate system. Now change to polar coordinates..39) .. C.. 922 = r 2 9 + r2d4' g12=0 and the nonzero eIements of the ChristofEel symbol are We now consider the curvature tensor R. 922 = a sin 0.37) verifies that RpuPp 0 is an objective = property independent of coordinate system. q5). In other words. R'. without having to do any calculations. with (xl... 0 In that system. 2 2 g12 = 0 (16. x2) = (0.6 Examples Polar coordinates in 2D We take polar coordinates in flat 2D space. and the metric ds2 = dr2 so that the metric components are 911 = 1. transforms linearly and stays zero in the new coordinate system.
this will be shown below. (pv) = (12) and ( p a ) = (12): Again.. = cot 8. Note that R is a constant .. there are no preferred or special directions.. Thus... Next we calculate the Ricci tensor in this example. Although whether R. the grid that we choose to draw on the space. i..41)). = 0 is coordinateindependent. and every point is equivalent.40) We now consider the curvature tensor R. I?:.this is expected since this space is homogeneous. = 2 sin 8 cos 6 (16. Try to separate the space itself from the coordinates. For the space itself (without the grid). the space becomes nearly flat rather than more curved. the only nontrivial element is This is not zero! This proves that this space is not flat .. the tensor indices of Rpu must be carried by the indices related to the coordinate system.. We need a coordinateindependent measure to indicate the 'Lamountof curvature".e. A heuristic way to understand this : is as follows.if a + oo. A related property is that R.which is of course correct.and the nonzero elements of the Christoffel symbol axe I?:... Finally we calculate the curvature scalar in this example.... . thus directions are distinguished only by the grid. the actual value (if it is not zero) is coordinatedependent. namely g. Such a conclusion is counterintuitive and clearly wrong . o g. Therefore we have to be careful and not say that the "amount of curvature" goes as a2 (as might seem to be the case from (16.
16.7 Curvature tensor and flatness We have said many times that the curvature tensor indicates whether the space is flat. and hence I = 0. Then the result of the paralleltransport would be unique. of path. it is a useful overall measure of the "amount of curvature". . .ZN(Q) at the point Q. Flatness implies zero curvature tensor Assume that the space is flat. We now paralleltransport each of these basis vectors to another point Q.as a + oo.) Thus. We see thai in this example.Since R is independent of coordinates. = 0. which is sensible .. = 0 in every coordinate system. In these coordinates. independent .. = (16. alreadyused this argument in an earlier example. ..the space becomes nearly flat. and on the closed path get a difference at the end . Next notice that dot products are scalars. but slightly more difficult to prove. if the results for path 1 and path 2 are different.. we have . .. & ' . so R . But for now.45) if the space is locally Euclidean (or q. We now establish the equivalence of zero curvature tensor and flatness. if the space is locally Minkowski). Suppose it is given that R . so at Q we also have Since Q is arbitrary. Then there are Cartesian coordinates Zp. the important point is this: given the metric. Jp. = 0. If the space has such a system. . . (Otherwise. But the curvature tensor transforms linearly "P under coordinate transformations. We shall apply the concept of curvature to physics in the next Chapter. .whose dot products are 7 ZN ( P ) G ( P ) &(P) 6. it goes as a2. which are therefore preserved under parallel transport. is constant. we can calculate the curvature tensor. and set up a local orthogonal system with basis vectors ( P ). Zero curvature tensor implies flatness The reverse is also true. In fact. . we establish a corresponding set of basis vectors &(&). we can transport along path 1 and the reverse of path 2.this would then contradict the vanishing of the curvature tensor. we have constructed a global orthogonal Cartesian system. We choose a point P. it must be flat.
16. and recall the definition of the Ricci tensor: + + Raise the Y index Then set P = v and sum: . Construction of Einstein tensor We start with the Bianchi identity Rpvap. . the Einstein tensor G. in obvious notation: or.ry.0 Set cu = p and sum. the field equation will take the form Curvature N Source (16. recall charge conservation in flat space. In particular. is closely related and satisfies both. on the LHS.8 Einsteintensor Introduction As we have said before. The Ricci tensor satisfies (a) but not (b).= 0 This explains that (16. we also need tensor with these two properties.48) is the analog of such a conservation law. Thus. the conservation property is Conservation To review the concept of conservation. using $vector notation The analogous statement in curvilinear coordinates (or on curved space) is obtained by simply changing the derivatives to covariant derivatives: J P .47) where the RHS is (a) a rank 2 tensor and (b) conserved.r RPvrcr.p Rpvpr..
