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Sriharsha Chamala Milan rai
Electronics and Communications Engineering, RVR Institute of Engineering and Technology, Sheriguda, Ibrahimpatanam, Andhra Pradesh
Abstract— this document aims to illustrate the
incomparable significance of modern day electronic systems in military applications and the extent to which they affect a nation’s security and ongoing defence establishments or procedures. In this regard, we shall use an instance of“X-Band” radar as demonstrated in the third generation fighter aircraft such as the American F-22 raptor fighter jets or the Russian Sukhoi Flankers and exemplify the concept of posturing superior air defence and maintaining air superiority in hostile terrain or environments thanks to the technology mentioned above. In addition to these we shall also deal with the concept of “Beyond Visual Range” engagement of targets and demonstrate how the advancement of weapon systems enables a far safer and more effectual termination of critical missions.
Radar guided air to air missiles currently represent the best of what state of the art technology II. BEYOND VISUAL RANGE can offer, both in terms of range, accuracy and MISSILES AND TRACKING resistance to countermeasures. This reflects in the fact, that these weapons are only used by the TECHNOLOGY world's frontline air forces, the maintenance of the A Beyond Visual Range missile usually refers to complex fire control systems required being beyond an air-to-air missile that is capable of engaging at the abilities of the average Third World country. In comparison with the Western World, even the ranges beyond 20 nautical miles (37 km). This Warpac air forces use few of these weapons, up to range has been achieved using dual pulse rocket motors or booster rocket motor and ramjet sustainers motor.
the mid seventies only the USSR using a number of types on air defence aircraft Radar guidance systems detect and home in on their targets by sensing electromagnetic energy reflected from the target's surface. The source of the reflected radiation is a radar transmitter; in the instance of weapons with active radar guidance, this transmitter is situated within the missile; in the case of semiactive guidance, it is carried by the launch aircraft. In either case the transmitter must beam electromagnetic radiation at the target, this radiation must travel to the target, reflect, travel back to the receiving antenna of the missile, be amplified, demodulated and analysed to determine the direction of the target, this information then enables the guidance computer to steer the weapon toward the target to achieve a kill. An effective weapon must have the ability to discriminate between the target's return and reflections from its background, i.e. the surface of the Earth or ocean; it should also be capable of resisting jamming or deception and be able to penetrate through adverse weather conditions...
Early air-to-air missile used semi active radar guidance that is the missile used the radiation produced by the launching aircraft to guide it to the target. the missile must also be capable of tracking its target at this range or of acquiring the target in flight. enabling it to avoid some kinds of radar jamming distractions offered by the target. Additionally. detector of a radar signal – provided by an external (“off board”) source — as it reflects off the target. Semi Active Radar Homing Fig 2: Fly . NATO brevity code for semi-active radar homing missile launch is Fox One. 1) Concept: The basic concept of SARH is that since almost all detection and tracking systems consist of a radar system. perhaps sort of “lead” guidance. The latest generation of BVR missiles use a combination of semi-active and active radar. Missiles like the Raytheon AIM-7 Sparrow and Vympel R-27 (NATO designation AA-10 'Alamo') home in on the reflected radiation. The disadvantages are the most common type for longer range air-to-air twofold: One is that a radar signal is “fan shaped”. The first such missiles were relatively simple beam riding designs that were soon replaced by Semi-active radar homing (SARH).In addition to the range capability. Systems in which a mid course correction is transmitted to the missile have been used. the resolution of radar is strongly related to the physical size of the antenna. and surface-to-air missile systems. The radar antenna must "illuminate" the target until impact. The name refers growing larger. A. and in the small nose cone of a missile there isn't enough room to provide the sort of accuracy needed for guidance. In the SARH Fig 1: Semi Active Radar Homing system the missile listens for the reflected signal at Semi-active radar homing. Instead the larger radar dish on the ground or launch aircraft will provide the needed signal and tracking logic.Wire Contrast this with beam riding systems. duplicating this hardware on the missile itself is redundant. This is where the launching aircraft's radar is "locked" onto the target in a Single Target Track (STT) mode. and the missile simply has to listen to the signal reflected from the target and point itself in the right direction. This means that the beam riding system is . In addition. or SARH.By . with to the fact that the missile itself is only a passive distance. is a the nose. and is still responsible for providing some common type of missile guidance system. directing radar energy at the target that the missile seeker can "see" as it reflects off the target. in which the radar is pointed at the target and the missile keeps itself centred in the beam by listening to the signal at the rear of the missile body. Some of the longest range missiles in use today still use this technology. much like a Laser-guided bomb homes in on the reflected laser radiation. and therefore less accurate. the missile will listen rearward to the launch platform's transmitted signal as a reference.
