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ltitv Convaita.ation ii] COMPARING: The Elements 19 TNTRODUCTION I9 Shorl Reading The wonderMetals 20 USINC ENGLISH TO COMPARE 2I SenrcncePatterns 22 22 utiq d Tdbk 2) Uttlcttkltlihgcrhlparkahs cru. INTRODUCTION 35 Short Reading TheNatureof Color 36 USINGENGLISHTO SHOW CAUSEAND EFFECT ]7 Pallerns l8 Senlen(e IdentifringCaute EJIe.llJ Ptndlhr.l )8 dt1.?s 24 Like aod As 25 UsiilgLlke afld Ar 2.l Unlc\n\tltli.Iltt t') i _- I . READINC SKILLS 26 Vocabulary liuilding 26 vacdbulary Co text 26 itl skimming27 Cases28 Readingr Llfe-Supporting The Uhdentandifl! Rcdditllt1a tl1! ' LISTENING SKILLS 30 vacdbuldry Conkxl ll) in Note-Taking 3l Uhdenladinqtlt Lceturu J2 POINTS 32 DISCUSSION WRITING SKILLS 33 Comparing 33 Transilion words l4 Writing a Paragraphof Comparison 34 I I l l I 3 "our" color.Light.atrdsound J5 o*o u FFEc'r.x Contenls DISCUSSIONPOINTS I7 WRITING SKILLS 17 Topic Sentences 17 wrhitV a Patallnphaf C|ltsifi.lt 24 CradtintS'ftch.

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xii

contents
POINTS 65 DISCUSSION WRITING SKILLS 65 Writing Conclusions 65 Writing a Paragraphwith a Conclusion 65

5

o""rr.,r*n,Enetw 67
INTRODUCTION 67 shon Reading TheMan! Forns oJEneryy 68' USING ENCLISH TO DEFINE 69 SentencePatterns 70 Ahalyzin!DeJinhionr71 CorrctthqDetrhitio,r.i71 Relative Clauses 72 Fotltulatinll Dqitliti'tlt 72 lJtikg Reldtivc Clautas 72 Delinitiotls 7) Creating . READING SKILLS 7] Vocabulary Bullding 73 rnicro',rDacft)' z cDdo', Adirsj ectdexo_, in Vocabultlr! Contcxt 75 Scannlng 75 ReadinS:E = mcr 76 tl1! Und?ntdl1.lit\1 Rcd.litv 78 LISTENINGSKILLS 7E vo1buldryfu contaxt 78 Nore-Taking 79 Uldc$tandilv tllt Ltcntre 79

DlscussloNPoINTS 80
WRITINGSKILLS 8I Definitions El Extended Definitlon 8l Writing ad E,(tended EXEMPLIFYING: Ha4, 82 INTRODUCTION 82 E3 of Short Reading TheEfreets Tatuperuture
IJSING ENGLISH TO EXEMPLIFY 8] SentencePattems 85 Ra ltniznlll Erdntllls it6 Anallziq ExetnplitrMtia Ss

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xiv

Contents WRITTNCSKILLS IIO Giving Evidence ll0 Wriling with Evidence llo

8

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NGtBlecti.ityandMagnertsm ttl

INTRODUCTION III Short Reading LightnitlgSttikes ll2 USINC ENGLISHTO GTVEDIRECTIONS I12 Giving Directions to Perform a Process I 13 Imperadve Verbs I l3 Reeotniziry lhperdlire Vefus 1lt Artunliq ltehaChrckololjrdll!, 1t4 Usih!bfipentiveverbs 115 Verb forms: Infinitives and Gerunds I 16 Chaosing Farnt 117 verb READING SKILLS I18 vocabularyBuilding 118 Warcl Roott: blo-, aeto-,rhermo., hydro- ll9 Voeabulary Conkxt 120 in Scanning 120 R€ading: The Magic of a Magnet 120 UnderttandinS Readhq 122 the LISTENINGSKILLS I23 Voeabulat! Coktert 12) in Note-Taking 123 U degandiry.the Lecturc12) DISCUSSIONPOINTS I24 WRITING SKILLS 12' Directions 125 Wrltlng Directions 125

CALCULATING|

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126

INTRODUCTION I26 Shoff Reading Prcss re: At Molecules Collide 127 I ' .:. USING ENGUSH To CALCULATE I28 Tems 129 Mathematical .U derstanding Indefinite Anicles 129 Usin!IndeJinite Anieles t)a .

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ise D$criqtio$ 160 Dcsttibilry ALli&tit'ts161 with -edand 'iry 16l Adjectives Nouur 16J whh'c(l dnd'it\!.tstanding llc Lctltt? 15.pyR)'.asl(). in Skimming 166 Readlngi The Moon: A Nice Placeto visil? Maki g InJircncer 168 LISTENINCSKILLS 169 VocabularyConlcxt 16.lTu s 173 .xvi Contents Note-Taking 154 Uad. 162 fonttitll cotul\'u]ttl Atlieetives Usinf !64 Wtititq Snao l Sentcnce:' READING SKILLS 164 VocabularyBuilding 164 Wory' Rro6:aqua'.ttlxt 16. PoINTs 155 DrscusdroN WRITING SKILLS T55 Reporting 155 Writing a Report 156 II lI The DESCRIBINGi universe lrj INTRODUCTION I57 Shorl Readtng TheSuk an.165 Vocdbtiary co. in Nore-Taking 169 tht Unda$landi\ry Ltdur\' l70 POINTS I7I DISCUSSION WRITING SKILLS I7I Describing l?l Wdting a Description 172 167 It llr PREDTCTINGi The Weather 17.lcrra-. I N T R O D U C T I O NI 7 J Short Reading TheWo .l OthetStars 157 USING ENCLISHTO DESCRIBE I58 SenEnce Patterns 160 A'ith tJsinlPre.

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This section begins wilh aDcxplanalionoflhc rhctoricalIunction. Grammalicalslrllclureslhat occur frequenllyin science lexls arc also includcd in this seclkD whcn they scrve a communicativcpurposcrclatcd to lhc rhclorical lilnction.firs!-yearcollegestudent (for examplefammable.Accordingly..Thc Dcxl sequcnced cnablc studcnls 1() item in thc sectionis a group of praclicccxcraiscs.hjdro . meantto list all possiblc and in somcchaptcNlbc chart is omitled because fie topics do not lcnd thcmsclvcs10 any parricularsynlaclicstructure. science concepts Thc locus of the book. Discussion PoinN. forstudy are scien. conpare.. rclating it o thc scientificmethod.dilute.e-related termsthat would bc known to a nativewords sclecred spcakjng. however.dehydrate . it Usi g English to. ListenilgSkills. and writing Skills. specialized rare words arc used in any of the rcadingsor lectures.. ir?e/lia). .and thcrc is no altempl to cover any scientifictopic thoroughly.word roots and affixesinlroduccdarc thosccomon monly occurringin scientificterminology (for examplc. Each chapter has six mair scclions: Introduction. usingEnglish to. transparent . Rcading Skills. Itltroduction Each chapter beginsby intrcducing rhe rhetoricalfunclion. Reading skitls lor This secdonlirsr prcscnrssraLcgics srudenlsto use in expandinglhcir vocabularics an ongoingbasis. (ctassify. ORGANIZATION OF THE TEXT Thcrc arc lwclvc chaplcrs in thc book. is always on languagcfalher than scicucc.usitUcxamdcs of from the shor! reading. This chafl is not scntcnce patterns. .Thc obiectis 1()developa a! basicvocabularylhat wolrld be assumed the college'eniry1cvcl. Io progress frcm idcntifying the funclion to usir)git. Next. No or combstion. and so on).. aDd preseDting ir a short readiDg. No prcviousscicncc knowledgeis neededby the teacheror student.thal are coveredbut not know how to cxprcssLhcm in English. dyna ).In most chapicrsthc cxplanalionis folbwed by a cha11 palternsthal show how the function may be cxprcsscd. rhe sectionpreviewsthe vocabularyfrom thc long rcading.

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Ann Johns of San Diego Slale U vers.i1e lhe book and to my daughterRaquelfor her imaginalivcilhstraliols tharks to Harry for his conslantsllppon aDdcncouragcmerl'and And a special for alwayshaving mote faith in me than I had in mysclf .ly for thc inspiralior to \t..rxii Preface ACKNOWLEDGMENTS My lhanks to Dr.

urSpnf JIPLLT pup serp! ^{ru ol ot spulLur!rqt urdo ol p)urprl rldord uJtl^ iluo p'up^pp rrurtrs urcpow 'rte rql q8norql lEoll uer pue urJs rq ot llpurs oor rrE lpql s8ulql 8u!^!l iq prsner rre srsprstplpql prrsrSSns urq^ lE prq8nptseM rnrlspd rq s!nollsttsolotqq)ucrJ.ql!^\ parsrl Jq plnoJ rPql slreJ uo prspq stu.rsro^!unrnoJorrtu.s008Jaqlserrelspur^a.\orqtuJAJato^\ slsllurlJs .)l)s'pPilsul .rJruprroJ JlnJ e pcrr^oJslpro splro.srSV.rurlpts srq )ireq rlpr ol prsnjrDq urqM qlErp LII!.sts!tuel)s prsn iq poqltLu JlseqrqlJo ss til!r\p up sejlnbrr lEtrrlplu )lJlturljs Sulpuptstrpun poqraw )IJIluaIrs eql ol.seop! .qt .!\ prJue^pp rrou r{)nt(l I\oLI lrpuo^.rsrr^run rqt Jo slJrrss rqt rJ^o)un ol 3ul.irr^ cpplu r)u.lpp!W rql SulrnpssrrSord rlllrl. uolDnpo4.{tt roJ suosud otul u^.)rd cq plno) Dnlpu ur sluJAJ tpql puegsrr^!unrql ur Irpro se^|rrrLIllvql p)^rlli)qoq^{'sl)rrD lu5!rup)qt ql!^{ upSrqr)ur!)s urrtssM.Mruol pJsoddo rr)^ aldord.rq pell rJurrrs Jo ss Sold aql JI rq tqBrlu J.{lrnbrtue rruts.\ ot SullsalJlul sl tl 'iJrl Io srurolrrlduls urorJprdulr^rp peq s8ulrq uelunqlpqt prsodordrcpueurtxpuy pue /uns rLIl punorepr^oLU !trer tql lcqt pitsrSSnssnqJrplslrv/uJolerqt Jo erpl aql pstPul3lrosntlrrouilc 'prl)lp.r rJqto Llll^ pelp)runruulo) r^eq tq8ltu r^ '^lou ig .uJ .{..rrqlse.M quPr rqr uPql rrqler uns rql tpqt lu.\ prurrprrql sp^ orMpS snlur3 uEnql lecjB .{ppors u.

. Eachchapt€r in (his book is basedon some aspectof this method and how it is expressedin English... HN..2 lo Inrroduclion LheScienlilirMethod experiments.. A procedure known as the scientific method was developed for gathering and testing information. . HN uh ux\ . ANDfiHEREARE IINISIBLE .RGAN l5/v1s THAT FLOAr N fHE AIR AND LIVE I/I'IDE B VouR oDY.

M sdnoiSotul slurlucloIII llp 3u!3uerB.runrrn nt .{'}ooq srqr irJnpltl Jo slsrsuorsn punorP BurqurJ^3 tafiow lo atqrN a4I 'prgrssPl) i€tu rrlleu Moq t o purl pue rSesspd iq turr\otlolrql peru qulptaa uoqs 'rrorssJrdx.Or"u tr'tllll'l rqf qBnou) tou sl st)eJSunlillo) .q upr sitlrrdord str .n iql uro..r8stslluJlJs.r1o.lo soSels ..ro^4 e\I slrouic sdlqsuollplir pulJ ot pue sDeJJql IJrss''.sls!ulrql .ru! qriprsJ )lJllurlrs .{pnts ol IEmrup 8ur.rrlu 1r^c/\^oH.)ldtuexr .{JrssElr elqrssodrulipPrlr sr tr .Iprre ue otu! uortpulrolu! rol petPIJrdno.rr^JMoH ruo qreo.t 'rJPds sc:lcl dn pLrP sseluro rqtrrn sPrllEr{ttLrrql{uesr rrlEw 'Irup oi IrtP^{rLIlpue 'rqlerrq non rrp I0 'lpoq rno..rurLuorq puEauuoltlr se dnoiS rlrrEs ot SurBuolaq prrJrruipr rurpor ?snql .ur BuljrqteB pue sw)llB^rrsqo3u11eur .{l.{q suollezllprrurS riELUupr lnq 'rurulrl: irt^r ipnts louueJ/. puE rqSnoqtrutlurlJs or Jrspqtu:^ snql sl uotr€rlJlssPl:) s)llsurlrerpqJ str r)rp d ueJ lsrSolorq p . Ouo.uoutu.loJ )uJllrrlr lueuodutl Juo r^pq llp lpql u! s8u!qtJo dnolS e Sutue:)Lu-ssr/rpro.dnorS pJo rPlnrrtred rrqrrrlu e sp ue Iq.{lle.rrott0luro.rJ srltlo or/rllilr"/r p. rql NOTI)N(IOUINI "tailvw lo uotltsodwo) aql 3u$.1sseI) 1 raldeqr .qupe uo slErurue pup sruEldlo spurl uonlrttl Iprr^rs crp rrrlll rJuIs'^pelurtS prtJlprrd .srlrrds ro .sanrrdord cql se s! prlplrj Jr LIlr.t.

4 Classitying 6A6 or as Al1 nlatlcrmay be classificd cilhef solid. rvill discuss waysnlatlcrmay bc classilicd.rc dcnsclv or Lhc an iron bar.Rubbcr. arc.glass.ll walcr. inclu(lc sLLLrsLantcs is a 1(uid. coulaittcr. aDd il trt bccaLrsc i1 which is ffequcntly slated lbr L a basis classificalioo.lcl r)rolcculcs liqrri(ls ol Thc nt(tlls or rablc. lhc othcr lTand. and collonare crystallirrc 1o th( Whcn thcscvtkls arc hcate(l' ch.lrca lornl. ol lhc lo lorcc as sdids. havea dcnnitcfornl. knowD as mellirrg. sulfir. ofgascs or thc tirc. a gcneral 2.Lr€cansc at(nns nlnccrlcs ot n soli(l of packcd and havevrry lilllc Irccdom movcarcrrl. and carbon Gascs. lilL1cl1l lhc alonls not o|1lc y lhc aDd rubbcr. () lill any cont. Thcrefore liquidwill lakc vohrnrc. thcy lraduallysoftcn.vc a dcfirrite Howcvcr. or cxllainedelsewhcrc. In lhcsc subs(anccs.rrrcflf watcris prrl inl() of thcir owr.r. undcrstood (cntcDcc: lhis Consider sample All matter may be classified as either solid. R()cks .or oil is pourc(l a on alll. or gas. a specificilem or il€ms. Lalcr wc EvcrythiDg knolv is nladcof maltcrin solid.it will nrn to tln)bo(tonlr air is pu( ir)to<1 nrrd arc widclyspaccd movcvcry ral)idly.nd whcn hcalcd.it will llow all ovcf 1hcsurfacc. l. Ann)rfhoLrs is ol glass. conorl.liqtli(].nnn ltloLrs.rrxl dividcd inlolwo classcs: nray furLhcr bc Soli(is $lid\ nrc nli(lc trl) of solids Cryslnllinc wood. crynallinc.rl(l jrorr.Bul thcscaL(tns. in which ii is DotreLl. gas Soli(l\are llrnr . Thcy dilluscor slrcadoul insidc lire. fapcr. not rigid.lrrilk. sharpan(l clc.1rc ol thc shaPc anyconlaillcr a aDddo nol kccp!bcir$apc.liquidor gascolrs (hischaplcr.ssilic(l nnd sarr(i wood.oxylcn. cannolfit in a Pir)t or dioxidc'havcllo lixcdshal)c volunrf suchas air. slftlcltrrc(i l(x)scly ids ca(llothcrandthercbyc|rablcliq toUow.rrgc in al(rms arranged a dcllnilcpatler'n.ll tl.liquid.for crample. .TIlcatoms molc(Lllcs Thcy cilher conllress or cxfand rc adapl to any . . on arc Liquids.iLllllslhc wholcsl)acc if a tirc. qtranol nrilk n liquidsh.A considerablc would be nccdcd changc shiPcor voLL'ntc . othcr wc in TO CLASSIFY USING ENGLTSH includes: A classificalion class.

If .rLro ucqt.ssttl6 paa$ ra|qk[ ltD lVU!rNe50r fHtf.B iql Jo suols!^lpqns IIe r.Llt 's! leql ltuo8ue) lejru.)urlu.! paplAlpJrquklaq pu! olu! tput spllos 'suo1s!^lpqns rriqt rsrql ul prpnl)ul sl trletu llB lpqt JloN) '516 'pvbtt pltos)aqtDrp pa{lssttp tDw ra nu ra aq llv lI:IIf..rse uo codrul)r rq lp)rruiq)sI Jo (r\el Jql uo pJrlrsscP \PLU \r t|rlrlurpxr I'l l.re sLLrat rgrtrads aqJ .Jre ( al'q prpnl)ul tou ore teql spllosl.lBtauoS ot rulrrds ruo{ 8ur.AdS OI'IVUIINIID I IO{C DNIAIIISSV.{JrsselJ uaqM) 'tpltos sb ptlJlsspp ttD puot puo 'uo a u t .DtLU \r\ . onuru lou sr qJrqM 'rrllpur roJ Jo rlPls Iprlsiqd aqr sl Lrollerulssplr srsPq )ql srt pue p|\lb!l pltos. 'trpu ro'plt1@'uvr 9e \pns '. ilqt lou op slurll rglJcd$rqt.^or .{l!pssrJ'U. aulllttst\Jj :se|top o/1r'.)roru Jrrqt tng 'iJuJluts rql u! p.)Un\ct)Jq ipu.rrltr sl sselJJeJJuiS .ads wouJ DNrAcrssv'r3 'stlt1LltlJ1uu.ql g SutlJtssel) .qto IFnor^qo .s rrorlerlrsselr'uosprr srql roC 'Jrrr^rluou ro J!t\!l rrqtr.(ll qts$d Jo slpporuureluor I0 rnbr{ s.

Thc presentsimplc tcnseis the mosl commonly Llscdtcnscill scientific (For cxample. and cottonare cryslallinesolids. 2 . The passive lhc scientificwriting becausc cmphasisiD scicnccis usllally or thc acliotl. and t . 9dr will {ygal which is the ScneralcalcgoryaDdwhich is thc sPecific . branches.paper. Oxygen a gat. rlol on thc perso[ performinglhe actbn. wrling becausc cxprcsses is like.6 Classifying Rock. and smallcrbranchcsnray sobdividcagain into evcn sm.lllcr branches. (Norethat a classification likc an upsidc-dotm lrcc The lrutlk of a trcc is is cach large branch is subdividcdinto smallcr divided inlo largebranchcs.) NOTES of form is usedfrcqucntly il1 scntcnces classilicaliorand in all l . wakltIreezes lf C ) dt it Lllrivcrsals. In a sentence itcnr. o ly rhe meanirgsof lhc words oxrrc. wood.

rsqni sn.:.re . qulttlltuzpl o Io ts t^rxa4t.r."rJ:|ji] :.l..:* | prrIFrPpJ .."::l.".i'^'# prsuPx? i i.l"..uosuP)t f n*""uf 'q"lriil ".. :I ^*"" I . rp)."r.r"e 'lVUg N3C OI f.r. ". o ) d r r PI | atduexe up_J LPJo Pi 'g!l ."." ^r.rt'r.iii .ICI)!IdS WOUJ 9NITJISSV]f.".l .. L s.iili!JI1.tdutn 1ox'tatduntt luo 'stuz|ta atqlssod lltt b tuatJod ar aras tsatl :aDN .... i:r.u. Is:uoaartl'] .f.'ir-1p ue sr pa15 7 sr.e.4dor ."re. 1 ptnorl f | frq *"-:l.pp."ffi| j ""..wnrr i'n1rip.q.h'::Jj) -""^ rpv'os*.""'J1 1 L *'"''.tg rLII i)l^lr o.o^rj f pdnorgl {'.t.T'l:jE 1 Prulssenj I L su"Qllod aJ 4uas | | t SICrl:IdS Or.^'pJ ..rr! rulrrds q)er p.\t il()p s! ruo ls.. . pub l?lr 4[pads lbrzlra.se8e se fel I { } ( pourssPt)J .u.rrr."..nrnrlu .{Jrssel) . -rrpun 1rclrDrurss Jo rrurlLrrsLI)erut sozpt "rr.*...rvuqNa9 wouJ gNIICrSSyltr t 8ur... | *' J.ij |..o.

LHCTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY con(luclivily a conir accol. Rcadlhc followirrg parngraphnrrd lin(l . nnd in dianlon(1. dcviccs Lfnnsislof as and as Jcmicon(luclors afc usM in suchclcctroni( . r r r .and alu|ni|rur. ' | r r ( l .ruhcr way Thcn in lo rbal mat1er lnay be classilic{1.r\rcd. and into three cat€goricsi 6. Thc Lwokindsofnuclcica(idsarc dcoxylibonucleic (DNA)ilird riborucleic acid (RNA). ( 1 r ' r r r r .rctor. s.Classifying oxidcs. are c(Jmpounds.l'l . t. Trcnsfefting Infothatior. l.diDg iLsclcclr'ical lo Mattefis licqucrrlly cla\silic(l (l. Fivc inDonantclasses oxidcs.rc|or.lts.1 Colrdu(loN noncoDLlr. I. r l ' : ' I ' . 9. gold. uscthc inli)rnration thc passagc corrrl)lclc lhc chart. . nnnxphoLrs. wood.nr0lirlli( ofconllxnrnds. . .rlators.and oil may bc classilicd ilrcls. suL)nirn(|\.coppcr.wood. itjrlcoul. r'\"r \ i l j L . A deer is a lJrnmmal. and non etallic 4.rcircids. ( r r l L f { ' r r r r r " ( . and paiit arc colloids. r i l r l ln(lio\. Collee. 7. as 8. l . Coal. arc goodcon(luclonSrLl)slnr]ccs pa icuh y silvct. plaslic insr. . clcclfic culrcnl. corl(lLrcljnS. lea.insu or with lcw licc eicct()ns callcd arc nrxl carlbc rscd to prcvcrllclcori(. irl oI ficc () nmvcan(larc usclirl cnrryirrll. r ' r r r l .ilylionl llov!ingwhcrc iLis nol carryclcclriccharyc lil(f A lcw arr(i afc w. Salls inorganic aci(l 10. ca \rn. lalo$. carboncxists threefonns:graphilc.All r Clals.llccausc lhc) do rrol noncor)ductors. ll .Air. base\. or scnriconduct(r'.glass. Rocksarc grcLrped sedimenlary. nrclanmrPhlc. ! . havcnlnllyclcctfons nfc th.

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This is because cnlphasisin scicn(t is uslrally on thc acti(t]. (pdssir?) it Thc sccondscnlcnccii prefeffedbccarlsc conccnlmlcsou how nlcrcllry is clas_ (wc know fial scicntisls lhe classiliing) do sifiid.livr.usclltc preseDl is sinsular. Cha ging Actit/e voice to Passive Voice.l0 classifiing The Passhte voice and in all scicr)lific form of a vcrb is usedfrequcntly in classifying The passivc lhc writing.1nnxlll. lF tlrc cxanrpleat'. aDdFraDcis Crick JaDres Watson thc fonnulalcd lhcoryof lhe hclix. ChaDge ca. tlic .. fd. ACTIVE PASSIVE Collcc is g()wD iD Brazil and colunrbia.Hcrc are sonlc activc senlenccs forDrs. scDtcDccl Formula lbr a passivc of Objccl vcrb from activc + sclltcllcc pKrPcr fonrl ol + vcru ld . double Penicillin curetnclrnronia.o .. rhc Lty-Phft]sc .h 01 thc following a. ir) Dianlor)ds wcrc discovcrcd Soulh Africa iu lhc inclecullr The lheory ol lhc doublc hclix wns foflrulalc(l by Janleswa(s(nl ar)d PncuDrolrin bc curcdbv cnn in ThcyErowcoffee Brazilarld Cohmbia.cr lvr?J wrrJ. lik( .usclhc pas(lensc I'i or of rhc vcrb .r is tllustbe. Lascrs u$c(lin placeol rccdlcs .tivc lbrm.ri'I. Mercury is classified as a metal. 11is pa.lln if lhc subicctis plrral.?dl on thc is thc personperfonningthc actidr. can r.1?.Look al lhcse examplcsi scientists classify mercury as a metal.uivfit thc subjeclrcccivcs1hcaclioD.i or n.)v(. Bc carclll l{) choosc thc corrccl tcnsc (Prc\cnl {'r 10 scntcnces lhc Passivc \ .rre iu conrl)ad ciiscrccordings. A scntence drliv?if lhe srbjccl Pcrft)rms aclior. wllcn thcre is .---in courlMrlisc in diamonds Thcydiscovercd SoulhAfricain the ninclccnlh cenrury.? pasr participlc + by"phrasc (optionnr) Meraury is classified as a metal' (by scientists)."'iiilli. lcnscol lhe ve r lo l. If thc acli(n)is il) thc Pasl.Ji'rrrafs) nol us((l h('(nusc {l) \tr arrd lhcir (orrcspol)dillglassivc it is uDders()od. in of wc usclasers Dlace ncccllcs recorclingi.a:a il lhc subiccl Ilrhe aclkD is in thc prescnl.

.qrsspt:) .. { q ( i r n r ) p l n u o r L r ) 'sJtrrrt ll.rlrsndroi:Dn1..uts. ur ft:)]]pqr|lrJlr :'rttprlur^ur lrlp^llr)rSrrrt' z l ..qrsscl:.fili:l::tl'il 'r.()lsrrlJl( llrul( Iq (irnford) ']r)srouiuqPs r.r(i iLIr.rrLrrr.{t urrlrr :rsncJrq qrrul . su '01 .rr prslltr LI(r llq!(lord s.urtp) .lur {l)(ty.iXili Iil.urx)ru.qsll3q € 't06t ururrlsurS !i)qlv ^q trir^uDlrr Jo Jruor .:rlarLrrs..)pun iql (r)^orsrf) 'l|LlrU lilp^\ tuo:) 't iJ nOI L1Sl?t()t.{(trq..rq1 troolqrrlt rn s..:"."oo.rr(\r\ct {q fu.{.rtiirs f)lll.]pDlrut ..rlt.(tt:)o)tx)r! ur )le bqul..rsrrlui.'qr rrurijrt".\.l]. rl)rxouoru uo(uu)l1)stuno(ul? iSlul . t1 7cq..1:'.j}'.:.) 9g6I )rtr curpued prl)rtllro) srr)$M t tl6t Ur lErrD:) rLIl .. )rurtrlrrr)rn(luo) r)r D ro.' t '99l...Jtdo)(t ilrDLLI p) tI . rql .r )lll z '(.rtrw | crr)t)Dqiolts)p .lxr uD) stsrtu)q:) 9 .l )r'.ls r)1(prru) srrnlcl'llturt qiJrq.Stro )u[ll no....qr 3l rcql) l)Jlqns rqt )se]rJd tcur..)^ ru. srs.|lrtrnUorurrLIt (ltur) L' qL'r0qu)8(xp.u uonDrUrnbrl rrDrrll rlro. ".)Lto.Iqrri Jql pJllprurPrq Llrrrds LrplnnH I rrtt Jo lrPd Dlq (tonlro)) 'i\..Irft\tnf j .l 'J)urtu:)sr^rssedrqt ot tlrplrodurrsr (i)Lrrt Lrrs r^rl)e rql.rt ' i(l rrrilollru t)p..tJN Iq (rlulnllur) al/t F'a/7"AQa slruul(l rlll JostLllii^.t"ol/ fvpaqra lror )rrrprlo^ ttl()rj lulns Dplxr JA{ ..l. iU.. j.ror)^tssu(r.1 .jl.l..rpJI qr!3 ..at .ro.rrtD.ll..u1..)rlt s.(LrrqM Iq L'. .Jo lrt(tr..{).l0 Drlqns..)ro..iili. -il.)rllrHol slprtrrup stupl(l pup s.ql urn.r qrr^ rLIl r(U (tpntd ro rptnSurs) rrqrxnu Drrror rql puDllspd lI Sur...(t uorsr)j rqt !L./rzxfo. . .).L 9 rl)rxorplrlr u n r s s p l ( xrlo l t l l l p o s q t l ^ ^ l p J lcltlruD dPoS s r o r l i l p r r i i i ^ i i l l t r o ( 1.

gas. bccome ofyour permancni sooflcnthal dleysoon you haveacquircd basicvocabulary. goodvocabulary hclp you succccd arryprofcssiol you wordslhal arc repcatcd you first sludya language.'. Al onc timc lhc alom was thoughl rc bc fudlvirirl. disappearcd a.will A goodvocabulary helpyou \ir'ith yon your reading iislening and and comprehensiol will cDablc 1osl)cak improve in will A and wrile belt€r._ ol lhcy arc 5. lhc voubuur! 1 Co text. unablc k) bc conslruclcd 6. q bi)kclLdown b. i$. Reading speaking langualcwill increasc and lhe your Thisis beLausc wordsyou arc lhc incrcase vocabulary will '?ol aubnradcally Al and lcss lcanlingappcar frcquendy are lhus n rc dillicull1()rcmcnllrcr. atosc inlo ol 4. circla lhc lcltcr of thc nnswcrthdt bcsl nralchos scDlcllccs ihlicizcdword as it is uscdin cachof thosc nrcaning thc of iD L Aloms arc it?. icanrcvcryday whcn pall Howcver. nnablc to be sccn .". unableto bc dcnroycd b.{. products hard10disposc becanse arealnost /r?/.llL'id. Chcnrists b.soli(i. malerlals frcnl thc walcr' efidrred 3.?dt studythe compositiot Datural 2. Plaslic a. allcf vocabtrlary. Eilrslcin'sideasarc 1oollbilr?d for nrany pcol)lc lo ulldcrslalrd. therc is alwaysa dc'dincin vocairuhry a your llucnry but growthralc. of slage languagc liom in scclion$ this book wcreselccLc(l thc All thc wordsin lhc vocabulary irl discou$eTl)erc frcquenlly s('icntifi( bccausc appcar thcy readirgs leclurcs and words.1:!!i4b. ibr Dlaking lifc!imehabi1.'.p . machincs a.l2 classifying READING SKILLS Vocabulary Building il ol will cveryaspecl conrmunicalior'l.rdl sizc.andsolklsmaybc srrlt.tl and cryslallinc amorphous. a. b.tll]r .4t?rlt5i. b. Thc whalcsuddcnly b. \!y' rrny b. lhis you must lnakca spccial effofl lo acquircnew dcvclopmcrl. lhcorciical . addi1kt1. vocalrulary gr)wth n vocaL)llaly lhat lo conlil1uing buildyour vocabulary. All malleris cithcrliquid. unablel0 bc divkled 7. Thc word partsar('dln) lhoselblllrd fucqlcnlly arc Do rarcor spccialized for colltainstrnlcgics the sccii(tls In in scicntifia lcrnrinology. hlgc of trrrsld.

I| pi^1oqs srotrnb()rlr )q-L I I ll s)l)r) ! s)LJJlJ.rurlrJo s.1J p ut p.\ tu)r.r(l ( ill(lulilutp(iliqlorrii.q prqsuD 'l 'J)Pds Frlqo rrr qtr^ li1l.i)u.ronbs .r[u:.ljlp ur .)tpts tru 1r1.)Lll Jqt Ltr!tolturulotul llt? )Llt lr^o) ol '. { t r ^ t t r Dp J r L u i q r ' r l 'isiri s npord u)ii.(xklns tDqtILrl.lud i)Llt tl lo ilpptru lt LrjlL.L ' 0 1 urql 'q l)qt e 'n')r lrsr.l({rucxr irp ruuolqr pULr IID 'ploiJ lrriJorp.rl rlll Lllrpppr uo 1lr.rpl) Jo luql uoll0uuotrrl luql-lullilutrr iitltJo(l(lns sl suruluo) !l(iuriiuru(l jo t\ij Jql rl({uriJcrpd.'slnoru Jperusr plio^r Io prllPr sJprrrp(l rtF llY sLtI()]D rrllr.ll rlrrLUnl! rurqu)r tPqtslu.{lutuulslslsrI()) soapl uloN 6ulpu!! plrqro .tot rLtlL']rro)rsnlr)iqi)u.sLIul(lx) luqM sa^o.rrP ]o I stLrorLDI:r rsiLll ll! tpqrr)Lr)l:)\ strpJ jo 00t lnoqu^llro lo (1D.P rot nl r(u.loq(loriiur1]({-rJlFur lu|lituruUorldns r|u.nrj u(x)tu )q.l .r/..is l: 'quPr iqt plrnojp Jr//.')rlt l)rtul\ sI Ut .rijixO qrrq^{.rnoj rr^o rrp rrlll wotv lDu$allu{w a\I 6ulpbau 'q(iulSProd q)L'r r.)qlorrp rrlro $lltcln lrlrpl(lJrlt tcrll tr)dsnssts UJt)s uoS Zl .t.orrr.i)Uituis tsuliql sl tl sJrurt .!oqJcr.{llerrorsDrrO) r)u)lUir rl(lot :rqt ot itL.{ltrO ll ol (ln iilrpDil smuJturs jiq() lv liqto Lltr^{ 'trolllsLruJl Lroll)npo.ql 8 aI 3ur.r:{ltslp \rt q 'lqirrl)LIl drr(rrrr.1r illpnsnsl t(li)Uo)irll sl(li)uoJ Jsoqlsl.r plnorls q(turSulu(i iqt ul sirtli]urs )Llt llV q(lordl.'urs or^i lo .)rlt i])uitu)r lsjlliql s.i(l(lu srop .^\lu lnq il)Urnlrirlsl iruilUis )r(lotiqt lorr lo 'J:)u)t(ris )l(lot.{D^.ri{ussu(l Io )r!rrttr)s)l(lot rql puIotB lirlr()ll()tiLlt UI t|(l [] sli:.4liru.{Jrsseltr .r r.srtnrrloruprllDr iilr .tL.{L t oot .' ot flq JuplrlrlD It uorlDrcdrs q .riJDrpd u...{oul \lrrutsqns uorllrru.ro Ul rilu I|lui(l(lu pUo)is lt st tl si(tll !los 'qdDrlJuru(l . uu .)tr|Js ll rl(lol orr sr?ll q(ic.tJlpr|t !il(lJruoJ iJuIt.rrnpur siniuu^ rlrrr{Jrp P.prlurrp siJtrutsqns itorzpuru rqlJo i(ro sr tt l)I] uuru ol Lr^.l).redI() rpuur rrE stlr lr)t3 s oulsqns Uojll[u ]noJupqr olu )rtl .Ipru ot s.tM )ltl!trl)S l)uu lo.{xo prru uorr Jo .(l 'sJl.DrrrlLtis . .(q'rr.lr .I}lns .lJr ullriqturr rp sl)uLl)ltlM /rll/..\{l)qUottrsrroltsu u slrc.|![r rrr silnriiow Jdorsor]Illr lujriMo(l L' qtr^ ui^r U)rs )q {)l ./r.

are rahichis (allcd the alomic number'All atorrr'lJl lh. irhi -zl t] 2/ hsllumolom what is ir'thal makcs iron hard.has one clccLron {ras is .rhc lrlnr. . menis. n(lllrons whiih hivcno. but ()day a(tns arc belicvcd!o consist Thc sizeof lbc nrclcLlsillsidc wilh a densenuclcusat lhe ccDtcr. the hydrogenalom.cnill(r( whichhavcr posjtivc by Thc nucleusis surrouDJed clcctftrnj. lhcbasison whichourenlirc Llniversc formcd U. lirc. and mcrcury a liquid? The properlicsof an elcmcnl arc dcrcrmi[ed by thc rumbcf ol clcclronsin ar a(nn.". air. thc conceptoI atoms was collsi(lcrcdl(x) FinaUy.'". philon)pher thal maucrcouldbe dividcdinlo smallcrandsmallerl)arlicles theorized Dcmocritus Thcse was possiblc.i.Lil". Dalton roughl thal aloms wcrc solid.He said that aloms are nol crcaledor dcslroycdLrutrathcr in form new combinations chemicalreacli(. elc(ri( charge. beyondwhich no furthcr subdivision until a point \aasreached particles a wcre calledalonror. a formulatedaD atomic theory bascdon his experimcnlation. ff:l.mnilrln.'nball Eaih cqry.in I 804 lhc EnglishnanJohn Dako n rd abstrac! nd was acco ingly rejeclcd.one of thc hcavieslelc Oxygenhas eighl protonsand cighl electrons. In faci.you\( sccrrlhcm. and rvatcr. mainlv of sDacc.Hc clainled ftal all matter is made of atomsi lhal all arcmsof a singleelcmcnt havc lhc samcshafe. (lcr'1cr)l Jlik|] ll youvr \ccn orredlom o{ oxvgen. 400 R.wcighl. alld behavioriand that alomsofeach e]cmcntare diffcrcnl ftom lhosc of any other elemcnt.. howevcr. r.commonalomir lhc universe.ls. ncrd. oxygen a gas.which l)avca neFnli\cclcitri( chart}aTlii in numberofprotons equalslhc numbcr ol clcctroDs cach alom.l4 Classitying thc In in The conccplofatoms firn emerged ancienlGreece. aDdthcrcforethc NiclsBohr l)rc )seda In cnlirealom has Do cha4tc. ?zz /. l9ll.\'hd's Itn ebi \\ l I \\ \\ \- ao o. size.r'i'iffi31 alld protoDs. Grcck word mcanirg irdivisiblc We indestructiblc know taday that atomsare so smallfia1il would takc nore lhan a million oflhcnl Dcmocritus'thcory. has 92 protonsand 92 cleclrons .rll H)JroFrn.c.i"". was to equal the thickn€ssof this s!. for many bclievedin Arislollc's not universally lh€ory thal matter is composcdoffour elcmcnls:earth. During the Middle Agcs in Europe.\l and onc proton. nucrcus n".irillkr /..c-c1-q1!qP-er' in accepted lhe ancient world. lhc most element. thc Danishphysicisl likc thc model of thc alon iD whi(h thc clectronsrcvolved around thc DLI(lcus ofclcclrons is thoughl () be planelsrevolvearouDdthc sul'l Todaythc movemeDt lhc bclwc(rr fositiv( dn)uDd-a hiv( Thc lorceof allrdcli(\n hoveriDs morelikc Lrccs clectnrn\v!hirlilF afinrr]J kecP: thc clccproronsjn ihi irucla[i aid the rrcg:r-ivc lrons in their padts.''arrr.