V = 0 (RhY. we have drawn this as a rectangle just to emphasize the similarity with the situation that .= 0 R. i.2RV. We expect that the field equation will relate the Einstein tensor to the source.. We consider the integral § CpdxP over the "rectangle" in Figure 11: Figure 11 Note that the midpoints of the 4 sides are where we have omitted component indices..e.. O = Ri7 .RSYr 2 or iowering the p index To sumainrize.RYy. Also.RYuir RY. In this Appendix. conserved and related to curvature.2RY.iY RPYYTi.). we prove it in a form that is valid in any dimension... Appendix Stokes' theorem should be familiar. x stands for the point whose coordinates are xp.. ... = 0 We define the Einstein tensor to be (1/2) times the quantity in the brackets: + 1 GY. the Einstein tensor is symmetric. = Rv.. .v R".
after a factor of [ q has been explicitly taken out. to the order of accuracy required.you are familiar with. November 16. Then the integral is obtained by adding the 4 contributions. we can evaluate C anywhere in the small rectangle. but there is actually no need for C and to be perpendicular. In the last line.AX where (16. For each contribution. compare Figure 10.tex.61) together then gives proving the result we need. 2000 . we have i~terchanged dummy indices p H CT.58) C is thevalue at the midpoint of the segment and Ax is the displacement. < C.60) and (16. Chl6l. Likewise the 2nd and 4th terms together give Putting (16. Thus The 1st and 3rd terms together give In the above. we evaluate (schematically) .
.
We start from the latter point of view.17 17. The parallel statement for gravity is The force goes as the second power of the 4velocity.1 Einstein's Field Equations Introduction In this Chapter. Let us trace the development in the case of em. We have already discussed some examples in Chapters 14 and 15. or as a theory of gravity. Both em and gravity consist of two parts. Part 1 First.4) to (17. In both cases. the force law is quite similar to em. and compare the theory of gravity with electromagnetism (em). . if the fields are given. Otherwise. we have to say how the particles (more generally the sources) generate the fields. the motion of point particles is in principle determined. we "derive" Einstein's field equations and find some solutions. especially solutions for the examples discussed earlier. Going from (17. Part 2 Secondly. In em. We start with Coulomb's law: This can be written in terms of Poisson's equation for the electrostatic potential Qi: where p is the charge density. and the field I? carries one more index. we describe haw the fields (assumed to be given) act on the particles. Compare electromagnetism Einstein's general theory of relativity can be viewed from two perspectives: as a description of spacetime curvature. this is given by the Lorentz force law: or in covariant notation \ where we have indicated schematically that the force goes as (charge) x (field) x (kvelocity).5) involves no new physics.
the magnetic part (e.g. Maxwell's equations also give the magnetic effect of moving charges. There is a reason for this.g. In t h e case of em.4) and Poisson's equation (17. Maxwell's equations also take care of time delay . and unlike most advances in physics. the overall theoretical framework was developed first. Going from (17. However. the problem with the Newtonian theory was not any readily measured disagreement with experiment. In the case of gravity. the full desciption is given by Maxwell's equations (which we shall not display). In much the same way.: While Coulomb's law gives the electric effect of static charges. Ampere's law) was discovered experimentally. but rat her conceptual problems.8) There is one historical difference.to be further discussed below. but Einstein's equations are nonlinear PDEs. were predicted from the theory. which we shall come to later. e. Going from Coulomb's law to Maxwell's equations does involve new physics. and the 'magnetic" part etc. gravity starts with Newton's inversesquare law: which can again. replaces) the Newtonian theory. Both Maxwell's equations and Einstein's equati~ns partial differnetial equations are (FDEs). The new theory is given by Einstein's field equations the analog of Maxwell's equations for em. As with em. so we should ask "What is wrong with the Newtonian theory of gravity?" Interestingly.However. . What is wrong with Newton Einstein's equations provide a theory of gravity that improves upon (and where the corrections are significant. Thus.to be further discussed below.. to summarize:  Coulomb ( l / r 2 ) Newton (1/ r 2 ) r t Maxwell Einstein (linear PDE) (nonlinear PDE) (17.5) are only valid for statics. b d h Coulomb's law (17. be written in terms of Poisson's equation for the gravitational potential @: where p is now the mass density. the new theory also gives the '(magnetic" effect of moving masses.6) to (17. We use the terms "electric" and "magnetic" to denote forces that are velocityindependent and velocitydependent respectively. and the overall thecretical framework developed later. 0 The new theory will also take care of time delay . and we need a generalization (similar to Maxwell's equations) which has the following properties: While Newton's law gives the '(electric" effect of static masses. We shall explain the physical reason behind this later. When charges move. there is one major difference: Maxwell's equations are linear PDEs. Newton's theory of gravity is only valid for static masses.7) also involves no new physics.