A few Soviet aircraft. The target must remain illuminated for the entire duration of the missile's flight. as well as giving the target's electronic warning systems time to detect the attack and engage countermeasures. This can keep the target from realising it is under attack until shortly before the missile strikes. Even though most modern fighter radars are pulse Doppler sets. such as the SM-2. only activating their SARH system for the final attack. or the source of the reflected signal it listens for. incorporate terminal semi-active radar homing (TSARH). but the system still has fundamental limitations. while SARH is largely independent of range and grows more accurate as it approaches the target. Some of these weapons.not accurate at long ranges. most have a CW function to guide radar missiles. each radar emitter can be used to engage more targets. SUPPLEMENT GUIDANCE ON INITIAL SARH missiles require tracking radar to acquire the target. older radars are limited to one target per radar emitter at a time. Modern SARH systems use continuous-wave (CW) radar for guidance. This could leave the Fig 4: A Radar Homing and Warning System (RHAW) . Another requirement is that a beam riding system must accurately track the target at high speeds. typically requiring one radar for tracking and another “tighter” beam for guidance. 3) Electronic Counter Counter missiles: Recent-generation SARH weapons have superior electronic counter-countermeasure (ECCM) capability. The SARH system needs only one radar set to a wider pattern. and a more narrowly focused illuminator radar to "light up" the target in order for the missile to lock on to the Radar return reflected off target. 2) CONTINUOUS WAVE RADAR: launch aircraft vulnerable to counter attack. Because most SARH missiles require guidance during their entire flight. such as some versions of the MiG-23 and MiG-27. TSARH missiles use inertial guidance for most of their flight. INTERCEPTOR USES THE VYMPEL R-33 AA MISSILE FOR SARH AS THE MAIN TYPE OF GUIDANCE OF INERTIAL CW MIG-31 (WITH STAGE). used an Fig 3: A Simple Radar Warning System AUXILIARY GUIDANCE POD OR AERIAL TO PROVIDE A SIGNAL. Some newer missiles. like the SM-2. Since the missile only requires guidance during the terminal phase. allow the firing platform to update the missile with mid-course updates via data link.