)rli)^|lL.)p strlo]V . " n.." 1ilXT..10)qLrrrruql r ) ) U J o l r ? x ) l l t s t l l | J r u ) 1 .{q L.rU.r.riJ s J o r r .ro.'l"lii:li...rrqutru jo JLII l)nu r)qurnu slcnbi ilrr s.r.\suc rql lo .' z t 'ltr^c.oror(r r)q./t f4.rilrL'ru .ft))ql lD!ll s.q QIL'rPdrs ro LrJ8. p r r.:.li!l u J^!q sUo.srHV rlpprW)ql n^uunO 'r)lpM plrurrp .r. i.{JrJLriiJLr^.rusrr.)ru ...ij.rrnpllrJo rlrl sr.JIrclsr.lrllJl rqt Jtrrrl . rro r.u 'sooloid .qup) :srrr urlr rn0tJo pJs(xJrno) sr.1'. ) L I t .i..lt.1'r5...or .{lrsu.Jrrits )sJlltJo rlrorflrq sUorl|q puE lpu sJlruULrr III Io rpEU srJo aoul pup r)s rd flurql..ll]il ...r{Jrp l l r l l U .."... srM .!'ii:.. suoi))irir{rrM iqr .LlI z rqt Pf-Pa "lotq 'sruol! upqt r) p[rs L r r ^ JJ r p s ) l n ) i l ( ) w ..tojp..i 'srrLrJtlrrs isJLIt ur Jo Lltrp:) prsn sr lr sp pro^^ I)rzrrnplrrql Jo SUruEILr Jqr srllrrpru rsrq lEql rr.suol()](l rl!M )_t! lril)p(i .p..rr..rorlr "rno.rr)lLr)l) L.liiif.:'lj ".{ l:1i.(ro)qt)[Uolp rr]l .itlbl .."n.(r.oru ..{JrJl rsnetr:q .{tlJo sluolv ' .slrojltrJu .'.11"... )Lrr r.o .(...ruttrs.[))lrpuL)..slto.{xo Jrll ' sI 'u!)nlxo j 0 s r u o l po t )rc !.{l)pr^1 "".n.lt\)N.Hurrrrqr. ltat?av. U u J o .ru )l... 'pixli)ru.{rr^q :nLrolD rpPrlrsr ptroMrltl IIV J{r (I 3u!.rl)Jl) 's to ler.."...L.. t o r l r r I l ] ) t u l o t L l) L l . l)rso(lulol J.I 'rs.qrssPt:) '.rr^ro^).^... ) L l to t l d i l ) l p s U o _ r l D I n l l r(lt Ln urole LlourLu)) lsolu )Llt st ruolE uJii..1'l1".9 lutrt)J ulolp uu l)plsUr iilJ| p. 'Jn..lllll:lli'il.ri)^tlnt sl()rDJlJ.)tp n.rV p)^)rlrq.rxrlrrD ut {-u4 qoxoA S'I-IDIS 9NINAISI. l @tr"w.{tuEcti^rsurdx) rrE spuourer( z sitProrlP^r .)Lro.{xo plre rrr8orptq orur $rrd&rrrp rrlpx.\.rr. t .rr tu)urrlrrlij ls u Jo surotc llv ' € I )qt 'suolord . 1 'Irri).L.r.."..ors.l 'rru !r! )/ts )rlt ()l st Jo rn)l)nlt ! jo iTrsrqI ...J:ii:l:1.ul ' a pll) tOSt rropq rsrx)1oU LrJolD Jo ldDrror.".r os rrp .r u P p L ] l l q Pq '.Lrne.r. .. { q r l t u di r ... r o t . rfrrr'r rLlirsrsuorul sru)ulJrL'rr sr iirll^{olloJ rqlJo Lt\pa 6uryDaa lu!pup$tapLtD aq Jsnprrq stsrxr llv .{rr^r.iJu.:'i:::'t#: .rru sr.{l 'srro.rr.. ii.

a.you will relainj nloritol thc rcst. Bcsides and oxygcn. ]nachire b.Without noles.echnnknl\'r[t:l\ a.ir a shon whilc you will undoublcd . unchaDging b. characterisiics rcadilywirh othcr clcDrcDts. elccrrical 4. mots\\ito is cdkgo zedas al1inscct. changing nilrogen in I 0 . bse Note-Tekitrg Many pcoplc likc 1()lakc a camerawhcn they makc a lril) partly bc(ilusclhcy know that they will rememberthe pcoplc arrd placcslhcy havc rccofdcdon filrrr and forget much of thc resl. of b. a. quanlhy prollcrlics.'and lhcn Llse vour notesto comDlclcthc nexl cxercise.onstirr?rtr sah. The succccding li)r chaplerscontain suggcstiol)s Sood nolclaking. what you rccord. It was importanl 10 kecp thc temperatllrcar. whal is Fin! sJirlnn'l rvoirl l(lrir\F your'mind wandcr. kecp b. A.v?clcmcnl thal combincs a. Thenoblcgascs a groupof gases arc wilh l?o. ard o rers are pdlr. subii-e. quality b. will help)ou lo locuso. for a. unsrablc 7 .rq|i. .rrorereorr a. ils lJcauly a shortlinlc. lhcrcis a smalll.iJlrr?t throughout lhc experimenl.evcn whcn thc subieclmallcr is ilrlcrcstilrg iD of the malerial to you. Take nolesas you lisrcnlo lhc lccturc "The ChemislryofMa(lcr. as cleady ir on rhc conrrary. dc$cribcd A flowercanonly /aldl. similar b. of by lbc$rs a. dral a. similar b. a. Akhough hydrogcnand oxygenhavc sonc similarilics.t.&s b. diffcrenl 5 . d-cjldly 8 .Nole-tdkirrA l10. photographs Iy rgcl nlost you will forget.your goal is !o rccord as nany imporhDl points as will lincrrins irltcrl(r(wirh y('rrr andspccifically po"iblc. . delicious b. Thc Dotcsyou lakc during a lccturc arc likc lhc you take on a lrip. a. diffcrol}tt t2.l6 Classifying ) .cach has charactcristics arc drsllr?d. Oxygenis a very a. changirr! 9. Thc df. sonle mushroomsarc safe$ cal.vi(cwr' Lllivrnb\ n.I(r prescnted a leclurc.rio. Sodiunl and chbrinc are the . Just as wilh picturcs./rro. stable b. ol olhcf gnscs thc air. Thc outcolqc an cxpcrincnlis aflectcd y44'n0LJ. alassified b.

lorldllrDxr sl up lorlo)lv .rJ rtp.ol1lult ul punoJ z6 tnoqg ll() )ru rlrlll ' 0 1 'srrlddlruolllsodruor it!ulrif to M!l )qJ ' 6 'iL()JO iJdrrrcxi sl UoqJP)g ue 'rLloJo ildruPxr srIllw z uc ' ( l u J n l l r s u ' \ J\ t r J ( )$ l l r ) ( l d ( l i q l ( l t l p r rl 9 'J|l)rlolu q)er LrlLlIM(uotp.)uo.1L 'q(tcrirprpLl rrlt l st tEq^^.trallloJ (ulllpos 'srFolpr 0l ilulplo))e spooJ iiullJlssplJ pilsrot!ll .q tlliiFrt tslrloltlttnu V .t 'sur?arlr ^q IPJrLreLIJrru prlerpLt.?l | -ln^f ^ h t^ I |rf .f/.^"rrrurpro SJJUplsqns .Ll)p .. rLIl .{ Zsrulu ZslmLI)s .)turur:rP ue Surqr::srpse sluJrlr.nuM .lo slqt rql almqrs sselr ul stlripnls IJrssulr lq8lu ^.{.Jo rd.Itered LI)eg sqderiJpred otur pizJtll]&o sr lpurtpw u.'lr o1 rrnr).l .{rsrrt) o! saloNrfio( 6ulsn tI 3u!AJIssq:) .llril|lo)lolnrsSiriilJ .tplsrsrqt Jo Llrei lJlss.$uqeJ ^Jlssulr Zstp) slDnnuosrlp lBqAA aspooJ .{ ul ro e *ll aturlrnoJ LrMol Jorldood asqol asle..{nql 'stlllnlllsl|oJ 'zI strJo Jsoqt Lt(xJ NrlrJJIp rre $llsllitJBluqJ sll ' I I . tslilololqB tsrlrtul lrlitlLuuonsrulsselr sncl.lualLlo) nqt pLrp'lunlltor LtlLuelr^ lutns .JJqI ' s 'suur(r lP)lrrlJq) .saq louueJ strrrntrlsuo)sll .toH no/ sINrodNorssn)srq 'slul uL()u pltDtlulru se pizpoiiaut lltuiltbr.teld lleql()oJ a.{pru sturnlrtsuoJsI .^nJitip .rJuriur.ullll!4u9.{sd alsd3olotoctrur e u atsltu.qsrliJu! ul sazraluastyto"L S]'II'S DNIJTUM ' p atr.I rql tuo{ uolteuiroJur rqt rsn .{t JLloueqt olu sl .44op rrrlorq aq touueJ tl .Z 'uort]odordllrp or llrJsJld Jq.tsliiolorP.L st -xr rld|:.1!.Z plrn)tno.{q rrldluls olul Lr.rllod e .r.tq3noqtatJldruo)I sJssJld Jrdol iql ur pJzuut(ltuns eJprro tqBnoqllpllLliJ srq.0plrp Lldprgprpd ul sr lellr Burqlfur^r ro^or plnoqs qrrqM .urLru is'rt!ns :lulpere(]lllT .rs uHEodvH Fi:ni.l -n'o) pnnodtuorro '(rt) rrntxrul .{t lpqM r)srid_ Jo rljlJnds u loJ tolp e rqrr)srrd ol popiiu rq plno^t uoltBuloJUJ slql rtai .

ppc. Satu l. ard Nc|tlrrc arL'lhcnlajof or larlj(r plan{:ls. sLrlrpon. L 4.rs planels.grirl)h? L 2. rxlrlijrr Theresr ofthe senlences shoLrld lhc that or the ropic sentence.ragfrphs h r x r l dg i v c ( l c l . u and l in t Thc reslollhc scnlcnccs Lhcp.r thc o r d r o s L i l l r i r i T c l h r l i ( l c r . r i l s h i r r s u t ) p o a . prelcrably Alwaysreread altcrsonrc linrc h:rs chcck 1o seethat ev€ry s€ntencc rclatedto lhc lopic scnlcncc. ol nud lhould n0l bc iucludcd. (o i sonelimL.rLioD rhc earlh. g f a f h t o n n n o u n c e Lhcrnain idcir. planels Aslfonomers classify accordirg thcir posilioDs rcl.lgraphl Reccnl tpa|e aqllordtiafis.s callcd lclrcslrial lhc Lhcy sirrrilaf siTc 1hc nr( cafll). lo Plinctsmay bc clnssilicd a((o(lir!l lo l)()silior Jrzc.ir it rlor spccjlic this f. ll)c in and 2. li)f scrrtcnccs an(i4 arc loo Daffowto bc thc topicscntcocc.ar(l I'krlo ir( classified a(cording lh(ir si/( nr(l mnss.Or il mny .c x t r l d j n . followcd SalLr'n by ard lhen lhc "twiDs.. Whichof thc followingis lhc t)cst lopicscnlcn((lof rhisl). or provc rhe nlah poinl. is broadcnougb1. Plancls nr.r (l(x:s l)cloulli lhc pnrngr'alh..lc to.it (lhnt is.' Urarr!s nnd N(l)runr. il The sanplc paragraph belowis irr(ompletc.l LhcbcsL is LoIic scntcncc is bccausc annouDccs it cxacllywhal the par.lu|ilct the largesl.ragf('lph. your paragraph.rss.11 Write a paragraph clasrificatioD you.ncls Rcccnr i|rlcrior All supcrior spncc cxIkrrarions haveuncovered cvidcnce lifc on any of thescflaDcts. or scientins classily nrarry rhingsill lhc unrvcrrc. Mcrcury. Uranlrs. no lcss. passcd..n(l thi. Vcnr.r8 Classilying The lopic sentence nray appenrar th€ b e g n i n g o f r h e p . Rca(t .Uraplr aboul-Do molc.l)h.k of .r(l v(nLrs) (lirss((t lhc if( . Sla|tthr paragfaph in!eresls with a topicscr)lcllrr t]rirL l statcs Inai!lidca. L is specific enough cov€ronly whal i! jn thc |aragr. is .r . in lhc scnlcDcc thil bcgin! whi(h sc[lcnccdocs not bcl(Jng lhc par. Also.u\( jr j\ lrx) in all rhc I brca(l. no of Plnnets mn-v alsotrc Mnrs. Plnnels nrayLrc classificd accordinll si/c an(lm. 10 M{:rcury. lo in lo Thosc lhal arc insidc (anh s orl. goo(tlol)j( /rd/ scntcncc uDily il. T h c l o p i c il senlencc iilcslhc pnraqrnph rrrakcs c l c n ra r ) du d c r s l i r r d i l b l cr Jt h c f c i r d c f .rs. writing a Pardgraph of Classificatiotl Poi|lls ol based onc 01 lhc ljiscLrssion on 111. is rol rclcva|llo lhc l(rpic clissiiicntiolr lhcrcfofc . r .1y classilied L)c acco inlt lo lx)silion.llrrdlhc onc scnlclrcc lo lh. |la|lclsbc(nusr is Jlrpiter. Io providc detajls rcl.r.graphSc r(]rr(c is ror lhc l)r\l l)c. ncilhcfcovcrs I infonnatir)n lhc par. ro ScDlcncc. theolhcf!arccallcd pi.)covcrcverylhinit 1hcparagrirfh.

rq Jo qunrJ E IrlEr uer tuE ue tpqr DeJ JLII'JIdurpxJ rog uollpLuroJuluo J^!DJd$Jd /\Ju e Jpr^oid suosUedluo) 'rlrt lsor It puP'^trtrqPlrE^P 'Itl^!lrnpuor '3uFI^ rrp lerlortlr roJ porEdu-roJ slElrlu snopE^ Iprulrrlr .{rql'tou soopi)uots uplunq )lrots!qJrduJqM ll puedx.rp suosrJ€dllro:) 'r.)NqOUINI sl.Motls suoslledluo) uJq^ BulisJrJlulrroru sr pllos srLuoJrq urqr\ spnPdxe tl rrrP^/\rPql rrPJrql rus tqlJo lq8lr^{ eqr sJnrrl rrrrlr rq or prD^Dsrp sr qunrr rql urq^\ e^rssrrdui srLUoDqiluo pe.Alos01sn slquuJ prp^lotdrts luEliodrulop suoslredLuo) u.llssPlf sdlqsuoltel:)r 3u!Ir)s iq uollpLUroJul rzlupBro fut sts!tLrrlrs ot NOIl. oslEtnq uo!lelu.u!lJ!^ IrruEJ Sunl Jo srqpq rqt Jo rrosuPdnror e sE/|lrI lJlpllos..lO t8prl^{ouI Jtr!lurtrsSurrue^pe pup surnq pooM lellt pr)ltou sBrr!Jq 3u!IELu .{ei{ cuo s! uollB)l.oJU! 3o!SuprrpJo.6I '))uJlrs Jo tJrdsp iir^r Jo lrEd e snql .ltouPsl SulredLuo:) uolleui.roJ qJ!q.!et ro'DerluoJ sptnblrrJtlto lle leql .ruP) SunlpuPSulIoLus urr^\rrq Iu!l p Jo tur^ors!p:qr ol pil leLJl uoliplndod IPrrurB rql Jo rsotli qlrM s.rr^a .rolu! iSuEDe^luo tou suoslrPdluo:l rtl.{rql sp'rrpds ssaldn .uawalgaql tulreduro) 7 lartdetlt .M asnol J)uetsqns JuluuJlapot 'JIdorexJ rol surrlqord .

l)oiassi!rnr.kr .lLrlonn)t)ilcs. it is Drorcrcsislanllo corrosi(D.20 Compdring Shott Reading as al1dfind as nrany colrlparisons you can.thc cxtraordinarypropcrlicsol tilaniurt have nrndcil Lllc llcw wondcr mclal.1nd hcal.i lccurrin!(rrmpounLis rorc:l:\u(ha\ hcrlr.who only spcculated All bul 20 of the over 100 elemcntsidcnliiicd to dalc are mclals blrl only 7 of theseare common in thc carth'scrusl. (i har(lcf t() cxtfacl tltnn alll' aclivc. is rarcly found in thc frce stale (not combiiEil rr'ilh olhcr rielals) and nrusl bc cxlr.rtil(.lsl li. housc and lraius.Like ir)rr it is n)li.rr( Juc irLtn'\tcllllrcl) l(' thfsc inir)'. sidinS. to l1)ckets.lcd irr. 'lnihe il nrclal. Thcscqualilicsmakc it uriclirllbr airplar)cs. but il wars and difiicult lo cxtract. (x) active (lhcy rcacl vktcr)tly wilh rittci]l(ia usc ilr corrstrLiciioD.. Lighler aDCl slroDgcr lhnrr slccl. iron pyriie is oftcn callcd lbolt gold bcca sc oflhc sinlihrity ol ilt cok)r rc ilsclf gold. chcmically .\ r(' lechnique cinrvcrt 'brq( mclal'. a abundanl iD thc caflh. which arc morc durablc l)ol useci ul)til a ccnlury a8o AILlminllft is thc mosl abundanlnlctal. ] and rusl rcsislaDl than purc iron. (lhal is.. lhc nlost wiclcly ulcd rctal. btlt in becausc is so aclivc chcDrically it coDtrasl iron and stccl. c_!1t!itll. morc chcDrically alr strDply in thcrcis alnlosl cllclless minum. calcitrDr. fromnalLrrallv ('f Thc bcauliful cok)rs ro.'nlr.lhcy rrcvrr\rcccc(l((lirr wilh lhc mclal\ (irr j.AlthoLrgh is lcss magncsillm cnlergcd ar inll)ortal)t as 1940s. Readlhe following passagc The wonder MetAk scarchcd for.n)n0ulr!i' lrr fact..ahnrinuIn is vcry IiSht at)cjlDolc rcsislilt)tto corrosi(nl.il is prcsclrl scawalcrar)dlhal means ol il.and thc la(llhal the earlh is a il4g_Dglt lip. It is usrlnllynlixed with olhcr or elemcnlsor conrpoL)clsro form qugyssuch as slccl." likc ledLL g. lron. lhc makingliold but at )cr't by c\pcrinreirlint about thcnl) dlcy nradenlany discovcrics.)ld. chcnli(ally nrctal lhal is vcry activc PureiroDis a rclativcly sofi. ancient Grccks. ablcro withstand nll arrd rhe iiiifiining malor mcralsarc sodilrm. l)l rit(.a Thi sludy of melalsbcgan in lhc Middlc Agcs when alchcnrisllj l.silvcry it combineswilh oxyAcn to clgoclc or form rU!!). Irorr is vcry slrongly magnclic. mn$nclilL. In thc spaccagc. shjnlqls -stccl.pcdscicnrislspff1()thc thcl drat i()n is a nlaior contponcnlol thc a'anll'scolc.

ll ts unJ ur . s gIIIUY'lthlls DNravdr\io) s. .JLoJ s.[o [tulrl ul$t4t la asnrraqpp6 s.14t u . lLlqll o1 Fals slel3tu raqlo IIe < ulnulunle :eluppunqs ' ' ' 'IpDUt )Uttpuhqb .ululnlv lt1tLt sl sleleu raqlo iueur < uorl :ssatilJos 'tos tt l.{eMle si({ lnq ieru iilupdruo:) .allrid uorr :roloc 'ploi ot toto) s .)Lrrr4Jtpuo srlerlLrrJtri)r ilu!lsDrl -oo) strluPlrursLro itPlLl.N!IUEIJICI CNIISYUINO3 runultunlE = UOJ! :SSauIos ' ' ' '[os st luulutunlvl ]t Ltofitlt'I plo8 .' ' ' 'lLintlunlvLtb|t ulnulurnlP > unrseuSPru :aruPpunqe ssal tl !u'a tql ul ptltpunqt s1la ltsduqo lt qlha\lv :uolsoJroJol etuelslsat tssaulqSll ' ' ' '/ktltl/.krJ Iaals pup uotr < unurunlE l5als pup uor! < unununle ot lu)Jtslsat puD rtout ltnAsl unlututkl)t putrLto.$u fua^lls tla[lLrlrJ st uolt trnd " slqetu reqlo IIP < uor! :asn '' ''|D!AU prsn'1:PP\/A aqt I lsau SAf.loo!pdl]Drua{o alltlil Lto.sJJrr iJIlp toLr pue sarluelr(rs rlJqt Ja^o)srpol sLLrJll oJoruro o^^1Suru[rrpxr sr Suupdnrc:) IIUVdWO) OJ HSrr9NA DNrSn IZ SuuEduro) .

J to fheavierrhan l than Iron is llessabundant I aluminum. i ui. from ) Ldiff€rs unlike iron.. is lcsslharr half the mclling loint of that of chrotfiium. a|1(l lowestmclling poinr ofall the metalspoinrofcoppcr slighlly is highcr lhaDgoldard lowerthanDlalinunr. Rcadthc passagc the sevei ilalicizedmetalliaccordirg to thcir mcllir)g pojnts. Lnotas sofl as ) . .. I In comparison iron.nerar.. b thc mclling . }"urr.I mching noinl /1.'.'". grld and approximatclythrlc timcs lhe mehing poi of rrdirrr. Lisl thc nrclal wilh lhe rrrjre.. The mehing poiDl ofplnrirrrr is high comparcdto nnsl melalsbut not as high as The mehing point of zir. Mr." - hqll"'... In contrast iron.Irry has thc clopper uold havc similar meltirS poinls..on '.'. u {relarivelv .i r u ' ' 9 . I | . jmponanr asJ Las r**. I ' i .22 Comparing SentancePattefts COMPARING SIMILARTTIES frire u . n n ..r.} s paraler | ] sr)\. l(omparauveiyl l bclow () dc(crminclhc oftlcr ol UfiderstafiilingCompansors. Lo I alumrnum l'8nr' 's lo cornpared iron. aruminum in mdny D CONTRASTING IFFERENCES fis unlike I from Iron 1is dtfferent I aluminum.

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10 comparetca aDd coffec.70 diameten moon-3. 2. kangaroo-16 ycars cat-23 ycars 3 . Writc a scntcncc comparinglhc itcursin cach oflhcsc pain. surface lcmpcralurer Mcrcury-3to'C Vcrlus-475oC maximlm life!pall:. l.for odrcrwisctherc two scnlcnccs. is tbcnr.I2. 3.800km 5 . geitalbnpcriod: elephanl-21 months giraffe.l5 months percentof y.480 km canh. 4. and a microscopc a lelescopc a submarine a dolphiD and bnd a calcula(t a compuler a descnand a juDglc a photocopier ar1x-raynrachinc ard . applc(mcdium)-75 cgg." l. comparc thc items in cach ol lhcsc pairsorally ilr or)cor Notc $al thc itcnrshavc somcthingiD comnlon. cakxies. you mighr say.For cxanrplc. Thereis morc than onc way to wrilc each anslver. "Borh coffcc and lca arc drinks.A goocj way $ makea coDrlarison lo would be no poinl in comparin8 begin wilh whal thcy havc iD common.l4. bur coffcc is nradefroDr a bcan and tca is prcparcdfrom lcavcs. Inchrdc al lcasl onc way thc ilculs arc similar and onc way lhcy arc diffcrcr)t.9% credtifig compddsons. 5. Atlanric Occan-22.z4 Comparing Creati g Sente ces./otld'swater: PacificOccan-46% 6.

MolloJsrunouordiounourqtJrlrlg :pDsnst3. se^{xq8tru eqr :.lsllurlrs E rM s{ulql eH urlolr u iroJiq pi!I] s! .srop uorr lsm lolr siop IoIrrN / ----t!* 1r)iiolpiq sl lqSll tsoLulr? un!liH 9 'Iil)lu lcr u ^^eiq e sl rlPqol g 'uoltour pilplrls LrclMrN'ruiq )rcJ)q oaIlBD 'SJJlndtuo:) rvu.^1])r!pP ul rqt pcirq iiu!rl)1.lto d suosueduol sv puo a{\il .1^puat Jo sr)llsoMt illl 'r^ltDfpe up li)UE pLlu iroJrq prsr oslps! ry 'Ies I sPop 'op I sEop l/uod po..{q^lclErprluurl P .)Lll ruiporrl .r7 'ff pur?. L0l^ si)Lrtluis iilrlMolloJrqt Jo qrur u! sluelq rql ul IIt! (plo8 upql elqBellEq. lou sl re^lls CSuolIIIEnbe era^{ Ipp puE lqSlu oql) 'Ipp aql sr Suol '.pro.4 rLIl'qrr^ .ilrel lou p sl'lrrdttloJ Llrrpow € 'op slsllLrJlJs turl'Illrnoxatolr plp stsltuilJs)iiirD tlrilJul] iqI 'l!'li(u oe 'urnlssut(xl !Je)le sl z Et 'tunlpos l '14llto slc pub e\l"l 6ulsn t.r sl le^lts) ssal 'pIoBsi rlqEelletu s.14 spro^'\ rLIl Jsn ^0uirlbJ{ : u 1 1 0 U o .

1ld of damagc.yoLr wher your concentration. Circlc lllc lcttcr ol thc answcr lhal L)csL sclllcrr(cs in wo as it is Lrsed cachol lhc follt)wirlg ol meaDing tbc ilalicizcd il becausc is so dLlLtnLlntll lhal is i|rcxpcnsivc clcnlclrt L siliconis a nolrnrclalli( aud rucks. givcss(nncin(licatiorrof or Al other times. rcsources . policcinvenigalcd cnusc Lhc 3. lhc surroundingscntcnccs paragral)h the meanrnS: cold is a ductile metaL one gram of gold can be dlawn into a wlre 1.ous b.r]will. caDconcludc Fromthese or pulledinto wirc. planntd a.?c. a black chemical substance. yoLlwill havcthc (hanceto li8nrcoLlt of In the vocabulrry yot can usc alrd Thclr. occurrcllces a. b. lr' ('xcltcnlcllr a. b air circulaliorr a. forms on its surface.irlro. unijlanrrcd 5.:rd . Many livcscouldbc savcd nalLrr. conlairs a dcllnili(nr: silver sulfide. iD mincrals a. rust of lhc lhc srllrsided. othcr clucsto hclp yoLr ll)atchcslh( vocabulary in Cortexl. Thcrclbrc.in thc fca(lilrils lcclurcs' from scrrtcn(cs. whc| exposcrl air arrdnn)islurc. be stretchcd scations eachunil. thf Sonlclimcs seDltnccilscll alwayslry 1ofigurc oul its meaningfronr ils con1ex1. cxplosioD 4. bufnrng causcd. to 2. Thc room gol s. The spantan.26 comparing READING SKILLS VocabularyBrilding will n or Interrupling reading leclurcro look up wordsin a dicli(nrnry break shoLrld yoLrrcador heara ncw worcl. word mcaLrings thc undcrstand wor(1. rarc @ plcrrrilirl iri.8 miles in length' you that a drclilc nc(al is one lhat can two scrrlcnces.s canhqtrakcs hlrnicnncscould Lrcprcdiclc(1. when thc flanrcs colll0uslL0n. healirg nnd s(rch if 6. shinc a.llprercrt. Ll.tullyand warm duc lo imfropt:r ventildliatl.

rr. 'r^ltrnpordiroru t! aletu o1libsrItLII.nlelrlPru cql )qaifl-or ilqesr^ppsr rt '!rsptr luql ut p.u crlr:tqo ..rr lerlurrqrc .u u! plre pupl uo r^ll lelll rr/rsltrtro rre snPlqlqdtuY rJDPU nnr^rl I Pnnlq -slpru]trs pup srupldlle Jo &rsrldrlr]/ rql LIIur3^xo sl rrrql " ./rrrr.oordtrrJ p . lsnltl stsliirnllsFiu'runulun. uoruluo) torrlnq snso)slp illuttr Jlllf.lotu ..1tl ralerl ls)roJ q IDrulLrD luc39 lp)lurq|E 'zl 'saLrc DllPursueLIltulloseS..{ roJ ppq sr tlaws 6uuD4ul' 0 r 'q nulqlErrq P rrorrPlnrrlr ro|rrTdrrr uPrunH ' 6 rprxorp uoqre) 3ur'€qt5 puE ntB.{llerrsuIllM noI 'rrlrrt)s Suripnls urqM 6ulw rpls .jaqv tutbl[sl \ asneTrq .Spssed SulperJE } A{oul ol luu^\ ..rx.2rrrrl s.lnspoaitilr4d v gt pjll$r 'P p0urlrlrtlq 'rrlerM ll )Iurll ol rile/urul piJtl-rp pltl6fui6iiqJ g I sEM urru q . 6 I o1 srrlllluled ! stuplnrulN 1l 'sLrollBraoo Aueul p)ol'Aulo! ' 8 1 t)t2 roJstrll)qrsrue Duld ul pcsniSutrq stllr4lsau' lerDuriJ. llrt 9uo1qlluv L l crlt :uoirru..{ltsp)rru q)}Br ol rlqp q .mqrs roJ qslFtrs t 'uo )npoour rql peiu -z 'sJucruuns cnlll tlll .rrDeq s3rupSuIlll-uled q ' 'plo.?llrpul'.{orlstp q c^orx)r 'p _ 'cilirieq uojl ll .{xotsulitqlrt-sr^to^ul slPleulltl P sSorr{l 8ul^!t q 'rrle.re LIrItl^/r'srllnqns luP puP rllu Jtll p€ox I :r8pssL'd trlDs oI'srlr uor sllJo PtprIEDurg e lrg !}1ne I!3LrlpPrr e lno{/r.rrtlsroJselJlqt^ rJfu9'I ' I I ur BurqtpJlq q n1o&tlqtPerq P 's8unl rno.lo B s3r14) iiullt)i-r?l.) 'pmDll e ol pllos u /.lturel tl aijueq|q ssrlcsn q 'e . ugJ loaH ' € I fuPssr)ilr 'B 'sBulLIl 8ul^!l lle ol /rrl.{llllrre) pcro]siq plnoqsrullose9 ' 0 2 -.Z SutrPdruo:l ._ qriic e .u no^ rPql uotleruroJu! suleruoJ .

a( NrlciToskima paragraph conclLrsion wholeb(rck.gc half minules.is hcated lhe ibscncc l)rotrcr or in ol vclril.tion. anclhydrogeD.firc.annol hL I \ailhoLrt lo it.rc. odorless.d firsL rhe and olcachchaptcr Skim thc followingpassagc discovcf m. A11 oithe followinS topics discLrssedlhc passaltc arc in r. of nilfogcn. nilrogcn. Thcn answerlhc followinaqucsLious. Someli|nes lirc stins n sponlancously.tcr comlrinc $.rc rolt)n)pcrlics-.tion t() irs il contains.rny thrrc .r(r.?r1 a.rc rhc Niscsr)\)g('|. to do this all in thrcc an(l .onrbinc\ il i!irh olhcr substanccs a proccss in called oxidntioD. l:.inrqcon)lriDc oxygcn h. nrcaIirrg thaL fcadilv. !astclcss room tcntpcrnrurr-cach ancl at onc is ]lcrcss.rrv li{c to lll a urlrqlreway. lo woo(llo r)1. lhe induslrial Lrscs oxyitcn. niuogen. and hLrnlan bcings crnnoLlivc withoLrl Thi\ slrLrst. oxrdatron. rhoroLrghly ) lntcr t. ihc charactcfinics hydrcecn.klcn. Readirrg TheLife-Supportitlg cascs llow lonJlcan a hLrnrdrr t)einglivc witholrt oxy|cn2 Whnt il thcrc wrfc rro nitrogcn the air?J!sl how irnponanl hydml. conlains mair idca.\id. Tfy (Youwill bc givcnLinlc() rcadthe pass. and hyd()gcn(liffcrjion lhc othcrclcnrcnls. thc importancc oxygcn.ilh oxvlcu Vcgclablc uredin p. .or rtrs1. lo d. is n1r ingfedient air and waicr and lhc rnoslabuIdnnlclcmcnlin lhc ei|1hs cfU\1. ncwspapcrs. AlthoLrgh Lhcydrarenr.a subnance II rvilh a lovl'kindliIlgtcnr|cr. Thc\c 1ofofnrdccay.. thc (rr 4. For in)n rolntrinc{ wilh {rxfsci lrom lhc air lo producc ir(D oxidc. Thc main topicof this readinS is: a. grain.li(nr nln! .lnt)lc. cx. firc. cs\c!1li.28 Comparing L Rcadlhc firsl scDtcrlcc ofrvcry p.tcnl ir is Thrcc of our nn)slalrunda|lnn(l in|ort. which Ircqucnrly. ol who discovcrcd d.ncc o\ygc1r.l i1. how oxygcn. coflo(ic.s oily rag\. Thcsanrc subslancc causes nrcral. oils sith lo are all examples slow oxidati(D. 2. allhough not always.o.in lopic and thc inli)nrr. b. such. of (n Thc rapidoxidalr(nr ofluels carscs conbLrsLion.rilgraph. of nil()gcn. Readlhc summary concllrskrt thc cnd of lhc pasiirgc. a comparison nitrogcD of and oxygcn c. b.and hydr'(rgcn. and il1n lo rusr.rr(l w.rll orles\. thc diffcrcnccs bclwccn(hc lhrcc Hascs. gas(tirrc bLr r. the scicnlists cachgar nn(llhc ycit o1(liscovcrics. Fo(xl. in Oxygcn vcry activc is chcmically.. lo paint to harden.lLrfc.nd hydrogcn livinglhin!s.nl clcnrcnls .al)l)lcs runrLJrrs.

lJ^IunJrll ur lurturlJ lLlepunqP 'rlP 8LII. f!ru stLltltlPlio llu 'tlollsnqruo) slloJLrulLlods os rrLrr'ilsqns lPql.{xo iqr nlrp ol tr)iJorrrlr r'rr^'\ Jritll Jl uollsnq ^lrpPJr riqro -llro:) uoildnsrou sropurilorlrLr'trojrr {I s))Lrursqns qrrM)Lrrqtuo.nl Jo trorlsnqlt()r o(r Jr| 'iqrprrq r^^ rtu .4poq ol .rlspoolq.lltrol 1o! srop ll'sl l!ql lJ^nr!Lrl '.trlprrlrrl' rq ol sl)url rr l]lrrluil) rrtllo rlll^ lrErr srop LrrFoIlIu 's nrDrrdruJ] rq qjiqJo dlJq r{lr qrr^'l'rr^.LN.r^lrEr!dL!lol LlJSorlltl'urilxool lsE. LIi sl il.'{lprdel rn))o :)Lll o)trlslsrnq srtll sitlrolJ pi)llDr uoLr.leq(rl ollrl srssPd Luu.I{I lIikrrrs.rDrs uns rql rs.ru) pLIe 'rrriJ.rl or spLIn(xlllror prlPstuPId Lliaq sPquJtolllrl Jql LIrltlMtll spllllo(lluoJ iJll sll ol uJl.L0 tllrM sr1.rlllos s.{lddns PLrE ':)tLlllstlol sc(llqt()Jll i)lJLll silnsslt Jrl pool iql LIIIM J^4l8rJLr))Llt iJupnPold 1M rlrrLl^^'uril.rJur lo .tlrouiq(l sr 'ralBMsprlqlo4 aJesalpoqlno 6Z Sulredruo:) .{.'(xo.L sp qrns !31up )pnlrtrr spunoduror rrqlo rrp/'!(xl nB PLIP tr:8orl|r llrEtu rsnPrJg ln.ql sr trpoq ir|] ot pi)rr.l'rMoclir'^ ur prsn rre trrql 'rtqPlstrnrrD sPurlodtuor 'sls.{xo siiulJqLluttlllHL()ltlrlI(ls)l i^ll sillntltLu tlPqlJloLoi^ll x)uLlL)) rnoLItlM :rql ilLrr^rl Jo tusPI(io1(rd Lrlplrn(I sl uinlxo sl or lDrtu)ss.rn(l lsorulu lo lvrlu Jqr sr rrJSorpIH puE Jr! r.trnsrnO urSorpill r.t\ori ol LuJ(lttllrq uiSo.!rnbll iq rlE rql LLl()lJ pilrlrlxr 'srllorqrrue'suosrod pue'(rPIxo sP3 snorlILI) SLrrqBnel srnJlllsrue rq ulrr LrrSorltN J)iIl sr^rsoldxr .rlru ululuorsrJzllllric uollcxriurnoilllrP{lEr p.{lPlerpuP '.)Ll]LIIur3.^ oq urtlM Jlqlssoclrul plno^\ n lloLLIs plrp 'r'.lJ^(loJ ssaror(lc iq JlLlls oslP or ntrr^rl 1Pl1^ sr o)ilorlrN sluurtLrc slLruld sBLrrql ut!1rro) rriiloilrLr IIY l]!ru 'dll^llre lPrls^Llo ol rno ululurulll l)rrll )rnluri(hu)l .[)t(lp]rporlor plrlo^'lslErJtU lsq ilrttrr''rxi )q PInoM l.pup JiiqJ sJnssrl IDLLIILIE lupld llE lsorulPuI punoJosllrsI urnorp/\H Lunrliq ollll LL)iJorpftl uorsri^uoJiql sr .

. ". bcjnls can livc Lrplo 15 nrinlrrcs wirhouroxygen.pprcs rurlr Dr{)wn. l h c . Oxygc| is thc DloslaLruD(lanl clcnrcnt LhcLrni!. r c l h c c h i c l c l c m c n l ! o l l h r a i r w c b r c .rtjc\ oLrr is ll. llydrogcn rhe nron ablrndirnr is clcnrcnr oLl|l)odjc\L)ccaLrsc l)(. c i t . n i t r o 8 c n . w U n c l e f i l a d i n g t h e R e a d i r g . n c l c m e n t a n d i s h i g h l y f l a n n n a L r l cH c l i L r n r s . l) c(trnrast hclium. it 9. . l r r o s l . | l ' r . Nit()llcr'r Lrsccl cxplosiles is in in I0.r\lhc orlc th:11 2. r J / c r . o l h c i n l b r m a l i o n i n t h c p r c v i o l r sp a \ s a i t cA l i c r a c . r n r n . L 'r h .l c \ r y o u r c o m p r e h c n s i o n y f i n d i n g t h c c r r o l i n c a c l rs L . Nitfogcn convc. Comt)arcd oxyltcn. i J .dcol do jn 12.| t .crsc. wood lo fot is nol thc sanic.I t i \ t h e l i g h t e s lk r o * . s(bslancc lhal carscs Lo causcs. i \ l p $ . .hyrlrogcn Donllarnnriblc. l c n l c n la n d r c n a t i n gi 1 ( o n l c l l y . t c nh .. . Scicnrins DorkDow urhil lhc sun is Dr.r. r L v L i . f l . 1. l i p l . E a ( h o l l h c f o l l o w i r ) gn a l c n r c r i l si l i r r c ( ) r s i 1 l c n l i l h .rts a licc stntcLrya pfoccss to callcdsl)ontancous lo rrjlr)grrr vcly. O L r rc x i s l c n c cc o u l d n o L L ' ct n . l c l h c l { : l l c r o l l h c .3 0 Cumpd. 5. wc couldall snrr)kc h(rlrh bceansc rs so stablc. I1thc air wcrc purc oxylcn. s s . r p r o t ) c n i c \ . u \ c o l ] f b o d i e sa r c a b o u t t w o t h i r d s r v a t c r l H y d r o g c n i s a l $ J b L I i r r r o s t l i r c l r n r d i n n l l a c i d s . o c p o l i s h c dt h c c . H y d r o g e na D d o x y g c n a r e t h c m a i n ( o n n i l u c n l s o f l h c w i r l c r w L ( l t i r r k . p r . !o 14. . wilhout hn nirgoLrr 8. o[ L Thc dccayilrg ftxx] isancxnn]plcolrnpidoxidation. Tllc cslcnlial ingredicnr fcl1ilizcrs hydfogcn. l | r i r . S . h o l L h c s c c r l c n r c s . r l r . in is LISTENING SKILLS V o c a b u l a r y i n c o n t e x t . g e .(rlvc is 7.a n d h y d r o .b o r o n l y o x y g c n i s 1 csscnlial 01ife.N j l r ( ) ! r c | r a n d o x y g c n . It is imposslblc f(r'a llrc l() starlsponta|rcously. r 1 ( )g i v c l h c l l u i s h . v c s i n i l . b I O x y g c n . L c l u l r c a c l i r U l r h c p . i r . Thc. 11. \ i l i s r L s c d r c r . . t"ll rl. FlLrnnn 6. dullncs! shine . [ s w c r L I L ] Lt r c s l n l i l c h c \ l h c i \ m c a n i n So l l h e i l a l j c i z c dv l o . 4.ing a r e m o r c a L o m so j h y d r c g c i l i D o u r b o d i c s l h a r a r y o l h c r c l c r r c r r b c ( .lIL .

q JnJ0nDiq e 'ipeJ n) Iupqs tou lllM pue L()lto) uuql .J./r?p itoru e srlrqq.^ puEroDnpuo) pooil e sr tr rsnE):)qiluulM rltlril.. nDalJqt ot Lt)tsrl sDsrlou iIpJ noi .)tqc.'JSr-XJxJ rxrn rql ltrldruor ol s)lolr plrp rrrol JsnLIJLI] snorrJrd iLIl.ql iztlri{o)rr tBqt os snu)l Mru ol no. r!trqlu^s^uPW / rlrJs q tsnJ ./qr.'slclJW 'llprrr rol (Mop rlu^ ol pi r no^ rrl^'I snroJpr[]rrdor 0Jo L() nrru(lolr^ip..qqe1i5i.roIpnls ol rJpro ur rrnFil c.4 noi ssep ul ur)qr iciq no.) q '.\jncxq \t.c ur.lUiljiliiit Jq uE.]ls.l ..)qnr.1. tr.'..lu1qs q pJuurts ^trselc rtqDVDut \t ! .q1 ^^oll(l non(llrq IIr^^ sltll rrcssrlrq] jr)s rJuorrlsEq rqr LlltarnoI .q urotloq ! 'LTEi))O iql lO 'Jr/.{ UJLI^^ iJnpon t llt/v\iiurpair)rd 1$lJ riiontupl uill (I e ur 3ur.r!f.\r.rrllrq rlel lll^ nol ..4pnts oq/!r rsoqt roJ )rp lclllrissi lnq slrrprlt9 llr?Jol lnJJsnsl llulpearJtd JlnlJJI ssslJlnol rtolrq litdsqj {ooqlxil rnol pe nolJr silou..vu''rt rct Itrr{lLIt'c).r rt SuuPdruo:) .rj"7//'rrr rq I . tlullsel iiuol .{ llr.r puc f nr{rrtl|rr.|y^l'aI Jo $llslrilJerell) q $r$n s 'rlllulr ii! slett(u l^etLl 'Zl llt2to sa\adoLdat-II pnq$sqc q prleodr|s rnlP^ iLIt ul Prlrrlpr spM nsnoq iqtJo Jllcurl rqt.1Lu J\u.) rn '.tr rr./ror prsne) peq plre rrll 9 sPuetliqtlM q sqrosqe P 'ts|u slrljr_r tDql IPtr(u e sl IiJ]l ssrlulets g ./nSJLII uo tpolj sBriqDl ol sru!qs e ----_ surl.lo soJplLIeLU pjo)rr ol sl sJlouilutlpl Jo cK)dtnd rqt iqJ 6uDloJ-atoN srJl .qrI.)ilq ! 'rrry'r"rurrl isnP)rq llturnbJ{ pnll$ll{xl ol spDori^lls tJ iq pirpFli|p Piolqtuo) ! 'lJils iJrlpord ol uoil LltlM Pri(o//.)s !urqr fIr).. s.. roJ prsn sr rrddo:) ' .r). r'. I I dot .x'r li.q rlqeleirq 'al!p. sl uoq.ul ' t n\ l ))uep0nqP q ilneloqs 'e .1p "P fu.{tlrulJtlr pllp rErq srophpuot t2qel.!rl tfl.B 'iLtliiut rqlJo slrerl u! l/o]'0.rrlcl ruJt0Mrl^ ..

11r(l eo|l)cr. r r .lls 1 3 .comlbrr. an. r .clivc nll thc nrcral\. an(icopl)cr. w i! . l . . 5 .1 fopular lD your counlry. . fowcr.Cold. Purcsilvcris a rclalivcly ntl rrrclal. r r i | l r .nulcsonrc ior fihr silvcr con )Lrnds rellccl liithr. 7 .lsinlo gokl.orklltan\hlp. Comparc Amcrican wilh onc lrom anoLhcr an . Usc your notcs to dcrclrinc lvhcthcr cd(h oJ rhc . cold h. haf(lcflhirrr(irhcf rirrol is oLrrrrn)sl irrrr. r . r r .silvcr. l i ' / | . l .rsr 3 . .1gue statenreDls rs. . . hr conrranrc Fol(i. .appcarancc. Copper as malleable is nnd duclilc 4 . Drnkc dccisions.ltical complcx Will cvalrarc. silveris Lrsed pholographic bc. T I Gold.Avoid v. nrike iLrdgnrenrsi rhcf and will be ablero analyze.r . l r . t 2 . 2. Thc propcflicsof silvcr rcscnlblclhosc ol gokl . Comparc sporlor g. ' r u { r I . colLli\ lhc Drosl ol chcnrically. .nrc thar is polLrlar lhis connlrywilh oDclhil i\ . are for nrcl.lnrnrc(l lo lfanslatc liorrroDclaDguaitc arx'thcr.. you L Comfarcthc foodsof lwo couDlrics know.lif. havc I comparca conrputcr Llrc and hr. be ableto desigD. Golcl r)ol uscdlor L. lhcif car Coulidcr aD(lra. .r rnorc specific |owc ulnrolor?irslr)|gcr [xx]y? a iaslcr pickup? Bt rte. and coppcr valuc(i theirlun(r nrxl scirtcil)'.rlcrs l)ccul)rogf. cosr.rrrl DISCUSSION POINTS (nr1 To compafc itcnrs.silvcr.11)!r)(l. wifilrgbo(ausc is nol (lt](lil(. ' . "Car A is bcltcr LhnnCar ll. bcginwith lhcif sinrilarirics Lbrnt)()ir1r l|(if (liJ]0firxl cnccs.llloy ol riDa|]dcoppcr. crcatc? or in 2.lectric is it (or\(lucror Coppcr uscdli)f clcctric is wiriugbcrilusc is a lrctrcr it than gilvcr. l l . BroDzc. thcy cvcr bc al)lcl(r lhinki will thcy n)ilhcDr. Newlon was dre firs( to srrcceed changirg ill l). imagine.oLrnlry. r ( r L .rnra|] brain. 9 . . .1rc anrons . rcliabiliry." ln whar sucb waysarctheydiffcrerl? Docs A hirven C. play chcss.12 Comparing Unde$tahding the Lecture. . r l r Li | 1 . t 0 . silvcrtanrisircs.s a t)cautiftrl loncr bLrlir is nol r\ (hlraL)lc silvcf as 6 .Co0rl)r. m f l I \ r .1rl(l solvc lo 1o lo p()LtcrDs. Why are thcy (lillcrurL/ 4.