.the density of energy and the flow of energy here. and an extra field Ag cc G A M cx (G2M2/c2).  Delay effect / Figure 1 Let us explain the delay effect in more detail. y . We expect the current. We can repeat this argument and show that there are terms proportional to M3. their effects are felt instantaneously. the field energy is equivalent to an extra mass AM U / c 2 CK GM2/c2. Density and current form a 4vector and should appear together . i. No eflect of'current This problem is closely related to the lack of covariance. and we give a heuristic : argument here.P). E H g. or the charge density and the flow of charge in em. In (17.M4. Thus the total field is not proportional to M alone. It creates a gravitational field g o GM. This is called action at a distance and contradicts the princple that effects propagate at most with the speed of light c. No delay In Newtonian theory. Newton's theory of gravity does not contain this element. Yet. Let there be a mass M. (Recall that in em. by considering the em case. the field enegy is U cc eoE2 and replace !/4neo H G.energy). but momentum does not appear at all. No nonlinear efect This problem is peculiar to gravity and has no counterpart in em.) But since energy is equivalent to mass. the force felt by q is .z show up differently. In (17. This field carries a field energy U m (1/G)g2 m G M 2 . Figure 1 shows a test charge q at a distance from a source Q. In this Chapter. . the flow of energy. the potential iP at time t is determined by the mass density p also at time t. there is no delay between cause and effect.7). with no time delay. Also. N o matter how far away the masses are. In this sense. We shall elaborate on this point below.Covariance The Newtonian theory is not covariant : the time t and the spatial coordinates x. the source is mass (. Coulomb's law suffers from the same problem. to produce a "magnetic" effect. we shall see that Einstein's equations solve all these problems. energy and momentum form a 4vector (E.6) the force F at time t is determined by the position r of the masses at the same time t. we expect that a proper gravitational theory should be nonlinear.e.
where r is the instantaneous separation. Newton's inversesquare law of gravity suffers from exactly the same problem. this means we draw the field lines (Figure 2). it takes a finite time to propagate a finite distance. and ensure consistency with causality. Figure 2 Mathematically. but simply note that a spatial differentiation tells us about the field "at the next point" in space. and F changes immediately.= spatial derivatives dB  at at = spatial derivatives We shall not write out the RHS. the fields are described by PDEs of the schematic form dE . and changes to be like "bumps" that propagate along the strings with a finite speed (Figure 3). This situation can be understood pictorially by imaging the field lines to be like a string. Since the effect propagates only "to the next point". so q should not feel any change until a time t = r / c later. fields and PDEs automatically introduce delay. But we know that signals propagates at most at the speed of light. Instead of (17. and there is delay. so q feels the change immediately. Let us move Q a little bit. Then r changes immediately.9) stating the force. This problem is solved by introducing the concept of fields. Figure 3 In short. . In pictorial terms. we consider the electric field E.