This is however predicated on several assumptions: *The player with the longer ranging radar has a longer ranging missile to facilitate a first shot. Radar. initiate tracking and identification. The F-22A has proven repeatedly that super cruising at 50. where thtime of flight of the missile would otherwise create opportunities for a target to move outside of the No Escape Zone (NEZ) of a BVR missile seeker. *The player with the shorter ranging radar does not have the capability to effectively jam the radar.000 ft adds more than 30 percent to the range of the AIM-120C AMRAAM it carries. Infrared sensors cannot penetrate cloud or other atmospheric propagation impairments as well as X-band microwaves can. can penetrate most weather conditions and impairments from the stratosphere down to the lowest layers of the troposphere. compared to a subsonic launch from a conventional teen series fighter. and a prerequisite if one seeks to gain an advantage by deploying longer ranging radar than an opponent has. and engagement of targets in the BVR air combat game. which in the current state of the art permits X-band fighter radars to acquire larger targets at distances in excess of 200 nautical miles (~400 km). Missile kinematic performance is thus critical. B). A). High Power Aperture X-Band Fighter Radars primary tool for the acquisition. Fig5: PDS vs BVR combat Pulse Doppler radars remain the primary long range sensors used by fighter aircraft for BVR combat. Pulse Doppler Radar Performance vs. tracking. which can be problematic for passive sensors operating in the optical bands. Radars typically also double up as X-band data link transmitters for long range missiles. and how good the midcourse autopilot software is in converting that energy into range. direction. Tactical Implications of High Power BVR Combat: Aperture Product Fighter Radars: The conventional wisdom in BVR combat is that the player with the longer ranging radar wins the game as the radar provides the opportunity to detect the opponent earlier. Radars are also capable of rapidly divining the velocity. conversely. *The victim does not turn tail early. Effective range is another consideration. altitude and often identity of targets. spoiling the missile engagement geometry and getting out of the missile's kinematic No Escape Zone. an important factor in achieving high kill probabilities in BVR combat. and launch a missile shot first. but the kinematics of the launch aircraft also matter immensely.III. Missile range will be determined in part by the design of the missile. specifically how much energy is stored in its rocket or ramjet propellant. as radar performance is limited by the pulsed power-aperture product of the design. This is for several good reasons. For the foreseeable future radars will remain the .
More specifically it is the application of Fig: Radar plays a vital role in EW technology. A technique for suppressing a jamming source that is available to users of AESAs and hybrid ESAs is to put sharp nulls into the antenna mainlobe dynamically. . at extreme ranges well in excess of 50 nautical miles burnthrough is unlikely to be a practical proposition. electromagnetic energy. primarily radar and communications. Power Aperture Electronic warfare between opponents remains a key consideration in long range missile combat. This is because the power ratings of conventional defensive jamming systems will be sized to defeat surface based engagement radars with power aperture performance well in excess of any fighter radar. remaining oblivious to the vital issues. The British successfully degraded the performance of the Luftwaffe's Knickebein and Wotan radio navigation systems by jamming and followed this with the successful application of communications jamming. No more is this evident than in the modern air battle where Electronic Warfare (EW) drives penetration strategy and tactics. tactics and technology of modern warfare. radar deception jamming and chaff (window) during the night bombing offensive. The significant aspect of the early British EW effort was the emphasis on offensive techniques rather than defensive systems.Fig 6: Impact of Missile Kinematics vs. Ignorance of EW kills which history proves repeatedly. Conclusions Electronic Warfare has become a military discipline within itself with a pervasive influence upon the strategy. reduce or prevent hostile use of the electromagnetic spectrum and action which retains friendly use of the electromagnetic spectrum. By definition EW is military action involving the use of electromagnetic energy to determine. this past and current trend seems to stem from the greater publicity associated with major offensives rather IV. yet decision makers blindly persist in their rejection of the discipline. Sadly Bomber Command was unable to match its success in the application of offensive EW with effective defensive countermeasures which resulted in a horrendous sustained loss rate. While high power aperture radars provide good burnthrough performance. Needless to say radar and communications are pivotal components in any modern air defence system and it is in this area that EW has found its most dramatic application. exploit. while fundamentally influencing airframe and weapon system design. strategy and tactics to deny the than an appreciation of sustained loss rates. opponent the partial or full use of those electronic systems which rely upon the transmission of . Historically EW emerged as a discipline during the Luftwaffe night blitz and credit for its development as a discipline goes without any doubt to the British.
References.Acknowledgement I would like to acknowledge the “Aus Air Power” think tank for provide immeasurable inspiration towards the completion of this paper and Dr. .Dr Carlo Kopp. MIEEE. the publications of whom formed the basis for most of this papers interpretations of real world data.  Aus Air Power .  WIkipedia. Carlo Kopp in particular. SMAIAA. PEng.
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