( oq ti^ill uer pue lle(mulluor Llr ll rooll ou sttli)ql lrrq'Lrii.{llsor)r(xu.4rrrL'rtn!UrlpLIEtLInr.rullruls Jo oo$isn)s!p s lnbtl uolio ilulllrMrulllril)s iLIr sDurl.q srt 7a l).ploM 'lrlllolllr Jo ouo 'rl)lJ .t.rlllppLrc 6ultvduo) S.tro ttc s.4r !p.snJ LIxrq rLrn|])lnrc llrilor pIq . srlll. 01.'(lolsrno. rl ll (ln qiirl Morl Isu no.1.trrJ rillu tql qrluil iLIl 'sl leql srq) r ( /t-sirnseilu tl il urulxor(l(lp) vr9 'rillu p qll^4 trnscJtu pLlo']uttutsLiq 'Lrolll()d iJoluucsll iJu|lllsoJrrJq lll.'LLInu..ro . nol rql r(){.{ JI 't()llls(xl sll lnoqu {ulql uP) noi sie/\^ iq oMl )r0 Jr)ql rolu^ili LIpJ{) Iulql'Jlduexil u0 sv p)lullsL()tuip LlBrll lnq 'poorsrrpuniFr.l!'ll) iL0 rrlrll pu! [rr]l lsrlj tlllJo sjllspil)glDqr tLIl tqu)tta :l paqpw rsruitl iirliu(iruo) Jr) sfollttlu )!seq oMl JIB Jltql s(uill ilotu Jo oMl ilooltlu l.)ilr slu^ )ou sr ulsp lr? lctltlp ptte tlols p LlrrMlrq i)LrirlTJlprtl-L 'rlrur l|l pisI sl polll rr rlrlqMrulutri]ip purr.)rI tPqr op rl)u) lrPr lErlM tlclutox)qd u plro iillllltll'd P 0dtuo] g I €€ 3ulrPdLUo:) .]rrqrunu 'qunot sl! .(n)uprllll rLIroo r.\tt1a.ro.Mlrq ^e^ ller{iq Autlr sruu^nliit.{Jlspirrorrsrsr!Lunllufuiilorpill.nl.Jl's! illP nDo^)It rLIl dn trjlq ^{oqJoiJolettu sl-(Lu ll)r '.t qrluM.josltuoJrrDro.qllt sl rl uolllsod lellSlp tul^!3 rle nol'.ns .)'.4 oltq srl(tucxi )ql pei)u 'iull 0 lp )llslltDelcLlJ illo suloll tlloq rledtrcl re povlrr{ 'pLloJiS iLll Jo lDllslltlJU.lIip UDLII tliJnoqrlu uu upql.trr(n) lPrlar |loi.Auq no^ Jl LIJ^J -slps!rrqlunlrrooLlsr!illqM '1|)srrrrd prrnse.dd '(t861 'slluM ulnuPrr :vo^ ^\rN) urfiv .IIXS 9NIIIUM alotllIPJ riqlo.xll.rrlorc 6Z-8Z'.I..

Bcllinwilh a topicsentence statcs maiDidca. Th€ first paragraph usesMefiod I.although this method makcs ir morc cxpcnsivcthan dclr tedum. on the other hand. However. a oI vet. il can be manufacturcdby bombarcling lithium with neutrons.brt.Frcqucntly. . The two itcmsare comparcd charactcristic by characteristic: lor fusibility. theothcr are usedto showcontrast in an hdkd. paragraph The second usesMefiod 2.and finally forcost. besides and exDress comDarison Iikc ilcm9. however. Words relationships calledlransilion that clarifythese arc words. likewise. is radioaclivcand can only bc found in traceson the earth. in spite a]tl dfspit?.n.iiJtnhtrt rransillon more.h astimitarty. cantrast. nevethelest. thecontrdry.l4 Comparing is rare.. Orhel word.usingMcrhodI or Melhod2 dcs(ribcd abovc. same ay. bur it is stable. TransitionWords In all writing. first a combinationof Methods I and 2 are used.it is very imponantlo showhow thc idcasarc relatcd.Thendcvclop rcslof rhc paragraph tha! fie thc to supponthe mainidea. rhe o[ witlng d Pdragraph of Compdison Writea paragraph comparisou one of lhc Discussion of oD Points.Transition wordslhal indudealthoqh. Tririum. inih.ften for stability. su. Analogdatais described and digilal dala firsl second.even rhough.reover.

g€

'pPo.M rno Jo s,ftJ^^p!r! s?^\oq)ql rr^otrsrp Iqrrrql pup sNr^r pue .slJJlJJ srsnP) uorlJErr suo!lPntrs tJruuorol )JuJlrs pu! ureq) Jo qof Jqt s! lI lo snonulruorP sl llnsrr.)qI .strlotp Lunluprn rrqto rllds u'lnj Lrttpql suorlnrlr sesPrlor 'rrlcls LuorE s! rl rrnrrern Juo sv turl lpsnp)Io purl s[J)Jo :ldluexr up sl uorlrP rerlJnu v .prlLJlp Jo )sner rqt s)orlrrrq puo)rs rqt.to rJ{Jr Jtlt pop 'luJ^r prro)isP.lorsnpJrql srlrroJJq JJUJrrnrJo ruoJo tr:JJ))tll sJtrlllru()s slur^r oMt rtll lpql prurnssp touuer tr,rJtll?r rq iq1 rprlr,rrr"n rrll",]:ttJ;J; .Llt JIEnbqueJuE s! ,rrql Jt rrurnbrs ur p)urddlq ,{rqt rsncrrq lsn! rrqloue prsnP) lur^i Jrro tElll i)lunssE lo|I,la^r^^orl ol lnJclpr rq tsnlu slslluJlJs

p ^qeqp.p.^B',iu. oruns rr."' rq'srrq,' .,,^",,';]i'.l3.l"ili't r!)q, i'ili;]lr"J

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NOIl,)n(lou-tNI

punos pu0'1146!7 "tolo) peJJE pue esnE]
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16 Causcand Eflecl Short Readiflg r'rs Lrclowlo (iiscovcfwhal caLrsts lo sct diflcrcnl (olors Rcadthc Passag€ The Nature of Color th( 'rnLl grnss Why is th( sky bluc nnd (hc grass lrcen?Why isrrl thc \ky green why is a nrserctl inncadof |urplc? whal wc sccns colof is lhc wav bhrc?arcl oi our bfanrsrcspondlo lhc differcnl rvavclcngths light (lifiercrrl fo n of cleclromailnic encqly thaLlravcls vcry quickly on L{thl is a which wc se( as difltrenl col(rrsFor cxarr|rc' n of frcrtLicncics, wavclcn8ths, ol (nm) caLrscs 1() vi()lelA w'velcrrgth 660 us tce r)l wavelcnglh 400 rran(N(lcrs ol w'vclcrrilLh\' by is us nn, causcs to scererl ThecolorLrrowlr in(lLrced drc nrixing ''vc_ Lry Ycllowcan bc prortucctl cilhtr ils own wavclcnllhof a rrixlrrrcol lht \ arrd ol oxygcrl nrolc(lrlcs i)luc bccnLrse to t.''tgttts rcd'unAgrccr. olrf sk) l(x)ks (olor' than wavclcrrglhs nny olhcr iu niLiogcrr thc air sialtcrn()rc Lrhrc

red oran9e gleen Dlue lndlgo

prlsm
of lionr a mixing of thc wavclcDgtlls all colors sir Isnnc whitc lighl rcsLrlts prism'lhc $'hilc a Slnss passccl tllrough thal whcn sunliShl cliicovercd Ncwt<rn thc jiro"rr"a inu, n tlt"clrunr tllcrlallowcd spccLrurll li8hl Ncw()rl otcolorcd iiot'r, ru"rnL'irr"l lr''rr'rrr! J l\1rrr "l ilir.'"*1 3 *6,' .11,,1.,' In(l lr( c('l"l' i., ' ' r n l r r r r s . rr'llt ( rhn , h * f l"." . i * f . r l . i i ' , . i ' r r f " , ) , I \ c r , m L n l J c n r . ) r ' . r r n t ( s1 i r . l i ; h L i,l r\'rlfl( 'J rlr'''\l r' $lr'r'r . , , i " . 1 l ' n . , . p r : r ' r i r n a b t . r . r L i t.rrrrl r J h J m J r r ' whilc surllillhr ,."rfiehrfalh u; d",ps of watcrir thc air aficra rairr'Thc bc'n ol inlo sDallcrs a rainbowof colors. ';.:";i;;;; than thal ol' shorrcr 1o ;;" invisiblc human evcs wavclcnSlh\ J t c ' k r r r c ( l l \u r v ( ' r i l l r ' ' r ' r i ( rl r i 1 1 ' ru \ i , , l ( | I ' r , , L l u ( cr r \ i r J \ | l i l h r ' l r . r r ( J r r J r n r ' r ' l; J r r r r nri ' r \ ' r . h : r ' , rr h c , , , l r n J t ' " J r r i c i r r t r r r cl' il F l l rr' ' r d i 'w r v r ' \ - - r \ " all(l blll wavclcnglhs' wc c'n nrcas!1rc by we .onnu sce.ulorsproduccd thcsc

sllet ulls prSeurpp .-

rq8!t rato!^plrln .!tsnv)/r)aNril

. Flo!^ Jo lPql ueql ie oqs sqlSuala EAr

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uaoJt puP per ro} sqt8uele^E^{ }o arnlxlru P aql
qltuale^e^{ ulllo sl!

+

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sqlSuale^En,o SuFlur p +

u^rotq tolor rql

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+

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'ta|1ti ))s ot str sasnw(tua) salautouDu )ar lo tltEuatar,D D 'srttrorlno JqlrJstp slJrJla'su)(ldsq ,9rrrqlaruos urBldxJsrsnpl suollpntrs slur^r r}ruuo) stJ{Ja plrc sJsnel ,{qM lo

/

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18 cause and Effect ol white light rcsults ton a mixi g oI the wavelengths all colod. . . . Tlle bca of whhe sunlight splallercinto a tainbow oI ulors (Sometimes lhere is a correlati{mbclweentwo evcnls that is, ollc cvcnl the alwaysaccompanies other, 'vhcrhcr or nor thcrc is a causalconnccli()lr-

white light --+ a mixture of the _--wavelengtbs of all colors Se tence Pattens

A mixinsor.ll wavelenstls il"^li,'"j. I a whheliBhr. I . Lrnduces J by I fcauscd lduero I

ft**"' c l nII l'..',1

whhe lighl is { lnduc€d by

of I I a result by,, Lproduced

} a mlxing of wav€lengths

ffl Yhen I

all the wavelengthsare mixed, a whilc lighl is produccd

are A while light ts producedlwhen I all fte wavelengths mlx€d
LAS J

IuI

are Note: SoneoI theabove akopredktior akdcanbe.x\ersedwith thetuturetente.Fot exampk,"$ all thewavele ltht arenixed,a white (Ptedictio,ls beditctttted u,ill light wi baproduced." furthet in Chapter 12.)

'Cause ard Effect Thc Roman oralor Ciccro wrole, "Thc causcsof Identryittg " Inorc interestinglhar thc cvcnls thcmsclves In cach of lhc foleve.rti'ure-eue. underlinc lhe causconce and lhc cffe€llwicc. lowing sentenccs, l. When copperjs hcatedto 1083' C, il mclls. lhey absorbencrgyfrom fte sun. 2. changesoccur in planB \,r'hen

aplxolp uoqlsr pllos ijultt?itl !!to{ stlnsci se8v e 'sciie s npotd (rrl &p) .q] Jo pnnoscqt isrlcr llp rqt u! suo0etql^ 9 'rle rLIt ul puaq ol s.rluEr III ol rnp sr rlprru sseduor E Jo uorlexr rql 6t IJ+JA pu! JsnP:) 't .q riiluorts sl plilJ )JrlJJli aql 'trsolr rru r)roJ Jo saull oqt uoqM .ror sisnB) JiteM o! plJeuu tul^losslc ! 'rrluM rI| pn^lossrp ot p!)e uu rsllBJ Jq liuol 'u 'rotuM Lrlpr^losslpsl pljo u9 uiq^^ pcluj(ll rju srlol z 'Jrltorid!uit iqt uuls|?JJJUI 1(l pi(npr.^tlp8i)u c s.uo tEqr os s.re saplts.4iql J0 llns u rre suotllrqhrv e 'pul^^.ql Luorl rlns.rruiurrs rloJ0 llPd luuuodlur iql LIosnJoJ nol s^1ollB 01 uooelrrproqnsD.uPrro rq_L 'suole Jo uotlez!uolrqt J:)npursrlrlupd prSreqr 3u!^olu-lseJ :)8ipq) )lrp.il srilprlt{ p llnsil Lrer rle rql ul ijulpu.l.rsrqsv i plirj rrlruiJErlr s.rl {rur u.lollnsrr e sr purMrqt Jo punosiq! q 'pul.iq prsne.nroloiqt riilLrorlsrql 'rrr(u . 'p.1lcr 'ntnlejtdl(tit ul )se )ul uu isncj suolt)ccj lelrrurq) v 'rrort)D)r lp)rrlltq) e Jo iler rqt srsoJl)ul i. sl rrcJIrrour rLIl 'uootu )ql 'I iqt Jo IInd lelroltet!^er3 . .rlP lslour ol pJsodx.qp rlll Lrpqr tlrpuodru!ssrl ro ot rlEulpnxlns s] .toqns 'soooarqr^ rru.r\cJllrt uv 6i) le)lu.q sIlJ tqiJlliq prsner rte sriJellw E 'p erq urqM pllossLurlt iplxolp uoqre) q .Josilrll iql .{crlqilll rsn€trsrBBrll^l q rlp iqt U!8ulpu)qslpt lqfrl Luo.rr.r rrdPr{ snulrl urnl sprrY ' E 'poo.rnrurt ll! rr .ltdl(lJtarF llulserl)Lrl I 'soJltJluas ts:tqt Jo q)er Jo nuluuitu Jrll sJrl)tlru tsiq lgqt raMslleJqt.9 'ppu rl.€ Jo srull rLlt rn$l) iqt 'p ur(! rq ot sr.rqrp to.Ilr pup rsner MoLIs u! lurll srtrrrrllr:)s pisn ^llurnbrrJ st 'r.snplr o^.r4Jo 3u!l]lnq.lo r) rlrql JI)tr) sasbJ4dwbd aulput$Japun 'lqnrlJoLrollJrljir ^q pirnpo{ sr rolo:) ' 0 1 trll 'slsu ll Jrorll Jql'.ttJo uolti)i)uuorrgt ro 'uonputproqns uolleulp.lnlE.ptxorpuoqreJ pJlos SultEiH t lriilrorts iq ot plru rlnr)lr rqt )sno) oJrct.rnpord rllop p rltr^ qluor e 3lrlqqnlt ' 9 .

. : l l c d o i r 18.rll). corrucc()f bclrvccu nrcauili. i(lcnlily rrrnin lhc clnLrse dclcrnrinin! bf which clnLrse conLnius cc|rlfrli(1c. w a l c r w i l l n o l ( l o c { ) r l l ) o s c . iLslillnc(\asn conncrtor sincc rclaL!s it lhc nrcir|ring orrclo lhc olhcr.1])l)c. T h c g a s D r c s n r f ci n c f e .1/rr'rn in rvhich)s Llqa dent/.. A ! t h c l c m p c r a t u r ei n c r c .rnrIlcs. W h c n c o | r ] c t s r [ ] c l c o r s c o l l i ( l c r lw i t h l h c c a r t h .lttd1.Now lit thc subordin..ondary 0r clausr: Human beings cannot live on the moon b€cause there is no air or water there. ll) 4 .i\i1. al 2. c 5 . Usi g Suborcli ation.lauses clr(lsc. nraybc fevcrscd. r l l c f c L r r ys h c . s e s .rht: f/.n whichnleans fiat il cansranLl aloncas.40 Cause and El{cct il by purLing li a .r|l)c. r g r ) c t i Li c l ( l o l nl. i Lc o n d c n l c \ r l i r c r l l y t o . E. c 8 I i c i r ( r r rd i o x i d c i s c o o l c d L o 7 9 " C . \ r r .jscd Lhcrrl{. mainclau\e.rh ol lhc lollowiLrg \crrtcncc\.y hilvc bcen rcvcrscd 6 .1rs LhcurainclaLrsc. caDnor It stanLl irloncas. hLtn./rP/4 ot lec. ihhoLrgh rvoftl rhr is l]&rrrrr rx)l localcd bctwccrlhc claLrscs. is cqu..i a\ . thc lJn(lc ir)clhc rnairl clausc onccand thc colrnccling wo(l LhnL link\ lhc rlau\c\ 1wiac./&1/r. s c ( lL ) t c a L r \L h ev o l u m c ( l c c r c a s r ( l . ot lr thtit. \ t ) l i d .rt in thr rutiol i(tc. connc(ling Thc lhc of Notcnlsolhal lhc. \ccondary.t\ lhc lhc ol word alirilysinlrodLrccs rubor(linalc lessinrIwo clauses. Whcn silicorr addcdlo ifoo.rrr. Evcnwhcn hcatcd I000" c. bcli)re And.Lrsrs inlo one lcnLencc that oDc idca is \Lrborclilr./?rrr. ds./. rombinf (hcts() (l. l 7 .lc thc othcr. ThcnranrclaLrseofrhi\scnrencc. h c n .fd .lusc. idea (l..tilon.. n c l c c L r i c l r r r c n t i s p .lLric docsnor cxpfcss conUletc a lhoughlb) itself.l.rl. whik thc lcssimporLanL .?rrrirtlr.1ain.r. r f o r ) L l c c o n t c J' L L s c s r s l a D t is r rt 3 .lzl la -lS 9' e IJ .1t1 btitl!$ antlnot r/] //r(. \ \ c i l L h r ) U g hi l . h c r a L co l n c h c n r i c . if.tr1a1li4rntl]t.be t$t.1l]s!. I . scnlencc ir l)cc.9'c . No oDcwas killc(ibccausc ivalanchc thc occLrrrc(l r)ieh(. lcss Thc or inrponanl. l r c a c t i o ni n c r c a \ c s ..s /rddir or wntr lhcrr.rdrrc lr.n]. N c o n g i v c s o f f l i g h r n .lc cl..ldt^e.r diraLe sc.efrirrcthereh no dir nt vttrttt 0n thc r?00r) is cxprc. h c. Nolicethal the word . ol Recog1|izil1ll Subordifiatior.. scntcncc. t h c c a l r .orel:l to ll l)oiarrL say.YorL so lo will ncc(l(o add a connectins worrl nrch al r1. Iu cach()1 ii)llolvirrg lhc cx.

1 '1111. . r r l 0 M .rptxoip.to l)rllr iqr spMluqM .prxorp.srxrJrr(llllro) o\lp L sP.{(l 'i\1.t s)lul)lrrr\rp II.{lt^|l)u ot rurlrpor pisnLl:) iql tLnlM I a(ln:.loor llp rql Mo or qrrqM'srxrtlns ro'x)oi )qt irol)q r(ror rlrrq'\'l.rr(i!!rI )rll p l r n o l i ) l l ./ a. . r .ro urlll oot sr nrrl p :Jsnr:) lrltM l l l J ^ l ( ) s s t ps t p l r D L r c :a! pj p i r L u o Jr .ri(RIil lt iJulsnu) i)ll1 jo f o() iltr ri lo isl))lrr J].io rqt pUU srxLlrr(l ltlt ro 1.r l)isr1u) rql lcllM € z^nrrrr)Jo roqM Z auortroiri(lt dn p.{iJrrui lo.r rqt.rlr iLlr srr\ l0qA\ . \ r l t r t . r i ) ^ { r L l t u ) r t M . n .rilL.p)rds.L.ri. t i .ro^'l sl. .)q] jo su.k)M. r U .{LrPtt urDUr sl Lt)lltM'r(x)r rLrorj pru r)t sr pro^{rlsrl:jrrg upd r] rr uy 6u1p11ng tuo1nqmo1 S'ITI>IS DNI(IVgII . ) q t o t ) p r x o j p .) .rP(l irurMou)t st(x)r qsrliluS rI pi)lllrot sProM rrc PrsnIIuorL[Uo) jo JluqUrqr Jro!\]) qtoq ro..\1 .{rl .rLIr rcqt lllr.surl. Z It r)tjt3 puP rsnP:) .\'t r\LrJl)..i a.{qdoft)lq) L u u l r ) u ^p L I l n t l s s r l l J q r J pr0rrl Jq uDr punos ou :l)rJJr :)s'Ir) :trilj.{i uc. { r l r . J .{LI astrllrdrqr nu|l.r9 ruorjillrprl tsprl P. . . .9 Io arJloM 'E Lrlsl)llr(lrprxorplq utntpos lt Ilurltn{l DrJtr )tprp Ultrr. f .L l r I D J q u o l L t rl r t u ^ { i ! r ( ) s l n d \ t u ) p n l s r t l s [ U r q ) .\ aisu ot JituMiql Jo)rrrlor huit Jqi pisnur lu(l^. .i(l)rl.tl]s D. ! i r ^ r r .'!()rrl')l(lrrruxr roC litrUL'aru luru[lu. ') o Z Z i ( l o r r p u n o t p u L i r o i j u J i l u ^ r ) r | J o i l n l u .1 r l t i .. { r q t . t l t s . r i ( i u t ) t ) q l l ) i j n s u J l L ts t ! t i l ) | l l i t l l ' p i ^ l o s s r p l l u ) . U o l l ) p i r i r l l ( t n p i ) ( { r o l . f .trtpM rqt Ji) rjnt!.t rq ol . l .u .{ lr](lA. r i r I tl c q l t \ . i r r i . { j o l p l o q u J r r l u IrIEN:l (I:ltol\ M o o J l E q l ruonsinb)Ltt. \ r " \ r t i r t t c . r ( .lJp ! lr]JJsn Uilto u!:) str iq ( u. I :l). 4 rp U U( u n l p o so l u t I p J r q o t ! U i ( l l i l n _ u r \ n u ) ' s l i l l ) ( 1r l l p i l .M Io i)rnl!. .lo t))}Jrrrlt roM llqM urltpos}0 spuoqrqt iirrl\crrq. r u s u o r u r r t l r l o u r e I o s D r u ) i ) ^ D A l ) r ' n o sD prDrq sr otl)r UL' riiruro plrp '^{o r. s u o r i p r x o .)ltr :i)sllur :isn3l :lr)il.uru0 u)ql puc )rriLrrurdxi uD ollol rql ppru 'Ltdbr6orDd D ut tlaJJg puD asno) 6ula! 6Dad t()uonilll]srl n"Ur^ p qnrrrlll \iluor)q uosrr(l p :DrjJr uoqs oor sr llDq).iuirq )prxorp.lt p l[srr spuo(] ! rso(ltIo ilul]lu.) runrpos lo slrlJi(r prppu rrql Lr)LIl oa.{ 'prr urnl s)^!.)rl ol . r p .

over.you lnun always scc if Lhc nrcnning(hnl you dhleot tninJlammable.absorbil1g nleaninlll be nislcading.r/ iliconneded on rely conrl)lctcly nrch howcvcr.rld. submatine = a ship used under watcr L hypolhcrn)ia 2. lldtltnabk .almcanstDl 1oilic.tr high blood pressure . postglaaial= after the glacial period sub-i wder.lnd irr4dl rrar1. bcrrcalh bol(nr ol thc sca c. fu . hypcrsonic LxxlyLctuPeraturc c.'rr. dk. a\1d means ot cantle. hlpolensitttl = low blood pressurc postr after. fits lhe hypet.(Theanl(n)ynris .'have thc sarDc cnsily(alch Ilrc. p!ll ul)(lefwalcr excclsivcbrcalhirg 8.rr''l' i.Thc clucscan sonrctirnes over many ycars. for you c. fasterthin thc sl)ccdol sound t . htlpo-. in .. For cxample. submcfgc h .illcr rhc o|craln)r k aftcr(icarh . subnofinal lhc d. neans nrr . lcssacidic a.?dcsrrd/y. thal has cvolvcclarrd changcd clucslo determirrcmeaning Englirh ls a laDgrragc words from many langu. hypertefisit.ypo-: under.r r-. hypcwcr)tilali(D t.?drd. SlLrdy f(tlowing lin of prullxcsand Lh(rr Prefixes: lefl bcbw wilh Lhcir nlcanirrilsal lhc rilhl.and i/ makc a word ncgalive will tcll yolr lhal rrt. You will nol lnal(h lhe tenns al thc Iisled. i olti.beyond the norm.gcs.l gucssed lhc way the wod is usedin lhc sc|lcncc. useall thc mearriuSs = hypet-. above. beneath. hyporcxic L hypoa(idic 4.rDrrol A worll of caution is rrccded.+: Causeand Effect prcfixcs un-.te!1. hi!hly poisonous i .rposJirfu ncans not polsibk ina(ttrttta ntcans .Posf-.f!diJ.drllr'"'They both refer to $mclhirg thal can Thcrcforc. . less than the norm.

P ll'l q '.t) Sulpllnqplo irll ste?"\ 'zl IU Ur().1.)J' rqt ur rr/.lprlr/ ilutrlrrli s Jr. prtu.jo ijurrrprur )LIr s)LI)rerrr tsrll tpllt .'J rLIt lu.r?rrdosl poo^ 8 LI slrrup rr lt(' {i^ril I 'trlDr uro4.uortp$.u^Ui q ss.os pLrrr sr ru)lqor(r e r^los ot ^P.p.MJqt rll pit)rul)r su^/r isnoq rLlt J<t tl.6i.nrl rqt it}rl )qt tr.ql .tJqtillot iluo) u r.rc(iJs q .ql.1 rLIl or lsrq..0 'll olur .l JJeds iql . J(lt qtiDJiLll lt itP.orrl/lrrr srq .€ : rnPrl^\ooI! nrrllri)J e -turlqorcl )qt l() UorNIos! ot pil .rrMsLrE .)il) 'q tLrclls .i .lil)un'u 'lr rliinorLltsrssp(i tqijll ou r.. os soM Joop sselii illl .to r.rqto irll puu Lll_rou $oii rl(i sp.rrro.arrot) ut troltlqnoA {t lrtJJ3 pue rsnPtr .)rrP.rrrp rqrpd o^ l )qI ./y'rt x/ i(I0)sojJltu v ' { l prnuctp prilrPluJ u \ 'lL'll(lsoq .Jo tur^orslp srrl rpqt p.P 'slJ^0llpullosll)lLl^{ Llnnolrlt 4r..pJr.\tJ..t.Jr^^stroJJr IIV -(roqt a)s ur.D tl rqJrcil) rl ir.t |rdluDll r.l 'srtrurtlr)srsi\r Jo q)e) or prsn sr rr sc pro^.iIr.litc.itrrr!.{rUDiiriuo ulr ()t|1./0r{.ta{sut1.rprzp{Dt! .nt|l)pA u tl l(n)ur )10 pLrp LlllpJ rllt ul)).) c)s q -1I)Jcs 'nl iuul(l oql dotplrpl o p.tlrr.rJlu^^ r4.lli q urSuo O '.t)ol(l .M l(lrui .9 urpprll xb{ q Lr^roul a})Pttfu 'lprriplr)u sp^4 ullll)lu)(l.'raM os \lJilqo srii0lLri'u )lqlst^Uls..ror(lr pprl I rliirrollltv z ou \l).r.r/ t(ri^'\ JJAllpJrll c 0l npl(l u It)()l 1l '.r Jqt sl llv I I lP)rIri|1 'uoll).rrtlslllx.

lnning Rcadthc lbllowirlglhree qucslions. 10 malerialfor alrswcrs spccilic thc lo Lcchnical when you need sear{h wilhoul rcading cvcrv wofLl you will r'vant1o locale drc parlic!lar inlormalior To lct by Thisc.travels \iJ . not sonlcLhirlg fcachcs l|1)ll] srlnol thc liliht.44 Causeand Eflect Scanhing qLrcsliorrs. tbr Fassagc rlle key words.drriri the passagc. who oriSinaled wavc Lhcory lighl?(key wo|ds:a pft)fernirnx lrilh (apilalletters) L What is silvcr brcmide usedfor? (kcy words: silvcr tn'{nni(lc) Readi g Relecting o Light () to otrrabili(y "sf!r" lllc Moslof whal wc krrowaL)out worldconrcs usthrough Bul olrr tcicscopcs. il all in firec mirrlrlcs.lio.fcflcctillg lor YoLr lhis ltagc. how (lo we sce: Si!lhli\ an(l with our eycs. cxitndc..Q' . oLIrntia()s(opes.n be accomplishcd s. our cyes. Try lo do 1 Whal is lhc st)ccdof light2 (key wordsi a LlrgeDunlbci the oi 2. bccausc sce our eycs. lionr lhc l)nfcr to yoLlrcycs ao clcflriclight. scan youf cyc\ rurrfapidly pagc and lmk for thc kcy or inlporlanl words lhil yoLrare scrkjrrg down ihc the by Ther Iind lhc answcrs sc.vcls rd il dlat o(rl. lnslcad is thc lighl lhil lf.

.llHll*.trfi 'Ii.ji.rui:n:.ill..il tiliilin i.suolDJJ!p.lilillli"l'.n:r.1 .llj.p"ri..Ili* :lufili:ily.iii.#frilt..il lit. ..lllifl.l srstsrnr ^llenlJe lqil{ Lor0 prln"n srq 11i^*el^I ." ilfii ^.:i::".i:*..'i. u6n ero 6uncauar lq6r'r j#ji jii:..l :..'i:'iiill.'..:li'r.'::.. i iLll .i...l[::i )iriii:.i"l.]:.i:.i .r.:: .:tii n.Hliti .lll..i.ilt.j ill**ill":i.?."1.l::'1.'.^'ir_i"li.ij r.:ilT.]lli. iut:m ll . lln. ili:frll .:l'i1". j:.:.o -rpJque) iM .LuJtll.tii1.i:1.!J rrr tJ.i"*.ir.un1qrltrur5 .rl:.::l1lln!:.:Tll'tii'lll. .ii..rrclt) lp &i..::i..i:ll i:Jl.::...:iJ::11i"li:.^Eqrrn* n.:l.il.:. u:t'iJi' :..l...rui.is louuo) lrq JIB.'.ii rii:.l.""'Ifi i..:x#i$iiij:$fi.". li..:i:i*illili: ri:.ilr'# '3Ce|ln9 qOnol ego 6ullcauer 'oceJlns qpourS lllliltltl il:ti t. st IDJJg puP asnPi rqr Jououtnnq Lr derllerrsp u.:"'1.ir^"rirq:n.*r'ili* ii"{+' :ll1:]-s.p-trredjo .j.. .jiliij-!. :ir.iilr1.?i:'.ilidjilll.: ffi ilu iill''..:1.i#diT Ii[i]i :i:iiii:il::..nm:r ll.lt::l lllll.llll::r.gsl'?j.jl:.l'liiti.{.{uurrr ul .*llfll ll. lr:ii.r lpls tcqto cqt uo llrlolxl r:.. riiir '..li:1.1.ltlti ^.-l:iii[.:.[i:ililff :# i. qgiq.i f.:t..rq.l..ilt.:.*t# .ffi .il:. -:iiiiii:l:ltill.1ullsr.

lrrlrs c.000 nir' lhn)ughgl.lcly arrdnrc. Mosl ol lhc v)Lurd ivc hear is rclleclc(i .tutin(licale s nilcs l)cl rccorl(l l.sslllan lhl'(nrllh slower 2 . J-ighl lravcls al diffcrcrrt sl)eedsirr cliffcrcnt \rrhsril(.cs Solrxl wavcsdo Dol travcl irr (rnisht lincs 1 0 .rsurrg . L i g h t l r a v e l sf i r n c r l h l 1 ) L r g h n l e r l h i D ( ) L r n ( id o c s 6 . Lighttravels lighl. Lighl lfavcl\ iu thc sime lvay ns v)Lrn(l 8 . Thc rpccd01lighl is 186.Plarrls Iightcncrgy enablcs gcl ir lionl rhc plarlls theycal. MoonlighL rcfleclc(l w 5 . ll js (his ligh( cn(ryy liorr Lh( sLrn (lifcctly Aninrirls lr)nr thc slrrr. l)y rlrakccvcryclli) lo lrc l)rccisc rcn(lrrrl nlr'rsl Making Inferences.rxl rccor(lirrg carcftrlly and o6scrvirrf jllcorfccl ol cach lllc li)llo\1'jllg whclhfr Irl(licirlc conclusions. in carr Ii)flDaliorr fcsult in (S). l)y irl is slatcurcr\lsslaLc(j llrc Passagc inrPlic(l olhcr irrli)rnrnlion thc l)nssagc rs whclhcl lhc slrlcnlcrrl lfuc Dor (/). is 4 .lc(l implic(l {N) l)o. gct Lo livirg rhirrgs grow.46 Causeand Eflect Light rays changedirectlonin water. Lighrtravcls lirslcr lhan nrtrnd 3 .or rrcilhcr sL.lflh an(l bll|n a h(tc in il. S c i c n l i n s( l i l l r o t i l l w a y s k r o l v l h a l l i g h l l r a v e l s 1 .A scicrrlist irr' lrla(ctr|nl( accuf. (hc (hal w.

'Jurtuur.'rdLUr pJJput \p^ qtlcrq \9 ruod \rH \ 'leluter p /lrual1br.o.J qtstqe .bqPnb D patuJ^Jid e STlI}IS 9NIN!IISI'T jrl(k)rd ri^ilJ iri^ rq tsnur stslturlrs El '^8riuo rliq ()1prllr^roa iq Lt!) ifirlrr lqiJlt .l -t ssrulPr.p 'roolJtLIt Lrr suo'iL1q!^ ll pord lllM i'lrulqreu] ^^eiH I .M q qliturrls E 's^pr s.z p uI luiulr^olu fO srslou .lelJuJS .llrrrrlr4 eqt tuo{ SJIJ lno Ditord sJsselSuns 's.{q przleDereqr p sitclult) Iprtdor.r liil uLr)rloA tet:n 'sr)LlJtuJs i)scrllJorl)Ba Lll pcsn s!I slr pro.Ltiuro^ .puc rJp rJd.tl 'iiipllrl pisrr^rl r?st))[Jrr .unsrqt .()r.lsneJ .t Jo.4 pczlJllullrqt Jo SuJuecuj aql siq Llruts)q tPqt tr^\sup rqt .Jotsot\l Il ult It rlijjf puP.Joor iql uo iltrlllujllltlrltnsrlll.rullsupll uuql nlilll ilol! stDurr p oV Zl l)rlqo Jul)cdo 'Diqrosqe sl iJulpllnq lr.p/rl rJqSlLI JAeqsJ]m^ s.rl(r ruu V €l 'Joo lur.rrJltrnuql .jo rrllrl rllt alJrl) $rrroJ u! [Jt4nqDxoA .

largcness Dilfcrent wavck'ugths p(xlLrcc vdf. usc all the uhderclanditlg the Lecture. r \ i o l i r i s N .i. Lr.r. To pracricccnrcrycncypfoccclLrre. soundis prodLrced air vibtatior\.benclrl a. Soundr\'avcs lnovein only o|c direction.sionilly. Becausc dr?plilrA!. dcsigned b. nclrillg on a always WhcrrlnkingnotcsdLrring lectulc. porlaDl poirlson a chalkboar(i displays lhcnrou . or pointsoJ lhc lcclufc.rgcs 10 4 . Wc hcaf soundwbcn our car drum\ viL)ralc seDd .lrcscnrch sLrsfcndcd lhc.extcnsivc is. a. n L A bell rlmg in a vacuumwill lror produce sounti. obscrvcd b.l lbr in for thc nrain 1)ir\\ng('. picc '). soundqualily b. sli(l(or lfirrrs|nrcncy.r sl)cnker al of objeclives llrc bc!inrling thc l:irrnlly. slylci 8 .ch ()l lhc i.1o wrjlc (low'r to Takcnolcsasyolr lisren lhc Icctufc main idcas. i1 wc nrayneverkDow ho*.rlthc cnd.li()n. dcslrcvc(l was fof ol 1 2 . :lllhough is nrorcdilticukl)((. ljsc your r()1r'! 10 (lctcnriuc whclhcr c.rr. by 2 .l cn]1hquilc \1. Lhc ofthc Lrnivcrsc impossiblr Lrs conrt)rchcnd. poirnsis likc l(x)kiug thc ()t)ic\crrlcrrccs i rcndir)l. sNrd a. irnilared 1 0 .48 Causeand Effecl is fof lo 6. wfjlc\ irrr_ Orc.lcs lhc goinglo covcralrdwhal yori needlo li5lcr) Son\clinlcs Jl)calicf li)f. T l. All lhcorclic.d/rdrr in colort. l a n L tr i i h .1. srrrldr!'d nn iclrr. a.rrrrrd lo prcccss .. thc preseDt. and rrc\\.Uscyou (lo not havcfara8lrl])h il ()1 ideas couclusront lhc lccL!Lfc.. l l l . r co l . visual and analyzeall l(illds ol (1. (innpurc|s can bc f..'Ihcn youf nolesto conDlclclhc ncxl cxcr!itc. loc(l$ lhc nlaini(lcas.r. Ptriod Note-Takihg l. diffcrcnccs a. l t . T h e l d . b.c a./7 lhc r.'o. cluc\ lo l\cltrfor." Il1. TiDy daorljtla dcvi(cs arc 11s('d ii(l hcadng lo b. lhc Drain may srinnnrizc rhc spcakcr ()1 "Thc MLrsic Soun(].i following starcnrcDrslruc (1) or falsc(F) icco in8 l(r lhc letlLrrc./rri?/i(. or YoLl lhus musrlistcnli)r thc gcrrcral will hnvcnn idcnol whal il iJ leclurc yoLr Filnl oLrlLhcbpic or titlc of the so \l.

arJI rnol uo .rnduor .! 6t lrJJJll pu! rsnq) .^orslp iqr Jo quPr uo slJ)lli )ql rq lqilllu lPqM E ziJgds otln lJ^prl o1 ttiulo^'\ pLIutJrrl sisnPJlpq^A t auollsroldxJoJPds slJ.^^ uors edxr prnultLlor nJo slrqjr.r.{rpr s! r^eM pullos E .{q pJururltlip sl tl)lld '9 Jo 'punori3.lJJJtll.ql q8norqt uPql rlP rql qinorql r)lsPJslr^Prl plrnos . Jsne)oqlJulrPlr e uo{l luilaJJlpsptrnos Y lLrJLunrlsul 'JPnllldLLIE lLInouEJql ' 8 s1!sp ol prrr4tr s! 8u!.ql Jo slJ.{pldot p)uurpriSoldJq ueJ rtlnduoJ V ' I t 'J)!o^ u0onrq p rleJnollsol alqPJq rJ^JLIlll^Alilndulo) V ' 0 I 'soorlPrql suolleulqltnJ iuJrrJJIp sJ)r'rpoid Jo rPunts q)e.{Soloutprttu.{ePtlrc III^^sr)llldluoJ 'zI 'ount rlFo^eJ rnoi .lq!\sotl rtll.rP IDLIM Jo Zrrueld roqloue Lro{!lJo fu.L3IJUJ.polu Jo slruJ.lo 'i)uo V llrtus e ucql punosrrpnol e s. llluucq iql Jo rtuos E lutl^ Z ZlrnlLr)J slql ul rJtlJlrs u! sDuB^pele)lilolouqJil aqlJo tlrtlrc lr-'ljlliluiq tql Jo tl(ros !)lP l!\lM l srNlod Nolssntslc ((rr p 1 'srtsodur()J iJeld l- z .t{pmros rzls rq} .lo iolos Jlp IeqM € Jo Z.rnpord lu p aSrEI 'st^P.llt )qr e leLIA4 8 rrP Z ZrSeuoqsItnJ uJo slr4j) tlqlssod rLLIos leLIA^'9 auo|elndod pFo.