Motivate form of equations What should be the form of Einstein's equations? Start with the Newtonian theory.e. i. we expect that the LHS of the Newtonian equation is replaces by and the LHS of Einstein's equations involves the curvature tensor R (or something constructed out of it. . up to nonlinear terms (which in any case we would not be able to guess from Newtonian theory). Let us make the above formal statement more physical.gravity relates to the departure of the metric from the Minkowski metric. That is an experimentally known fact . and something related to energymomentum in relativity. It has the form aaQ Now recall that for weak fields. (l7.2 Energy The source In Newtonian theory. the source of gravity is the mass m.. If energy is also the source of gravity.from the deflection of light. goo  " (1 + 2Q) hence it is natural to replace Note that the 1 in (17. On the RHS would be the source: the mass density p in Newtonian theory. In relativity we have massenergy equivalence. Thus. light also responds to gravity. but without further differentiations). Since action = reaction. we expect F l We next discuss the source. The Christoffel symbol and the curvature tensor R are related by So. then light (or em fields) can generate gravity. m = E / c 2 . which will also tell us what exactly is on the LHS. 17. which we know to be basically correct.12) does not contribute. which is physically correct . SO we expect that the source now becomes energy.7).
Thus we conclude source N Pp (17. Locally. summarized as T p " . in a certain direction j ) . it gives rise to The energy density Too(E per unit volume) . Locally.1 local quantity.3 local quantities. The components of T p " have the following meaning. it gives rise to The momentum density T'O (Pi per unit volume) . The first part of the source is the energy E (1 global conserved quantity).17) Count components in em IE em. The charge flux or current . Locally.3 local quantities. it gives rise to The charge density p (Q per unit volume) . and Maxwell's equations take the schematic form Count components in gravity Now do a similar count for gravity. there is also the source Pi (3 global conserved quantities).9 local quantities. The momentum flux T G (flow of P' per unit area per unit time. In addition.3 local quantities.18) Then the field also has 4 components. the source is the charge Q (1 global conserved quantity).Momentum But the energy E (say of a particle) is the time component Po of a 4vector Pp. al components P must also generate gravity. in a certain direction j ) .?j (flow of Q per unit area per unit time. The energy flux TOj(flow of E per unit area per unit time. The 4 local quantities form a 4vector Jp = (PI J) (17. in a certain direction j) .19)) . If Po generates l p gravity. Thus we have a total of 16 quantities. namely the Cvector potential Ap..1 local quantity. Too = density of energy TO^ = flux of energy in direction j Ti0 = density of i component of momentum T ' ~ = flux of i component of momentum in direction j We expect Einstein's equations to take the form (compare (17. then by covariance.
. Thus TpV transforms like PpP". A box of size L3 contains N particles of mass m. all moving along the 1axis with speed v. and the combination n / E is invariant (Appendix). Problem 1 Consider the following situation.e.3 The energymomentum tensor The tensor Tp" gives the distribution and flow of energy and momentum due to matter. then where n = number density Pp = 4momentum of particles E = PO = energy of the particles a) all calculated at a certain point in spacetime.. The model If the energy and moment= are due to a collection of particles. For example. i. It says. (d) Hence show that TO1 = TIo. (a) What is the energy density? (b) What is the 1component of the momentum density? (c) How much energy crosses the 23 plane per unit time? Hence calculate the 1component of the momentum density.. e. We provide several models for calculating it.g. We note that T is symmetric: which is in fact a general property. they transform in the same way. we start in flat Minkowski spacetime. like a (i) tensor. with (. / Because the number density n and the energy E are both the 0components of vectors. that the energy flux is equal to the momentum density. in view of the earlier discussion for the LHS. 17. denoting an average. where R deootes the curvature tensor (or something related to it).or. The derivation for the other components is given in the Appendix. (since Po = E) which is clearly the correct expression for the energy density.
We now consider three submodels: Dust. Recall that. For simplicity we assume that the fluid as a whole is not in motion. On the other hand. we claim that all the diagonal entries are just the pressure: . T h ~ v = O and the spatial components are Pi= 0. v 1 H vl. Po= E = m (in units s where c = 1). or which have negligible velocities. Thus In other words. no momentum flux.25)). So i it remains to calculate T ' j . there is no momentum and no energy flux: T ' = TOi = 0. no energy flux. Perfect fluid This model consists of particles moving at velocities v. Pi = rn7vi and E = my. no momentum density. Secondly. so First. to be denoted as p (see (17. For example (m7v1v2)= 0 because the system must be invariant under the reversal of the 1axis. Since the fluid is at rest. for v = 0 Perfect fluid Radiation.) s The 00 component i simply the energy density. (Otherwise we consider the following in the local rest frame and perform a Lorentz transformation. there is only energy density. There is no flow of energy since the particles are not moving. for v = c The dust model consists of particles that are not moving. this vanishes if i # j.
