Benjamin Bloom created this taxonomy for categorizing level of abstraction of questions that commonly occur in educational settings. The taxonomy provides a useful structure in which to categorize test questions, since professors will characteristically ask questions within particular levels, and if you can determine the levels of questions that will appear on your exams, you will be able to study using appropriate strategies. Competence
observation and recall of information knowledge of dates, events, places knowledge of major ideas mastery of subject matter Question Cues: list, define, tell, describe, identify, show, label, collect, examine, tabulate, quote, name, who, when, where, etc.
understanding information grasp meaning translate knowledge into new context interpret facts, compare, contrast order, group, infer causes predict consequences Question Cues: summarize, describe, interpret, contrast, predict, associate, distinguish, estimate, differentiate, discuss, extend
use information use methods, concepts, theories in new situations solve problems using required skills or knowledge Questions Cues: apply, demonstrate, calculate, complete, illustrate, show, solve, examine, modify, relate, change, classify, experiment, discover
* Adapted from: Bloom.) (1956) Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals: Handbook I. prepare. arrange. (Ed. New York . compose. draw conclusions Question Cues: combine. order. Toronto: Longmans. plan. connect.organization of parts recognition of hidden meanings identification of components Question Cues: analyze. discriminate. select. judge. support. separate. cognitive domain.S. rank. compare. recommend. conclude. design. explain. what if?. decide. create. modify. substitute. compare. Green. grade. invent. formulate. integrate. explain. test.
. convince. generalize. measure. rewrite
compare and discriminate between ideas assess value of theories. presentations make choices based on reasoned argument verify value of evidence recognize subjectivity Question Cues assess. divide. select. infer
use old ideas to create new ones generalize from given facts relate knowledge from several areas predict. rearrange. classify. explain. B.
.related to.according to.. identifying motives... Try to utilize higher order level of questions. describing in one's own words. organization and selection of facts and ideas Retell. translating from one medium to another. APPLICATION o o o problem solving..As teachers we tend to ask questions in the "knowledge" catagory 80% to 90% of the time. but using them all the time is. separation of a whole into component parts What are the parts or features of.an example of.. recognizing...
KNOWLEDGE o o o o o remembering.. rules and principles How is.. memorizing. These questions require much more "brain power" and a more extensive and elaborate answer.... finding the underlying structure of a communication. recalling identification and recall of information Who.? How is.. when.. use of facts.. how . applying information to produce some result.. where. what. Below are the six question categories as defined by Bloom..? Why is... These questions are not bad.? Describe COMPREHENSION o o o o interpreting.. Outline/diagram.significant? ANALYSIS o o o o subdividing something to show how it is put together.
. resolving controversies or differences of opinion..? What might happen if you combined.? What criteria would you use to assess......? Place the following in order of priority....compare/contrast with..? How would you create/design a new.? What do you think about....? What is the most important.How does. combination of ideas to form a new whole What would you predict/infer from. How would you decide about.? SYNTHESIS o o creating a unique. judgements or decisions Do you agree.....? What ideas can you add to..? EVALUATION o o o making value decisions about issues. original product that may be in verbal form or may be a physical object..? What solutions would you suggest for........? What evidence can you list for... development of opinions.
why explain identify the results of select tell what would happen tell how much change there would be
IV. when. table demonstrate
III.Bloom's Taxonomy's Model Questions and Key Words
Based on Bloom's Taxonomy. opinion what statement is relevant
. ANALYSIS (breaking down into parts. KNOWLEDGE (drawing out factual answers. where. testing recall and recognition) who what why when where how match select describe define choose omit which one what is the best one how much what does it mean
II. APPLICATION (to situations that are new. unfamiliar or have a new slant for students) predict what would happen if choose the best statements that apply judge the effects what would result tell how. interpreting and extrapolating) state in your own words what does this mean give an example condense this paragraph state in one word what part doesn't fit what expectations are there what are they saying what seems to be what seems likely which statements support what restrictions would you add classify judge infer show indicate tell translate select match explain represent which are facts is this the same as select the best definition what would happen if explain what is happening explain what is meant read the graph. forms) distinguish identify what assumptions what is the function of what's fact. table this represents is it valid that show in a graph. Developed and Expanded by John Maynard
I. COMPREHENSION (translating.
theme what literary form is used implicit in the statement is
related to. extraneous to. SYNTHESIS (combining elements into a pattern not clearly there before) create tell make do choose develop how would you test propose an alternative solve the following plan design make up compose formulate how else would you state a rule
VI. better. moral.what motive is there what conclusions make a distinction what is the premise what ideas apply what's the relationship between what's the main idea. not applicable what does author believe. inconsistencies appear which is more important. fallacies what persuasive technique
V. assume state the point of view of state the point of view of what ideas justify conclusion the least essential statements are what inconsistencies. and state why) appraise judge criticize defend what fallacies. appropriate find the errors compare
. EVALUATION (according to some set of criteria. consistencies. logical. valid.