50 Causeand Effecl WRITING SKILLS Patter s of Organizdl[ot1 choosc logicil or(lcr10 l)rc\cnlyolrr itlon'rirlion!) a Whcn wriling n tJntrcr. ()r b.h c c l l c c l so { a h y d f t ) g c ub o D l b1 c d .rr(l dclc ninc which ol lhc alrovc|rnllcrrr| of_ gar)ization uscd: is lrr 195. Movc hom lhc sinrl)lc thc (onrplcx(lrevcr fcvcfscl) lo ol i. ' t . happdls btcatse.. You nrighlorgnnizc thal oDeidca lc. A .(livc nrnlcfinls As ovcrthousands s(lu. x r 1 r .T l t t l l t u I d n S l l t . iDgcnrdquirnlilics fndio-iclivc ol S .1ry cllcds ol Rcid lhc pnfagra|hbclow .td.rnk. l l r c r 1 .o v c l r l r n lrh c s l ) c ( i l ic 1 1 c (o\i a l u c ls h o . c r i o n .i |ry. n r('\ull. ajrLint yolr school lhc clltcli n1i work pli(c \rr. e a c h c l l c c l i r r l r r n r L r c c o m c l\h e c .i D d lcd.T h c s e e l l e d s a f c i D t r x l u ( c d w i l h l h c w o r d \ t r o d r . Movc lrcnr rhc gcncral thc spcciiic nrovc1R)llr effccls (on]rulcfs(nr thc wofl(tin gcrr_ thc ol i.ll irrirrrals which iu lunr wcrc c.uscs i clrrde ls . clli'cLs onc |crsorl on crnl ro lhc \pccilic (t (the revcfsc lhc fl)ovc) b. . 2. Spacc ol nl nlovcfionr 1hccllccts coml)Lrlcrs horncto lhcfllc(ls al a. e ? .ds lo nnothcr.?rr. For cxn1nfl(. aI'd theftfore. Thc cxl)lo\iorr a IrxlLr.tcrrl)y largcf. i c ! : ^ n i r l o ! ] v/ . lor cx. For cxanulc. t \ A \ i l ' l \ ' l L . llcncc a nlr|nL)cr .r. i! indtlc.d b!. ('i ()1 which arc aD inlln)flanl...Iapiu.rcr. hldr.c(l lhc ol arrrlalsoscallcfe(l lall-oul on a rlur)rlJ('f Paci[ic islanris. Lollic lo a. cxIccrcdradio-. d r d / .rcc lhe scaithcscr'r. of dclifis plnnl\which livc i|r lhc surl.r inr. r c ( l c s c r i b c (i ln c h 1 1 ) r r o k ) g i c a l i o r d c r b e c a u s c l i s a c h a i n r c .rlcrl ol apfrarcdir rhf sorall li\h notal)ly lrrrr. u s c o f a n o r h c f .rrrplc. r prokEd br. F ( nc x a n r p l c l.crc c. Transitiou word! thal inlroduce c.Lll)a'rcsc lbod. and rr .11iclc (licl iu .fclnilcs. 1 l l c o r r o r ) c r ( l () pcrsolr the gcncral orr cllc(Ls llrc world Lhe lo c. Olher words rhar calr inlroducc clf€ds iDc]Lr\(lc. B . l h a l i ! . r ' f |t f t .rc. f l 4 n n ( H i r r | c r 6 R o r .o(ling () onc concctls: of lhc li'lk)wirlg L Tirnclchfonok)gy) cl_ t() inovcJfour iuiliirlcjlccls (orrrl)LLicrsthc rrfcrrl thc oJ a. For examplc.1 hyd()genbolnb was lcslc(lal Ilikini. Movc fron lhc llxlili( Lothc gcncral i . .1clivc (iarrgcfolrJ radio-.h as n storc.Ls.r lhc by sln. -voLrr |nptf. 1 9 7 1 ) 1] 108 I n l h i s p a r a g r a p h l.7.ux)vcJionrlhc (lirr(1cllccls conr|ulcfs lhc irxlifccl or sccoDd.ero.t1 thrs.anstitLmtlt. lo officc 3. L r \ l l l .

):rp(ls L I) LmoDzrupij -roJo ur)lrcdr.r)dpdIIt tnoqilnorLll .tol sllrrrs (rrllolro .M rsn snr()dL()tssnrsl( rrll.'!(leiiiBrpd )ql ol lnrl ol nreM no.JT put )snDJ lo r4riDt6tupd tt 6u!UM Ig IIaJJE puP rsnP:) .{ri^oJsrp.{ Lrosl)Jll) slr ln(\P rlr.lM l)lrL'rronu)^L ro .M rllo. rq Irrrlsrsuor nrq':Idot rnoinJr tsrq In)^.io Jlro tnoqurlrrM ro pFo.lulnlrrrsruo )smq:) trtl.{ tlutqrtur^) rpnlrlrr()l qlinorrrpporqst lpqrirurllrrs r!(ftnc qrrMupts .^rll{l.

ot ilduttdl ldtyltor example.scienlisls of continually rcvisethcir hypolhesis aboutwhat it lookslikc.When a theory cxplainsor unifies a grca! dcal ol inlbrmatirnr. he or she formlllatcs a hjpathctis. For cxample. Ahhough a hypothesis usuallydevclopsfrom the intuiLionof thc scientist. Progrcss involves conlinually refining hypotheses new information as comes lighl.For cxamDlc.bul Lhcideawas the prcducl the of many yearsof studyand experimen(alion. is basedon obseryations facts. it is referred to as a llreory(lbr cxamplc. rhc rheory of relativity). As evidence gathcrcd suppon a hypolhesis is to and i! bccomes accepred in the scientific world.Archimedcs' principle of waler displacementor the law of graviry).chapter 4 Hlryothesizing Motion and Gravity INTRODUCTION When a scientist discovcrs rclalionship a that scemsto hold lruc wilhout exception.A hypolhcsis is a rcnLativeor problcmor an cxplanation why somelhing temporary solutionto a scientific for happens. A hypothesis does not always prove 1o be corrccl. it or CharlrsDarwin's hypothesis aboutevolutioncame10him whilc hc was riding in a carriage (hc wrote///I canrcmcmber veryspotin thc road"). il becomes known as a pritltiple. . and it may have to be rejecled allogether or at least reviscd. 1() sinceno one has everseenthe structurc an atom.

)iLr sl ))loJ s puBtsarte rq ot sl DofqouEJoJtetsIprnleucql lpql paztsrqtod.M riJrlFq piqsllqPtsr-3uolasaqlleql soogl iulr rqt lllun lou sP.{qs.r P le Pqsncl rq ri^ruiqM luql prN.M 'uollP^Jrsqo pLlB )!8oJqll^4 llrJtslsuoJ $9r.{uv a)uols P ro ssPJSlo apglq e'r)lsPJsllEJ uoltow ltoqv suoltoNauos 'Lloltoru lnoqd \rsrqrodiq.M sesrqrodlqs.rq lPruroJu! pUpsr1()l0 rql prrdr$e rrr.s.M leql puv DlsPJ uo sl q)rLIM slleJalrc$ e tPql JJs uer Juo.sqo rH uollour leluozlroqpJrpnlsoslPrllolslrv 'tqSroM rlaqt ol leuoorodordptrds e qtlM llPJ sDafqoleqt puEsDaho lrltll LrEql sDalqol^erq lplll prolturatrp alorslrv DtspJllEJ 'i)JlrilrJdxr {Pp.M snolrP^paddorp.4 tl 'l)i\{qo Dqr() rc l)r).ilLro ruots rls oqt Luo4 aruetslstrJJoUJ e uuqr {lMols rrou lleJ lllM sser8Jo rpplq V Duplslsrr rle It lullorslp nol JI 'scrPr Icnb.H slue(ulli)d -xr rltlM turqt 8ullJlri^ lnoqtlM sgrpl tdo)J9 ot tuctuoJ tou seM orlllPD priiurl ll lpll) iJ'.rllotslrv tul^ordslc 'srllls rqt p)pro)rr puB rrl8lrq B urorJslqSla.{q (4 iH ls.r irruP) uirqt PUPrlrqM r roJ prllor sIP..&c^a pJsPg pi^altaq${aeJ} tuapuPalll lPq.rFolslrv uollotrl ul Drlqo ue d'')i o] o^^l Iisss.qtlM stDr! 1l csnltiq.Jllolsuv pug p P ^ olrq :BPssPdrLIl peru qutpbavuo4s tE durzrsrqloo^H .orlrle) pue s.{ nJoM^aqt asneJ.1. rP IleJsc!poqllP lEql prulnurlrp l Slsrqtod.

.t in the Ji)nn . / / /T h c m c n n i n g i s l l r c \ n n r c a s r l l h c f r e \ c r r ( l c r r s c 1 v ) m c l h i n g . rs lu .H c ( 1 ) r c l u ( 1 c t h i r l i l . r x l l o n t r l i l c ( l . l ) l . l l h o t r s h i L i \ l ) o s s i t r l ct ) p.L r s i | l gh e l t r t L L ' l c n s c . . ( t / . s.i l w i l l c o n r i n u c 1 0 n n ) ! c n L .tlrct.. ( . l l M o n h y p o l h c s c sn f c s l i r l e dj r r l h c p r e s c r r s i r l l ) l c l c r r s c .. W h u r n l L r L . c o r \ l J f l s | e c d r v c D i l n o l i ) r c ci s . l w n y s h n I l ) c r r l 1 \ l h c t . C.\r of wlll hrIl)crr i thc h y | o r h c s i z c . n r o n n o l o f f c il ) (l w n s r c q u i r c d { o I ( r ( l ) l h c o l i i c r l i n n r o l i l ) n .. 1r l n ) r i o n . . r . ( r ( f . l ) t l i e d H a l f a r ( n t L I y l . t ) o o r h o f i z o n ( .rld'J wci8h1. it II an object does not meet with resistance. r i c . ) .\Ir. speed will continue to movc at a conslant even if no force is applied. Thc natural slats of an objcct is ro be at rcst and a forcc is necessary to keep an objcct in motion. r I l ) c r r . i n i n n n ) t i o n L r n l e s s ( .1fr. l. l l ) ' . r x i / / ? r ! r ' r ' i 1 (l f c q L L e n L L r s c (ill r L c r c h i n g c .ll. l i s g c n ( r .H c r l r n r ( g o n \ n a r c d h . N r w l o r r c x l c r x l c ( lc . h i s r ) i l w . r r r s r w j l l r ' r r r r a j i 1 ( \ 1 .i/i/{.v r l h c i \ ( ) r ( 1 s q .r. s r r x ) r h s L r d r c c o u l ( l o | D u c hl r h e f t h n n o n c c p u s h r c lo n i r o u r h m 1 L r . . ( c r l ) L c ( l H o w c v f r .yrrU .. h!Polh(sis NoLc or. (lllcslLoLl ()1 ror\\l)lclc l|ngnlclrl n scnlcrrrc scnlc|r. t c r .54 Hypolhcs. ' | L U S I N GE N G I I S H T O H Y P O T H E S I Z T t A h y p o t h ( : ' i sl s n t c n l a L i v { lrr r ) l ) o s i L i o n h i l f c t o l v c s . r l s o( l j s l r ( ) \ c ( l A f i n o r l c ' s h l l r o l I c s i s . . . l i o r r .J.\: All bodies lbll at cqual ratcs. r \ L r s c ( l . r li 1 \ ! i l l h . I r n ) i ) l ( n ro r d n s w c l \ i l . 1| l r i . r b o d ) . n r co u l \ i ( l c 1 i ) r ( ci ( l \ ( ) n j l T h i \ l h c o r y i \ v r u n i v c n a l l _ !n c c c l ) l e ( il t i \ s r . ( x l ) i r f i ) o r i o nw i L l r c r r l . n r c : r s l ) r c d i r l l r r g h . b o { l yI ) u s l r ( lo n . u o L ) j c t l( l o c \ n o l n r c c l w i r h r c s i n n n c c( l L i c l i o n ) .v T h c l o l l o w i n g n f c c x : l n l l ) l r so l h y l l o l h c ! ( s l | 1 ) n rl h c ( i ( t i n g : /?t. u ( l n l . t h c o f y t h n t . v . w i l h r 1 . s c i c n l i f i cq L r c s l i o nA l h c o L v i s n h t | o t h c s j s l h . . nffr tr\(o. l l r . ilsclli\ rl\tafs lhc ir rhil allhouglr rruf nIt)cnrwilhin ir scrrtrrrrc.tl objects fall with a speed proportional to thcir . l s ' . r l i l ( r ) ' sj ( l c : r s . t r ' r.)'r /rBxr. . N .zing C a l i l c o . r b o L r l\ ( r n r c r h i n gl h n t h i r l ) p c r r c (itr r r h c l c i l i r r L r r cS o n r r l i r c s n h y l n r l h c s i s \ c x p f c \ \ r ( l i \ i p r c t i j .

r.)t|p lp IIut or srrrlqo srs|!]) rPltl nlDlrLrl)rroJ IFIU E rq ieor )rrql q 'srr\lcrj Lrcql r)lsr+IIEJ slrou '0 z 's.{q uouulltllr rlJrl Lll pJPl\3 .ljt P)sn rL).{H .tosrrcdrsillr lo qrDr ur q ro p rlJlrf.'l(l Y'l s! ill() Llrl)rl slPrLr!uu luJuJ^oruluuosP:)s.)Jll Jsllu) lllilllu t^lsstrxS l(xlJ .rcts r(t uns . sall)l .lriJuv so'l u! 't{'v oo:0J Lrrql sl lt . )10 uo srsolr:)lrs'.'(06t ur olrlsulSurqlv iq plroM iLIl Jo uorlnrllB rLIl ol lqSnorq su^{rdrroor srqt Jturl rlnlosqe ro IE:)rolr pup s!)r)ql 1r^rtDIr..t6b.ql Jo Lrolrlrfi{iur .r.l or rq 0odlq P prr)prsuor uur rPqr ro JLtr -Lrrs.Llotloru DPdsrIII 'rttln snql'AIuJrqJlprlu!l oqr ^Jllurpl sr plft)/ oolDrrlp nDrqJlp e rl )srr^tun rqr lo lled riq()Lre ur iJullr^Brl lroiue e uo rng pilrid(lPq rl iruI rql rrrsribi plno^{ que.'iusjrlii uollllq 8l troqLi oroq slM Dsri ILn iql q 'zz6l tll i.o suotllltu olu! pipoldxo 'iupol)srJAIrIIl Lr!tultslxJ. saruawdsw sasaqtod[H 6uttIt] apl gs SurzrsJqtod. si)ild.{Ptusprtg ro 'rrlltolrc01. q 'uluiq rqlJo ipls lrl iL0 Io rrorlrl|lll P rq ()1lq:lnolll sl iilcniiup'l D t 'rniipld rql rrlPlr)J lr.(rorql illrsg:jlg itll lr g sr"'M tqqv'lr0l)llsor.lrlt i^)lli)].Murq rlrqt ol IEl()luodord tou iril^ $nllrq rllrll isrlr?JJq Dlrllx) tluortq tAPq ^errr$ngsoulc 'uJuq Lrptunq rlll i)uos olrql r)iirLrlslrlL'rq i^uq sislo(lnxi puu 'sullldl(D 'stlpq^^ 'sllrutJdrJt .{eturlsntu.).qlPor UPI:ipg P Iq Prsodoidrs.rLlls pirrnrro L()!soldx.todv u! slsatlrodtHD 6u!/I!uapl q ! / q 0 9 'lorilsiloll) 'JsDqJ 's8t3 ittqJ l)Lto olullloJ llt-islt"'JLu 'slJultn lr.qr oollPrSrw Jo 'srs )rDrrpur srlt.rlJ 'rulrlqrrt) iql sl olerq Ir.foiqr ro slsiqlulirl oqr iulpopun 'LldPriluiud ilulMoll([ rLIl '4dt.n ol )lsnlu 's)tv Jlpprw iql iiuJrnc q su qjrrs 'sJstJsrp 'ss.josJ(l^lululr):) c ! llrrr.q .{lll IroI ^4rN u! r1jir00il lc sulScqrlueS llPqlfi! B tsoddlls all sl a!\lll rvHM rr! .LrpJlzt)rrjor s! lrll q)tllM uopuo'l !r! 'N r 00:9 pur-i s.JoslLrrlotur? lorilsiJ 'u.4iiiui plr! rilt0or iLlt ill] IIPijltlltlultro) 'll3J Jllus{I) p u)qM o.Joup(l l$:jlel )ql..ll!stuil srnloiD .

There may be life on Jupiter. say.. It is impossible for there to be life on Jupiter.Circle rhe word nr h ord\ thiI lnJ(. i tr 1rllravel in wavcs. Thcsc words.rL. Th€re miSht be life on Jupiter..Ic prnl'. There could be life on Jupiter.lLrt)ilcf. There is probably life on Jupiter... The accumulalionof carbondioxide ir fic air is bclicvrd lo bc warnin! lhc earth to a clangerous level.r lh. I Ligh! .c ..I.fcvcryintl)orlanl. fie Iirsr sentcDcc probibililyrnoslslroully ar(l cach rLrccccdin! cxprcsscs sentcncc cxpresses sliglrlly lcssslrcngly. rhc li)llorr'ing differcnr fronl sayinil ln lisl..cr.'lhcrcis lilc otrJLtpilcr'.). Identifyitlg Probabiliry. i1 There ls life on Jupiter. To is enrircly "Lhcrcmay bc lilc on..56 Hypolhesizing o Ptobability Hypotlrcscs oftcDcxpressc(l woftlslhat jndjcalc arc wilh lhcif tclltalivc Da(ufc or unprovcn status. @ 2 . It is unlikely that there is iife on Jupiter.c. There must be life on Jupiter. . There arc many ways rLrcxprcssprobabitily. There is no life on Jupiter..rlily e.

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Jir.r7i..th(. a. across.-r. ' 4 n .r. lrllcr(srrtvolv. tLth. r ttt1l. clispr{)vcd U) Pn'vctt onc w. S l L r d yh t i o l l o w i r l gl ) r c l i x a n d l h c n t o n r l ) l c l ct h c l c n t e n ( c \ t r t l ( ) w u s i r g .fvidr. Thc lcsson lr' shorlcDcil a. r r l r j irr w. beyond.Ld.d j . 1 i n h c n r c .rrd. rcj(t. lrrjtbtt . ' d l . a 5 . r ( n l a r ) ' v r c h v c r b r . r h e yo l i c n ( o r 1 . rcr.i r l r h o u g ht h c r ( .rxl.a\ i\ rrue ol r.fn)rrn. r i D g l y .vcl ln()Ll8lr in 1oanorhcftluivcrsilY his 7 .su(h. . fidio.s .ch ol lhcscscrrlenccs' word lnca|lirg thc ilaliciTcd lhcorywa! corrcct thal rc.r plillcsLhcsiUlral L r s i n g v a c r l l .tlrlollr.vcsi il c.rL'.rrolhcr' lroln orrcpclsoD 8 . l g c ManyEnglishwor(lsLrcgilrwilhlhclelters.tavrdl./rr. a w .\ lh( in vocabulary corl?xr. 1..58 Hypolhesizing o l I k ) w c v c r . s r ( o n ( l l n l r s u . Metal and woo(l irrc ol)aqtrc.-f. antl l P r e f i x : t r a n s ' . 1.rTr'x.s:.lLbclt nr'llchcs in ()1 ls it is Lr\ctl c. Circlcthc lcllcf of lhr nnswcrll]. lenglhcnc(i . Marin docsno1spcakEnglish.l]r. n i n go l .rctin.. reJlc.t. r l l i n g i s r l c c c s s a r yi r r s L u ( l c n l s l E r r g l i \ hn \ .fbulrr)llhclrctir.? hour l() nll(nvlrnrclor qucslrolrs 2. Light cr)ergycan bc r. through translucenl-allowir'g liSht to pass through l. rdllrjc. Mrny livcsarc sivcd bY ki(infY (). or n rcpearcd criolr. l nl ( l b c .1il .d. S o L l n di s l . d i c l i o n a r yi l n c c e s s d r Y Ldr?r-: over. J lor hcr. I palicrrt a rL'ccilc(l bkxxl Thc hosl)ilnl without i r l .Ijlnssand w a\$ atr t!!1Jg4494!-s 2 . rdr../ orLr o{ l Thc rcsulls lhe extrcrimcnt n. o y o t | w i l l h a v ( l o / .

ui..(s iq pilru([ rq uPr ri)leM 8l rqr prillreq) e fr^o. lrro rrroMt.sltliPrls Jtll 6 (ll]i)o r.lP^ Lrl Lriil^xo ol lriiio.r irll isrloJJq ptsDtFl tri.3r.r.!0/ s! ll 6l rrcrlPredis D uorleulqurcJ 'q 'Lrr3.1 riliqJloJsJl iql II dl\$t()llPlrl u iJltulslp q 'J ot s!r.4 JqI z Iq sJlll Jllqoluonru (l11tDl'.)dxi iL0.rlrnrj ul prlsll Jrr?\ sJlucll .'JUo slql Lreql. I)rul iql 9 ^lr^llrD P .rdur ! 'I! opir ot puLIr/\^ pue llrJtulr)dx.trr'/srol nDA llrrlull.tttuuu/is Plp(rtLrllutlet\J!!f iqlJo uiilsiP iql (I iltrol]s ! IgnlD o 'p<rrrrlr4JriM srllr]it oMl JLI]rsncJiq rl)lerll poo:i 0 sgM itllud lllqlool tqJ zl 'stroll0Dtdxr r!rLF LIIJ^^ trr.lPiq z Jo to4Ja.lr.) rxrlr rLIl lPql ilunsse ol /r./rl.l Ipoq q 'quoJ L() Jjrrr pLrr-)l lstiJrul ilql dll Jllrlu PItv P!l! Jdoln! 8 pr iiDslp q PiirSLj 0 )nu c nurqqN'q 'rr0.r/r'l.rrDr rnol Lron"u!ls)./orri rLIl 0l u isliAJJ q l)rllo) 'riPro lr-i)lliquq(lll" .(lr^orPr|rl 'runrlL'J Prrr riqlei4i l(\ Iq prsnuJse^{r4rrrr srH ! 'sl\od I)^)l 'r sr /r.]rl\ q 'lllquMop prlrlls rr rrrtl^^ /.li).lo sllllsi.r rrnl)Illrs )ql f .LlI t 'srlrlor ls.^ -lsPi ilPrlpur dettl :)\1 t'o s)ull/rlrazuaI 6g ButzlseqrodiH . sJllq(xLlolllv < I iltllsn P tllrl^os 'q 'lllq rqt dnisr )rn qsnd ol i.r /rart.ldrd pu!^/rt\l 9l qrosqe q llo i^!n e !ru JLll sJtrlllodrlJlq^{ JplxouoLu lroqiu) lr.)tsil ol ppLIrM tl iulrliitr 'r-i rLilniJilrl q 'lunbrrr! sipls st llc lt0t!.ql prrr.ix.{xo plru rrrilorpirlJo srsr4/r. illplturlq oql zI Prllrld u l)illsn(i q 'rtl!^ iU iluolu lpoqllEs.rj.r1o llu rirllrrrr rtur.{llPrrHololttlril prrLIr^PP rroru r(l IIrM tunru. .ql iqr Jo srlrlso.

il Ilyolr puslrit ha|licr.New(rt conclr cd tlrala l)(xly. hcr.lfyou genlly.on thc olhcr A hand. Newton Explains Motion studic(i motioD.cringoD irr horrycvcr.Il you usc an cqLril amounr Ibrce pusha bicyclc ol lo nnd a lr6ck.Newton explorcddle qlresrionol lhc solrrceol lbrcc. Ncwt(rt dhcovcrcd that thcrc is a relati(nlshif bctwecn li)fcc at)d pusha swiDg accclc6lion. wondcrcdwhal causcs chaltgc Hc a in nrorion. lhe rcn(lcncy a L)ody fcsisl thc of ol ro change its shlc of mori('r or dirc(rioo. lo i)f you only necd 1o read rhe topic scntcrcesfor a \Lrmnrary all rhe nraiDpoiDli. the ol A rruck has a grealdealol nass. to slop.no li)r(cis .it is easy get i1$ ntove.lhcfe is nnorhcr . ol a body is inversely lo Newton's n'condlaw of |r(ni{rr states lhal lhc acc€leration a body is direclly rclaledlo lhc lbfcc ircliDg il rrd ol on proportioDalto mass. lhcrcfofc He concluded lhal whenevertherc is a forceplrshingin one dirccti(rr. rhc . willrnoveslowly.or (hangcdircctiotr.] NcwtonnudiedhorizonLal vcriical and nrorirn. anl(nrnr tbc tbc ol lbrcc is direcdyrelaledto the amorin! ol accclcralion. The accelcration alsorelalcci rhe massol thc objccL. lessrhc acccleralior. thc direclionol lhal body. lcDnisball.rslcf rhan lhe lruck.or changc up. Firs!Ncwloltsrudied qualiryof inerlin. Why docsa bodyal rcstbegir) nn)vcor a Lrody nrotion ro ill changc ils direcriolr? dcrermincd if a bodyis at rcsl. Ibr cxarnplc. He dtal whcr)a fo(e actson a body.rc outsi(lc li)rcc acts il. rcvicwrhenlalcrinl a tcsr.hoformulalcd lhcorics nlorior'1.lhc forccwill sl)ccd sk)w(lown. Notethal hcrc lhe topicscnrcnccs LrsLrally are Iirrlndtowardlhc crr(ls ot' the paragraphs because infornlali(nr thc buikls!| lo a conclusiou. lhc ol vcriJying cxrcndin!thc ra[lierwork and of Calileo and Cofefnicus.llion the ln proporrioral ils mnss. in A hirslirrlc incnia. or Latcr. by ilsclf w.lhc bicyclc will go lnuchf. is ro Mass.l rcstwill fctrraitr ai reslrnd thata bodyin nlolbn will rcn)aitr nloti(rtunlcss in son. Newtor) Dorcd lha!ilyou discounl fictiorl involvcd. Finally.a bicyclc har nluch lcss.alsodctcfrnincs aDnruul incniaaDobicclhir.ccclcr. Thisplinciplc called law ol inc ia. direclion lhc accelcralionin rhcdircclioll inversely ils The ol is of lhe appliedforcc. BL lhis kic. il will!o faster.or Ncw()r)'s on is thc lirsrlaw of r)toliorr But Ncw()t's curiosity was nol satislic(I. Hc olrscrvc(t ihil dre forcc acling on a body comcsfronl anolhcr body. of Re^ditlg Puisquarc brackcls arcund r(Dic thc scntencc otcvcryparagraph lhc toltorving in passage.ir was lhe grenrSir lsnacNcwr(nl [etrhoughmany s(ic'ntists r\.Thc larger thc mass.hasa glcatdealofincrlia.s noi consislent with his view ol a balanced and synnnerrical Lrnivcrsc. trucL.whi(h is thc quanlilyof malleriu a body. Morcovcr.60 Hyporhesizing Fitlditrg Main ldeas A goodway kr rcadany tcxrbook ro brackcl highlighllhc topicsenrcDcc is or ol cachparagraph section.

4 prlqt SIq prlPts UOIMaN Srlql alllo JU'M Dolqo CUO sr. .JBupqrlsrsrr ol .{u!u 'tuitxi iuns ot )ltsPI.llsodcb.iuEtt' PJrplllssrsuurrtrs J 'c^o(lr-' ({) riiPssed ul uonPuuoJul ol BurproJ]u esleJ (J) rrlrl Jql rqt ro sl scJ ilLrJs ilLrlMolloj Jo qJccraqlJqMJleJlpul 'orlptt a& a4! 6u!publsr apun iqt 'sJei'.T llr^'!uo.{ Lr Il4 JJruu rno.l)ql lsulpiJpJJo noi u)qM lllilllsrq.( uo l)pq ilulllnd ll Ir.llr/\^rot rclror cqr Sulllrdord r)roJ rllsoddo pue lp br R llrxr lrrllt Llrlrl^r 'siscii slildxi tJl)oJ illl Mul slqt uo prseq osle sl IJI)or e Jo tu nl^orll rLIl 'lsll pue Jql'.])r(qo pLroJrlr Lrc U ll UOi)rOJ CtlSOddO lPnbr UUSUrXrt)ilqo pLrO)rS :^Iel ':)JOJ StJOxi U DICLTTLI.{lln rolr p)rlr:)llun! s^/rEl lernleu r(liip.{ri^i olqerlldd! rre s^'rcls.{ ol suiddull lEqn ))ltorr oslv no.LrolMiN 'uoJl)rrlp .rotle ilrrLli^ p'orpds Lrr) UI p.r(l'lood r?Jo qsnd iiu$ululMs IIE.uolMrN t Jo 'Iro^^ s.iq^ 'tiq rnoi lsutpS!lruq qs[(l rr{ r1o.').rrououl qStloqrty r .ql Lrlsli)I)olillllllrdx)iq uotlrrrtpro piodssll .ql Lltnoqlle llu istrr.rt^tlrl)LIl ul rriq..{ srsnP) E turll no^ !r(JcJJoJ nulurxi sl IIPMJql llPl .{op ftlM pLrB t r siop roou Jqt )Lrlqt Do^Jl puv uolt).ro'lsrlSol ol pue IsJlrc^ iJLllp.^ 'lPl)os prlpunq oMl roJPIroMurrls)M rLIrJoilurlurl0 lErlldosouqd pue 'lP)ltllo(I II osle rnq pFo^{ r$n(rrs rLIl .{ pup pupq Ji)qllnr ()1 ! uo n^Lrrltu(l ruq'rlrlBolur llrlrrrlrp . urJLItLroLrDq r^eq no^ riuE noi trnq 'tr1o rsr^^ sroqsrnoi op.rrolMrNuo prsPqrrJM sPrPrsioJlne) ' a 'lsrrJrq1 seM LrorMJN '.{rr rq.rt i|qouotnc 0p ^qM ziLult iluol P io.4.{Erut(ir ror slql IrEq Sl rlsndr)joj 'no^ uo arol allsoddopuB 'lle/$e qsnd no^ uaql^ l3nbeue su€xe l! I9 Srrzis)r|odiH .ror)e slrclDu|UJsrJ^lu )LIt lpql tdiJuol clll uoltoru lenrozlJoq qtoq rztsrqllris pLrB :)s.{poqe Jo lruJpu Jql st prurut 't 'enrrur ^\pl rql sr ^^el prtrp s.)rP slelritPuI silqPt slleM PUE Jo itl)ltsel.)rlprtlsoddo rLF Lrlr^ou ot no.rLFrxo{ EMg) o(u ot lruts no^ 'rld!ucxc.rq c)roJ P lr)x) LU-)J n)rlqo ilqPl P lsulgiiPll ssird ro.

grrlesrrs$ whcn travclirrltiu sp. . 13. positi(rr afc abootthc origirr thc univcrsc. ( ' . Scicnlisrs slill spd(r/dtili. l " t ' .at on l). . r . N c w ( ( D b r l i ( v c d l h i r l l h c u r ) i v c r : . c .rcc.|r LISTENING SKILLS vocabulary in Cohtexl Circlc thc lct('r oi lhc nnswcf lhat L)cstnralchcslhc woKi as it is r. o t 2 . a. rhir)king b. f \ \ r ) . l i ' . In ofcoppcr and silvcr wifc wcrc sLu(lic(l . Thc p()lcsmrwas always timc and bcganlhc lc(lurctr. a. r ^ r r . 1 r tc x . Asrronaurs cxpcnenccr. Thc fdld/ivradvanLlgcs ir.jmponnrl 8.. A n y c h a n g ci n n r o L i o ni s p r o d u c c ( lb y a l o r c c . \ ' i . ( l .rr(l 7.irhr L lrur rrr.fc wcaringlhe w(Dtj Lrrand. According 1{)Newt(n. v\..1 r . I r t ) l c o l N c w L o D ' s c c o l r dl a w .. T h c d i f e c t i o n o f a c ( c l c r i l i o n i s o | l ) o s i t c 1 { )l h c ( l i r c c r i { ) n ) 1l a r . Obiccts downwa bccausc tlrcca h'sr/1rvir. . yorr sln)er wcirr out lr(causc yor.r. b. NewloD's idcasinflucnccd rvorldthinkiugin licl(ls oLhcrrh. I r l t . A c c c l e r a l i ( ) li s f r o p o n i o D n l r o n r a s s . n c c ( i . nrcaning thc ilali(izcd of irr rr)un{l lho onflh. A r o c k c t f u D c t i o D s n t h c p r i D c i p l co f d r l i ( n r n r ( l r ( a c l i o r 1 . ol 2. r .lpproxinratcly lf('m day l(' (lay. cxactlY a. r r . L Gravilykecls lhc nnx)rr ils o. pull rrooD. chaDges l). P u s h i n go f f n g a i r s l l h e s i { l eo f a s w i n r n r i n r | o o l i { . t r . nr()vcnrcnt a. \ i . 5. cs s y r r l r r ) c r f i c . r. r \ . conpararivc L). compulcd b. 4.rscd cachol Lhcte in scnlcnccs.r. l o . cxfcrinrcrrlin8 lall ol l. I r ( . Ncwlonrrlcrrrcdthc sizcof lhc plaucts.62 Hypolhcsizing 5 . irrcrcnscs 6. . s i 9 . Yourwcight vdrieJ a.-rir (O) |ath b. rcpoacd .i l n ( l L ) i r l . .'cilii'A.

rqr irnlrrt i)rltot oJrsrlrotr sp sJroLr r:{pt I() ' 10 Jlu^'t tr "uru sr pjo^^ c jt i(tlr^ .r(l(le si(nlLl|^\ r\n 1)0u ssard solule lJe tuerl) l^ oul !)s eJnsseJd JueqdsorulP r^|r)P IIIe)lLuoq) cSprl^ oul )lJllurlrs iil|ol ! to l'lc(lrs.lr ot ^.).)sn ^1oltl l).rroN .{rnrirrLI ur)^rlrq UOrl).r^ t\nru I0.rPuor(rtrqM IPLIr urrlq()r(l sr SLIiuillDrp! sr srn)u iiurlpl liiqr IL )lsLrr s.)ql u r l L r .rr\LrD:r \L' tiuol sP Ll^().rJIL'irls L)u)^3 n_Lrlstl!!r rtrrM rLro )irl J^I]pu noi 1!qr$ur(xlnrL'uoikur ijurljDru .r r tlrqr\ rrurtt)rrt np27 )41 Uutpullts.russi))i)u.{ua1 l)(x)ii ro .t J 'rrrrl)rt ..r5 ML'_I llur.r) pUU.l lLnlt nol r o Pr^Jrqqu nol .)ijul\'rl ll I lrrf rr.{'rrr t r' l .rol l)UrJ )sI P)(|.il)i)lrrt)(!r)rll rtl.\ Ur ur.roll\ or srstrlr0l) ol .)Lllro) !./r q rql f9 Surzrs)qtodiH .{'rn)trrrLlI 'rlr(xl uo lunu.r.rlllr uD)ro f L I r D r ) q l u r o .rno. / ) ) n r l ir sl sirrlrru)s nrllr\oll(f )qr Jl) rt)t.r/irrrdr P sr )rJLlI ' { l I puPs q luJ.{rqo..'. ) L t I J ^ oL L r o .rPful.\. .rl.()Mto surnr piuauoqsisn Allro :.ro^\ rill l Iuur slulLl n"!r^\olr)t )rl-l_'riNll)pq r!r)Llt l)c)i l)l|!.{!rufuD iiUr)lDl sr rotrnnEUr rq rLll'tirrrtrrM llrl{ ). sljrq\ ris iqr prqrPM.)r.nrrri)ltrPq 'Prlr(t(ioLUiq rlrl'\)sDrsrpUr!lr.)sn u)ql pue.IUDuo:) rlrq. rxrlr rLIt rlilruor or srll)u Inol .drl sLrol!r^i.is r! rstr rrll !iLrrqtitUos pLr!n"Lrrrlt ol u)tsrllr)rruu.)ql l). r l ur 't"r".(l)rnl) irr.rlt Iluo l.)\ | li.r.r(lqu rlo(lLUlr IIJ^1 rP.'c truuJ nol sp. r.\ lr rt lr )L'\i I 'strr^!Jq.rdpun 'isrJrrx.rp 'rJnp OzH/^{ xlur %06 LU8I € llEur rJrP^{ qrIM xtru luorrod Itrutu rusr8 ouo elllrnp puP elqeellPw z 'su()llul^i.lr tr "r".rM I .. \ t r u r r r o r r L ' u u ( 4 uq r o l i ' u r p r o ) ! ( i ) i ) s l q r o ( .roM sr tl sL) srJ nuol lo sr!r.lr r"t$.{tt^P.f u r u o o u 'r q l r ) \ r M ll .

rvcling sl). The law of graviayis univcGaland applicscvcfywhcre. 5 .r\ . Yqu cannol feel thc gravilatioral pull bctweenyolifscll and lhc personsillinli rexl lo you becausc is lio wcak.. Thereis a strongcrforce of altraclkn Lielwcelt slln nn(i lhc tltc canh than betwccn lhc eardl and lhc moon. j.1(c in bccause they arc loo far from lhc graviLrti(nlal pull ol lhc enrlh ol lhe moor. by 9. Aslronalltscxpericnccweighllcssl)css whilc tl. 4. Astronaulsweigh lcsson thc Dtoonbccnusc lherc arc no goo(i restauraDls lllcrc. Planelsarc hcld in thcir orbits by the forcc of gravily.64 Hypothesizing 2 . The ocean'stidesare caLlscd cclipses. 7. 3 . 8 . Your masswould bc diffcrcDloD Mar$. Newton calculated rclalivc wcightsof (hc planctsby studying the their gravitationalpull. il 1 0 .

(q uuol ' Z ol e 'lleJ'.{ Lrlaletsnotr rsoddns'aldurexJlol 'Lr.r trolsnpL().(llllqc 'sri)qro tlrLl^.I{) 'rJLrrtuJs Jl(iot ll DL0 liLItl.{q rLIt iqJ nrrrod Lrotssnrsr(I ur P)tEInulor s.r.{11/.r0t Llruttr aletsiU I ro si^lo^ul turo(l rilurMoll{)l Jo i)Lro lprr| i)rlritrris ijulpnl)u{)) V rrqlutru i)!lt op -i.rrl(iu.{llsDl) p spLrrr.qos Itltonhsltor ')tu)tl 'tu!] '.) 'in)lil)q.ripui.r.r)r ot lraAIij Jql tLliinoql lsiil(roIsirll surl Ieullitlt sl lr )snu)aq t!rutio(hursrrorsnl)uorv.r.rro uo prsPq rql qdPrSPrPd c rlpM uocnpuoJ It t4trltfi 4dDr6orod e 6u!t!l/A 'l/osr.qtod{rl rllt uoddns plrroqsqdurBerBd lo lsrr III Duolu.rsnllopu.rdl.s rtdot rnoi sr srsorllod.sls.ldord Jtuos IqM ulet(lxiol slsrql(Xl.oop.)rl LrorsnlJrror 'unsr)1.ueJU[r8rs JLIIsJlPlJrlPql luJnrrtels HLrrDnlruo) P rlrr.r!r^{rou oP.{LIMLT)IuMseMruqMJoi)ruuruluiJls tr 'turod rrlpurJqt !rorJ ttr)raJJlp lotr iulu fuPLLrLulls iq Mr!^rr or L()lurruoJul rTlrurlrrrns z .!\ rrrL.{ ro] suoseJrr^r3'sr lEql .{qujoc t P 'looq)s p ruroc ' t ol Jo lno (lorp\lurprrs ru()s trqMureldxJ srsJtJlocl.ritl lrs r^eq oq^! noepnts tpqr rJdEcl rno. tr^^ r^pq noi reqMJo i.irP lrqr rrolJq rolprlr rlll rtErs ol siurpnts rrnbrr plnoqs slooqrstpql rq lq3rur rrorsnpuotr rlo^ loLri^!q oq^\ rsorll ueql Iooqrs ut rrneq op slPot leuorss{ord .{q^\ r]ruldxJ srsrqnxl.{|(ltuqr.q ucr ruq^{ zi)^Pq llt^^ ao| r)prrr rLlt pllroqs iqr PIrx € t)ijji lurl^{ ztrrutro(hur sr.ql u'rr(lu(ltioqsoLrt lr .rud slq-LsrsDq(hLrJ.lJpr.'tt1trr.r lcnbi qlrM Iro^{ 'I I(x)qrsrrJLItrrr pJ))r]s stu)pnls rurcs lqM rrrcldxr ot srsJqnxilq p uuol slNrod Norssn)sIc Sa iurTrsrqrodAH .ldxJ srsJqt(Xllq ttrroJ ot 'lsrt ! rrotP)rlr llrM's{u^\ rrqro rll ls)lloqqijnoqtlD'nLrrplrls luos trqMUrDI(ixJ srsrqnxltrq rurot ot c 'rrurrl pJr({\iqr urqr r)rs|JoHsr)^up.{qrLItlo.t PiJurru/\^r(l spI()M LIo!rsLrDrl st4t.u()s.L iql ot .{Lrpl!r urut(ixr rrsrqrftitrq Lruol ' s fut^\ or c 'sre)Iaql ur llt)q rurt.r l) )u0M notrri^ilprlM rullro)Plllotls 't)udrrrl snrlll)rrD.{JrDl).srqrcd.)(rilurs l)nl)(ro) rrnbrr t{)Lr uorls V 6uulJi4 suolsnlzuoJ S11I>IS 9NIIIUM 'rcu op sr)qlo rllq^\'.r sr4l-/q/prr! tlllt lo .rM)j NrrlsL'.rillrtPu.)rsuluolsnl)!rorpi^uqPlno ill o sroPqdur:Jui!d ri)(lp(l riiiool u luq 'r!r.(q 'sir_nrP ruituIl)dxr rlLr)pnl\ qtr^r oluos.ttll rpnpur InfirD$ rl l0q^{ art tnoqP.r 'IllDurJ uotl'ldo rno.).u rIL'ruol ru)rs \tLr)pr!s.

r What can bc done abo l il? Whal shorld the readcrdo? . irrrln'rlarrl' t\ lry ir yuur hyPolh!. L 4. 2.Or yuu mi!:lrr Y"rr r)rrSlrl v('rrrhVnr'tl(si\i: lhat \lutl(rrl\ lnkc tLrrS\l\1'1rr\(rrI l\1r I'r(\sLrr((lrrg5 ro changcthc alti{ude ol young pcopleloward i rn.Hypothesizing {rAsc\l lhJl lhi\ 'uL'i((l rr(((l\ Irrnl(r rsr'irr(h rr'lrl\r\( dJmilttll.t.is will ir hrvr? What cllt.ri" rttut *" """4 your conclutli|g slalcmentallswcrsc/rdof ll'tcscqucsli(nls: Be surc lhat t.