The particle has to travel a distance of 2L before the next collision with the same wall. Problem 2 Consider a parcel of fluid moving with overall velocity V along the 1direction.:.o o o p . p and p are not independent. . and the frequency of collisions is v1/(2L).28). of particles x frequency of collisions x momentum delivered x area Since the speeds of the particles are different. with p = 0. By using a Lorentz transformation. the dust model can be regarded as a special case of the perfect fluid model. Thus the pressure is 1 p = no.Figure 4 To prove this. Each collision of a particle with a wall (in the 23 plane) delivers a momentum 2P1. the above derviation should refer to the average. find the energymomentum tensor in the lab frame. the energymomentum tensor is given by (17.) However. namely N = nL3. This must be multiplied by the number of particles in the box. p = p(0). and the total force is delivered on a wdl of area L2.32). or both in terms of the temperature 0: p = p(O). In short. consider the usual derivation of the pressure in kinetic theory (Figure 4). In fact. In its own rest frame. so the time between collisions is 2L/v1. and for the tensor as a whole P O 0 0 T = ( . they are related by an equation of state: p = p(p). Thus. we get exactly (17.
34) In fact. As before Too= E. or other massless particles (e. We do the calculation in this small piece of flat spacetime. using cartesian coordinates. The equations keep the same forms because both sides are tensors. (a) Each little piece of spacetime can be regarded as flat. since xi P'P' = P2= E2 (the last step using the fact that the mass is zero or negligible). so that P e E.. Accordingly. T p " = 0 for p > i or v > N. the radiation model is a special case of the perfect fluid model with p = p / 3 .Radiation In this model. and we have PF = 0 for p > N. By isotropy. but the results apply to curved spacetime as well. 1 = 3 pi nC(+p . V 17. and Ti$= 0if i # j. these are the Uextra" dimensions. Curved spacetime The above calculations were implicitly performed in flat spacetime.e. The chain of argument is straightforward.g. in flat spacetime. neutrinos). i.. Let the manifold be defined by x p = 0 for p > N. 0 0 p/3 !) (17. Then the particles do not move outside the manifold. the particles are photons. (b) We transform to generalized coordinates locally. It also applies to situations where massiveparticles are moving very rapidly. We shall use this property below for a simple proof of conservation laws. the conservation of charge takes the local form or the convafiant form .4 Conservation of energy and momentum Conservation of charge in f a spacetime lt Recall that. Embedding space The above is also valid if the curved manifold is embedded in a larger flat space. So for the tensor as a whole T= (! 0 0 0 p 3 .
36) leads to the conservation of charge globally. . the rate of increase of Q is equal to minus the rate of outflow. To show that (17. the conservation of the Cmomentum component P is given by a P local conservation law: Note that p is a free index while v is summed. this equation can be interpreted as: the rate of increase of P P is equal to minus the rate of outflow. consider Integrate this over a certain volume V: where in the first term we note that TP0 is the density of P and in the second term we note P that Tpi is the rate of flow of P@ unit area per unit time. Thus. In exactly the per saine way.39) leads to the conservation C of P " globally. in the i direction. Conservation of energy and momentum in flat spacetime Similarly. and we have used Guass' theorem to convert the second term to a surface integral over the boundary of V.To show that (17. consider Integrate this over a certain volume V: where Q is the total charge in the volume. in flat spacetime.