? Can you provide an example of what you mean......? Who do you think..? Who was the key character..? What was the main idea.. Illustrate what you think the main idea was.? How many...
Useful Verbs Sample Question Stems Potential activities and products
. Paint a picture of some aspect you like....? Potential activities and products Make a list of the main events..? Can you name the.....? Which is true or false.? Can you write a brief outline.? Describe what happened at.. Prepare a flow chart to illustrate the sequence of events.. Make a chart showing.. Recite a poem.? Who was it that....
Useful Verbs explain interpret outline discuss distinguish predict restate translate compare describe Sample Question Stems Can you write in your own words....? Find the meaning of.? What is. Make a colouring book. Make a timeline of events....? Potential activities and products
Cut out or draw pictures to show a particular event.? Can you provide a definition for..? What differences exist between.....? Who spoke to.? What do you think could of happened next.. in the story. Retell the story in your words.. Write a list of any pieces of information you can remember. List all the ..? Can you distinguish between. Write and perform a play based on the story.? Can you tell why. Make an acrostic. Make a cartoon strip showing the sequence of events.. Make a facts chart.Knowledge
Useful Verbs tell list describe relate locate write find state name Sample Question Stems What happened after... Write a summary report of an event......
. Design a market strategy for your product using a known strategy as a model. Make a jigsaw puzzle.. what might the ending have been? How was this similar to.. Make a flow chart to show the critical stages... Construct a graph to illustrate selected information.. Put on a play about the study area. changes occur? Can you compare your ... can you develop a set of instructions about... happened. Make up a puzzle game suing the ideas from the study area.? Could this have happened in. Make a clay model of an item in the material... Paint a mural using the same materials. with that presented in. Write a biography of the study person. for others... Make a paper-mache map to include relevant information about an event. Review a work of art in terms of form.? What was the turning point in the game? What was the problem Potential activities and products Design a questionnaire to gather information.... Take a collection of photographs to demonstrate a particular point.? Can you group by characteristics such as.? Can you explain what must have happened when.? Can you apply the method used to some experience of your own.. Conduct an investigation to produce information to support a view.. Prepare a report about the area of study. Make a diorama to illustrate an important event.... Write a commercial to sell a new product... Make all the arrangements and record the steps needed.? Would this information be useful if you had a .. Arrange a party.?
Construct a model to demonstrate how it will work...solve show use illustrate construct complete examine classify
Do you know another instance where... Dress a doll in national costume. colour and
.. similar to .....? What do you see as other possible outcomes? Why did ... Make a family tree showing relationships.? What was the underlying theme of.? What questions would you ask of..? I .? Can you distinguish between..? What are some of the problems of.. Make a scrapbook about the areas of study.? How is ....? From the information given.? What were some of the motives behind.
Useful Verbs analyse distinguish examine compare contrast investigate categorise identify explain separate advertise Sample Question Stems Which events could have happened...? What factors would you change if. Write a textbook about.
.. show. Conduct a debate about an issue of special interest....... Write a TV show...? Do you think . eg "Learning at School.... advising on changes needed at.. Form a panel to discuss views.....? Can you create new and unusual uses for... book.. Can you defend your position about. Compose a rhythm or put new words to a known melody.? Make up a new language code and write material suing it. Sell an idea.? Why not compose a song about.. Potential activities and products
Invent a machine to do a specific task.with...? Can you write a new recipe for a tasty dish? can you develop a proposal which would. Write about your feelings in relation to.... Give it a name and plan a marketing campaign.
Useful Verbs judge select choose decide justify debate verify argue recommend assess discuss rate prioritise Sample Question Stems Is there a better solution to.? If you had access to all resources how would you deal with.... puppet show.. Judge the value of. Potential activities and products
Prepare a list of criteria to judge a .? Design a record. Convince others.... play. Devise a way to. or magazine cover for. Make a booklet about 5 rules you see as important. Design a building to house your study. Indicate priority and ratings.. role play....
Useful Verbs create invent compose predict plan construct design imagine propose devise formulate Sample Question Stems Can you design a ." Write a letter to .. to .? What changes to ...?
texture. Write a half yearly report.... song or pantomime about.
...? Why don't you devise your own way to deal with.? Can you see a possible solution to.? What would happen if. is a good or a bad thing? How would you have handled.? How many ways can you.. Create a new product..
. person? How would you feel if.....? What do you think about.......determine would you Prepare a case to present your recommend? view about.? How effective are. Do you believe? Are you a .