L9 -_:r r 'possnrs!p Sulaqs! leq^ Jo slderuoJ rJJrp 're lu tql uf.|slsltlrolJs NOII)N(IOUINI [6nug tup.q/!{ ln)ro s8ulpuPtsropuns!l^t sllqrrer$I Itqlo iq poolsrep!ntre iaql /lu)urllpls raqlo ro slssrllodiqs Sullelu llaqM ns alPru lsnll.yaq g raldeqc .

of thal is norcd in lhe nuclcLls cerlairkindsof abnrs.1r Ibrward.which calrses lccl hol. its Dosili r of shapc. it is sloriDg is whcn a waLch For examplc.likc urariuln . processes.)do i1swofk ol propelling c. nuclcarcncrgy. For examplc.Juslasthewaichllnirlgrrccds be rclcdscd in thalis slorcd gasoline. "Herc is Plat()'sman!" The problem with Plato'sdefinition was that it did no1distinguisha man Iiom betwccn researchers without feathers. cncrgy is lhc crlcflly of ol ol not An objcctInayhavccDcrgy only becausc ils nrolior bul alsoLlccause spriDg wour . and lhc cncrly slorcd i by ro be thc gasoline by musl bc releascd lhe sparkplug 1. For example.Thislbrm ofeDcrgy cnergy. Short Reading for to Readthc lbllowingpassagc lind dcfinitions as nranytypcsof cncrllyirs TheManY Fortrlsof EneryY a slrikcs nail. Communicalion other twolegged creaturcs and pr€cise definilions of substan(es.Thc novenlcDl thc harl)rlrcr lhc . The Greek philosopher Plalo oncc defined man as a two-lcgged crealurc that has no fealhcrs.Thcrmalcnergylnay bc dcfincdasrhe kinelic crlcflly olnn)lecules whcrr 1o Lha!slrb:iLance is a subsrnuce h€aled. nccds i thc stored lbod moleculcs rhc wofk ol movingthe hands. a definilion is required becalrsca term is being uscd in a spe(ial and erfltu. lhc of it When lhis cucrgyis rclcascd. clcclrical.A definilion answers the queslion. energy lo do in releascd cnzymesor subslanccs lbe body. declaring. Mcchauicalenergyis cncrgy relltcd to the movcrlcnl ol objects Elcclfic Nuclcarenergyis LhceDergy cDergyis cDcrgylhat is l)roducedby eleclriccharycs.mes. physicisis use thc lerms lL.otft A dclinition should be complete more specific than thei( common meanings.thc molcculesnove fastcr. lhcF inclLrding chcrnical cncrgy.andoil. nral. ol Walc| ilr a dam is anothcfexample polcr]lial cncrgy.l)ilily has of it on thc nnjl tlrat crrcrgyl(ilrclic has lhal wc call kilrctic lo (lo work aD(lthcrcfore a li)rnlol cDergy molion. "what is i1?" sometimes a deliniiion is because word or concepthas more than one meaning. manylypcsol ki|clic and polential Thcrcarc cncfgy cncUyjs polcnlial and Chemical mcchanical.whcu a hammcr (auscs to nlovc.His critic Diogencs lcfl the room and brought back a bird withoul fealhcrs. enough !o include all thc items in the calegoryyet narrow enough to eliminate irems that do not bclong. to food. in ways thal are way. polcnlialcrlcrgy is Polentialcncfgy s()rcd is callcd thc walch. a necessary wherhcr carbon is a mctal or nonmetal dependson how yoll deline carbon Al oiher t.i! cxcrls l(ncc a Ellcfgyis thc abilityto do work. will do lhc work of nlovirrg harrds cncrgy. is dcpendenl on ideas.conccpls.

HSI'IDNII 69 Sulul.rrl)erprt) 'nIurnbrrl) It 'tlo '|loal attUosDll p)ot! !t te4t lli.lb lut:tla d4t tl r'.rldruDxi sPIrc rpnpur rorl ssDlr strJosr)qriul Plnoqs {Jerrn" Jo rrortrlfitrp Iiql{r ruort uurl rLIl r)P'l{rrrrurp ruD)ds Ir snl(ltur)l D Io tpql s)ltrl'Jlrpreqr rrollP)rlrssPlrlPrJurit)qtipnl)UrplnoqsLri)rtrurrrppoon^eleqlprlsrlJSnsrllolsr.l|o pJlrs V p p .{8rau.rPqr y rrJrr).t)|3 stJelqoJo tueue^our eql ol peleler (sl lPqt) .lJ.)Lll) rl)qM ul isuDl)i^l)ulJ.r su.r.ry ANICA(] OJ..trl. s c ^ l d J ^ l t $ r l l u ! l r u J o u u o J J L l t.4v u! r e )J.- .tl \ ).lttt|u)t )lta\ .Dn ut Put lt)tlLt)lad (b' lt) tD)|u)rt) srllslr.uoloru Jo . u r l t J t | r o s ) '.at)u. l p 1 s J l l s u .lro )NISN .Dnl\.{8rJur )lrautI Iro^\ op 01 + llllqe = ^3reuJ ( rsPrqd lPuonrnr(lij(l r o .\e LtrDs.ls pLrP lL..\i)/ 11 y 'sP qtrns 'srllsrr)))P.lAo/trtl ot p)Nla.rpJ(l(lu ^fuillr st t\li. nuat.lI.rur. r\t st .ouatu.\ur\rrt^i $1140lb tnut.t16 .uuo L1 )I{t1..Qrltr ro :PInturoJ uolltutJrq ':ti. Ie)luprl)itu ( prlrl)p rr)rq suq.Ju qtLi tt)uit"Dutl)t.ll to'n4 toqt 'rplry'l1 u sJLurtJruos sJltslrit)u. l r p r P \ r J q 1 s .p ot t:tltul.ltrit.Dereq3 + ssel3 = urrrl 'oqM )11tlJ Llll.t IIo pup'pooJ 'Ju!losedu! pJrots s! lpql + iSrJuo IelluJxoo ISrJue lEJIruJqJ qll^ SulLILrl$q isnLrt) )^nrlJr E sp rDrdllD srtlst.

crhrc rhr fstudics univcrsc. I ri! J rnr.rrur(5 p.7dvindicatcs rhcfeis nlorc lhnn thn! defincs0nlcrhing. l"u r n e tIr l lA brrumrrer I IJD nsr I condu*i"n I '' I" p--* 1 f pr.Irtre lJ u. gcncrnl). a r L e r a n dr l y . l.) oDcway 1() thcrmal ener8y kineli( enerSy cn(rlll ts slarcLl erll! e Patenltd! prcccdc class. would (lclincd ltiraflc(irr dcfinitions general girirllc). t lhua' i< rJnstLn(ri l arc IcxperimeDLs P(rrol'ne.r.ausc rrc.70 Defining asthc kineti. Thedefinile . lr. cxa|nl)lc.u:. not 2. prcsenl rcquirc 1hc sinple tcnscalld lh(rvc lo lrf.| .'r'.al .rrndlener!! lnd! b( rlctnc(1 (Thcuseof thc modalol fossil)ilily .($ure. Th.tnerlt| oltllr ec lct. ' m e ' ) f " ' ..ili."i ll*.lly uscdwilh lbc lcfm bcirr!(lclirrc(l lir wc arc stalcnlcnts..11i(lc.] It'tmir'urrnpetcrtri.rr LA lahnhLoryJ [.* I**. Definitious bc. is usLr.nLsr sPr..J ..) ".rr...) (Sonlelimes (hrrrclcrislics th( lhc enerSy + €nergy (hc rcnrclnbcr tollowingi N0lEr whcn dclining.. It***']In.r ) lPhysics I [A volr ] s r u r tI v '.:ll.t'J [*lt.i" " .ir J who rhnL bl wh(h wherc tnt J u r n .lJ f r " x ' o n . lre gifaflc(a spccillc not Pallerns Sentence DEFINING + r(:s cH^R^cr.

a lo.8 rrrllouIrrttqr0rPrlt 1p(rtl u tprrsrlrr tp|lsrJr] sr )trlt)lr!\y 'IUIL'uo..rl:r ro lL'Il trnpuor plr srop lL.to ll . . .'.(rorlll}trlu)r)s .\l i.)frl)p) rllr^.scii st )lrtrotl)u(xl.t rrl0o pur lrrrrrrsorlcH uD Jo rlppurddp tuorrpnD sr rfr V u l. .tpoq .sUoll(lt. Jo '.rno.ql pnol) p sr n-{U..rillto(ro. ?^\rt{ rlosJi(l sr lsrruouorilu ))ill turrurlolsv s!oltlrrrJip u uu.')l)uruqr lt :)llDr(l\ . rsn IrrrLIr i r n J U o lr' ) u . n_ur. r l u o ss r ! z r ( l p .'llrrlrrrl) LrLr urnrl)PNI sr 'snorriiuDph.....ur.\\ JurlurJlxl slronrurJlrp uJllu^\ il. J(lLUo).lotsrrrllrprniJ )!uos rro xoq iql !tl l))tsr't tuoutu{ao 6ury to) '.)Llj tprlt zs)suil J.(or(1u L|rrM Mo oJ urLIlrng |rpr iJtrorM tr ui^!Ll )l(lo l notrr1i)(1M.! 'noruosDr.tood r()s i.rL' tPrlM'qtnou.)^11!n"itr Lrllxr u.)ur iq.rol 9 y Ir. -Lrlt)p no.l JrtMl (s)rttstr)trl'rL'qr rlrrlls rql pup'rrlro s\Dt) 'sLlolrru(rpljr ^^o oj Jr iqr lulrrrJn_ )Llrlr)pun sLlourullao Gutz/llouv Jo rt)t:) |t I/ tu:u!tr(l .lilpr)irJ^ sr otLnuol rlrl s oltlLrljip.r^.r puu n^Uo.^rrr rql jo.lJ )lt?0ltrlrJltl) s) st..)t(dpUy .)tqr:ltllrrpulrorr pup ]qij! sr tpqt sDiJ !I|| Upsr tunrtrH .'rlrrLru D xtrr st Lu()rrrrn ! luJr 'srrrJds .tu). r p q t n _ u r l u sr ^ r r : r r f t l or g .rtu)Lr) luu(lslrDrllpLIl lr^rp e \1.t.4uS u Jst)Ji(l J!l lrrlt '!urit ssul))rl) r.'JqrcLrD ru.)ul(liiloU plnorlr.4)rll .qt:rrlrDtsqns rolplnsul p sr uy .)7rs rnoqL'pUp 'Arorqls.)rl v I u z z r ( l r u r r r r i ^ I r s l q o L I ^ rL r r l r p w D o l i i r t t o r l s t r r P l ( i x i.)x)Usl .$req tuo)qr u sr .J J] rlro )rp Poronrrd ..)rrrLppru t v .Ir) iLlj .LrolllULJil). .. { l l c i rt o r q r .{rLr1)uoriJL. ! ir sr leq^ t.t Itrl ol .)^ )rp siolcU..lr(il) .tlllrriIl 'lt )^oi(lrurplnoMlroi ^\orlssrrr\rp uoltl(rt.ttolo)a.{trnrs sr.{Lur i(ll orrqlrlnJ rp rrollr ]oLr Uo rLrrr)p rins rIol..l^l.usr tpq^{Mou) rr1 lrql ^{oN rrorrrLrrril) r.\ sl tPq.tp iiutMollol plrpsuo tutlJl) pooiiiiLrr. ^ l u i r lp l n ( r qU o r l r u r j r p n r s r v.9 'irl:rtll:.qr sr unrq.r r)tu)) rLll sr tpqt urcjqrqt Jo lrud.s)l(lLltu\!ssflJ p)lr\1.1 rqt punoriirLItuo rr r()ttr.z ___ lI .)rl(ts (tiJr()r sr srltrlrlul € 'rsuP 'l)rr 'p no' irlr sr.rot ol ruouorl .ru sr )L|l 'irItrlror s)rlripp. r)q^\ s)rlt)L'r(l juln)jl:)lo i.{uru s(losl. t p i o l p o o i i .

"''.:il.. *.r. r ( ..1[l :ti':"il'll:li: ils changcs L a f a m t .iil lgK. r ' I l ' . and '?'r 'rc a".0 pcrcenL theair Ir is a tordrcls oLlocss .. l c r r r ' i|r ' r n r ' l r ' r r ' l ' i v e ' l r ' t s . t b . 2 .ha.gi"s w'o is uscd i" '.iili'l.1ii. aorr"'ltaa a aze cdlzd' adl44d l/4aJ r:c.iiiiili"". r .' li)nnii r'hcv lbnnor lileon carh arcbacrcria' afesinrPlc l'.. n e c e l l r d animal/ constanllY shapc 4. and "ni.ran. fil'i.1lii. A suPcrnova RehTtitleClauses lhat conlai|s a [oLrn' (] a verb A relalrvc A clauscis a pan of a scntence nn)sL rvilh wlL' that \rher'' at wha wl?rf. ol in paniclcsTheyarc (ont'ir1((l lht nLrcleLrs chargcd aIc L Pfololls positivcly ^)'.'l'iil'il. J r ' .rrc rivc r. iilllli..t" i. ' ( .1n. A Lrlack i.ai.i. when rcferrinsro pcopl! Sclc'rcc "t.llti'.riv."'. " ]l'l:ff. ot thcloss o'c or r. i ( .orccrecLforrs rt .lti::i:i"lllll'iliilll:i'ii'i.l::. l r L r g.s.'..|\er' L''rnL' \ ' .lll-. **''cal rcacri(n ir\volvrs " t"]'::l:X'ili:i1l.r*l definilionsolienillclLlLierclallvccIaustscon!aillinSlhccharaclcrislic\Lhaldinin glrishan ilcm lrom othclsin thc class r r" rr' ( r(h ol rh( I' ll' s rrrF'rljr' I i r" rr" Llsinq Riative a/d.. i."*. llr[g / orgal1/ Irrcalnlng .:"1':llHl'l'.rlzrz el an altn' l)lrllsolowcllrrl llraL holc is ar)arcniir sl)accl( hasa gf'lvitaliolral 2.)))l) 'l*'t"a **t"o u"l "* *"t"o*a * "*. Srtl].':i.liilllil. Aas ol .ilii u.. A amphibian like a frogor a r"rllc ls a blg nova I0."':fJ'li.. A conrPass is 9..72 Defining iooksiike a clock 8.iliililxil i liii.ii.l*ir.ii.'nrs u.i"'ce dcfiDirions... .r*to*t+ lh" ru. .'i. r r c ' u a r " ' r a J t r 7 .'.

{Jr )1rc Ol pJtPIir sl llJr .suottlL!{ao6r1!bat) su(nPrc rrltrnu.as ol sr proM MrLr e Jo.)qt sprpqluoq sntplpddl'/ uorlol)..{ no.rFhupxr rol Mou{ .{pD..)|un$ puesJEe qltM s 6tq ue uv leullue sl lueqd€te rlrnI'|cnb0 0l ou .j] .rrlrrrq i7 u .i ilLrr^.!l noIJI rr iJursr.ra^Ji uL1 )^r.)Lr r()nruurpI rlElnrrroJ )lP'rbrpeur uouruurp sr iqt sr teql \Dor^qo tr p..JldurcxJlol 1l Jsli^ir or sr rlrldruor sr Lrolt$rl.je )u1J4ht) ttD st lplutua ut 1)3 .{ 'lrlrrr4 rq] Jo ilu[rE)LLr Morr) lpprrlp no..M iuo 0ltlryng tJolnqbtot s1'lIXS TNI(IVAU .rp no.ro.{e.r rrs ot Ip^ poo8 V .Jord/ stsJtltlr. :)s.p p .{r '8 / lPiq s userur trun / Juol!) 1 / '9 uorDurr IPr[urqr D iq prfueqr lolr sr rnq dn spir(ls / rruetnlns / lslletl'r pooj rrllrEJnupu stuDld / ss.^ 'llltutLt1 st )ut4d4) r.Sullturlrriql ssinil ot .4sonnld s plrnos JruJrJs sJrlsDorP / / t €/ SururJr( .)^il iq ro qrur tsrl puPsp.ulrler'6 snrr^u il litoloiit S lll.\oltor rrtt.to rppr r(n P.(P uu € r"x rirpFq P z '({1.

lnlsnl qLr. endo_.frcr'. t .nicto-i small microscopic-loo small to be seen without a microscopc nacro-i latge flacroscopic-lar9e enough to be scen with the naked eye a L eclol)lasnl 2. vou will rcnrcmberrhat a hotiza'1h l/. iurilas woftl fans can sonlclinres nrislcading.d e n s c D L t c l c u s i. will no1tsc all thc n1L'anings cclo. l. an insLfrmcnlIor mf.rc gocs Uorr 5i(lc Lo snlc i r r l l r r rl l r | .?4 Delining can gucsstllal the woRl . iv']y lo guar(i agirrnst very lnrgc.rDivcrsc b.r/r1refcrs l1) (nnclhing good lltla(c(l wofds 'ln) help you 1()remcmbcra ncw word For crnnldt.or sxo-: outside exogefious-due to exiernal causcs endo-t lnside endogenous-dve lo internal causes . 6. il yolr krr()w lhat r0'tr' rrcaDs wilh drugs lhal poi(nroLrs.ycr ol pr)loplnsnr ! 1 . l { r r . mccr thc earlh. fclaling srrrall hcal h . thc enlircr. cxlcfDal intcnrnllaycrol l)folol)larln 5.drrdrrleaDs i1 lx)isorrcd rhe rorlff is thc line whcrc Lhcsk} sccrls10 And il you know llrnL or alcohol. a l i r r g c .Slr'r(ly ftrlkn^'ilrg oll)rclixcs aL then ma(chthc tcrnrs thc lcli bclow wilh lhcir nrcinirllls. r r I . a littlc uni!. or nrcalls cnomrous ahhoughnrlt?/r'r lcad occasioually you astrayFor exanrl)lc. cndoplasnl L Nicx)bc ir. lin thc Prefixes: ecto-/exo-. 7.ersc ol c. r p . a uriuuLc l)cfi{Ji1 linrc l.micro-.rrlilics ol to ll. \ryillbe caty 10 rL'rrrc1nbcl //tdxl. . rclalcdwo|(lscnn bf Howcvcr.r very nrilrrltcorg.l lhc rillhl You ancl lis(ed.?rrirctnrdl rncansliny or v(ry snlalll Thc onlY 'rr(l lils yolr hnvcgucssc(l the s('lrlcnce is nlinakcs lo sc( il rhc nlcanins nrai(ing Iaragfaph. maclo.lsLrring o din:rnces r anglcs .

M /rrr aq ol pr^ord.{ollBLlv 0l Jo 'tuluo. = t uollPnbr Jqr ur r renrt rql Jo SuruEJnr JrtJ -€ 'ggll :sproM G letlder p roJ lool-rlJu.f 'sJJuelursrssql q)ea ur prsn sr se ploM pJzrJnplr III Jo Sulueetu lr Jo aqr saqrrP(rl $rq rPql re^ suP rql Jo rrnDl e\{) dpt\J #ayo) u! tkDlnqvroL gt Sulugrq .{tooql ulcS s.JruI .{ tslubqr qrLrarC Jo rleu cql Z (p ruap .l^ Jprsu!)lnssrld tql lle .r uolllLluapv I Jo :But^^olloJ Jq1punorpslJ)j)erqlnd pup ssalro s nulur cJlt]t ul a8essed Sul. J'nol 0r{l '.(.l.g :spro.rC .pJddorprjlupjed(url eqt urqM .{lrltlun .rrr .l lprrrlrrlr pr/p.lolloJJql uers 6u!uuvrs p uoll9redrs q uo!leLrlqLuoJ 'IEltuj raSuorlsE salgur teqt slpt rl !./ se.ul8uc aql .rno tnsslluPuodu4 Jo uDs! slslroJ puPSJJ^D q)ns'sEJJnosaJ sB agl .loq.^i arll ul rrlpl .q rtqpqord(!) 'sptezp\ erg p1!r21od e srr!^ .M 0q1Io oplsuleqt uo ptlglnurnJJp Jodr.ro[IrJo oMl |loJJrlp sl .b lunlpu Jo uollp asuoJ urlorq q .z .M 3 'prtrr prureurpr .Iro^^ :sproM!\r{) gr.'Inotsed 9 csl9J e rsnpq uiDals B 'MOpUl.uirl) -rr.llxJ p Sululqtuo) q iirrllllds e 'l)l)nu)ruroleJol.LII 6 Jo JtPl'poui q tl J.uolslllo) uo-pprqarll eudsao € uollp^resqo q uollPlresercl E | 'urrols rql SuFnppesearrur purM rql Jo rirol/ rqI .E .prddpJunsBMolltoq cql uJqM / pas9rrJulq )nI q rpr] tis P ' rl)lp u J0 Arotslq rqt ul qtnorqUgaiq pug loleul e sp.{./orrry'rql r(q[trsp)pr l8rcuf 8 sr 'lrsrrlr.1.Jrrlul ilou lot rrlptlrnouroql dot LroploJ .I) aqt ESZI ul sr8upqr lerluJqr prrpnls oq.

I f w c w c r c r o n l c a s u r ec n r c l l l l y n l l t h c c n c q ] y t h a t r c l n a i n \ n l t h c c n d .or thc cnerg){)l losilion As rl olr an applehanging lrnrc'rl At dccrcnses lhc s'rnrc ils cncrgybccalrsc hci8h1 falls. yor'rire charrging chenri(alcncrllv ol Lhclixxi votl whcn ctrcrg)is As cncrgy.Lrccause vclocilyirr(rcrscsPo' gairs kiielic cncrgy. wc iliscovc! thnt Lhc bociy ro l o r a i i l n n r u u t r c n i i r r s i n l a c l s L r | l ) o s cw c l r r c f a r c d .yotrrmrrsclc havc eatc| irlo mlrscle cnergy inlo the rock'spolcnlial chaDginlt Muscleenergyis translormedInto energy.76 Delining Reading E = lttcz For Ir()rronc lypc to arrolhcr' ex'rrrplc' or can EDcrgy be iranslormed changc(l a lrcc haspo(cnlhlercrlly. mechanlcal k w h c D e n c r y y i s l f a n s l b r ' n l c d o m o n c t y ] r c 1 o a n o l h c f o r l r a l r s l c n c i iI n ) r I o n c rno(lrcr. inlo kincliccncrlly lcntialcncrgyis bcinglransfonncd lo orrebo(ty 'nolhcf Irotrr a ofcncrgyirrvolvcs lrarrsler the transfcr Frcquen(ly.it loscspotcnlial i1s of or Lheenergy nnni(m. no clrcrgy is losl Whcn ra'cficasufc cncrgy. yolr lili lhc rock higlt.n r r d t h c r r a l e s o n r c ol (hi\ l o o d . c o o k c ( i . Lhc you liti up a rock.

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rt-a. Fulim produccd lhc carlb rcslrlts an alomiccxlrlo\ion LISTENING SKILLS Vocabulary i Conl?. Eiustcin's provcd. yotr cncrllyis whcDyou lic irr lrcdlhinkjngol all (hc.crgy. Exlremc ill on 12.hed W l1 . givcs clcctrons of reaclion 1l)litling ot rs o(ctrrs d rcstrh thc slourcllairr exprosron 9. Potcnthl to do.tia u. whcn au alom is spliL..1P cncrgyis lhc cncrgyo1posili(r] 2.tr. hYdrogcn lhe rcsuhsjn a hvdrogenl)omb s4tich is mlrch er./ ."p.t"usionproducedon thc crnh can d origilal atnnic bomb Bu lhe prirrciple lLrsrcrr aiso ihan Lrrc morepowedL. EinstciD arc unfclalco c ol thcoryaboutlhc conscrvalion nlattcr:1n(l crgy was ncvcr 6." "*rgv of lhc human ra. canbc lransiirrmcd l.ua.ke placc healor cold is fequifcd 11.78 Defining can ol fial Allhoughit maYsee slnnge. An alomrc afc takcsplacc()Dlhc lLlnwllen two trraniufiarclns conllrlrlcLl 10.r nll pu4rosts thal 'nrr sLrpflv ol Lh€ntcds Ior peacclul l.s'ing sLnlctentsis inconsislcnl try compr(hc[sion passag(Tcn your readjDg in informaLion lhc prcvioLrs thc i1 arr(l thc crfof irr cachslatcnrcnl rcslnting corre(lly finding bul il ('nrrot bc fronrorrelypc lo anolhcr. proccss is lhe cxactopposilc llssion of Undcrco dili(nrs inlcllschcal' rlrchas alrn .lhirrgs havc 4. wilh unile$tun.. Encrgy Iiom onc LDdyLonnolhcr' tfanslcrled I 'aeXq. S c i e n l i n sd o r r c ! r $ r r l e s o m e l h i l g i s r u c L r D l l le v i ( l c n c cc o r r l i f r n \l t @ o. hy(lrogcnalomscombilc lo Ionr htlirt|n t'kc\ is heLium callcdflrsion When fusioD Lrl The transfornalion hldfogcnnlto Inlo ol aInount masswhich i'i uanticrred rrons bsc a tnall place. Lllal encrgy demor\nratcs cncrllycarrl)c ol . Circlc the lellcr of thc nnswcf lh'l bcsL r alchcs lhe i w m c a n i n g o l l h e i l a l i c i T e d o f t l n s i l i s L r s c dn e a c h o f l h c s c s c r r l c r l c c \ ' l .. b dc'Y .litlg the Readirg.L""Lu. ol oillratlcrandLhccolrscfvation clrcrgy saidthal thc conservalit)n 5.l al itrc ceirtcrof th{: ntn..'/t ba .. I(irrctic of callllolI)ccrealc(l dcslroycd cner8y 3. ihc dcvelopnrcrrt alorrlic into Inallef convcrlecl off it 8. tia"dk'rwA h4""1a. UnlikcnratLcr.eur luantiticsof energy atoms are foun. lach olLheiollt.cteur. Fusion to lor ltrsi(nr t..tqa tr+Pe ta a*touen a't bol4 t/' *uile.g.c lbr a iorrglilnc.

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polcnllil eucrgy kineLic bc will cvcnlllally in a slatcol irl 8. hcnl crrcrgy changcs 10 mlrsl:lc crrcrgy WhcDyou rob youf hands.l c l l $ 4 r . ir\ a. disoder the Separate saltandpepper? il ol bcc.lusc 9. o cr 1() L). oftler 1()dis{)rder inlo lhe air 7 . won r nappcn li)r lr. 10.80 Defining L All cncrly rvtrllLrill) wind\ trl. b. Wc do not nccdlo worry al)ollll hc dcgrncration the urrjvc|\c a. EvcfyLhiult dlc lrnivcrst b. Etlltttotl . kineli. runs dowIlrill a. l h c y a r c d c v c l ) p c d L ) y ( h c w r i l e f l o c x p r e s sa n o p i n i t ) 1 . mosclcenergy b. Rdh t WdLl. er('.qy t . 1.F o r c . cnn't Lrcdcslroyccl DISCUSSION POINTS o Bclow nrc vrnc nonscieDlillc r "crealivc" (lcllnilions Thcy do rrol li)llow lhc I o n n l r l a f o f a s c i c n t i f i cd c l i o i l i ( ) l r i n n c a d .disordcr ordcr to of an cxanrplc thc chnnlrc lo crrcrgy t). Pcrllrnc cscaping diso cr a. KDowledgc is thc anlidole 1()lenr. woD'thappcrr a long tinrc . l c h o f l h e s c c r c a l i v cd c f i n i l n J | s . r ly o L rl h i r r k L h c wriler nrcanr and whcLlrcr yolr agrcc ivilh lhc wrilcr. Thc rnair idcaol tlrisl c c t l r f c i s l h a l c n e r g y I). Encrgyalwaysflows nlovc Irom Narllral proccsscs a.

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a2 . Exampl. example for as and morepersuasive.chapter 6 Exemplifying Heat INTRODUCTION the stat€mcnt. is one thing to saythat image For or down to a specific concrete smokingis bad for your healthand anothcrto saythat a regularsmoker-loscs smokedThc fol and a haliminutesoflife expeclancy cachcigarctte aboutfi-ve moreinteresting' moremcmorablc. therc maynot be a point Short Readitrg below and underlinc examplcsof how hear affc'ls lhe propReadthe passage efiies ol matter. A chinese is is woith-a tholsand words lt might alsobe said that one example worth a staterncnt the generalor abstracl brings An explanations. example thousand it €xamplc. makingthestatement addsimpact. well as providingevidence il' and 10give evidence or clarifya conccpt to use Scientisis examples explain se e to tes! the validity ofa point lf to suppo it. bcstway lo After giving a definitionor makingany 8en€ral provcrbsaysthata picture of clartfya potnt is to Sivean example it.scan somclimes can no example be found to illustratea point.

nl orur prrnoLlsrrrrPM .t.ltu).q^^l)prlllorpuEp EJqrre 1)q) v lErrq.r.liL|]() lrlrJlruq pru llrrrrrzln)rsL1(liM'il(lpul.' )LIl llEql dn rqr.roJ qlnq ll1 t [rJ)srpup)ulLrv (pri urnr .)^rltsurs pu0 s.t)r.]dur.l ' pllos e le 'rlduexr Jod (lI rr(Xl(lns P srl(iluexS) or rrurpr^r )^riJ' lru JurEs ]P pLrfr.lrl0 P .r)x.lJlloLl nJil JruPrsqns sY s.rrLIr r^Eq no^) srrnrPrJdur)l i.{P.Jo ol ss.)lr.ri)rno ul i)qro ']lrJllri^o!!r -luol s)ulqlDru isnLrr sJlr^\ riiour!| uur rprLlM ss.rl)ill) P)lL)iH 'i)iiuq) slr.JJD.'^orr e LIo )ldlupxr rrqup srpr^ord !D.rnru ir0 lnlllrorl llrl or )u)rlr:{oo) -iDdrtril.rlP rsrrluorr)Irl si)urrl.Ui)^ riu siJrrqliJul^]1 or 'sr!(x).)uLU./l^olaqro ) q0Jo rrnrPrrdru.to pLIE qSrqilSLrrsEJ.Jo LriIxJ pLruts ullrd siLIqt JurAIl Jsn!))q 'srrtJ)toid ol s)/'!ris s roul|uJ sl rlrno)i..L illl ulu(llirl Pl|!l)lo)-roxnl r{ri^ ilurqlir!()s 'siijuurl) irnlori(huir lluursili^ rJrp(l!uo) )^Ilslris. .rorusplrDdxrpLrE stErqssElH rt Surlroq UrLIM ssEIH prl(nr rIL'irq] u.).E st rrle^{ '.llo si^r3 rr.lr lLrrcd rIPrLr JrJr a ..)lllrJ P . lu)l.lq 'lL|lo(l rtP.kl iLUUs JLllSn.)]lp 'ls).)lJ luclsrsJ-r sJlrr)Jloru s)riuu silnri)lotu prsrJIUl l.rttt.{Ettr (r)q^'\puPrlx) slPurlPu tn)w Jrnlerrdrurr lq pl)rl|r sl rr.nsrlllr r^rrs r1 rlrca :)$rr:)rls pr.)l iL0 lu)tu)^oru l!rl-rlr.t l)F3Jlt st )rut1!sqnsfr ?ui$ latslq.l )qJ sjL.rigroIIPrsorutY(rrPrls)sPir rprnbrl slrorJq ll I a0 r^oqa r())r) pllosP sr.rD .{lprdEr ssullj osl! JrnlPrr(tlrr.{ ) er .to upd .1 uiq^{ pirJrl(hrr)x) slq.t or !.rilDM P r-'orsurnl rr I o00t lE pLrE '^ olrq r0 -J lo )nnPrJdllrrr P rP 'rt(luDi) loc )Illpr)dlller nr iq prlrrllD sI "0 )rlrErsqns jo ilPls IPrIsIqdrql pJ.L s)lnrrlou nr 'P DrqsrsP8c sv seilujorrnssrnl rqr sr).\.'illP)'P s)IlrrLlordsll pLIl lrlsrl J^ottl s.LrrnrBrrdurJl rl!^{ siuP^lrl)lr)rl) rsls)r lDlrur IlrIqP iq.snc.tr 0rrsilunr slr .r p)uoIlpuo)'.lo Jrrs iql 'rluPLlr rclor 'toll sr r UJLI^{ tqijrl rtrLI^l E.runq uorrrql Lrrrs rE)rrq^ LI:)t0 'rilupro rlrnPrr.{ PuI ul rrlrPu slr4jc JlnrurJdutrl e lollr srr atnvrad tal lo slDllg a4t ta SutlltldurJxE .rJrle 'rrntrlrd(trJt Iq p.to slr p)|D)J]LII |l'l)rlerq sl )rlnl rrnssr.(l lurrq or rr rsnur llr^{rl)rsur prsop p ll r flEnror r^otu ol LI8)tl rLItJos cM tt rlrt^.I Jql'prr srunr'JIdurpxr rot'rrort rirlDUlo rolor rql e.r JurPrlto)'.{trDtrurss)ruPlsqns r.'w)llor lrrrLLrrlPls iq rLlr or srt(lurDri rPrtr 'ri]rlPtu r^oqFJql srlurtl i)3lssrcl slr{Je rrnlPr)(i(rI Moq rnoqpslurDp IurJ^Js ACI]dWAXA Of HSI'I'NA DNISN pllP ruJq)q) Jru-rJlol n)urru) luLllstutltluillo.

il.'.i:.'1 a .s Thcabilit\tol'a fittat to rctiJ/ which can Heated wires €ause excess €lectrlcal movemcnt' damage machines' n\1+xrdlttlrtltntr!lc\ sDtdll !!nsiliw ln ca'll11drttli|tll ' l"irilllthihllt drc vcr''/ asl)c(ls vnriolrs is nt.' nti ).LtJIeitul Thesizeol t1nobJet:t /d' (lLrcwords \u(h ns /'"xd'4"' tFx.84 ExemPlilYing the Tempentur(nlters coldrql nldtttr' of m('rc'' a a ntoy.in. thc faraglaph) is poured into it A glass may break when boilin8 waler he allcctt pr'r"n/rc d '. and then white at Ilon..pt..qn "*on.''.untt'rise ltw wor(ls a \cnlcncc' 1tnrdilraIlr i.tton')rlccxarrl)lc usc(llo cxplainlhc ii.molcs are nol alwayslnnrk((l wilh oricn carrornv bc i(rcntiricdLrvthc co'tcxr . We pasteurizemilk and cool( meat heat' othe..?.i1.'..tunpcrdtLttt is.t". for example.Jrrr' TtfiNraturt t1lsa "/ pressure insidc lf a closed glass tube is heated' the increascd will cause it to break r|irlr its lckl'ttrtltur(' c/itrrlti4' vdfi(.organisms that cannot tolerate ' .'.t.ni". turns red' lhen orange' increasinBly higher temperatures' br. ) of a coll(cPt very hot or cold This is exemplified when we touch something and feel Pain' to kill harmful bacteria and '..

l pJ|e.' r c r i . i u t l J s nr J t .1.'sntr' I s! rot(') itutr)r lr lP)rt to Kl)iuoi II xotorSurr)rljp iqr rerqlo rdn)uo) rl I s)r'rrsn isrlJlou'ix'j ' t ) r r e ) qu url [.it p rt lut xr tnTlod lo J0 ttt..i .ts sg SuriJrtdrurxE .ln']:t a t..!r 1-t..i 'p)rerqu)q^{piI u.*". d t t t .re:xnrrrr 'prPrq !! I urrtMprr nunr I ra".lo sdnorij ro srrp({isillt.iil]*''' I lprlJllott'ix'.ljrr/rtltJ 'ltnt l]tr.u ..l! r'tttn[^np 0 pur 4i1fi11!) l^ttl r ' l p r r r u u J o i t d u r p x . p(rru<l:r {.jo \)c. x r .rrljr.rurr. . ./rdr{.\dutx? | . l r r u l l t |'r] r l z pril L(trlr r|l|]rrllr|-p !trr.kt pltltu)p J0 put' )q 1\tLtr tL1u0 st^i\ )tIr qJtt\t u111 to! lt:t. t.tv 'tdHti'ttd )tlt )xr)rr) tt).nurddo.^\ t1tl1tl )/npl ! t.1stnt rldtt!! ttn d )ttt r! u411. lj oltbr{l4aaxA (iLt!?llol.rrornunr ^|Pn.9n- r ')rMl s J l { h u e x iJ r l t p u ! i ) u o s t r r r u r i t u r s L i .trtur tl s 't tt..rtrD. 1 s i r t r .\lttdl lexa sutzllD. 5NI.u.1 ULttt.j [ "*"*Ji'iJ f o . $/. .r. 4 r J ^ r I l p ^ { p Ho l p l s p t V L r r c r J o t \ U o u \ i r L l d .Ln m|/A :3r)t.x]LrnD]-ru o -pnnannn-.r rql nLUtsi.tr :6rL\\o il |t ottutitai $Itt!r1x.ro'relsnrrr t M p i r s u r n l l e q r $ u ? r s q n sPl o rur 'n)rpJq urqa p)r surnrI D u P r \ u rrll I rr.r f \ q q t t $ U .LL:li\x| l r r p U ) j r . u e s r r r d d o J . r / .tttoJtltsf 0stt1 nltl.u]. l l t t \ 1 ) L! .r. r i u i n " r l ti u r l :) I -ril)ul1 'sirruinrrs..rlroqlr^r sJrll|]srp srlorurolrr Ir^rI \prr(l uos .tt.l )JuJlu.tDtt s^l1^tlr uo srttltuLixst 'ltdtuoo nry) urwltltltitt ).rl.

and poplar 1rces.oro. A Kclvin thcfmolncler lncasLlrcs 4. VilaminD by L Tempcraturcmay bc mcasured diftcrenttypesol rlrcrnxrnlclcrs' lclalivclenll)cr'lurc' lhc and Fahrenhci! rolnclcrsmcasllfc a. The food wc eat is convcnedinlo cncrgy in olrr bo(lies c!rcrgy inlo eltclrical encrgy mcchani(a1 . Several lhal lighl travclsin w'rvc! Albcn Enrslcirlproposcdthal suggested Huygcrrs as light is lransmilled Linypa(i'lcs. itr() nrcchnrrical of en€rgy gasolinc tne cotrven! cncmical a. . r ' ' r t r ' -L ( \ r circlc(l' nlay L)c Onc.( r(r-rl\r'rrrrr'(rrr' ' l'' -' ' ll l]'l:. Tlle Cclsius prcssllrc b. Vilamins witllolrL h'1rln bc takcn in largeLloscs a. A carcngrne energy b.ognizing ' r l 1 1 'f l r n ( L r . EnergY . ' r u r ' l r ( ! r r r L . r . Radianlencrgycomer ir lhe fonn of nrnligh!' x rays' or from one form to anothcr' maYbe coiverl€d c. l " . . berkcliLrln all manmade Einslcilliuln. Thcrcis liltlc l)ossibili(y Lhcrc lilc on anf other lilc' (i) ucrcurv and vcnusarc !(x)ho( rc slrppon systcnr' in Y Thercarc onlv ninc plarrcls our solar arldPlutoarc cxlrc rcly coldnn(ldark urunur. Encrgyhas nany lomrs ilrlrl Lhe a. ( r r . c n L i ' u e . ' ' .. @ doscs may bc harmfil ir cxcessivc 2.maPl€. . Alomicrcsear. Parasilcs living lhings lbat fced of{ other livirg lhings lhr 'ausirg them lo dic lrom livcs off apple. . aynal o changer 5.two or thrccscnlcnccs gcncral slatenlcnr.i Rz.Ncplunc.. (x llholons treneliLPla'rl is 5.u. lucLear energycomesfrom sJrlilting nucleusol uranilrln or lllrlo aloms ganlma rays b. plarrcl wilhin our solar is that l.86 Exemplifying minlctot l)lanl arc 3.h led 1{) dev€lopmcn! arLificially arc an(l termium californiLrnr. l ( r L l r r r . . mall]ltlrition lo lhcoriesha!e becn prol)osecl explain thc nalurc of lighl Christian 4. Symbiosis lhc . clemcnts.l g"n. vilamin C car lo suscrpLibililYdi\casc of VilaminA may incfcasr arrourlls b. i\ Exanples Er'l t'l h(\ . A baromelcrneasuresalmosphcrlc lerrperarLrrr' alrsolrtlc c. A machineis a devicethat lranslormscnergyfron one form lo anolhcl . Exccssivc ri(kcls prcvenls discase Lhc c.oexislcrlccd livinf thirg\ lbr LhcifnlulLral relaliorrshif live wilb antsin a symbiolic licc or aphids prcl)ared clcnlc'rLs oi thc has 6. r i l ' .

{rllqPqoxl tuols ss.'?^1t^ s!4t t! ryat D aq $ u anql '. or ptsn oslP sl rt w} (:IPrtur rou) puP sno osroorre appollrerlrl uoqrPrJo sroclE^ rql ' E 'uolredsu ue aroJ.{uP selcltul prru sl ll leql 'illuanba4rsou readdP Suors&a^ p sassardxr isrr.{lrplnJlued JPrluqJtl 'uosPas..q ( J l i . ugotuol p)sn 'suolDnrtsu! ul 'Io^e^.^!sspdtql uI .{llssarrr Jo slEporurlsrlSuE.ued)rd) pl)p rlrolq)orp^H z '.&lllqpqordssrrdxrolprsnrreslpporu.xlx.8Jql t 'lpoq iqr ur {)rnpord) slpr poolq crrqM 3ulra3 lBquor or ipoq cqr roJ € 'plre rlrnJlns pare4ua)uorqllM sprrolqr unlpos 3u9p3q lq (.|oH roJ . pq saJurluos rsrql rql oMl .vrr!o^.fup eql Sulrnp :/"ep^E^5 peraM/tr nno4t dotr slql 2q 'uoll?pu)uuro)Jr scssaldxe eleJepou ojolrlsl //.^lssPdaql Jo ul.l^esnoi'rerdEqlu le4ssataN sttpow lo 49 SuttIdrurxr .s E srullrtuos pue.{tlssrrru slepow aql .tn1t't s(e*x 'r 'scstqluJrEd qit^ aql Lll .tduPx.u r n r i l P M l e ) rorcr)u.{llensn ts a puennaTs slpn lppedsrt pesnrre qepolue$qr'srlruM .uolsoldxaaql aq J[v lo eeJ! eql utort pawrrtb\a tsnu leuljostad lEtluesseuou 'uolsoldxe aqt Jo Eere aql ruo{ prtrnrv^a aq mfioqt lawrtosred lPFuassauou IIV 'Ittlr.IoJ 3ulMolloJoql Jo q)ea oL ttlssataN slopow 6ulsn osnpup lsru ppe'saJualuas lo 'SulupJur aurps .!:l?..ro{.MoLl."i.{lgssaJru -(rus$!u$p^Fro) uaqM Fata/Wt? po 4@ 7.Jxrt uBrJl 1!qro u! uPuler ol allleles aq7rc! ?eulbtultu aqtm / rnoq rad selJru 00O'8IJo peadsV 'rlqlssodLu! asleSulq]. Jog -." 'plno|sot)^t4 + ls w arE ssrrdxJ prsnoqPaIP ol .1^ .{lluenbe{sl //rorlj SBulurs.