. only along the manifold. thus TPuiV 0 in all coordinate frames.e.. . the equation should be RT (17. So. we expect ddg source  (17.5 Einstein's equations Motivation Newton's law of gravity takes the form V2@ p and since changes in are related to changes in the metric tensor g. = 17. The expression TPui.Change to curved spacetime It is easy to convert these statements to curved spacetime. Thus if p > N or v > N. It is symmetric. = Choose a coordinate system such that the physical manifold is given by x" = const for Y > N.= 0. denotes the covariant derivative. It is conserved: TpVi. there are no momentum components pointing out of the physical manifold. i. But the covariant derivative is a tensor. i. Now by using cartesian coordinates in the Mdimensional embedding space. .. so PV = 0 for v > N.44) (17.but in view of (17. i.e.e... which has the following properties: It is a rank 2 tensor. Particles move only along the physical manifold. = 0 (as derived above). 0 on the manifold. and hence TPUiV 0 since all Christoffel symbols are zero in = the cartesian system.45) Also recall that the curvature tensor (schematically R) is related to ddg. Imagine Ndimensional spacetime (curved) embedded into Mdimensional fiat spacetime.43). Thus Tfi"... We give a heuristic argument for this result.. the RHS is the energymomentum tensor.originally implies summing over v = 1..M . it carries two indices.N. we can sum over only Y = 1. and do so only for the case of the energymomentum tensor. we have T v .. and transforms linearly. namely where .46) Here. and we have just shown that the source should be TP".
giving finally . In this case the metric is and it is straightforward to show that in this case On the other hand. with the Eisntein equations eventually justified by comparison of its predictions with measurements.) Needless to say.48) where only the constant I< remains to be determined. which should also be f describable by Newton's theory.Hence the LHS must be something made from the Riemann curvature tensor. we have "derived" Einstein's equation G u = KT. on the RHS of the Einstein equation we have TooR Too= p = mass density Thus the 00 component of the equation gives . (We have chosen to write this with lower indices. Consider weak fields The value of the constant I car: be established by studying weak fields. also with these properties.+Rgpv Thus. p (17. the "derivation" is hardly rigorous.2V2@= Kp But Newton's theory gives v2@ 47rGp = Comparing these two then gives K = 87rG. From the last Chapter. we see that the only choice is the Einstein tensor G P " : G p = R p v . We can regard the foregoing as motivation only. but of cowse the free indices on both sides can be raised or lower together.'.
. Thus E oc Q and the theory is linear. and so contains 4 x 4 equations. there are in fact only 10 independent . the BiotSavart law (magnetostatics) or the LenardWiechert potential (moving charges). the situation is totally different. Even if we know the . Thus. etc. but the gravitational field (or graviton) has mass or energy. the spatial components To'and T ' j give rise to the "magnetic" effects of gravity. a mass M produces a field (or acceleration due to gravity) g cx M. we need the inverse matrix elements gll etc. The spatial components of (17.if we know the effect of one point charge. 0 The equations are coupled.. In just the same way.55) describes magnetism: J gives rise to A' and hence i the magnetic field. AM oc U cx g2 oc M2. 0 Recall that R. i. This leads to an important consequence. Of course these are PDEs. thecurvature tensor contains a term quadratic in the Christoffel symbol: R aI' I' T. The crucial difference is: the electric field (or the photon) has no charge. First. Nonlinearity We wish to understand the physical origin of the nonlinearity in a heuristic way. Maxwell's equations are linear. A linear theory obeys the principle of superposition: the sum of two solutions is a solution.) But crucially. then for any problem we simply have to add (or integrate). In em. in a suitable gauge. .we simply add things up by Coulomb's law (electrostatics). and these depend nodinearly on 911 etc.. there are no really difficult problems in em . gll. the Einstein equations are coupled. We can see this mathematically in at least two ways. nonlinear PDEs. So all of em can be reduced to point charges . etc..Nature of the equations We now examine some properties of this set of equations. and they are again coupled.e.. even in calculating I?. equations.which produces a field Ag oc AM cx M2. The equations are nonlinear. so the story ends. The story goes on.54) allows free choices of p and v. 0 The equation (17. But the field itself carries energy U cx g2 and hence mass. do not occur separately in different equations. But because both sides are symmetric in p t v. Thus these are secondorder diflerentz'alequations for the 10 metric components g. N + Compare electromagnetism Maxwell's equations take the form These are 4 equations for the unknowns A". but by the motion of masses.. (However. a charge Q produces a field E oc Q. Second. The field itself is not charged. and the total field is not simply proportional to M. up to second order. involve derivatives of g. 922 etc. In gravity.e. they can be decoupled so that each Ap appears by itself without the other component. In gravity. additional gravitational effects caused not by masses.. They are again PDEs. i. In short.