.til.nNC. rhc rarliation in thc lalx)ra()ry' 4.c h r"r c\rrr'li' v"rrr''Lr'lr -".r.. \.1"n'ot" rr'\ bcinsfK'rLit' thc trcli)fc irrjccli(nrs slerilizcd are 7.ii....kd. v t u ' u l | k ."ilil.lcvl(ci 11....rl * 'ili ..c .Ih.\'"' . A firc cxlinguishcrh nol availablc lllilrlnlfLr arc 5. -f l "r ''r"u rrr"r 'r' 'Lr[[i\-"' rr{ l 'p. 1. The Dccdlcs ro( beirlg thc inmunizcdagailrst fltr' arc 8.'r ' ' l " ' l r ( . Ue JrUu ar.'li.j... l('jl(Llft\r '1r(1ni'] 2. l | s .i:l :'ilxiiliii: has (r"dl') and arr'c'r rnc .ltl..ll. L'l \'\i(c.r$ing r_l?d. Th( cxl'l.aan a.slv(. ' ' . I.)llowin!th( filtLLrn lh( Ir\t po.rlli.' t | | i r ' r .il...ll'.. ."'.iii. For humanlifc ro bcgin. l akflrrlher clLrt lo its Inean'rrg .. ) .. ."'i"' can Lrcaddcd 10 mnry for verbs iD thc silnpie pasr lense ald lhat thc nrflix fu rhcm advcrbs(s'll1r' 'df{tr'h') frr...""'" u r"lltiws sui'lccr l]l11'll o". cdrctl/) ro orakc ".iii"." arattndlherearthgive! ..\fr^11(rlv 'i lr'\m (rc(\'r\c rirlillr''n i. A i you j ' . l : .rtn'. ' .' d l h ( \ l r ( r r r ( r ' r '"v l L ..i.i .g READINGSKILLS Buildirrg vocabulary will s(tneLrrnes of ndvcrb Knowingwhelhcra word is a noun' vcfu' adicctivc' Ji.. * " .\.i a \ t t a L ' | a t 1 ^ / d ] I w .:.l:il ..j. Thc Daticnts rrotbci.:#'f H'ffi: e"'l'l **#ixi:m. inhalalbnbcconles in r. iita t"./o?.i..lll In sincei! appcars lrc pos an action.l' LfuuLld./rl thc with Nee\sitv l-"rrnulnr( scu(c|lccs Fotuulaling Sentences i)clow rlirr of scllLctlccs.r..r':".88 ExemplifYing 6. Thc blfi1JJon('rtirr n('l bcrnF rcSLrlarly calilrralc(l are dcviccs nol Lrcing monilorinll i.l'il. | c ' h l l 'n|\| .. | .i\ivc I Thc clcctricityis not shul off 'U. an cgg cell ilr lhc larllalc (fcftilizc) a slcrn I)y (ncvcrnllow)lo conrc i r l c o n l a c tw l l n w a l c r L Thc faccPiecc scal on aD oxyitcn breathillg ( n c v f r r c l c a s c )l n a l l u l l s a l c a l l r ( ) s l h c r e c v c | 1 l diflicull.

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when there is . tum tb.ihc lcst should bc rcpcaLc(i. sunk there are no air wavcs1. How doesthis heal lransferlake place? . To open the door. a. 2. wies were ins Lated preventthe trans{crof clcclricity or heal. solids 6. b. absorbcd a. Heal Is Trafisfetred Hcal is the energythal warms our housesand cooksour lood. firn irrerl thc kcy in rhe lock. sirnilarity Scdt ing passagc !hrccminutcs lcss Scan lbllowing thc ilt or and pL( Lrrackets aroLlnd tltc followiDit: l Oneexample conduclion.90 Exemplifying Vocabularyifi Context. giving off 8. gives oll 9. of 2. Citclc rbe letter of the answer lhal bcsl malchcsrhe meaningof the italicizcdword as il is usedin eachof lhesesentcnccs. unable1()bc sccn 7.) l.1drrprrill bclwccn lcsl results. l.The submarincwas complctclys bnerged b.ordl. differcDce a. the nuclearreactorwas er?itlirgradiation. onc cxamltc ()1conveclion. The sun fdlidteshearand light. one example radialion. carried 4.led in a vacuum because transmil il. abrorbing a. uncovered a. ol Keep in mind lhar cxamples nslrally comc dircLllyafler delinirions gcncfal or Reading Ho$. b. 1l is lhe lransfcr ol cnergyfron a warmcr body to a coolerbody. cerms are irririr& wilhoul lhc aid oia microscope. ro a. takcsin b.and 3. unablc lo be dividcd a. enter iithe water and could uor bc sccn. Flrids are Dor rigid aDd caDflolv from onc conlaincr ro another. covercd b. liquids and gascs a. Sollnd cannol bc . b. b. Altcr the fire. b. cxposcd t. a.

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poor a.r b. in L Ii lhc molecules your Lcaarc m()vjug @l. lighl colored 1 0 . A scicDrislmusl bc ablc Lo draw conclusionsfionr Lhc lh. increasc a. hor b . An air'conditiolcr lhltnrgh 7. examplc. is a Lr.luct(lr L. A doublc-iilass b.ln one with (lark rvalls. cold -1hc 8. A h o u s ew i l h w h i l e w a l h w i l l b e lh.fh(r.runny (layls . cold thc thc a room and n col(iorc will aausc 2. secold. hcal is Lrauslcrrcd ouly subiecl lwo conditions: and in lcmperalufe. convccLion. Dlauifig Co clusions. On a lrip lfonrthc canh to lhc nxxrnyou worritlpass a. For if availablc is a kritical conclusion wood would nlakca bcLlcr handlethan nrctnl. The mon comforlablc clolhing oD a nor. canh ab$rbs hcal h a. itood cnl]. darkcolorcd a.lcs on Lhcprinciplc hot 6. tc. window tha! trapsair is a 4. b. .. Oyy[cn i\ r a. Opening door bctwecn warnr in lcmpcralurc lhc b. it rhc lctlcr ol lhc nnsrver lhal drawn fftnn thc infonnarion coDlains circling by bcst complclcscach of thescscrllcnccs yoLrr is vcry rapi(lly.n facts. cqLralrzc 3.thc flow is alwayslrom hoL1ocold. it is Lmcthal wood is a bcltcrinsulaL()r rlrclal.rlal{)r. b. poor' insr. and radialcs b. b L r td o c s n ' l r a d i a l c i l 9 . good ol' that causes air () riseo|cr.92 Exemplifying and The lhrccmodcs ofhcal transfcr-conductioD. poor a. lood il irrsLrlato| t. radidtiolr-arc when lhcfc i\ a (ii5pirity lo First. Sin(ecork hasair pockcls. that ir |ot l:dn iDdicatc what conclLrsions bc Afler rcading pfeviorspassagc thc carefully.

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8. 2. Clouds formcdby lhc process cvaporntion. dre k) 6. 2. 9. f t. 7. discoveries would like to havc wilnessed Thingsyou wonld like somconeto iDvcn! you would like Io explorc Placcs you $ink sciertins will neverkDow Things . cvaporallon of 12. Scienific factsthal still amazcyou. All substances nlelt at the sane lempcrallrrc. Equilibrium exists whcn thc ralcol concicnsatj(. 5. L 4. 6. Thcy can alsobc nscdlo provc or subslanliatc qucstion. point is lhc samcas the boiliDg 10. casessuch as oxygcn cannot bc solidificd. is the Understanding Lectrrr. can evaporalioD. are DISCUSSION POINTS cive one or two cxamplcsol cach ol lhe followirg.94 Exemplifying your poinl when wriling uDfamiliar.l thc ralcol ate tnc same. Alcoholis a volatile liquid. L The convcrsion a sdid lo a liquidis called of 4. an ar$wer lo an cssay Takenotesasyou iistento the lecnrre"The Changing Sta!cof Matter" aDdthen us€your rotes to completethe rext exercrse. poinl. you would not want !o live without. lndicarewheiher eachof lhc Ibllowillg slatelnenls rrue (T) or false (i) accordirgto the iDformationin lhc lecllrre. Fog is an cxamplc ol evaporation. Machines Machinesyou wish had never bccn invenlcd you scientifi. Explairryour answers l. 5. ody a few substaDces (onvcrLIiom one physicalslalc lL. A volalile rubnan(( r5onc rhJt ir <talrlL. a changeof statecannotoccur wilholrl addingor sublEclirrghcnl. Thc coDdcnsalion aud 11. Hcating liquidcauscs molecules novc laslcr. a 7.

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qucslionis alwaysaskcd. Bnt scientific no one can stand far enough oul in spaccto observcthe planelsrcvolving aroundthe sunl 96 . (cntury. carbon. demonsrralc diarlror)ds graphilc ro thal and inro graphitc.tcplcd and the sun revolved aroundIhc carth.Thirteencenlrrieslater.ura(y. thc sccond planets His lhcorywas a. likt lhe seasons lhc thcoryexplained Then.Drugs. or ca(h and Albert Einsteinshookeveryone by sayingthal motion is relativeand that up on whetherthe sun is moving or rhc ca(h is moving depends your point ol view! And on and on wc go. lrulh.After all. Hc a(lchis point.chapter 7 Giving Evidence Smoking. arc both crystallizrd is or P(rcf or eviclcncc usuallylhc rcsult ol obscrvation cxpcrilnenlatior). alwaysslriving to get closcra|rd closcrm thc theories can seldombc prcvcn bcyonda doub1. Bul all when anolhcr theorycnrcrgcsthat cxplains "proofs" are !cnlative. and Alcohol INTRODUCTION has lhc "whcrc Oncca hypothcsis l)ccnprcposed. Davyon(c l)Lrnrcd diar)l{txls is lhe cvidcn(c?" Thc Bri!ishscicnlist Htlnrphry Sir igoorju!lthecxpc|rsc.claudiLrs P()lcnryp(Dostd In mosl suppo4ingrvidence. tha! lhc it because prediclcdthc posilion ol lhc planctswilh somc a(. Thc rheoricslhat arc acccptcd arc lhosewith the co bincd \aith reasoning.lhc PolishscicntistNicolaus morc plarets revolvearound thc sun by dem(mslrat'ng thal his "provcd" that lhe ol ihingsthat Ptolemy's thcorycouldnot. in 1905 the relrograde backwardmolion ol lhc planels.ro be discarded Copernicus lacts.

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. Even the onse! of a smoking_related illness is not always sufficient !o €nable heavy smokers to quit. . suffer withdrawal symptoms il they attempt to stoP. .. Research also confirms that the tar in cigarette smoke is carcinogenic.or hypothesis.ltts Snlokin!is th! losts1nilicaktlhclatin rcslittltot.000prcoralrrre AmericanLuig Association smokingin the UDitedSlalesper year' duc !o USING ENGLISH TO GIVE EVIDENCE passagc thal snokingis darris of The main poinl. aflenbe ne phlsirdlb'trndPsrtltolalitlllr tl41utla1t0n thcit hdlli! S|/.. /?dr is supporlcdby evidcncc.98 Giving Evidence illnessis nol .. . .v It can damage the tiny hairs (cilia) that linc the brcathing passages.. dtld !11aki1!l birth dtJtel! bilNeen Therc abaa correltitian i! pregnant women who smoke a pack The evidence indicates that of cigarettes a day have a greater likelihood of having a miscarriage. . . .) of nrcstscientillc Ix has been demonstrated that nicotine increases the rate of the llear!' . ..) Smok€rs often.lways suiilcient to enablehcavy smokerslo quil smoking-related all thc infomlation madc availablclo the Public since 1964 in 1985 thc Despite Lieauls enimatedthal thcre were 250.(Note that scicnLilic ailtlktlls Smokifi!is rdatedta fian! heartand citttLldlor! wilh wo s like indialcs at ilr lontrt (s (Evidcnce iicqlrcnlly int()duccd is ralhcr ihaD lhc strongerwor(l frrvas This rcllcc(slhc "trrrproval)lc"nalurc hypolhescs. .ake^ markcdwilh a cluc wofd and ollcrrcan orrlvbe (Evidcnce not always is idcntilied by drc conlext of lhc paragraph. opirr()n') evidcnccnlusLbc Incl. the previous cnch ol vrhich gcrolrsio your health. .Thc arglrmentis bascdon four stalcnlcnts.. tli.

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A l c o h o l d o c s n o l a f f c c ld t i v i n g a b i l i t r .lc .. T h c s f a c c b c t w c c n l h c s u n a n d 1 h ec a ( h i s c o l d ..l L watcr expilrldswhcn il freczes.rlc'1h"1 s 2 . walef icc/cs at o" C. d. is abr. H u n r a n b c i n g si n h a l c c t r L m r d i o x i l e . T h c s l r n i s n o 1 a s h o l . .i00 Civing Evidencc 4 . a. c.l Jr( 0) M. Difi$cnl slrbstanccs when frozcll. Oxygcn suppons on a.l'. b. fron bauxi!c. t h c l ) L l l r l\ ( n ) r rd i c s . walcr fipcs so rclimcs b.dnj|l A riu.silvcr. co|pcr' an(j wcighslcssthaDiIorr. b. coDlract d.) Alcohulinr)iriAiud{m(nl.r AD over&)sco[ vilamin A can be roxic- .Tinc.rnyi ur. is d. . b c a n l e e d i s g r o w r r i n r b c d a r k . 7 . Ioresl llrcl are worsc in a s!fttrg wind.'r.. frcczcal diffcrenl tcnrpcratlrfcs c. cra(k in vcry coldwcathcf. doesnot supponcombuslion. b. ft l-rt. Alcohol cnn blur your visiort. BlowiDg i fire makcsil bum morc brighlly. c. n .cggs. VilaminA is lound in buitcr. A l u r r i n L r in r.. s i l u s e d1 o b c . AllnriDunr ()1 poir)r allrnlinuDr 660"C. l i g h ln r c l a l . a . n d c x h i l t o x y g c n W h ( n . Alcohol nnnrullts nl(ohol. is addicLivc. Smolhcring firc will prl it oul.. B c a n p l a n t sn e e d l i g h l t o \ u r v i v c . |lr. {i)r dicl. I D a c r o w d e d r o o m . AlunlinLrln pr(xiuccd clcn]cnts.Circle fof nrcrcthaDonc answcr cach tbc p(rlxxitiou. c a r b o n d i o x i d c g r a d u a U yr e | i a c c s t h c o x y g c n i r L h c : ' i f a .Thcrcrnaybc li)r 1 AI(oholis dangc|1)us drivcfs. b . A Lackof vi|amirr may {auscrlighlblindncss and fish liveroils. Mosrsulrltanccs combu(roir. A l c o h o l a i l c c i sd r i v i n g a b i l i t y . vira|ninA is csscntial a healthy a. . \i. o r r ( l n ) x r c l e b . Thc rrys offiesun wafln whal they t(Nth lrtll . 5 . a . Alunrinuru onc ol rhc nr{)sl gol(1. . is a. Nilrogcn a d. B c : l n p l a n t sr c ( d l i g h LL o t L u n g r c c n .f in lrjl'l'rrFlft1tr.Altcrcachofthe following l)roposilions or statcnlcnls givc cvidcncc nrPl)ol Iof lhnt lbc IcLlcrs lhosc ol rfe givell..rndn|rl b. ol build up a $lcranccft)rill(reasing b. b .rc rrot hot lhcnrlchc\' 5 . H u m a r l b c i n g si n h a l c o x y g c a r r d e x h a l cc . Thc [rehinl. . Alcol()licr ((.r(i Llcrr(. scvcrflslilcnlcnls Elaluati g Er'idence.

.{1lr!rlrrla Jo srolrnpuor poo8 rre stPrru rrl(kLrex) ro.l srorsq. \ r ' r l t. r o s r s l ' ) p r L o rl L ' ) ) e t l | r \ p l { ) r p q l r ^ .rt )^llrnful lscrtuor Lrl lc.rq al()ltri i||r \r)urr(rtror |l(.rl llr/r\lror\nl)uo).r^|])npifl sr ll jl 'oP Arrll 'r)Lrl jo. rt ) D t r r o )| r l i l { r o r i o ( l p .)q lrlnrLll uoll(lrunssL) llc '. . ) u P rs i l n ! r J I o r u s n f l u r r r r r ' r 'lrrJrolor r! 5l)uIo(llLror ofi r u Tlv '7 uo. r .\ll rLlP)LflPrtro.r(l . { r p Drr.r( sl turll'l)llP^rArrll! sr nIrflos!ir.^iNrro (lurnss! )sluJ! il 1)lno^1 rq lurl.nrro) 'sJsrrlrir({ ift ')nil )rr.)oo.rr(lLUir t rriq^\ ^ ous ol snrnr urD)t p lltijru.)tcts.\. 1 i r r l .t{) qrcir rirLltr(t^1 il!)|rrrt 1'irlrosrry .f tLIllru ildruu llP'snouosro({ -xi.r)^ !)q tlu) iil|uosu).r .FpqJo LIl^\orlJL0sLlors urrlrJLrrd 'rptnsonrr qr.rrlu .rr^|lor rr! lJr)trlod lp'xl iql ur rL'l'l\ olur LprflsuJ^Lror rJDrplqoqrel n 'slrPr i ^ r L t \ t ! t u r L r r p r i l i l J l r r r o r I t V s t r e li ^ p r t s i l o | p r l ] 'silrrlrlr n _ L r l ^Iill! L r l r ) . .t |lorsnt}ro) rrlrr)tlsp ot LroniltUn\ED ro )q[urrd lu)url I u'orj \r.rtuo)io sr ll')l(huIxi ro.r . ' t i J r .niO l .\urnprps uirsn r nLr. . tr .)lq!nlp^ )^llrnput 'ss. I r r.rJsqo.rc(l turlliurnssD !.Lrnouosro(l rsnru s(rr(x)iqsnrrr sr(rooiqsnlrl iL.r J^rt)npLrr'lsu.r)llP!!r iql r. or rrI ur i. ! \t l r l n u u o J s d o r p l r r f l t q plo) rql r'r')rt D ')lLr) nol U r L t n \d n p n o p \ i s s r .n uJrriJ)rf s crlllstlort I -f(/) ijoruosur. ' r i t . .]^o !!Prl uo str.ln)r].lJsr rrrllt)r)d .()rr ilurrroslrrr^|)np)o iJLIUosPrr r^!)nfrrr PLr!iirrruos!rr i^|rntl -)p:Lrolsnl:)uor ot )rrrrpr^) LLrorI I )^oLLr \loqt)u rtslLlo^41 slsrturrrs ol :rsn LrltltosDad 2^ltrnpul pLtD aA!lrnp)o rq I q0 ^lolJq \(lorp .)uor aslulol lruJluu) n_uruospi.Jr i.)rnlr.r Jr uolsrrlruo) ir|.rlP s)^otu iJuluosui.^ri)nprrr (o) r. r r fp l o : ) i l ) ) u r \ l ) n o t ) J L t .t-)rr. .!\ I() \rrldolp srur(! .'r'LrcurnrLt(l lnIcile )^rl))l. r . .r luqr s)l(lrruri(l luLlurx)(l rsourrrs ijurl. . ' .\1. \ .r )ul)JdsD LLk).rurpr^a 3ur^r3 .r. \ q.^lrrflput pult aNDnpao EUtII!tuapl f l .r.rpts rrolulod srlrrplqoqrDr l.lo|)rr.riul!tuor p!ru!lxiol l!rrrlll.r)l|ril! ot uoltu^r)sqo 'AtlrutJalr rolrnpuoJ pooSe sl Ju!z'aroJaraql Jo 'l€lJm P s! Julz v '.)uriruls ro ilrnMoltol irqr. \ r r t p ^ ' l U r q M 9 I0I . . .{\slql )^PrlJ(l rasun lrLIJl)! r .. . r .r pLr!'u^ro.rLll J(l sJsnlrir(l )!ll jr pLlr 1).ro. r .eu)l)cq Iq l)rsrDr\r DruotunrLrd eu.r.l)rl].sv Iu.l Lrolsnl)uor l)i^. .

lrcnol sonlelilrrcs cor'rclusiolrs. placc 1o make a major scicntilicdiscoveryis iI the baLhlub Lhe and olhers are liq ids 6.kangaroos. everyone here is lazy. it can l]y.ttalley's Comcl will retu lo dre ea|lh irr Lhcyear 2062 8 .n they are lhc sanlcirl sharconc characlcristic olhcr ways. 1910. lbf. Deduclivercasoningcan somclimes two examplesi Herc arc All stud€nts are lazy.Thereforcaulonobiies causcair pollr. A chickencanno{fly. Einstein Thereforc. Therefore. ln prcmisc false.sul{ur is a nrclalon all pcnguins. leadto lalsc(onclusiolr$ lhe sccon(l is Falsc frcmises gascs and li(lLlids prclniscs. Halley's 1986. EiNtcin was noi a Soodsludcnl. ln coD(l(rti(nrs?lhe llrsl cxnnulelhc oriSir)al at How did wc arrive su(hridiclrlolrs cxanrple.and ostrichcs 14'alk 1wo lcc! 4.llhough docsnol lbllow froln thc thc conclusion (bolh canllow).lEl4. discr. Someclcmentsarc gases. All liquids can flow. lhcrc. can lrduclivercasoning alsoleadlo lalsc of arc lr()tfcPrcscnlalivc nol lypical rhc SonrelintcJ cxanrples cnoughcxamDles.Carborrnronoxidcis a poisonousgas. sulfur is a liquiclTh€reforc. nlay bc lransmitlcd vencfcaldiseases and nearthe earlhin 1758. All gasescan flow. Thereforc. People. Sulfuris a solid. all gasesare liquids. Sulfur is an elemenl. Conet passcd 7 . Therefore.aoyoDewho is not a good sludcnl k a gcnius l.e l u r r l.102 Giving Evidcn€e traDvnilrcdby bi(x)d All It 6. Il ir is a bifd. .rss llle conclusionis falsc t. thisdoesnot mc. ' I h e . does thc ADdsomctimes con(lLrsioD nol lbllow funn lhc cvidencc why h cach of thc lbllowing. AIDS is a vencrealdisease.e'dnr('ltc. Everyone here is a student. 2. Therefok. All metalsare rclid.ul l. Archimedes principle i! a major scienlillcdiscovcry The displaccment Thereforc. Autonobilcs givc oll carbonmonoxide.' e y c n (rrb(f. is somelimes by blood.k' "r( ihc discovered prnrcipleof water disltacementin the balhtub 5. a chickcn is nol a bird. was a genilrs.and it is 'lot a gas.rtiorr- lcad lo {nlsecorclusiorrs Using Reasoi g.

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l nL'lbcaslLrmcd iL. cocainc.r vigor.insl carcfully bc drug should weighc(l lt an(l discusscd (lcL)alcd fclaxclLhc is l.i! hanllcls lh. llrLrgs o((asi(mallY irr drllgsaf(rdiscusscd lhc lassilllci 2. anlphclarnincs. inhalirrts. and evcn(lenth lo and highlysusccptiblc infecli()D. lime.r06 Giving Evidcnce g Skinmi is Skimmi g for mairl icteas a rcadingskiLllhai is useful in a number ot waYs: l.tarijuarra a diug rhat hasbccn nlLrch Al happylcclingin nlanyLrscrs lhc s'lnre a miDdairdbodyand fr(xlLrceslrlcasrnl.rJnl"L' hnrmful. '1 syslcm' Lhe fro(tLrcrrrg (or Cocainc "cokc") is a dr!! lhat stinlulalct ncrvolrs sniffingcocainc sc|lliari(nrs |itwdcr ovcr ' lo|lg alr(lqlrong ol leeling well-being .Likc hcroin.nd chronicinsomnia"Cfnck.rnrfulbtlt Lrsually are c.iL lrcqucnll-v addicled inrcnsely .rrgic thc mnkcs LLrcr alc|!rrell. hcrcin."a lonn hypcraclivity pcriorl car ca se paranoia. olicn is b! thc drug. 27 !o review skinnrirrg l€chniques qucslio'rs: and dlcn answcrLhesc in Siim the followinglassage rhreenlinutes is I Whichof thc lbllolving Lhenlairr cal a.lrc d. thc mcnr{)ry. il shoulLl "h'f(l drLrS\" (codciDc. Drugsirrenol l)crrtti(i'l h.1Dd addicLivc. Drug\arc alwirys lolcnliallyh.m'lnltrnn'r' nar(olics. b. Lrsc(i hos|ilil\ a\ a |nin oblaining becorc addirLc(l nn)rphidc patients rcceiving occasi ully. Lhal sLrbslarrccs allcr tllc Lrody Drlrgs. paper. Wtren you need 10 write a rcsearch malcrial you need the 1ibraryto scc whi(h contah the fird difiicull Onceyou havc a gcncralidca of dlc thal YoLr L skim any passage wilh betlcr you $rilL abl€to rcadil lhoroughly be contenland organizalion. Re6d{ng The Dakger of Dtugs cllcd\ ol any Thc plcalirr!l chcnri\lry. cspecially ol cocairclhal le'(ls irr a v€rv shon pcriodof 1imc. lhc tr\cr tan Lrcco']rc bc(drr\c ilangcrorrs is is snroked. Anolhernafcotic morphinc. which ol 1hciollolving rnll(jnc. PcP. undernaDdiDg.skim rhc reterenccs vou lind in Z. habil arc lclh. Always skirn a lcxlbook chapterbclbre readingit 'losely' Il you folloh'lhis you will rcad fast€rand wilh greatcrintercn and colnprehcnsxrn' proccdure. ir canaltcrflrndbrrsthat may alfect alrohol' lc\\ miy L)e lraflrlirllharr iLs cl{ccts Although oflhc Lrscr' span andallcntion or any drug.opiuma|cl mor|hirrc)arc consi(lctcd Narcolics tv\lcrll' oD Theya(! asdcl)rcssnnts 1hencNolrs ftrrDling or .Hcft)in pairranLl decrcasing relicviDg ovc(lore BccaLrsc lnrDr cona. Seep. cfinrcto pay for lhc high cosl ol leadsrhc Lrscr'to it heroiDis addiclive. relicver. nn)ljvnl1()11 coodinaLiorl.rgcr's ils scriotrs ag. and hashish? barbi(uralcs.

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Thc accidcnl o((Lrffc(l l).t?lry L).rl..rr allc(l rcl)|1xltl(tio1r (rtrsc.in idc.l k) lor 2.1 a. r / . rrcaning thc italiLizcd ol a\ well . 7. g(xxi n.((Lrri(f lh( cllccl\ol LSI) l l. thc 4./(3rr.ji. l.. Factt.r 8 ./oJr(ir/rt. rcnrlls cxpcdurcnls. llrgh (1. a lizdr(l L). l ) t r s td a a r r r .lry 10 wfilc (lorln nuy cliilcu. Thc corldili()D thc L)uilding.s.c thnl nrl)por1\ \\./.\cnl a.rsc d|ivcr wa\ /. Scientists prcdi(l .r. irD|ft)vc(i n.l ovcr(losc.. l). wns clccln)nic 3.rkrl has inrpaifirrg luntli(nr.or icleas.ril. (lnlnk a. SLritar a dctdrk. is t). slrengthenin! 1o nr1(l ri(ii.rlcr. wc. Circlc the lcLlcr ol lhc answcr lh.fu/!fl.irL)ilily tliil nol likc bccnusc lcnarrl! Lhf ol 10.1u!er r l.. lhc 5. worscnc(l Note-Taki g Afterwritirg dorvnm. Ol(iagebrirrSs $r'.l pr{)percnrc ol n. Excrcisc 1]d?{riti.1 physictl tJ. l).rl I heilllhyir1(livi(ltrnl.onrcpl\ nrr(1 help\yolr ro fecnllthcn l.1Li(.. Thc nrcssagc /rr?rJrrlll. nrenr.tiir'.l^. A u\cf who buildsLrpir (tcfanrc li)r a droitis h (1.14r. . !arhcfcd a.{)\! nclv onri a cil rlocs 10 a 9 .Thc cvi(lcncc rcllrlorcc\ lhc nrain.l eI1c.dLril L). crllirnnriorr!.108 Giving Eviclencc . dangcrous nl.s |sy(holo!ic.(n rlntthcs Lh( word ns il is ulicdiD ca(h ol lh(\( \clrlcrr(cs. g|./!?/rtr ll)c Lrorl!.l\. LISTENING SKILLS Vocabularyh Cotrsxf. rcccivc(i l)ftar.rl. I l a l a i l i s c l r l o l f . arrcslc(l oJ ..i|. q)cainc hasp/?'.l pcrson hc carr o.l L.krlrilrg a. its .^(\.i1hrca(maLrlc ran ol 12. staliniG.rrf lhr\tilc o1 .|d lhcsc jorringclown if yoLrhavc linrc. l l !o1 l thc cnginc. cvaIoratc(i llis lhc. ha nJirl cllccroD youf lccrh. srrong to t) unal)lc hnvcchil(lftr) l).

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obscrvali()ns includingi. lhc by sLtll)lic(l conlftrllcd nonuclcar will L)c .r(ls ollc l)y ilr(rcascs ai)ouL of wcckcndsAllhooghlhc rltlnll)cr lhl.n r t i r . 1 ( r i .lcts forrnsof evirlence. oL'her irl arc which ol lhcsclbrmsol cvi!i(ncc rrscd Discuss resuhs.'l r y (lrr U. llnivcrsily' al nlcrl hy rcscarcllcrs Stanli)nl pcrlorrDcd adr'llt orr a l]an 5. nrnn-lnadc wlro (lcnnnr_ irl Thiswas lirs(Lliscovcfed l98l by a (eamol llrilishscicnLjsls il) ol slritedlhat collccnlralktls ozonevlcredccrcasins thc slr'()s|hcrc overA|lrarctica.lilc ac(i(lcnls lJ s ll).' iDlcr!ic rcd lhi|1ycrcnlivc ol collegc lircdicilrc nl 6. Drinkin! apl)cars ilrcrcasc incidcncc hyl)c(cnsioll. itc aboLll thcrc lo accor(11n9lfs(s () ol lhc 4."r nrr.D(l\rtlrrl(nr En(rt! i:'\u(. Thc proccss cvolLrtion l)c ovcf l(rrhurnaobcinls For thorsnrr(ls ol instead trcirlg theircnvironnlcnl charrging havel)ccrr ycari.S. 1 t r . llescarchers a nli(iwcstcrn (iis()l!crs alr(lnrellLal cfcalivily llclvl'ccll aD an(i lirLrn(l associatioll writers i(l 'u. sigrlillcanl ol lhc wofl(l'sclcclricjly lo 'lccorlrrlll rcl)orls lirsio|l. orr incrcnsc docsrr()L orr L Thc dcnlllratclionr lf. the nrorrgc'your sl(rlcmcnt you havcand thc bcLLer Thc morecvidcncc thc( ife thc will bc.lr r\ (l(t\i*. expcnopiniorr' and nrorclh'n orc lorln ')l (Arr txam|lc mav irrcllrdc eachol lhc examdesbclow oj nlay ol l. .r'rr( n\\r"rr' Writitlg wilh Evide ce 's PoirrtsFirslsl'rlcyoLLfol)irrr)n Dit'Lr\liion orr Wrilc a paragrdlrh orrcol Ll1c o1 cfc(lil'iliL] yotrl cvj(lclltcL()cn't)lishthr lhcD the topicsi'ntencc-an. .1 pl1)vi(lc or by poinl.r ' r ( r ( . . .li(ics holiclay oD nroredriv('ls lhe ro'd\' lhrcc pcrccnl perccni. by thc rri(l(llcolLhc21sl(cnttrfy. r .htrnran bcirrgs bY changc(l it Lry dcn()YC(l in rhat1heozorlc (hc trpfcralr )s|hcren1'y Lrc cxists z.lrrr.i.! .licals.t daiigcr light t() rcnchLhccrrlh ullravi(rlcl albwing barrrrlirl che. In Chaplcr6 we di\cusse(l uscol ex'r plcs'L)"1 argunlenl tesl rcsulL\'!Lrfvcy slillinics.ConcluLle slrnnnafiTing Yotrri(lca\'\l'lirrg lhcif \iS!rilicnrrcc' rcconr ' r r ' l r rr " l ' r r .ll0 Giving Evidence WRITING SKILLS Giving E lidence yoLLr 1o evid(ncc sr'rpporL tt'rlcr crrLs' lhal wrililg requircs yolrprovidc scicnlific ()r il is.

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.) lhe the Remove bulb .. describc irr(licalcd order.{ A m o v i n g n c c ( i l c i n ( i i c a t c s c l h a t c l c c t r i cc u r r c n t i s f l o w i n g l h ( n r l h l h e w i r e a n d t h a l n r a g r r c L i n n n n producc eleclricily. it Aftangi g ltefis Chronologically. The right sidcol thc hcarlpumpsbloodinto thc lur)gs out lo lllc rcsl From rhc lefl sideof thc hcan. When cxplainirrila l)roccss. 1 C h c c k l h c c o m p a s s ( )s e ei f t h c n c c d l c i s n r o v i n g . L Thc hean pumfs blood!h()ugh thc hunaD body. J / 4 The oxyiten-richblood retllrus 10 thc lcft sidc of lhc hcan. alter dlsconnectlng elecl clty. Thc lirstslcphasbcerr bclowin chronok)gical cachgrollpol slcl)s in eachlisl. In the lurgs. 5 . oul) and absorbs 2 on 2.l14 Experimenting 4. Typc thc {lrsr line. is csscnlinl() Ntrnrbcr thal is (hror)ologically in slcps thc orderin which lhcy happcll. Press pRrNr thc . Il is easylo prini a simple mcssage this (L'ml)ulcr Turn oli lhc computcf. Place a conpass ncar lhc wire blrl away frcm thc nragucl. Tun on thc compulerkcy Prcssdre RETLRN aftcr typing cach line. Movc dre magDel back and Ibrth !hrolrgh thc coil. key beforc lyping eachlinc.thc bbod is pumPed ol lhe body through lhc arleriesand rclurrrs1o lhe hcart lhrcugh tlre venrs. lhc bkJodgivesup carbot dioxide (which we brcaLh(' oxygcr.

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{rsl may only bc followcd by aDinlinilivc withor.( wlrich forn ol lhc verb10 !sc? The arlslvcr Lhalthc fiNLvcrL) rllay bc lblk)wcd thl lbrnr of lhc sccond For cxanlple.r)l.ly bc tblbwcd by a gcrund or ar) il)fiDilivc wilhoul to.thc vcrL)bci]i.rcs by an ioliDilivc or a gcrlnl(l. Astronomers oDselv?dLhe stJpefnofa explode. Thc rd modal . tlctecl). the experiment. dclact).? iletcnrri.Thc vcrb p/..116 Experim€ntidg verb Fofms:Infi ithtesand Gerun* whcn ol)c vcrb {bllows anothcr. wriLing: Bclowis a lisl oI somcvcrbsthal arc usclulin saicntilic l. Researche$ pldhheal to /epdd. Slud(xlt{of En$lishas a secondlangllage{icquenlly lirr(l lhis conlirsins How (lo is you cic'l. Etnstein began studlifig the photoelectric effect. Astronomeru orssrved the supetnova exploditrg.rt Thc vcA d. or 2. takc ol.lfioiL. the se(oll(l vcd) can ln an English scnlcrrce.the experiment. Hcrc nrc son)ccxanrpl0si Elnstein began to study the photoelectric effect. vcrbs folbwcd by inlinitivcs: tail . dctectinl) 3. Researchers .lcof thrcc lormsl lo L an infinitivo 1loirdvrnce. an iDfinilive\tilhoul lo ladvanc.tr nlust bc lbllowcd by in infinitivc.tcrr.tf rep?4. a gcrund \advdncikg.

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ry b.. In lhc 1920s. L.. vibraling 8.rr. l).\rooL mea. G.n(1 f(ntcntt)cf ncw worcis. wc lclt thc house_ a. bleeding whco prcssure al|licd. Thc roor is lhe pan nn)sr likclylo itivcyou a cluc to Lhcntcaning thc ol wo . The caietcria oIly alk)w\sll|dcnrs _ a.tring timel -ize (suffix indicating verb) drlsdndr. was b.. wilh or wilhoul prcfixcs.or) -sor.(root meaning electficityl -ir (suffix indicating adjectivc) F . b. Somescientist\ bclicve that lifc mighl a. -ele..e-unpleasant sound d.)is lhe bascl|1)rrr thc whi(h il is fonned.(prefix meaning .r.1osludy 7. Thc rool ol a wofd (sonrclimes callc(l r/(r.nr. began _ a.(root meaning rd rd) -dfl. word r(x)lr(. lo inLlicate rharill gilirxics ivcre|1rdri]l{. indicnrc READINGSKILLS vocabulary Building I-ikcIrcfixcsaud sulllxcs. Lr. cvidcrrcc. slL ying whcn thc rrainwenr [)y. moli(D.n h(lp you n((luirc.ll8 Experimenting 4 . to snokc 10..r. An Er)ijlhhwonl nray bc buill lionr onc or nr(nc|1x)rs.e (suffix indi€ating noun) photoelectric-pertaining to the emission of electrons when a substance is exposed ro light photo. 9.llilco'swL'rk inspircd Newlol _ a.l$. Mnny aninalswoul(l_ .sulfixcs. it 1. Thc wourd sloppcd a.s.or both.(toot 'lreanilrg light. IIcrc afc sonrccxatltplclil ty/rchrcnize-to happen at the same time syr" (prefix meaning togetheror t lith) -throno. snoke b.eLo. 1oexin 6. 5 ..r/o-. lo vrDrare cxriu(L rheywrrc not bfcd in raprivily. to blccd on Satrrrn's ln(xD Tilnn. cxist b.

srrd Jo rql ur IILr0 sr^ll ruql tusrlllnro Surqltur^n 'q e lq nuJ(.Z srl(!leuipo1urrL0 9 tLltsoLu.M nlrrsolJo ssrroro 'ii rJIP^'r lul l0tL()J l rcnEjp^q)p 6 :rrlnurplq 9 snorpiq.r.' F I i.ynapo4trt! itale^A i-otpl4 leeq SuFnspeu. .) sgulql 8u!^!t Jo .r'\s'. ( x ) p u l H u l l u l n i l i ).rrLs iqortu t sJTLLI?LL{l)ol)p { slPurltrc oe slLr0ll:r P Jo uoIrso(rlro) )ql Jo ^prlrs s u u J r ul u J l t l e L I : ) J l u .qt Jo lillur)lll rt1] ol sppe ro srlllu)tll xPrd rql ilurtrurttrslr ol )nlr ls)tuorls 'srldtuPxr J^oqPrql IIlr ur lcql )n)N i)rtrsr^rn_ pro^\ . t i u .{n)lq z . l o l i ) l ^ ) P trll^ulti )Lll>ds iiL[trrtci)tu .li(lLuJl i .ti) Jo uolllurqulor .IroJ etl^tp e = Jatawou)aLll lleeq t-our.M t.. 1 1rr' \ : r r r r " ' r rrrr i l r l r s $ " 1 \ I r l \ ' \ r l r r ' \ r ' r i r ' i r r r r l l t r u r ' ' r l r ' r ' r ' n o ' \ l r -orpIq lolur)ql rorJP rolq 1/ooy pJotl l.()l ltl)ttln nsul JaMOd rale^{ Iq slsrqru.'.'t rl' \l rrl\ 'ulPne pue 'rlrtl'4'\c rruY oretP rrrrll i)s nol sPrPnrluPlJttrorrq III^'Isnxt r)qlo !t'e JsJtll -spro^\rrrrllrrrrs LII punoj IItroLlrLL()r Jre Iooq slql ur nlilnPl sloor proM tql '(qrr^ppro')^rr))lpP'qrJ^'LInou) xl}ns Jql xxx Ll)rrds ued Jql srlarlPtrr Jo .{Pnrs aqt = [6oP!q 1alll t-o'q 'prlsll sijLIruP rql lle )sn xrLIIlrMnoi rr ' r .4l 'lJerJrlP Sullerado Jo 3)uJltrs 3ql = stlttrouoJat !tle r-o12.lrLll0 ptle rlr? lo lLlJttri^ottl Jtll lo Ipnls irlllu.L| lo uPd Jql sr nror trll rertr 6II 3ulurlu!rtdxg .rrie.i'r)slu:rtl)olqI parnpord AlpFpelo = tq!.{3iiurler|lrPqrrur Jqt jo tDJq LrorsrJ^nor lo Ipnls (rp) LIrSixo Jru.JS'IJAJI olLrr rqr PUP.lo1rrnss)ld ril!^{ lo rsn p sJs0n.

sct. i|lrrcsling L Maric irndPicrrc Cufiewcrc al)lclo 6. l L ) c s lI n . calth.oo(lcll a lo i1 pcncil. a t t h c s a r n ct i n r c Scohning Scanlhe f(tlowiDgfassagc rhreeminutcsarld put nluarc brackcrs. a.1. rcsisl 2. Duringthc cclipsc.a rubbcrcraser. ndium.sun.cxccJrlor)ccrror. a li)rrc of narlrfcthal m. The cxpcrimcnts wcre conductcrlt n u l l t \ t l r o i l l . i t..120 Experimenting Vocabularyik Cor?l?xl.d rhe gasprcssurc on as rv. Thc bridgc wasJl/r/. a.fnddd cablcs lion sup|]ortc(l loivcrs. Whcrcis thc magncric Nonh Polc? L Whal dki MichaelFirndayan(lJ(xcphHenryl)orh(li{cov0r? Readihg The Magic oJ a Magnet Whal is lhc magic thalenablcs magnel pickup irn ir{)llrrailliut rr(n r. corre(t L). itr o|1icr ll. 1)1 L o n ( l o r ra r r ( l R o n r c . jn a linc L). Circlc rhc leucr o l l h c a n s w | | l h . Thc hands lhc dialplydl.clivc a clcnrcrrL. hlLng b. wilhout orcicr l).dri./. a coplcr |cnny? M.) lhc answcrs lhcscqlresli(ns..rc(l 5. to . scparalc b.gDcLi\n. firlicul(rus b.thc (onrl)u(cr l)y r\'ns progranrnrcd list Lhcm4t fdrrorr. Thc blucl)rinl lhc nra(hincry li)r wasdrar. crc. h o l l h c s c s c n l ( n r c \ .j/drr new r:r(li('.lrnlrrc(l thc. in thc sanrc b .lc 4. 1 ( h c \ l h ( nreaning thc italicizcd of wo(] as it is r|sc(ln c a .nilcslsitsclldiJlcrc|llyin is .rn) in i:.t cithcrcrr(1. a. Ji)r a.r.s rais0{l in(l l{)\ry(r((1.. in(orre(( 7. Thc possibilily Iifc exisLine of clscivhcrc lhf Lrlrivcrlc trrltrll/. ti \ placc a.nd nnx)[ wcr'c lhc d1itrr.our ol liuo 9. Oil and watcrrclcl eacholhcr. rcvcrscrl 6.1|1ILu(l in (Firsli(lcntjfy kcy wor(ls./Lonr. rolalcd [r. a. to lhc I Who wasWilliamCilberL? 2. To nrakeslrrcthc rranrcs wcrc choscn chan((.ncicnt or lir Grcckrown of Magnesia.. l)y a.