but in a slightly different way. This explains why the magnetic effect in em was first discovered experimentally. say at a speed of v = 300 m s'. To understand this. the magnetic effect is small. The cancellation of the electric field depends on the existence of opposite charges. but the magnetic field is produced by currents: where v is the typical velocity of the charges. The beams are not in free space. this limitation is now becoming irrelevant. and the electric effect cancels exactly.e. There is one important exception: if the test particle is a photon. and also a magnetic force of attraction between two parallel currents. We have actually seen this in the discussion of the deflection of light. because equations can always be solved numerically on the computer. Therefore very few analytic solutions are known. the net charge in each wire is zero. But you have done this experiment (in fact with much smaller values of v) even in high school . first remember that the electric field is produced by charges. consider two beams 9f electrons. T we know the solution for one point mass M . in the next Section. In the wires are positive ions of exactly equal density. whereas the corresponding effect in gravity was first postulated theoretically. the latter is smaller by a factor x 1012. The latter appears only as a tiny correction to the Newtonian force. Magnetic effect In em. P = There is a Coulomb force of repulsion. but still easy to detect experimentally.his restriction. we show two exact solutions that are well known. However. we cannot simply multiply by 2 to get f the solution for one point mass 2M. P = 1.solution for one point mass. Nevertheless. for simplicity we have assumed that the speed of the source and the speed of the test charge are the same order. If we really do this experiment. and that have been used in previous Chapters . and the LLmagnetic" terms arre of the same order. we cannot simply add these up t o obtain the solution for two point masses. and the fact that the strong Coulomb attraction makes them combine until neutrality is achieved. P2 . i. (In the above. Thus. In some sease. and is therefore easily detected. we do not have opposite signs of mass.now we finally justify the assumptions made previously. but are electrons moving in parallel wires. moving in parallel but some distance apart. magnetic forces are down by a factor of v Z = P2. acting on a test charge q . However. So the "electric" effect is never cancelled to reveal the "magnetic" effect. Now.) For example. we need at least 12figure accuracy to detect the magnetic force.. however. This leaves the much smaller magnetic force as the largest remaining contribution. where naive adaptation of the Newtonian theory is wrong by a factor of 2. it is easy to remove t. we have Electric force Magnetic force N qE qQ qvB q ~ v 2 Thus.
Linear? Superposition? . the coefficients cannot depend on t because the situation is assumed to be static. we show how one of these is calculated. Under these assumptions. As an illustration. and r is the circumferential radius. the most general form of the line element is The 8 and 4 terms must take this form because of spherical symmetry. First. Our object is to use the Einstein equations to determine A and B. Some of the nonzero ones turn out to be. eg.6 I Nature Order Basic variables NO. In the rest of the metric. Remember: we expect to get secondorder differential equations for A and B..TWO signs of source? A PDE 2 PDE 2 I A. . I I I I ~  U Y I4 I I Yes I Yes I Yes I I 10 I NO I NO I No I I I I I Some solutions of Einstein's equations Schwarzschild metric The Schwarzschild solution describes one single point mass M which is static and nonrotating. and cannot depend on 8 and c$ because of spherical symmetry. em Maxwell I I Coulomb gravity Einstein Newton I Static avvrox A A . we calculate the Christoffel symbols. Eauations I I 1 I I I I I 17. Thus. there can be only two functions depending on r alone. denoted as A(r) and B ( r ) .Comparison We summarize the comparison between em and gravity. of ea.
(B')'. A'B'.In general.. A straightforward but slightly tedious computation shows that the nonzero elements are Problem 4 Calculate all the components of the Ricci tensor and verify the above results. there is no energy and momentum. = 0. Problem 3 Calculate all the components of I?. note that I? involves up to one derivative of A and B.e. where space must be flat. Next we calculate the Ricci tensor.(BA' + AB') rA 1 showing that The value 1 is obtained by evaluating at r implies 4 m..65) . B" as well as (A')'. T. So we expect terms that go like A". The relation (17. = 0 and Einstein's equation becomes R. We consider  . away from the point mass. i. Now. Schematically R aI'+rr.