^trsur)\] uiJrtD (lrL:) or ]'(l!11 )rlr.r t o .r q l r ! r l r l ) .rol)r)p s . t q u o t P l ) uu t r l l .{uI rql U sJs er (ln )ql l)uiJpLU to iriol lj (lrlrri{lud lrrls u slrqrnslDl)ru sDrr(lpJzrrruiJcl||Lrn lo p. ) r PL U r MU P L I I i . ) t 1 l ! s r o r ) r r ) q r o q . ) l o . { r r ^ r L l i l n ' ) q ) l Vs l f u D u rr l r . r ^ ol ) . N ^ . ) L I . ) r l rl ) u f r ) q r o L p r i l ) ( J r \ i l o ( r r J u o u ( | ^ l r .ro r. l 'li)uJurrl rluciJlN \L'^ ) ! ) l l i ! l r q l r L r .l|I()D)Itl uol' paz!lau6eurun uor!p€z!lau6eht -) -: . ) L tlln ) { ) r ).rLIL'l'l\r i q ( l \ r q . ) l n .)u)Lrv rqr puc. l o r l r | n o \ | r r P L l u o r r! q r t .)lrL. r 1 $ ] |. r u )) L t l l ( ) s i l r l \ r n x l ( l o ( l t ) L ' r r l 0 r . ) r s l ) l | P r r o r r q ) r r { t ! r I r r M ( x l ) r o L u L P n t L I r ! s D ) l J r r tl I r n i L r l 0 L r r ' i .i p l L r ) t 1 ) l) r l . { r 1 L. r l o t ll l l n o s p U u r l t . r L t tl t r ( x j p i ] D l o \ r r q l o u u p r ) l o ( { L t L r ) rr q r ' ) 1 1 ) ( { r l l r o \ p r L L ' r l l r o u! r l l r ^ \ q r c r ' s r r u n L r l t r r n o t r ^ c q P l n o ^ { r ^ 1 ' \ l r u n L ' u ro ^ 1 r . )o r ) l ( l P U J . r r ^ o r s r l ) r \ r u L q 1 . s r . ) r l i r u L I r ) u t . ) l r i u L r . ) s r| ( '!)l)o.).: i L ) s . r ! \ . ) u i r [ L ts r ) ) u e ] \ q r l { . L l l . { u r 1 r . 'iuolu l\rx.'1'|urHq(l)\of u!. r t .J l r . ) ^ r \ s t o L ri .)rr? surp'rr')p tt uiqM pirrrrui-L'ur uor rqr'priirrL'rru rs sr iUrf. J i l l r r ) r L t l l L l] ! 0 0 0 1 r ) ^ o ) { r u i q r r r r n r f r s f r . r i ^ i r . )lu 1 . r n _i!L t l i i u l i p n t s .t rqt.) r(t or uri\ i)q ucr uo. r . r i r r . n r J u r L .{rpcrD. r . ) l u L t lL\rl l l c r l l I r . r ) ^ o ) s l l ) . \ \ D ( h L r o r .\lur')P'r!r. f D L r r N r ) r ' s r u o t \ i | o l i 0 ' \ r r o u o j l ) r r L r n L r r J r )^ l r t r l r ) q l . r J) . ) L l rt o A . r i M . ) r i l l r l ) ) J IZI Sultu)Lugtdxg . r r D r r I L ' 1 r i ^ D i i L r r . u n r L Lrrq t i . ) r P ) o l l r ! l l l c ] l r ) u . s r . \ r l d r 'rrqu) q)r) t r P i r l ! \ i l ( x l L I r n o \' ) . ) u J ! ( r ^ \ r u o ^ \ r 1 l ! L l u r f r ) ! r r r L r i r u uP L r r l l M r c q l D L ' tr L | ^ ( l I i r r I u r L l L r .trr ^trrr l).L[ r. r { r . ) q 1 ) 0 r L r ) I ) q rI u n o r r ' r ) l c ' t \ f i r r t t u i r r u D i L | ] r )u M r ) u )\ r . r u r .{]lrutr.rlr pup rusrtiuiJDLu rPM Lrrr^4riq l|orlrruuorrrlt'a€8t uI 't)rlprr rL| )rlt tr)ilo(l quou rqt ot prtrllltD sr drP r.rtI r l o s ) l l i u i l c L u ) r I s L ) J l i s ! s . r J) l l u i l ) r f \ r ( i r I u . ) q u q l r ) ( o o L r L D l r l MD r L i p s l r ) s i l r i r ! f u r l f ) r i J ) L l l l o ) U o \ r r L r \ r . r\l I f ^ \ l r r ^ ! q \ l s r r r ! i . ) t | o r \ . r r L r l n ) r (( n t M {t '.)rrn"u(r ro. ) . ) 0 . ) l ( x l ) l | . ) .rr^r(r \ r l o r { ) I ) u i i p r ^ j r l 1 ) ( lq r n o \ . r ! s r . ) q l ( ) 0 V r u s t r i l r i l e L Lrrl s ) \ ' ) l 0 r ) r ( q r i L ) ) l ) q 1o .{Lt^ sr l'l(lxr srLll rrrrtPur !c Du r(xr IlrM uorr rql'prtLrDr r t)r(1 rM r. r l t r q ! 7 r t . ) l ) I | . I . ) ^ us lr \ r r u J r . ! \ \ r ) r ' ! l \ l r ( l n s r ) r l r o l ) u L ' u { j . ) l. n l r . r i ) ) r ^ l ) u ! i l { ) J r l l r ( ) N) l l r L r J u t t r . r \r l r l ' ) ' p U ] o Jr . n r n u r IP l I s . r . tr l i i n a ) ' l r r q t r l ! u D r l l r M^ r t 00r)l ur p. l t ) u L 1 . ) f . ) p o J r ) . n r i i r r rs . { ' s r . ) r ] l $ l .rf \uroLUoP i\iLI rlrqM rurp'u()l) c) sfiiu )tt:)lrijpur ltrpur l') dr' . ) L U o . s . r . u i i ! L t I o $ l r l r r \ l ) ) t r f t ( l r r ^ r ) ^ D q n o l J I '\rptij l r L r pr ) ( l ( l o ) ' r ) q q n r ' f o o M r s ! q r r s s t u r .. t . ) . r c ) . l p r\ n L | ' q r n o ! l ) L | | L | l ] ( n L U ( r l l r r t r o ^ r ( l u r ' r t t l P t n o ^ { r ' P ! . r tr u r l r l ) . ! 1 lD ' J r l l r ^ 1r ) r o t l r l . r u r ) i L l r ' r l l .r r M o ( li L | ] ^ l o u l r o .iq prrr^o)\rp IrcqJlWuDrrLt\rtiJlrg il\r")rrrPrlfur|s . ! \ L r t s n ( i! | L r i r I o I u u r i r l 1 i ) q r r i I r c . ) q t { l l r ( L r 'r). ) q .. ) q r ^ ) sr r i t L r ( ) ) .)l(xlqlnosrqr i)qr PUD'l)trijour lo rtorl qlrro\ tt ot Iit:)pr]lpsr (lrtrir(lpa rLIt l() rt(nl quou rrtt rr. r o r s r ) L l l u L . r l | | r s D r lr l l i D i i q r q n n o q ) l v r r r u{ r x . ) r I P u r o . ) r . r ( ' )t L ' r l l ' i .)1lD(l lo .lo surcu)p )!)!ileru. ( ) r L r ^ l P r lr i r t I u r t l r D u ) r q ) r L l . r o N) r l l u r o .rir\ )M . r o )! r o . r u I l o l r ( I r r u o .

122 Experimenting Tiry found fiat whcn a magnctis passcd througha coil ot wire. A nagnct can cxc( ils ldcc across opcn spa(c. .gncrir field may be induccdby an ctecrric currcnl. poleslbnl arc alikealtrad cacholhcr.ttcredilr . il p()duce\. magnctic A ficld movinf nearlhc wirc pnllsthcscfrcc clccrron\ atong thc rrilc.(achcd electrons.]l ilt nriiDetic fieldsarc produccdby elcdric currcnrs. Electriccrrrrentsp(xluce nragnelism.rrlhis a Dral. Wc know thrl lhc eaflh is a ntngt)ct bccausc hasan iron cofc. ill 4 . U derstandingthe Readr'rg. il The Dlagncric polcsof lllC eanh arc l()cal('(l al t)rcciscly lhc gcographical Nonh arxl SouthPolcs. Thc carth'snlagnclic ficld rcvcr{s ir\cll pcrio(ii(ally. CoDrpnsscs uscdby thc ancient wcre Grccks. bL lhc opfosircis also true. 9 . t 0 .Scicnrisls bcticvclh. Whcn n corfcnr ol elcdricily i\ passcd througha ronductor.) or falsc 1F) accordinf lo lhc l)r. Magnclic 3 . Willian Cilbci sLrltljcstcd a contpnss('cdlcpoiDls rhal |lo h at)(l soulhbecausc c. elcclrjciry bu1 cann('t Iroducc magneli!m. 5 . Melalsaregoodclcclrical condLrclorr bccausc lhcy conlainnrany t 2 . All subs|arlccs somcwhal are magDclic. magneijc a field forns aroundil. Thlrsa nr.rnnol(xisl scpararcly liour .cvious passagc.This is the rruc nagic ol n ntagncr. 2.rc diffcrenl dircclious. T l. lhc 7. ID{ti(ate whclhcr eachof lbcscscrlcnres i\ lnre (7.lnct. A picceof iron is magnetizcd whclt ils (lontaitrs s(. This o(curs bccauscthc wirc conrainsun. Not only docsa movingmagnclic fiekl induceelcclfi(ity. v)L h pole. A norlh nolc of a nragnclc. Magnels prodLrcc can clcctlicily. crenlingan clcctriccltrrcnl.rr eleclric current in dre wirc.

r ltL'tU Jo )i)ul 'rrn tsrn)t rLIl p)lrlts )lt)rpiir) lll D qiirorlllv t I scM i$rc) l'ilriTrrp ru uoll)PrrP q )Illslp u sJliuqr lorulDlr r)rlJo !o^Jr.rr:) tx?lroJ u! trrtry1qfioA S']1IYS DNINAJSIT tZI Surrunl| id\f r .rlrtrj srsnPr ruql rrrct 1\tL | 3- '(E) rrl)LriJDLrr (N.r ll prrr)ourlluir!.ri)i)roc .rLl rqr ^lic)lJ rlu^^ 01 l.{ srxnr rlpt so 'rlLrllls.tsll n{).u(.rtr p)uil.r l ) ) l JJ ^ l l u l J J t r / .rr.{illqM sit(xrrnol iiul(1.L z .rrFqro plrD 'srrurlr.{l iirlidor iq ull )tsL'M irc .r(l[r rLIt J)ol l laritlrLr I] iiutqiosqurdrl)rc no.ruJ luirLllrqt '9 jo iru Jo .)J!lo) )l(lc )q or ruu^4 noA o)lllrM J^uq no^ lcrlM pui-ri.asu r!! 1 /rasrl.ilicilJ itlt^ sluMly POr.() to^irr 'oslV '.qr lo rrn)l JLII )lr..s rsrll]. u t r t ..rno:I rLIL.L < lrurl) u p:)sn :)rsuq 1l .qr prrprlrssspt). 1 s ( r o t io r!( l s o ( i i s n u ) ) q J i J r 0 ! l )o u s u r l r L ( ) l u( r V ^ l I P nru.W Ur rlcnbqurr .(t ro iJ(|rldor no. suclur{lllluJ lrrdo q JI]'P 'puuoM)qlP.r llniuJlpiq ^utli ll rulrru ot 'spjoM -ulun sl raltr.r1.rrssrllr '996t Lrt c Z .1()LlrPr ur rqt Prsn sr lr sa p()..)l ll Lrl uorrc(uolur It uo p)s!g ar1tr21 a4t gulpuDfrapun 'aslJrrxr lxru rql rrrl(huoJol $lou rnoi isu rarll puD.{jDurilDrur 1t llur:r.r 6u!4bJ-aNN itLrulrroP (l J/rlrji)n)r| Ll ' s u o .tr'(9) IuuoIBr^ei3 srsDrq(l sr rsrql J0 rtrpr Ur frqursrp rrlot iql r)qtrq^\ rle)tprll 'irnrr.rl L|lturlirig { .)lulPr(rru|u tu. rnlrrl )ql ol Ui.4^przrrrll-'lr Jo SLrruerLll rqr sitl)relLr rs.ro!riil (l snolJstlo:) 'srlur\l)rll.lu-rrPou q rilnrt e 'rtclo)clIUDnLp)ltrt III oIx.r(l suoltulAiJqqP noi qijnoqlur^r'si)x)lr )sn ijullut u l^4/.q reqr rJMsrp .lq() 'uoolu rL| 'uns .toIM r1otr ol tcll^^ tuo iirUnil !o tolt 'suJpl)qt uo alcJlu.()rls )qt Dalilrls JsnP)Jq ul luql IrrltLr d)a)l Jo sru.e..rq fn) 'srr.t"uxro.44) rD)p'rulcra ro'(Ns) irrpno liuorrs -olr.)rroj tsJlo)^^ I.Jr.{ 'tu(I.. .rrrl ol li)^/lot uu(rr)rl(xl iq.

r r c n i l u . \ \ i . Thc k)rccLhatis n|()rgly lcll bec. t 2 . .n ncwspatcr from thc Nl. fepaifirU ra(jio. by -t.usc pllnrls.1 |ircc ol fnpcr. jA I r .. r n' \ r t a l l ( .lchstcpis scparatc disrincl an(i nnd lhat nothingh. Thc Iorccthat kccps in l)laner\ ortrir. becn Onc lidy w()lc rharshchad tbtlowc(l lhc rccipe carctully wasvcry confused bu1 whcn shcknkcd in hcf pol for rhc chickcn aDdcouldroL lind i(l As you prcpare your ralki L Lis!all lhclrcps in thc proccdlrrc. 5 . Cooka dish lion . 2. UDli)flunarcly. oncc pfintcdir rccipclhat in(ludcda slcp that saidro rcnrove lolil. Thc nn)stinrportnnl The forcclhnl holdsat(nns and nn)lccrllcs loltcther. nrighr want to cltoosc frontthc lbllowingsoilgcslionsl I l'L1y ganrclioln aDother a counlly. Lhc a or. stcprhat saidto l)l|rLhcchickcnin thc chicken rhc rhc pot had accidcnLally oDri(cd.124 Expcrimenting jarcc. Pcrlbnn activity nrr suchas changiDlt oil in a (nr. 7 . rn . Makc Knnclhing hand. L Pcrli)nn cxpclirncnl discLtssc(llhis class. 2. . L Arrangc stetsin chronolo|ical thc ordcr. dcvclq)ing lilnr. Your lopic sentencc bc r natcmenlof lhc l)rrrpose yol|| lalk. r ( f r r l l v . r j . . T h c lar\'c thnt hol(1s p()rons lollclhcr. l ( t r . l | l l n ( \ c .fc so largc. P l . Make slrrcth.l appcars radioacrivil).r!c. \ j n .Dothcfcounlry.l slicks tapcto. Thc l L Thc basic iofccol chcnrisrry. i r . ) . nn not in 4.s becn omillcd. T h c k)rccth. 1wo lorccs that lirnclion only inrj(lcirrr Jtonr. A goo(lwdy will of is l() concludc lrr cxplainhow this inlornrali()r rljlhl bc Lrscd. ( t r . Thc lor(c th. iu Thc Iixcc thal a(fact\ bLll(locs nol rcl)cl. DISCUSSION POINTS () yoLr Givcverbal difecriorrs lcllowslUdcrrts conlttcrc ro somcl)ro(cdurc. r l r . 10.

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lLrl( or uncouDtablc siDglc nollrs. d. .j cxplodirg. ! .y L)c Thcdclinirc nrticlc Lrsc(l plLr. Defittite A icles (lrr) rn. causinBthe spread of dangerousradialion.ll0 C d l (u l d r i n g Usitrg Indefi ite Articles. iron. Wc krrolvl(xhy rhar_ t.lled so ircnsarc not madeof 6. x is rlnrught dlat L In comparison. I Sif A]exaDder leminlg iscovercd F d o L ' .1nd llas.ransplant.l rrou nr)(1 wiLh n\ wilh.operation he was famous for. lo rcfcrro somcthing srccific Thc do€tor performed an operation. encrgy. The accident awaken€d concern for the salety of nuclear reactorsall over the world. Oxygcnis (oloflcss. (gcncril) The doctor pcrformed the bone marrow t. Lofclcr 1osonrcrhin! rhat is uniqrc a planet. Thcfcwas irrsLrlli(icrrl _ light.! o l d r "ro u \ L L lr \ . lspccillc) .) is In 1986there was an accident at a nuclear reactor in Chernobyl in thc Soviet Union. drug thar is 2. thc Middle Ages l.jlhcf.u I r |cnicilliir. d . _ 4.l.and glirs\cr not nfe 7. The reactor was shut down. Radioa((ivc sobstanccs cnrit alpharnys.r r etJ u r n . cxlfn Iluorc$ccnl qlrasar mry bc zinc is _ hearis gilnxy rlrari. o(lorlcss. wc insl.So|]rc conr )()D rLscs rhcllclhitc a(iclc irrscicntilic ol English afcl I lo spccily fcfar() sonrelhinll has!llreariy of nrenrioDed (Noricc th!1t Lrccrr lhnL lrc is uscdlhe:iccoud aDdall succccdin! linrcsa DoLLn r)lcnliorc(]. bctarays. Elcclric alwiys nradcof !hss. hrerlan indefirit€ article (d or/rr) v\'hcncvcr rc({rsmy i n d r e I o l l o w i g s c n t c n c c s N o t e v e r y b l a n k n e e d sa r a | l i c l r . modefntcly d(tivcnrct. 2.ounr. th€ earth an era. t<lsLelcss . lighl in the lalrofalory.in(l 8.

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I i v c . Thenwrilc thrcc ro fivc of rhcsewods o1r aD indcx cardor picccoi papcr.nrcrcr. honc and rcvi('w lhem from linle 10 lime.involving 2 di. i \ . . s . r .1 i ( l c (lli g L I c h. . r r r r r r L r r c t l ( . Study lhc lollowing lisl of prcfixcsand lhcn nratLhthc lcflns al the lcftbebw with lhcir nrcanings lhc rigbr.niDgllrl lhal showsyoLr il nsv)cialion: chronic-lasting a long tim€. l ( .and olhcrs1ha1 be usefulin your general vocabulary. . Nufiber Pfefixes. \ . . . a chronic illness Carrythc cirrdor papcrwilh you and usc spare monrcDts rcvicwlhc wor(ls. (lccilircr' decalilcr haviu! 6 nnglcs L singlc colof g . .1nrs krlogrirrl milligr.l12 Calculating lha1reclrr yolr know will ofien. lo Makc scntenccs eachword or lhink aboulln)w you woLrkl ir. l . al YoLr nol useall lhc nrL'anings will Iistcd. \ ' t l l r . stu(ly righL ol lfinnglei b .lilcr . IL r ( l j r . whcn yoLl wilh Usc ( .Write 1hencaning of cachword a[(1 a phrasc how lo Lrsc and will providca me. h r \ c r i . +ol . 1 . I 2 t 4 5 6 8 iii l0 100or rk 1000 d binary pcnrallo11 a . r ( ' r r h .1 r . ' i .lhoseuscdirr yoLrr Iicld ol sludy.rr. 1 . l0litcrs k..lnr j. havin! 4 rj(lcs lirc lh. \ .r cutr a cif(lc irr hnll' (1. l0(X).

(l illlunh P 'liil )lqnJ ul pJtnslJ(riq !tu) rr(x).lruol :Prrrtxr o '.{crLr )qt spro^.l ^ry Ispro.L.srprllll)rv sr luqM .{i)t :rrdN rLlrrr(ls sr lpqM . U r p J s n i 1 rs l r p r o r \ p .u PrPrq P t)tcM 'rlnnLls r)P(is rqt lo uorsoFlxi l.€ rqt Z)l(lord .rrj.r. O I prtPlnrlu|q 'nrur-'l(l ss.J Lrorls)nr) !r rur(l(l! xrLrop l1\lt sproM rpnl)Ur . r^Dq srossrtrord .1lr1Lr6.{xo prl|.{ ..roo(l r^pil iiot sn iql Jo .\ rLtl1'ou)pl tsju) sUoltsanb tt ol sjr^^\uc rs arll tn( pUu\.z rdll zJl(roulr(r.)r/jrid pul.rldttlpxr .?i)rlt ' I Jo snl(l (l ssrl u 'xlr slunbilnol Jrrl1l/!r)I itltul.rrllt rr^I lrrqurlllDt p Uo rrnler)(hLrlrLlI l ' s r : ) o r t u ) si ) r r q l .P finPurPPq Jo rrDl(irql lilct 'sDrllo iu!ru ul sr u^..ls z .)Uloo) q ssrulJlllt.pj|l DInqwoA /xrtroJ ut €tI SuIlPIn)lPl .{lr^priJ lo rrqn) .ll/r oU rqt )!!ru)r(lilI)rnb i.t..\ul slrililo r!lt Io i71s iLll uo spLrr(tip Iln(i luuoltutl^ujlt rr.]ru^.ril0M ul firl.rl|]Lrltu rr. .\..t/lsrrp irll Iunoruu.Jo rpqM .(l ^lllPnb .P 'p)^lo.c 'auo 1)lo^1l 0r4r u Ur iii.t6 rll()it li4.rlut Lrpqt rrlsM lPs r ltl|lintl )tt)r| IrJl sr uurr.\JdIl ptoM l. l o q r c .nrrlr/ Jrll pilrrtor(l q piijri(rqns .tror uo)MilN .rql rrr rilussu(l |ulrorP srrlruq rrPnl)s itor^.. tu utlutkt lfuDil l)tLln4 rpnlr r tq ur Ll) srnb p'||qt rqt r{)rsl)ro^{ /tr) .rr.rrl. 'r)rPM qsr.r/rt.lr()J laluM ' I I .1lol uoRr.r u ut ll0 Jo.q strP.rrrlt lxrtr.o pirns! u.l. z D r l D r r q l j o i i u l l r D r l ) .r.)qo rrll srrMrr^Lrotsr^ilrl rql . 'illll(llsl^.u ll Jo slqiilr^.) Uiijotplq sLrlL.)rd IIr^a sL.)ijuol plnor p(ru.ro.\ollor uprs rllt 6utuuuJS rzlli q uoluo(iol(l./e.r r rtqDlUrs q JtqllDou .r/.)rlr srqrrDrrr rsr(l ruqt rrMsrrf )qt 10 rrnrl Jllt .nh .t ol.li(l spurrod zto()t tg Jo itrsurp D scrlJ.q .u urrs irl.iorj rqI 5 .

whi.or horr nuch it pushclupwnrd. w h i l c o r h e r sw i l l r o 1 ? csLab' This bLroyarrcy concc|l wi:ls objc(lsllonl is callc(l Thc forccLhalnrnkes who alY) l)l.ycd ilr lhc Archinrcdcs lishcdby thc llrcat Crcek nrillhcnlaticiaD lhat whcrrhc got inrc his l)athlub w.dcpc'(lson rhc Thc buoyanr is of dcnsily lhe liquid. gravilaliorlal upwJ forrc is 62 polrrrds downwarrl and rhc buoyarrt on rhc rocki! 100DoLrnds lo Dccdlo cxerla lorccof 100Pounds lili thc fo.f a n g i n g f r o n r a p i c c e o f c o r k 1 ( )a l r o c e a n l i n c r . plrshcd HcdctcrnliDcd anyobiccl oul. cxamflc.k oul ofthc walcr. in inrnr$scd a liquidis L)noycd that placcd. y o u m a y h a v e p l a y c d w i l h o b j c c r ! i n r h c b n l l r L r r l rn o l i t i n g t h a l r l r c b a r o f s o n p s a n k 1 0 t h e b o l l o m o l L h c l v a l e r w h i l c l h c p l a n i c s o a f d i t h l k ) n r e do n t o p . W h y i s i t t h a l n a n y o b i c c l s .you woLrkl (of In rhe watcf you would havc ro cxcfl .whcn lhal ft)ckis subncrgcd walcr. A s a c h i l d .ll4 Calculating Reading Flo. llenct th( buoyanl 'i)r why il is easier n swinnrcr(r floal iir thc otcarr frcshi{ater.supl)osc l1)ckwciFhs100 DolndJ.l'alcf ol frcshwaierhas:r densilv 62 of hasa dcnsiry 64 toun(lsper cubiclirot. lirrccof 100 minlrs62 poLr|rds l8 lofccof a liquid.il disl)laccs thc PLrll I cubicf )r ol watcr.so icebergs thnt of u'nlcr' fillcd with aif so lha! lhcir dcnsilyis lessthan many spaces bv rhe by is Density conDuted divi(liDg wciShlol rhcliqLrid irt volur c salr\.ls(lis_ Archinlcdcs obscrvcd t).rr(l in has.h wcighs62 poundsThcrcfbrc.r1hrub. or ()1 by disltaccd lhc obicct lhit is Nnowrr up by a forcccqualto thc weiShl tbc flrJid a For as Archincdcs'principlc.lcr'w.||? whal Makes Obiects . w i U f l o a l .A body rrill lloal if iLsdcnsity lesslhan that ol lhe li(lui(l Icc is il in which it is inrrncncd.which explains .1volunc of I cubiclirot.whilc is sahwatcr lrcalerlhan lhnt ol fora_c ol per pourxls cubiclbol. will sink if ils dcrrsily grcalcr' i! lcs\ (lcn\clhnrl lvith lloil(m lhc surhccof fic occan Sleclthip\ irredcsigrrcd walcr.

l)r?. r ... r r l i \ | i " ..*. x)n lo Llrorxxl 0r s:{urs rqi rqnr r L ? Ir .. r .1.ir uurllss)l rl . .u ... .I lr)L roolJ rl .\ JIol .i""* IULrI rqr lo sruJlLror JtPijllsr^U1 iql q "q."t]y.rpn".rrrrtDoU rLUD.{l)^oJstp JlJtlrjat)s rllrur or r)ol(l tsrq )q. ! r .{sc..rlt-r.)l)q ur . i s J i t r. r \ l r \ . .\ J " .. .rril urql I upql .{tjptrlUrs n .|{ to ssptiE Lrr reoultrMrqn) lr up .. \ri 1 . .ts Jo ortpr rLIt sr . ".nlr^{qs)rt q rJlL'M llus P tur.Jlj.iur! v I n.0 (nI|... .6 Itn('rtsnol )uup.(tisrr.1 ijoru .rl -JoturllLruqr ' -_!I1. . u . r u .. t r .r r . r .ror s ..9 u . ' c .^.{l^DriJ . 1 t r \ r r i \ n t . . u"qr . .r)rsp.. 1 U . rr $ ..... ..r. . slrrqt o. .\{rrrP \)rpoqino lelll Jrrrr:rprsuor.. .rr. 1 .ru('Ju'orUrlol .tlrrs x. g t ..'. .. r ' .:.1"j stI Surlelnrlpl '|rl"iJ . .1::lP: p JLIIor rJlrElsqns to . . u.{lr^prH ). . r.u..{rr^prBrUr)rds ssJl spLIuosr)(l tpJ e . 1 ' 1 1 : i . sl .r: Ar^urii rrJrri(ls )rtl to rsnDrrq . r r l T ) .J . ' i' . I1 J | r .rH i.r ... . t . ' M .lJursu..rrtu^t trur. r 1 . r . u n . . r r | J n . ) r l t l t . \ r ' ."rr. .rrn. ..r. ) r r' ' f t ' \ r . . i .. ."f '..{trsurpiqr " "i"ll. r . . .1. .8 r.) J^pq llrM Jr(UrrJql Lru t)uc uos. 1..\.r . i.l(xl )r(ln)rrll lllM tl sl)uno(t ueql rroru sq .. 1 s \ r .. r l r L .Jr .lJ.i*. t 1I.r.r. ."'"1. . "'n ."..\llnJrrcrri-pssp(isnor^rr(lJLIrJ.llrt \rll . ']i .rp slr tL)L{l Morrl )M .. .' ))lri:llil:lrll'll' .r)l!^^ ur sluoLl:l.. .. r r ) t . . n \ r \ I . ' u r . ".L . lprl^^)rnrlfLrr. . j . t I \ \ . . r \ i n \ r t. . r r t r r r r . .r.01 rr^rt) f .ql . . t . y.q1 . t r)r luDs lplll rlp. s . \ r 1 t t .u.. . . . l .ruorinlruu3iwirr"17 . ..r)L{ntq ItrM (trLts E tuou V ]0]-11- ro.)qr^!q ts U !ip rlrqrrv . i . " .J'''|cL . .'ll":'i.)rumrxord{rp )rr)Jds ro . . ' . t r 1 1 .r"r"nn 1nq. .r t rs \\.u ' -sl .L r P r r r l r ? l u r q t c)tiur 5 i u). rlrr \r torqM'0 r .u ' llrls . tlrqs:u . Irir r.ilrp(t ! lV .).7 y9 y1 . .q Io r!r)r.{. .)ltrq leou llrMiiiir uv z rilcs\ud rqt ut l)Jturs t{)tl rl (l [{]pq iqt L . r t p .l.\r.r)ru..st lt Jrr(rt lLrll\onq l.rrtLr^r 1I\u)l) ::-..

b cllccl. cxParrd cxpcrincnls. All lhc i/trrlxr?l/dr?s al(rniccxpbsional lliroshirlla. denicd is l2. Thc co. Ncwlou's lilr ccnlllrics civilizali(n scvcral b clirproved a.k1?r' 2.{uc$d cvall(xa(iorr colldc|rsallon.citclc lhc lc(lcr of lhc arrswerth.?y'red snill c. ruorcbook yoll lakc nolcs. Succcss dll.. rcvcbc a.rlh( lilill ol thc lJ. t) dividcdt)y toLrr by n. ren{cfature !(.!le lionl b.l/a. Aflcl Lbc leclllrc ad(l () yoLrrllolcs dcl.rc. rcleasc(l in a. nlulliplicd li)ur ol ar)(l d/iLlP. Dumcrotrs was I l.rs a Il is ahvays goodidca1orcadovcr yolrrnolcsrs s(x'r1 pos\iblc l(x) 1a1l\ ldn thatlhc in\trlrclor ffequc|llyconl)lain lakingInLcs lcclure. nr.tllc Philosophy scicncc Wcslc r discovcrics 6. causcs is of 9. cnck)scd (vcn 5. nol Possiblc a.li.lllnrlivc L)c Irc analysis Ifccisc. ar cvcnr (t) a r(ason c.Irr{{iv.llls lhal 'fc as . ol 10. inlllrencc(l lo InLIsl .( r-Iiial ir. b $irink a.lhc ptrl)ils your cyct idrtllt-r. obitcl will continuc nn)velrrfilcd rro lorccsuclri! lri'ri(nr L A nn)ving a.136 Calculating LISTENING SKILLS vocabulary in Cofircxt. ln brighllight.rnlivc in cithcra land or \en drv/. nol desirablc Note-Taking lollo\'virril a . A scicntili( 11. A ln)gor lLrnlc b nrrroulldings a.lrc nol krr(nln b clfcds a. Absol]i!r pftxJl of li(nrc concep(s undttaifiahk b. 7.1'. Thc price ol gisolinc \\at qtktdrtt\ltd. airl thcrc wcrc l('irrsil would go highcr. Thc noukeyswcrc.flcf b achievcd a.lL bcsl nt'lchcs Lhc ' word as il is us((lill eachol thcic sc lcncc\' o{ mcaning lhc ilalitizcd Jlilrhl lhc:jl)acc l{) wasd &rrdrin thc dccision carrcel 1 Thc wea(hcr tr. SlLrdcnts llr lcnvcsl)acc\ ]()ur lrp ll yolr arc havirg troublekeeping wilh lhc inslruclor./. as lollg as D ln orllcrtDal loil 4.ir.

\p.()(k)l(i il.ls()l rroriq o.tlt)).liAUl spilu.no1. r l ' r pr r ^ ( ) p r . r r ) .Ipsl suile Jo unlo^ JLIIlplll piri^oJslpsJllDqf ' 9 'prleitl urq^\ pUp(lxisisut UtDlri]:).sciJ Jo r[rnlo^ rq] lou . l J q t o t t u r l r o ( i u r rs r t D r l l p r o ^ { r p r l t r u D l u n LrPicrll noI LriLlM lxlv . ( s f u n o s t r . J u t p o l s u o n s r n b r Irv lsprl rno.Jo i)jnl!.r(s arout rl|nbi.^. rrnDJl rqt ol u.q. r o l I s D r i l ! . ol Il ' z . ) t o ] t D { q l r s s t s J s u 3 . l q t .] ' I I 'funore r1\or ol rjr. r t | D II|s tat 3u!lPInrlP:) .)s.lr(ku)l Jo c urunD i)lrlp ol rrrM st\l)tsilldluqr illur)rr lrrlllrlorrsuM]l € I nufll{ r(! r ltu. { o l r ) I ] o ) o s t v p l r u r n o . l l 'z I 'rroA 0lrq ol srn)rrrno. { U e' .o )t!tnlo^ ll s1 . { t .\ suiJ Mul tslLJ .L I 'llp urrql uirs a^.oJpuno^v^q pil)^o)srp su.siltlJaloru illlJo ^nrrlrr )qt sl rt ) o€zz ru tpllt pi)Kxk)rdur^lr)l pn).{ plrlr J(lol lxru rLIl ot 0o si^oru ssplr iql o j ) r l p u P l s r r p u n t . r Mt . { s p u o ( x s ! t i L r u o r ) ) r t i)L F L t r p r I l r r o s l r p ) r u l r I a L I M n ) l r n r l \ | r . L r p r p r o .'rdruJt v I '{xrz ol pDtll)il sr t tuql . { r s n o UJqt . { ! ^ . t l ) U u .lu tuqt p)^or{tsturutl.{rsn r. \r q t ) .{lUo 's 'i.l')^pLli(l sc3ruo uiis a^.siltuLI) 'rrnturJdulil 1lrol l)itllir .{ L .lllSSilrl ot Jql luLl()lt.I t4t qulpuDtstapun ' J s r J l a x rl x r u r q l r t ) l ( l L t r ( ) r t s r l o l r r n o . trssJl(l ' J r r r l r . u ) l r .'ot)l atnlosqu )rntL. {r r q l t u r r t t .rnDrl)ql r rrooDrurolur ol n^Ur}uo)r )slp}ro (J) rlul ({) )rll sr srlr:rlu)rPrs i'rllM('ll({ rLIr.] s. r r i d ( u rL l l s ) i j r r p r l .s)lltulJ(huil laMol ly O I 'sJln)iloru li)qrt|n(r iluus Jql lult()r s)spllllc Jo s)tunlo^lcnl)J Jo 'srsi)rllo(lAq luln)alorlt rqt sp ol piJlal st . r M ' f u r o D r rs t rs s r n n _ n t o l r L r p ) o t r p o u ) r n D . { U r q s J . ] oo l ^ u l l ) q .rr(ixr. srrP5 I{)ror^Dqr8 rtqlr)Iltur]t )qL. { l t p ) l .loLI)prIiqtrq^{ rtD)tp\tt arnpa. u o l r n o i i j l r r q t . u o q d L l l .^ poonsr :) o€lz.orppilo^v ' I 'iirlqtoLr )iullqs ot lll^r 'L sDil uJo ittlnlo^ i(lt') o€lZ. unlo^ pllr .4..t s)ln)il{)!Lt.ls't 'ro1 sp srpLDlD-L ' i t t o n u o ( l ( l o r r D) ^ p r t n o .

c(airr nrlnllJcrs Why do yoLr myslerk)us? llrckY trnluckY? ol lhal is. tcmrcral re.ll8 Calculating DISCUSSION POINTS a arr nced\to calc(rlale? a\trononlcr? wha! are somethingslhal a biologisl a chenrisl?. Thc ancic|1Hindus why was lhat concellso inrln)nanl? by lhc Afabs. is |rclcraL)lc wrilc thcrl irrfarnllcllornr. (o runthcnralics Dc Lrcliev((l 5. What colrldyou mcasure calcuLlLc yonr (lassroonr? wciShl.) wc th( lhnLwe r. rbal is. stNillni\. wcrc (onsi(lercd lhink. which wns lalcr adoftcd 4. Why do you (hink n)nrcancienll)coplc n)agical. drl ddr.urcmcnls sLrch hu ridily. I WellA lbert.?/ilft Thc to pditlt.rse (lccimalsyncm bccalrsc L Somepcoplc havc suggene(l as hrd 1hesnrnc trrrberol limlrs an octoltrsor wc Suppose havetcn fingcrs. do \ldb? Whar kird of nulrbcrinr svslenr vou (hink wc nriSht a thrcc-ioed havc? Lhc ol devebl)c{l conccpt rcro. did vouqet it yet (!( WRITING SKILLS to it whcncvcryolrhavca lin olilenrs.f is unacccl)t.rL)lc samcscnlcocemay t)c rryrillc'r . siTcand lhings as lo lincar nlea:. wi!h all thc ilcms in lhc samcli)nnat For cxanlplc.tltc senlcnccEll'.Physicist?Scologisl? (Thinkbcvond irl of 2. volumc.

{) uosrid puo)as1(r.euo p JIId .'tuerldrlr uB J o l L l S l i M i \ l i l l l n J l e J ( ) 1.pr^lossrp se.Dle^i qll^r raulptuor lJpnb.l! sdits llr-'rtns rleW prlldltlnrrr .J)!oA r 0)9 pue a^lssedpup aqt pJrqlpue'puorts'tsJ!l :stsuetsJXIu lt tsneJeq:jursntLloJ qdoliJ0J0d Irrcsli)Cl sr oql 'qri)^ illl Jo u|loJ r^r]eridufl .s.\oqrrlloN .{ruslntsr ro.J'tp^r qll^{ reu!€luor upnb"euo p pellg J .rl ?) uosrad ro tsJli iq) LrlrllrM ol 3uro3 oJeno.{Fp|rurs .{p^4 llrr.{upur .eruPp pue ?ru!/t{s.{Juolslsuor ILrcs oq plnoqs eJ'ql qder3erpd.3ullulEd sa{I ua g .relpn eqlulllesJo dnt p JIeq e^losslpuaql .rJrltoorus :srurluJs IeuDrropqt upql peal ol ralspJpup sr sJldurExrrs:rll Jo qrer ^.l iqt '(!roos prre'ullot'ilqt'tl 'rilr'ay')uoslrd pllrll ro.rqJrprr'lql 6€I SurPInJIPtr .{Jr epi)ap utql .rllsllollgred.relpr\ eqt u! lles Jo dnr p JIBqe^lossrpuaql .\oq rJlloN . ^toq Jo rldrupxo SulMolloJ lo loo.i{ltr ltrxunparrlls spn lles EqI .lulEd ol sJrlll urlJg 'e)uep ol puE /lulr!\s 01 lulPd ol sarlll ueJJg .{r^lii ol rnplo lrJliolol(rq) ur r.sltrl terll asn pup 'lsed Jqt rplJao .lnoqSnolql .ssiJojd uJdrlsqJuJ It lnoqerUlrrdsog 'ilLDa olloJrLIlJo ruo lo. suolt)rrlpiju!^13 qdBlSDroriatFM r? suolpallo atow Duuyil . M o H I 'uloJ It asn IJlleJpd !l(luilurud ino.())ir'prrnsp u rq ot spiiu tpLIM Jle)lpul t0L0.ro'AJltrlslsLlo) UJLIM til rtrLll sJuroJeqLldgr8grDd irru)l) q)nu .uolJd pup islrJl tlPlrdoJddelsol! sl Jsurl rjntnJ ro 'tuasDJd Jl ur .sa^Iosslp l! Ilxun lles eq1 rlls .8uuru!^is .SuDuEp pup .sl ro'pil).ruroJIrllprpd Sursn.(ro.lrrsJlJ ..itlr^^ ol Jo.

How lo calculatewhat i! would cost you to drivc lrom Ncw York 1o san Francisco. 4. the percentof your weekly expenscs lhal gocstoward 5. How to calculare speed Paristo Tokyo. How to calculatcthc hcight of a lrcc.How to calculate recreation. (milcs or kibmctcrs pcr hour) of a flighl frcm lhe l.140 Calcularing 2. . How ro calcula(e dillcrenccbetwccnthc amount of time you spcnd the studyingand thc amount of time yolr spcndrir'arching lelcvisionin a week. 6.

rrL{ro ro 3ulrpLts iq 1nq uosrrd ouo Iq poLtslldluoJrp )rp srur^o)srp lsow e ]ou 'r8prt^^out rrJrrurr)s uorsupdxrprdprIlSu!sprrlrt rqr or 3u!peil Jo 'uollp8ltsr^u ! Jo sqtEd^\)u srs)88ns.Mle Su^\Slrll suipl rlrLll tulls)luntulllo) 1OO puP si)l.\'rollotiLlt Eutpta\ UoLIS 'Suruodr rlunrrp'ror8rllrlur uoclnrurpuJdrp st uolteJrdoor.lo ruiLUdol)^rp:)qf E)uIuY puP ooorna Lrlsrsllurtrsrrlllo ^L'eLn puE 'lllu.)rP uo uetu E lnd rPql Drlbrd rql pup rrrndulor rqr. l.j ot sqt8url 1err3ot rlrrM srslr!)LlrlP tr 'sr8v ilpp!t rL| nt pFo/\^)qr tl()| Irtl)os r )rlt sBurpuU lt prLl'srprroBEqlid srirr.rodot srJlltoSulll^ul'slPurnotur spoqlJrclPlu)nr!JdxJ rliql rrod nsILr.rrP srsurtqrr^ lurrrJirp.)rlr rpql )5!s\frliirr.rc o:)ulrg'Illog slrrN UIJrsulE u:)qtv Jo lro^{ rqt uo prsEq sE^\ 'rtclu'Pxr roJ 'iSrrur rlurolP Jo nrilurJotr^tp qret uo Bo!pllnqsrrurrersJrqrl^\ uo!rPLuroJulJo rSuEqrxr rqJ )j.) il rl Illprr x)u plp r)rrrlJs uJrpour'rr^i^\oH tuJruLrorl^u:) ll plrp sJ^l)sul)ql 'irolslrl lnollSnorql lnoqe srlri^o)slp Iuurrr )pu(u r^Prl siiulrq uL.::.(xlrr prix )rrtou l)(re : -_i.Lunq NOI.lrlrp ]rJrlurps rpilB Jo srtdlllexr rr(tro :.to tdlr slql suoJJr uoolr rql llnot rir^4 tpql sltrrurr^.rslsrldo)cl lltun a!ttq pur.)lJs'iPpot srur^o)srprrrqr IeIUo:) rlr(ll errp pue s:lulpul.|r^(Dsrp Ll)pg srlnsrr )ql r^oldstp ro {lii^ ot stroullridxi urro.MouI'slrpt)!rELu)LFPttlJo rr]r)s r'JJAJTD luJlJUP aUOp Ol StrP.L)n(IOU-LNI a41 artt lo u161tg 3ullrodeu 91 ratdeqr .ro/\s.tfl 'tsro :]qt Jo strrr^.rr^oJs!p slro!tu^risqo lt 3u!uodiJ prl.