especially at the point r = 2GM. . So To determinec.g. once the value of the constant is obtained. We have already used this formula many times. in the discussion of the blackhole phenomenon. So finally we have Although we referred to a point mass. it is of course valid for all r. Although the derivation made use of large r . it is easy to see that the derivation goes through for teh space outside any static.where the field must be weak. e. we consider r agree with oo. spherical distrbution of mass. We have also used the results for the deflection of light and the advance of perihelion in the gravitational field of a star. Thus it is valid outside a nonrotating star. and should therefore Comparison then gives C = 2GM.We put all these back into the 88 equation to give This gives leading to where C is a constant.
j describes a unit 3D sphere in 4D space (if I' = 1). flat or open.. As usual. i.. 0 or 1.e. Problem 6 Check the above results for the Ricci tensor.RobsertsonWalker metric In our discussion of cosmology. The parameter ( is either +I. I 8 In the second line above. with the results Note that K appears only in the last equation above. The factor a(t) is the scale factor of the universe. The results are Problem 5 Calculate all the components of I . to see how the universe evolves. indicating whether space is closed. i Now it remains to determine a(t). we had introduced the RobertsonWalker metric with the following line element In the above. ' Next we calculate the Riemann curvature tensor and then the Ricci tensor. i. we have introduced the notation jij to simplify the writing of the expression in the square brackets. The reduced metric ij.e. we begin by calculating the Christoffel symbol. 0 The structure of the spatial terms is dictated by the requirements of homogeneity and isotropy. We now impose Einstein's field equations . a dimensionless length measured in units of a(t). all r are really 5 .
83). This form has the advantage of moving some of the complications from the LHS (involving unknowns) to the RHS (involving knowns). we assume a nonrelativistic matterdominated universe. the first term is like th KE. In (17.. giving where K1 is a constant of integration. the second term is like the PE and the term on the RHS is like the total .It can be shown (Appendix) that this can also be written in the form where T = Tp. To evaluate the RHS of (17. showng that our previous derivation by considering a small piece of the universe was indeed valid. Thus and consequently Now consider the tt equation Evaluate the two sides: 3a LHS = a RHS = 4rGp Putting these together gives This is exactly the same as the Newtonian equation.82) to (17.83) follows the usual calculation that proves conservation of energy from the equation of motion.82) once in time. The derivation from (17.77). We next integrate (17.
which is more instructive.j = 4~G~a~ij. 0 or 1. which opened the way to the modern study of cosmology.e.energy. Consider N particles of mass m.~ Putting these together then gives aii + 2ir2 + 2K = 4aGpa2 In the above. namely K = IC' being either $1. at rest in a box of size L3. Then n = N / L3 and E = rn. The sign of K' indicates whether the variable a "escapes" t o infinity. so n/ E = N/(mL3). This is one major achievement of Einstein's equations.. Next consider the i j equation: K j = 8aGSij Evaluate the two sides: LHS = (aii + 2 i 2 + 2K) jij RES = 4xGpg. we simply demonstrate it for one simple example. The 3 cases can only be distinguished by observations. Of course. In short.82): Some simplification then leads to which is exactly the same as (17. So far. i. Instead of a general proof. we have no new information beyond what is already known. Appendix Invariant combination We show that the ratio n / E is invariant. eliminate ii using (17. .83) with K' (the constant of integration in time)replaced by K (the constant describing the structure in space). there are still 3 possibilities. Thus we have derived the important result The physical meaning is: the universe is closed in space ( K = 1) if and only if the universe is closed in time (I? = 1). we have proved the key assumptions used in earlier discussion of "poor man's cosmology". whether the universe expands forever.
92) and we have Chl71. 2000 . Note that the trace of g. Thus ' n = N / V 1= 7 n ' At the same time..tex. but the length in the 1direction is cootracted by a factor 7. hence the volume is V = L2L' = L3/7. (We have to first raise one index and then sum. with +1 down the diagonal. December 11. Alternate form of Einsteins' equations Start with Einstein's equations in their original form and take the trace.Now transform to a reference frame that is moving at velocity v . the energy of each particle now becomes E'=ym=7E so the ratio n'/E1 is the same as n / E . The crosssection area in the 23 plane is unchanged.) Then we get Put this back into (17. with one upper index and one lower index. is 4. say along the 1direction. g becomes the Kronecker delta.
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