_v halc bccD Iikc org.fic(ls1)r( ics To s|c.rr ()l nfc u]r of l)o(lics (()rrlt)o\c(l slii (clls. (al.br.rr(nc lhan 2100.an(lsprcad throLrqhoul oce. Gra(lLrally.rrirnalsy'ravc dcvclopc(1. irl singlc cells becanrr altached oncanolhcr.rrr(l or).lcsarr(i li'rnnlrs.. cach(el1 to nnd becanrc s|(.nls !rxl dninLrl\(l vi(lc(linlo Lhalnra(lcnranya(lv.n i lhc sr. life archacologills sludyfossils. rcprodrlcc(l ilscll.c(ly horv. (i.tcd.r1(.(uloLr! nxtccrlc\ happcDcd cor:bincin lhc occan ilr cl. Thc Hri]dLral nriitraLion Ijlc l|1)rlr occiln thc lnn(lrvas Lhc ro anolhef nraiofrrrp ol evcntu. Forsils rhc rcnr. inrclligcrrcc lci(l auiural(and 1)r'ogfcs\cit. on Thc cafly cellsLcpnxlLrrcd simplyby liivirliDg lrvo. or.in ccll\.alrrs. llrc ()ldcn thoughscientins can Ihnl thc carth rocksthat showany lraccol lilc arc lcsslhaD.ins grclv aDddcvcli)t)c(i.ns.llypl.inlizc(l i rtil{crrnl in lirnction.n(csl)ossll)lc.r long Limc.t billion yrars had passed 1heearthwhen lifc origir.cg.y 1olonDa nrinurc ro of ofgnninrr (rfiginal Al1life hasp()bablye\. thc wcre nor all nlike.sincc thc ol{l(st on formsof lifc wcrc all sealifc. m.0(X) \t)crics {)l or rypcs. Alier .nls rn(l 1. f(sporr(lcd sonrcthing lhc b. rrg ro lhc rlcvclol)rncrrl hLrnriln ol btirrgs. Dr. wny.rlc. to ils sLrrrolrndings. nrLlsclc so cclls.zbilll(Dvcars old.Thercfofc.td lrornrhal single ccll. scnscs sjghl.ol\. alx)Lrl 2.'lixlay.fhisoirc'ccll(d .rrisnr !(\v.bloo(1 (clls.sorrc wcrc betLcr Prolrably lhosefifsl1i1ly organisnrs nbleLo oblainf(xri or adaptlo coldcr*.Lilatc is 4.nrrnlli!ing (hingsarc Ir1. \/z V . ll)c righl kirr(loJ Wc do rrot krrow(r.rins irc ptantsand animals k)ng ago rhar havc bccn t)rcscrvcd Lhe or imprirls of of in Al ea h's crust.142 Reporting Ho$' Lik Begah To discovcr hor'v bcgan.which m.000 .200.. tx)ssil)jlirjcs nn(l i|r(rca\cri (l(vflot)ing li)r r)cwirr(l v.1 (l hcariINinrl)()vc(l lhc ol in br. l-hcn(rngcr c(lls survilcdirl(l lhcir chir aclefislics rrrlc passcd to thc ncxt gencrili()n.6 billion y(rfs ol(1.cradudllyorgdnismsbccinrcnroreindrnorcconr|lcx.r(lc ol n conrl)inatioli (clls. Irinallv.cl(rinoft(xlay.The snnpl€sl formsof life appcar 1he]owest oldesr in or rocks.bLrtin sonrcmir.icr ol pl.]ny sci(ntists bclicv(liJcl.

NO NY prssed ara^r :uti)J ir^tssDd'tsunDdaFuS ( uoll)e rqr lo rrlru(lFi( rql uelll llrPuodrul.Y qAIgldWOf.1aa\t . u04t afiw atbpoJ 00a {a lo NOIIf.llqpqord pup'Mou lll.to{tr}qJ gr{rr rsvd Nlr^r9 y s{oJ3q q:t#t'ldwol Noulv Nv pe^lo^e seq :asuattrr{)rd tlasau 'rtoldruo)u1 sl Lroltrp (ilur^lo^r osle slql) llns sr.loql.l6uls tb\ aLdl pe^p^aMDqotd stq |Ju ttv pa.dr$lurrrs rrr prsn . :2surl Parad tspd p4Dut6uo ur4tt ttyDaaU o passtd elt pttt stral uonttqS Z tnottDt..tar'^:|suatFDdnldluls ( uortrp up Lrpql.nor|) pt)irdsputl full p npordat squryunortns al papuads'[^\t16 alD ttuttlito ptlti )t1oi\J s! NOrrfv aaraldwof v '.J.ssed pe|].M crpld Sullpt sl 'cLult polDd l?r)^o rrpld LI'IBT teqt uonJsup sl slllt) spq Io 'ptdolzirp aAtLl slttunuv saDads 0aa'002't pup stuDld eaDrds 00.Lu 3uo1c rreld or)iL'tr^Erl soortrprsJlll) 'sut.(0lrrnb:){ lsotu aql sr tsuJl lsed Jldlursrql suorDelsEd!(xlrr ol prsn rrE $surt turr:tlO IIIOd:IIT {}t SulrodaU OI HSI'I)N:I DNISN .JII 3t tpqt ' ' ' 'll pulquo .puodsrr 'MrrB 'rtp :)sw tsDd )tLlwts (prlrldllror rrp plrp ote.roru sl rrclDs rql rsnDJJqpasnsl truqj r^rssDd Jril) ualrrtuzq lxdu t4 at o pAsSvLl 9lltllXpltltq )lt4l .9ul]u.Lad pedole^ep e^Pq :asuai Uts d (trnlnJ iqt olul cnu|uor.lXtrr a.rrLIlEr Lolllprlo) e sttodarr)u)llrJs slrll) [u]t [tq]jq d 4nD tP tou tM sutstutJqto lsltl)5041 peerds 'pernpojdrr 'p.

'***'v t'l". i. '!. r h e u n i v e r s e h a ) b e e ne x p d n o ' n F r\ n c c i r < r n e p r i u n . recentrv slill nor usuallY I I I n..l tu rckftnce Haw'|*'/' 't'ihn!' i'1'cicktitk ac do nat r Jrcq"lntl ot dis"t\std . wc srurn'\' rh( ii.ad u\u.'es .. A^ei.xJ.i"'t"a t"unched riht iiJifJ"'""'flliSl'"1'""'""' iRili*iH*f :3i?lJii"ll whil' in the Galapagos' Darwin {was workinS} on his lheorv ' ' ' l f u t r 5 b i l l i u n) e J t sJ ' .id(| n(* di"r'veri<t I l I A B E F O R E G I V E NT I M E A R E P O R T I N G N A C T I O NC O M P L E T E D T ( P A S TP E R F E C T E N S E ) ' rarrhed" rhe bamh lnad elph'dc'l Bv lh€ I m.d (.. n. y"..iiliii."di tProPosco l I h i \ r h e o N o r c \ o r u r r " nn ' d .] llj orren t.-"r'*.. He/She I I I I f I It""I often arleady \el om .".v aJtme andhequen'v6.fc I.? rr...'. l nrm' carriagewhcn the idea came ro Darwin {had been riding} in his fotl.)dre ab*.".'::.Mittd NOTESr\her tepotfto ftheub?r th.. ' tttead) .:::lX:":i":.llv..ii. no... " i. 1.:.t44 RePortrng SentehcePatterns (SIMPI-E PAS'TTENSE) REPORTINGA COMPLETED ACTION l o u b l i s h e dI Da*'' l."".:r.' ' A OR RECENT CTTON A REPORTING N UNCOMPLETED TENSE) P (PRESENT ERFECT I Bi('loFFr\I l'"" n". Menelude. .:.

'ollpsreri Lrorltrru I lnoqL'(rprdd'r) S

L'PIUlsrll rLIt 'Pl1) iPri s

uor rq z irc lPql s)jroroo (pUrt) l'l,Lls la utnle )4J \ltuM)

\ t r \ \ ' r l I { L r .i lq l

i

aryw

ur^{rPc stlrEql I 'uontrL' i.lr.r,1r.l arF tr.lqns

J q l J l J I r J J r . / S ll l : u o l l J c J ! 1 1 J r r J o r . rl d) l q n s J q l . l l J n r , r , s l r l l l r l l l J s v s i s r l l l u J r c d r ul qrJ^ )ql J0 JsLrJl lsed tl(llllls )LIr Jo (lol )^lssP(l ro J^llJc iLll lrqll) llastll 'L()rr)p prrrl(kr o) p s.qrr)sirp sJrlrrllrrs isiq r.lo Lpua 2s zI lsfld a4uls 24! 6ulsn

a r u o j J ^ r t J Pr o i ^ l s s r ? d I I L l l l ! s l q

luqM u apisnsl )srrDl 'tsPd ul rltrll)gptds rqr
r-) rrotiq srn))o tpllt oolt)e uu suodi).llul0 rJlrJlui)s l] lo riqtullu i)ql illlM

)qr r^0ru.roi^lssu(l ul 1lsl q zur.()l sl lpllM u zprsn osrrir
'uo!l)u Jlil(ruo)Lrl Lr?suo(lo]tr-'Llt J)uiturs Lrlo iiqutlrr )qt itli^ z ro iuUot J^lssu(l i^rtrp )L|] ul rl rl q t pisn sr )sul)rreqM rl
L ( ) l t ) c | i l ) l ( l l l r o ) 0 s l r o o i r l u q l r l t l ) l l l i s e Jo riqllIlu .)ql i]!rM

I

'yNc D llr) lo siln))lolu Mr) o rl)1,{,r )liJols su rlrl rlllibq scq-Ipoq llPtunrl p io ',{slpp 'ruu LtP'orrldlo| !-ilutlll tor^rl iJr^a (9) slsolrrtr u l)rllc) ssi)ord ol trr ,{q o^^lLuroJ JlDq iirrlrr^rp DnPor(i.rslli) (/) u uJsllrr rrrlliirlPp Iurrru.Pr 'rtnJrl')u' rql oorlPrLuolrr! sl )qr Nulfurur-uolcuroJul sr vNd leqr pu'r rl'lrJlorL'nLrtrols urrq pPLI pueuoslPM $llrDf ,{q prlPlrtlurol vNc IPL PrPs,{)ql(9) Iruf sr)Lr!.u trro.ql e '{(arl ia (E) pr)PrrJlrnll r|Drlolu vNc )qr lo rrnl)nrrsrql iJlllpiuiJrr sru).{roi (t) (plre rl)lrnL()qu)vNx puE (prrP rqr to rrnrDLr p)lpnrsslstiiototq rql ({) srrrlrnu rrrltrnuoqlixo)p) NnotuP.t]pl DsurDlLIor vNc iprr! rlrt:)nLrJo .lJltral pJlleJ sDldol,{j lorluol rLIl sl l!tl1 sn)pno e qlr,]^',L ,{lqE)returr r)rrillrl P Jo pis{xhuorrru sllrl (z) rrnlrnrls trl .IDIILUIS DrLltsqns prr] ol oPLunLl slPtullrP sluPlo .rLrsll)r Jsftll req) pLIP'sllJr lo.pPLu:)rn'snurJq (uorlsllrsrupSrc iql rrurDsJ()slr4 SuIzPruP Jo .uo srlI (l ) lirt^ P rPqr rldtnrs ]',13 !lHl )
'JSI]I:)XJ

pul' LldPIilDiDd pcrd 'srsrrJ lsDdEut[lltuapl rqt rr0 3or^'\oll(I .lildluor Lr)10 glI Suruodru

r46

Reporting 4. About 165million ycarsago,gianldrnosaurs on thc carlh. 5. About 4.6 biuion yearsago, lhc earrh 6. The first living o?anisms ha1f. 7. Thc fossils ofNeandc(hal]nan
b c l w e e n 1 95 1 a n d 1 9 6 0 . 8 . A b o u t l 8 m i l l i o u y e a . s a g o . v i o l c n l c a h q u a k c sa l o n g C . t i f o r n i a ' s S i (livc)

(tu m).
1 r ( j r ' d u . c ) l \ , l \ i ! l i n Si n

(discover) Irrq in

(rotale) rrorlhwestcm Lhc Mojavc
D€5crL bout 25" clockrlrse. a

The PresentPerfectTense
To describe incompletcor rc(cn!ly (omplctedaction,thc prcscnrpcrlcctlclrsc ar pcrfcct tc,Dse is used,The fornulas for forming Drcscr'rt arc:

= has ot hate + past participle

= hds or have + ,een + past participle

Using the PtesehtPerfe.t IsrJe, Eacho{ihesc scntcnccs dcscrilres irrcornplctc aD or recendycomplclcdaction,Insc( cithcr dtc passivc aclivc form of lhe prcscnt of pcrfecrtenseof thc vcrb or verb phraseiD parcnrhescs. I. Ait l'ol]i:rion ha4 leeo/r/'3 (trccomc)a major probtcm irr

z. vany studies

/taue leelt natle

(makc)ro dcrermine thc

cilccls of smogon the 1ungs. l. Morc thaD a hundred clcmenrs (slillnot find) for dre conrmon cold 5. A salellilcof fic planet Plulo

'U"Inr.)u1l rx,.,rrrl.rrrt\ \ r i r i \ r i , . n l t q t r l o r d ! l no l

stLr)rLrr.dxJ rrLIto (Lru(trrd) srrqp pnPrnrrsedsrno'l.t1l ,trrqt.ruls sSurql stsrlLrilrs iiur^n rrqto ruo{,.(llrocurcr siJLql 8r ^n rPqt (.terlsuo
,llr.p)

llrrlulr.dxr rql

rro ro tr?r(' i)qt ut (pUU)

rel pllqt iql Jo tsuui^or jrded Jql s,93roN rl'l puoDs .rlt Jo D^o:)

Lllolr iLIt uo pup r?l lrido rqt Lrlle.rr rql uo siJ.3r (,{Pl) rr'l\) iql ,{qll)P.rirc)

srlu'(Iu):)p) prlqlrqt plrP'qtol)qlr^\ (ri^o)) pLroJis 'uJdo (o Brl) iql

rLItuitlM rrdP({qll^^ (D^or)

r!l tsrLJ
rH lioirll slLIt ol tlprrrs!p
r p i l l o ) s r ) L t u l cl s l t u : ) l ) sL l p l l ! t l

nll vcl,),)rqlur tfllru (,r)Lrl(l)
l L l r L U u a d x[ r p ( L r u 0 t r J ( i ) J

;)ql 899t ul LDqj ^i^tuH LuPrllr^{ LrolMrN :rop(l stsllllrl:)s teo.lij iql ilulpnl) plr!

,{q LrortDriLriij snoruDtrrodr J0 ircntlt sllll lurlu pi^uJrp lr()4 sDJsurpUL) pnrrl ruo{ llsnorLtctuo(ls(itBtiutii) srlp(rs siJorl ()^rJliq) puu reqt
NOrrvugN39 snogNYINods 'rldurilurudtol^,\ollot DL0 srsaqturred Lll trl sqja.^JLoJo isurl lsed t)rllo) iLF ]lrsul .2srrJ Itbd lra o) a41 6ulsoo4J lasual qulsootlJ

-nr il&)rd ,{uuru

(pliq)

'rusrue o rJLIlo iuP Lrcrll
silurql ilor^q olll (,(ol]s;)p)

snrr.xluErrnH ' 6

tu.^r itrl'lniirr

(rJs)

r rr0:) s,Ir PH 'Lroourql uo {rl orr
s]slllrJrJs',srP),(lLreur toc -/

srrr)rtt (^\orrl)
ollrr (o3 tsnl)

.trqro
: ) ] I I I J I E S P ! T U . L I P TI J q ] O U Y ' 9 J U

/tI

Sutuodru

148 Repo4ing Forming Se tences Thnt Repon. f o r n r i r s e n l c D f cr c | o r t i n { c a f l l o l t h c l t l ( ) ! \ 1 | , r
I

b i r t h o f l h c l i r s t r e n - L u l j eb n l J f . / L D l t ; r i r d I

I978

the fu.ul l"X lul,z I'al'//

2. dcvrbpmenrof trincit)lrs gcorDc(rvr FLrrtid I At(:.ndrir. E{vpL / ot 100 u (l L classjJicationplnnl\ r (l .ninrits I C.rotU\t_tnnnc|\ I S r | c i l ( . r r / oI l7)5
r e ( c i p l o l L h c N o b c l P r j z e l o f ( l i s . o v c r vo l | l u L o n j ) . n i t Maric Curic / ljr.rlr.c r l9l1 5 . invcnlion of frintinlt rvirh rov.blr lf|( I pi-\trcnS / Chin.r / erevcntD culury c 6 c o n l r o l l e d n l | c l e i l rf i \ s i o n o l U r . I i U n r r E I r l c o t ] ( , r i I I l . l f / 1 9 . 1 : 7 . l i r s t I a n d i n l to n t h c r ( n r n / A n ] t f i . a r r I , ( ) i c r t A l ) o o r t 9 6 ( . ) 6 . ( l i s r o v c r yo l ( i r c u l . r i o n o l b l o ( x l / $ / i l l i . | l r t r J n . ( ) , , L n g l . r ( t , 1 6 } j 9 . l l r s ls p r c cJ l i g h t / Y u t i ( l n c i f i r ) I S ( ^ c l U I i o ] l I l 9 6 l 0 . d c v c l o l ) r n c n t l l ) o l i o v . c . i r r c , . J o r r . rS . r l l i , A n r ( r j c n / t r 5 4 o s l . i r ) v c n t i o no J j r l c a n ( 1 c s ( ( r l).tr n r t ) 1 t - h o r , r ! t i l i s o n / r \ n r ! r i c i , 1 8 7 9

",a,i

kaa a thqk4l

,4 /g7S

READING SKILLS VocabularyBuilding l|lCrc.rsing vocaLr docs lrnvrLolrr,t((oIrt)li\hc(t \i|lir)it,]l youl i;ry rror whllr ,r ricsk with fntrcfs, boolis,.1nd tJ)oLrcnn) r .nrl of strrrL n()t(,tr,rl)rl ol l)cnfll\.

l i s t i n gl b u f o r l i v e n c w r \ o r l s , l o r ( a t . k c : r ( t ! d I t . g c o l t i ! c o r L r n n r i [ t | t $ ],(ju havc whilc vy.iting ill i lirrc r h c l ) i r r l ( o r i d r , ) l l i . c , r j ( t i r l N, r t ) L r so r c ! f I , w r i r j n g l o r l c l ( , v i so n . o n l l c r ( j n 1 \ r o r . ( 1 . t r r r q u c l t \ t r o n n L L r t ) . t r ( r i , ) ( lw i t , c \ n m r c l ) ( ) d U c r i v c1 h . 1 Io I c $ , c c k l v s c s s i o | r ! i t t r , r l o r ! t i \ r . 'li) s l l r d yl h c w o r d \ , l i r s t r c . d c n . h ( ) | r r n d i l s | r c . r I i | 1 ! . ( C h f r k w j t h r i l j d i o r r r r f o r a n a r i v c s p c . k c r i f y o . l r L r n c c t u i | . b o u r p r ( ) ! L | r r i . l j o n . ) T h ( . | . r ] r . i l ( cJ t ! c \ c n t r D c c rw i l h t h c w o f ( 1o r i n v c n l i n i r l r . r : t i n . f l , c o r l V c r \ . r L i io n! v t r i r h v o u ! \ 1 ) rl { l n u s c t h e \ , ! o f d .T h i s t c c h n i r l L r lc ' i l li ] r . r c n s cn o r o n l f v o L l | ! o r , r t r L ] n r ] , 1 ) u.r t s or r ) L r l 1 'lucDcybypfovidirgyouNithanopp(ntLrnilyrot)ri(lrc..\trerkjrr!,rvc|whcrr y o u h a v c n o o l r c t o t a l k w i l h . C o n \ i d e rl h c r \ ' , r v u n v t ) c o t ) l r( c \ e n n , r l i Y c l ) c . k e r \ t ) n s l f r e p . r c l h c m s c h , e s i ) r . j o b i n l c r v i c \ \ ,o r , I r n r ! u n r e n l \ \ . i t t ri r c . r h c r o r t r o s \t , ) l h i n k i n g l h f t ) u g h r v h . l t h c y l ) l . n l o \ . y . W h c n t h c l i n r c t ( ) rl h e c o v c r s . r l o n . o i r r c s , t h c y . f c a b l c t ( r c x l ) f e s sl h c n r s e l v e s n ! c r f f r c r i l c t y l ) ( r n L r s c h c t t r . v c i l l r c n ( t ) . n t f o r n r u l a l c dl h r w o r d s i n l h e i f I n i r ( 1 .A s . r ) o n n . t i l c \ l l c , 1 k r r .v o u w i l l l ) c n f i i l j i o | r this habitof"fraclice ralking" imnlcaslrribty. n orhef wordr. r.tk ro t l )r)LLr\cItB r trcsure() do il in Englisht)

l o ll u i L u n r l s o l .dxJs. u! [Jtltl.l ol JpPo ilul)q alc trcJg l 'sr:)LrJrtr.rlr s.rqott"id Trl.rp.rrr'r:rrrt il(nreJ rLlI Z FJr.t\olrq IJI Jql lc sturJl rql q]lEur u'ql PUesl(Dr p..srunlLIJr /r. J o.rull iiuol c r(I Hulnullr()J l r l H l l^ q P i l i l P o t u s t l l .I o 'sJIllJ illl ul lle uPap rnl.Lu rlJql qll^^ .lD3ot urrs)LIl iiulrusurllr loJ orl^ip il)qdsotlllP s.1il.JoolslrYqnnoqllv t sutPrqoq '!.r ur Prsn sr lr sDPn).orlrleg Iq Jr. ixrlro:. r i ( l o r d IUJFI)JliLlll^ Jqlll runn)94 )slrAlL l lt Jo rrluil) Jtll su tlns JtF ol ro ' p : l r n s F .ro.M rql soqrrPrr rsrq IPLlrrr^^snP )ql J0 rillrl )LIl rlrrr:.LIlls r q 1 L r lL r t r s l s r l l l L l a u l i l i s l l o r s l r i l q i^t()ldxi liJrt(t tlitlq 3 (unllrLl.s p)zDrlell rtll lo nol(rlrul t$LIr Jo rlr!.\^ isrt Nur^\ollol)ql trprr)s -otleq leu^p rouorqr roloqd :stooxptoll lo 6tI Bu!1loda[ .'(ll)llJ.rlr trrrpunorrrlsrrrlu) rql roJ .) rlIlJJlton)LId LrotoLlo I .]/-rsrr 1r rq or pr^.8 )lrLLlL'utrp / )ptui)o!l)q 9 o(rpuip s )!LI{)rqr't r)tiLuoLrorLl) [ '.r J l L I t ) ) L l lo l i J u n u l J l lqiil Io il)luDtl i l u ! l i i u ! r r s u r L u .f) ! 'r!l{rl q r({ 'nlrJlLru.{il]iLri) J u t J J l a s i l n p o r d I P L Ft L r l q ) u t u 'J 'q uns eql pre^^ol surnl 1eql lueld = aclollollzll r\l?'reue = rluDuIP re6od t-oulP eurll Jo repro ul luetuegue uns rql :-orrry' e = {$op orqt ewrll t-orroJLp lq8ll Jo uolpe rql Sulsn sernpld 8uplP1 = lqd.^{ trrql'.!ti)q rrrM uo'l(nu Jo sruoilll s.Z ll.8llrotoqd 'pJlsrlsiiultrPrur'ql IIP rsn loLI llr^! no^ 'tqilu rql le siiuruE.

.rrhlidr? in compurerlcchnologyha! accelcralcd sircc 1980. Ncwr(nr ormcdexpcrimcnts cdr/ir/l? to wha( Galilco had |roposcdrl)oul a.rr?l/dr/rj/r/ a lonit rinrc. a. A butcrlly eyolles lion a careryillar. adjuncd 10. Arislollc's vicw of cvoluli()r c.cfalledthroughoul rwcuticrh rhc ccnlury. 6. Einstcin's lheorics havcf. Tlrc. a. thc scx lile ofan oyster .nd lhercwill has lbr pft)bably ncvcrbc complctc agrccmcDl. Numcrousrpecl!.. lailcd b. b. dcvckDs 12. L Galilc{. thc search1o discoverbow hlrman Iifc cvorvc0 b.ofJupircr. lnrcrcsun! b. The camcl is dddpl. habilals 5. The subjcct ofaborriolr been. verify b. disputcd pe ll.s rhe moons 9.r aninals are in danlcr of beconrirr!l of extincr. It sraicd to rain when rhe nir wasrdrrldtfl wilh moinor(. lived a. a.. Iillcd b. Alicr the bombing. lhc lile of Charics Darwin d. discovercd cxa/cr. cs(apes b./ro dcserllifc and can So wilhout wrlcr tir long b. died 7. lh€ ciry was rebuih by rhosewho rrryivc. dispx)vc Skimrfiing Skim lhe followirlgpassagc lhrcc miDutcs lcssnnd lhcn arlrwcrlhesc in or L The main lopicof rhh lassagc is a.150 Reporling 4. dominaled 11. a.

'torlll srq PrlPlnuroJ urMrPC ^\oq ' ISI SutuodJu SurMolloJ rql Io llP lroqe uonPurroJlll ptrlr IIIM noi ldrJ-Yr Z .\lr JIIt^\orr pr^rl ^lDsrq rlql slu(UlLrlr Jo IuPlU lPql DPJ.rr(lrprr orsJruBIc lsltlrrDs ocll!ll )qr )Lll sno.))npo.)ql PruJurv qlnos Jo lsPo:) pDq )q lelll s nrDrrr Jo sr(l^r .l) sprJs tuorl Jluuu )tll l:)ssEd ot alrl 11) iliii sMorii.lsilng rql lo IP^I^lns..rrrJo ol pr^rll)q )Folslrv r:)LI(k)so|LId lrrlS lprrii JLIIor^.(rr"'Lu qsllSrra ur/'!uPo sipeql pJruPtr lsllcrrllPu n)iJPcieleg 01pi)I.^Err Jql rql JJo s]xrPtst 3tn1o1 piLlotr^rp|L'rlstptl Lrppuu srolt(lio s)rrrdsrurlrljlp luDtu os ^^oqJo v '^rnlu.{J rusltreiJjo iuo .'q Jql uorls.r! jo sliP(l.ulMleo Arl]!{ D .'(q)l:)lrlls p rdil p puP'spono{l punq ul^\rDo rrqler^ lprd(xl trrPr^rl1!qlurnSurdJo sEM iupnli)lrr 'urrs rr^rlr lulur!t'r^'ls tcr)^rs PrqiirM laqr srlurlr PrrcllLr0r3'spreztl pr^rJsqo Jq ir.lrlr)qlo lt'orJtrluosin'or rir-l ijul^ll c Jo ilLrrrdsuo str srlqurisir iJurqr uo!ltllo^x 6u!pbau .{q l).)srP IPLI sruitu!idxr p)tllroJ.{rrPtu tq clnoli{ Io srDrilsrurrilJrt) e )LIl Jr| ur .uorql s.lJ^/lou ltlirD(l lr Iq p)]lri..rd rr0 ttl()rJprqrluq sl prlq V sltri}iu(l ..)nb rrotdxi or LruiJ)q L| srLIprl )il.p)llPrsPIrq sJq)trll io (ro prlDnrs 'sptrPtsr Suuoqq8IJu 'u)ql pFo^4 .rll r.rclsllurl plloM ldnlqcio s)le]sJpnl)Lll Jo ol .MoLj v spitq ruired.rr pltu rt0 (rl 'trrtll qlurrlrlrrLr slsrlol(.rl 'psri^ a)l^ pllusl!u!uu 1)lL U)rLl suollgu. :)'frII'uLrrr rllrnoJ rLF r. Jo nuruP'LLIrq|p uDlrrlo uriluo rlll Io lrols lerrlqlq rql ) q IElsltr^OllLloros seM .lrcluods u0llerrlrrH ll relll g99t Irun r(xrsD.4upro rrollloJ rtli plrl)i(rolu ^4.u lli^llElJr sl lt1i](ro)srlll lo 'LluuJ c slrqr SLllnunL()Jul riLllouu i!ll tlo JIll ijLllArJsir(l 'JIJ.lr.qr .4'\ srrnrErriilol^ll LrrPl.

ins nninr.rnrrh.lLr. Over million\ 0J yrirr:. l y b c . thc nrlrgglc cxi\tcn. .000. Iar \{ and spacc.or the Lrcst rL)lcto (or)r|cLc with olhcr specics the cnvironnlenl.. thrcugh{r. ' o l lcclurc.rl Danvincallcd Lhcoly his sclcction.eanwoulclbc s. D i s t i n g u i s h i n gF a c tf r o n O p l .(i(. n c d u c a l c c o p i n i o n .I l r . o f m a n y s c i c l l L i n sh a r t h c r v o r l d p o p u l . rhcoryoflhc c!olLrlj()rr Da oJ humar lifc. ln 1(r only lhc llllcn.r in lacrnll lit orrLhec. o. origiu.lsnr)(1 irc f(lnlc(1 oLhcrt() s ot ltti. H o w e v e r .l1r clninrc(l rlrnl man hascvolvcd Jioma lowcr li)f|r ol lilc and th. r i o r . u t i t r c m a i n s a n o p i n i o n L L n t i il l a b can bc proved.!in fonD l.l ccll. will prcvail. l o n c b a s e do n p a s t s l a t i s l i c s n d ( u f f e r l r r e D d s .975.Iy jrcol)lc thc ln r wcrc sho(kedal rhe idca lhfl hLrnr. s.e. cxamplc.rn atilero adnpt.rrly (t nlanyreligious vicwsirboLrl origir) rni rkiri(1. Airimnls with thc \r.r thaI thc lvorld rcpulililnr iu I987 rv. or thc oncsrhntnfc L.r. nll tltc cvidcn(ewc ltiv( oJ IlUl lodayconlifnrs Darwins hyl)othc\j\. nllthc (lillcfrr)t s|crirs oj lilc Lhnt wc know tftlay havccvolvcd. a(l(1ili(rn. !!.. r h n t i s .000. slrrvivcThr t)roccssofDi in will LLfnl\clict.rnrh. cr.tcd.\tofsol hLtntan L)cings wrfc rclntcdlo alcs or nlonkcy\rnilliorrs yenfs.i l i s l h c r p i r i o .152 Reporling As a resultofhis obscrvations.LIrcstftrr 5rrrvive coldarcn\ in Plants that rcquirc lcaslann)u|l ol rvatcr the survivc rlic (1c\(L Fishth. l n ) v ! i l l j n ( r c n s c l b y 1 b i l l i l n l i n r h e n c x t l w c n t y l i v { : y e a r s .lufated thc wilh oy\LcL\t Sincc. nanrLrl changc.nnoL ljvr. oysler For ar can sparln 100milli(n rlgs.r!to." the "suL!jv.dUal (lcvclopnlcnl.llsin.Heknewthalmdnyofganisms pro(hr(r m(ncofllfrin{ rhnn(a1r ir.t rould in r adoptlo lifc on land bccr|ncthr fifsl lnno rnr. In 18t9 Ddrwinplrblishc(i findings his irlThc oi4ii1 il St. [.llc. sfccics loo(1.rrh h. and s{rlccrion.to1ttrc titrcsL.ity survive. n lhcre is compelitiorr amoirgthe indivicl. l)arwirr's ideas wcrevcry corrl|1)vrfsia1.r n li]]rct11 Lhc\c nll cggs sun/ivcd.s 4. .' or H! argurdlhal thoscspccics thal arc thc nx)n Jit..r lict]rcyr!crr in l:onllict will) |. it is a..s devclopcd lrcnr a single. For exampl€. Lo y PanicLrla upsettin!wns lhc (onccl)ttltil thc atr(.s occurrcd innulncrablc linrcs. "nallrr. l l i q v c r y i n r | o n a n t l o f e c o g n i T c l h c r l i l l c ( ' l l c c b c l w c c n f a c t a n d o p i n i o n w h c n r e n d i n gs c i c n r i l i c r r a l c r i a l r l i s l c D i n g o n s c i c n l i l i .

Llrctuo{ ^lllo stuor qrl 'Pr^ord rq uDr xitruor rql r.p lPrrii c dn prlllls Lll.'rpr^ irc^r r rol4 lDqt lueld P sl IEIUurl)o Y t srurr14ll e 'sror.ql siqJlplu lsJq ltql lJMslle i$ Jo rJ1lol JLll JlJll) .qlJq^^ rulturrlJp ()1tul 'rrnsun rre no^ JI '10) uo}rldo rreio (J) l)ej P slursrrdrl srJlrrlurs .srql Jo Llrei rrlllrq^ rle)!pul tEI Suluodau .ry.rrlroJ.lrnbrE O 'sa)uiluss Js)ql tlJuJ tl! ptsn sl ll se pron^pJzlrllell .{E^/r srrp q srrMo$ P srlslr:rrPrEqJ q 1rc[t|q 'slorled qloq uPurnH J Jo srllsFrlreleqr /lr.o^ S'I1I>IS ONINEISI'I 'Lluijrqiirl i oq ^totll lt^o(r lllM i)M g l }l tl 'sJuntrriJ ^uelll rol i^lo^t ol ilnllllu(r) lll^{ LFll-iiLlostlrllltl] 'srrlslo lr(nDlMi)uld rrlliq u iq plno^ plroMiql 'slurulLl0 sillrltqLI|?tulrH )Il? zl 'lri ol Pooil ilP srclsio I I 'ilupdsJo luP$ iirlPold sr)ls^O 0l 'tulMs Lle)spl0Tllituos 6 'spoPlsln)iledDlg) Jql tlo sJirlerll Iollsr'lun ill0!u crtM tliLII 8 'e)lr uv qrnosrP)o rle spuPlsl sotudPle)rql 1 'iluLLInP sPn rllolslrv 9 e Jo IE.r.r solqPq .rrrrrt A\4 P u! lJullx: rq III. tll fJtlnqb.{PpollslxJ lPql srlJJdstruPW € sueSro E 'sr^lJsdiql qrlelJs ro puEuPq e larcl z rtll sP LIJns's/rrrl LIEulnq iuelu r^pq s^aluow ol spueq rrrlll tsn iJrll .ql Jo SLlltlpJul lo .Mlec E "{slr^olluo) 'snluJSe sE^/l urMrP(l t 'u(nlEJJllan snolrPlll(xis olr sl Jrrtll leql p)zllear t^Prl pluoqs rllolsuv ' a l l l J o u o l l l r r J u r 8s n o i l l e l l l o d s o L I s l a r ' q l 'a l '{r1 .tt.

. Takeltolcsas yoo lislcD tllc lcclurc. to lhc Uhderstafidingthe Le.t-rcnn rccall.l { . All the fi. largc b.lcmrinc whcrhcr cnch of thc following(aremcDrs truc (I) or falsc(F) accor(lirrg lhc inti)fr)ration lhc jn is to wcrc F t. mostimporranl b. The resullsol the expctin]. abLrndanr 8. t l M e n d e l ' s u n i q u c . lcastimponalrt 6. if you nr. C " r ' . a. I o w f l . Usc your nole:i to d(.. 6 . 1o a. I ' r . .s ntltcltas 20 pcrcent J0 pcrccDl or nt{)rclhatril yoLtrcvicwlhcnr lwicc. The sbrs ar€ too nrfiercrr to bc collnled. .rnl whitc flowcrs. t .Aly).n gcncralion flowcfs ivcfe pink.154 Reporting 5.. you rcvicw1hcnoleslhrcc lintcs.brca(l is baskcf'because whcaraDdcorn arr the rcgion. a important 9.lhc highcrrhc pclccnlngc lhc nratrrinl ol you will rclailt. o n l r i b l i o n l v a s r h i t h c s t l r d i c da l l l h c c h a r a c l c r i s t i cn r o n c t i m c .rand paved rhe way Ibr the work of Marie and pierre Curic.1y rccall . .r rh announced thc world.t. is bcltcrlo rcadthc rr()lcs it rh()Ugh onccn wcck li)r rhrcc wccksthaDllucc tinlesin otrcsilling. 1 .. l y . . h c produ(edred Ilowcrs .Ii)r l(rtl.csl)ccially t)cli)rc a lcsl. h c c x p c c l c d !o pftrLlucc llowers $at wcre pink or mixcrt rcd and whitc. is. r . w ' \ r . raprd b. a. supported b. Antoine Henri Becqucr€l's discovcryof ridialion was rTgrrtcd.e]ot substantitltedc hypothcsis. dis|rovc(l Note-Taking Notcst.ture. ! W h e n M c n d e i c r o s sp o l l i n i l l c d r c d a D d i v h i r c f l o w c r s .nd fcc. lonu lcriod ol. The ocean'stides are characterizcd aliernaringfonvard . n r .nDd Usc ol lhctr yotlf no(es completc nextcxcfcirc.lintc.h(1l spa(ing thoscrcvicws will helpyoUlo rcnrcnl)cf ovcf .. W h c r r M e D d c l s e l f p o l l i n a r c dd r c { t A r g c n c r a l i o j l r c d f l o w c r \ . .. T h e A u n r i a n m o D k c f c g o r M c r x l e l p c r j i ) r l n c dh i s c x | f f i n r c n l s i r r r n c s e v e n l c c r r l lc e n t l r f y . trackward 7. t \ ' r . . The nlorc lrcqlrcnlly yor rcvjcw.Thc to Scjcllcc Gcnctics.s domindnt aops.sriyc by a.kcn in class shouklbc revicwc(l lr()rn linrc to linrc. The midwesrernparr of the Unilcd States sonlrtimescn cd rhe .Fof cxnirl)lc. l 2 .

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. computcr. 5. x-rays. \'/hal wlkn.The remailder of the paragraphcan cxplain how or whr or both Your of mighl tell lhc sigDi{ican(c thc discovcryor cvcnt concludingsentencc .156 Reporting Writing a Report You nliSht choosconc ol lhcsc: or wrile a rcpo( ofa scicntificdiscovery evcD1. thc firsl hlrnan hean lransPlantor tcst'lubc baby thc discovcryofpenicilliD. 4. l 2.or racliunl or fie first landirg on lhc moon. 6.d wlrere. thc Solllll Polc Canal lhc lhe construclionof the Pyranrids. 3.or dre Parrama of rclalivity thc dcvelopmcnlof thc atomic thcory or lhc thcory or thc ofthc lclcphone. Sucz Canal. lhc airyhne $c invenlion Beginby wridng a lopic scntcrccthat answtrs thc qucstidls wh. Mounl Evcrcsr. a]|.

{r rur:t.toqs 'czllensl^ 'uollJunJpue rrnDruls stl Sulllplep.{{Jl.JJ!p rxolp upJo lda)uor st Jqt 'rldllrpxr rog rl Bulqtrrsrp lq prutpldxr aq upJ Sulqtrluos Jo ntpu rql 'pornpord sI ro 'slror\ 'sllrlrrs 'salsBl'spunos 'slool tt ^^otl-li)rfqo uE Jo sr.\{ Jql Jo .nseq 11 rardeqr .rnletJ .\ s/lslluJl)s p JJnporlul ol sJ^ras uolrdlDsJp V NOIJ)NOOUJ.LSI '(zuoltisod 'arzrs 'JFinlErJ roJ)prqlrsrp rrp \rPls pric uns JqlJo s.NI aslanwn a4J 6qq.'idord qtrrq.rl.rrscpe tnq /ruolE uotlrurjrp p ruo{ dselSot tlnrr.{{ /sluJlua^oul ro /suoltlpuoJJqrDsJp up leJlsiqd'scBueqJ IeJ!ruaqr'luJurlrodxa Jo stlnsEl ^elu lI plro.)p ol rSesspd r Sur^rolloJ pD.rJuerprddest!Jo ol rrrsPr lr sJTeur uo!ld!.! rqt 6utpt ad .^ttruttstp ro sJllstrJlrprEqr rqt IIsl oslp IEru uolldlrlsrp v rdo)sorJlr! Jo JdoJsrlal e qBnorql uaJs sl t€Ll.

whitc.Il is ulosrlymirdcot hy{irogcn. OLrr suDis rrolcvcncspcci.t exi\rs on thc carLh.livcty cool comparcd lhc inlensc 10 hcal ar the ccnler. abovcpassagr the dcscribcs vnne ollhc trtrysical. rhc suDha! a (linlrct(rth.000" hol cnough rlrrncvcrysolidto vapor. fl pruJrcnics Lhcsun and chcmical of . Thc fanhcs( nnfi arc L)illions light. lhcir ljghl ivouldfontjn(rc [)esccnlfo r lhc cnflh li)r. Thc A ycllow (likc oLrfsLr|). rclion.1 lighl-y(a|1 sLnr (lislnn(c fr\nn lhc !.nh.|\ .000.ln) conLaiD! ncaflycvcryolher kind ot itonr rh.rlh. In .or l)l!c (lhc horrcn). lhc surfacc hol rcurperaturc aboul 11. sLrl)slances. to fcl.nh.t is approxinraLcly cqualt(r l{)9 ol our ca[hs lincd p ]ikr .t . How cxcitirrl. conccpls.lLr('. row oi Lrcach ball\. Thc ncarcsL is 4.n(l prc\sufc.n il bcilr!shivc licg n lo cxIlofc lhil USING ENGLISH TO DESCRIBE Scienlilic writingiDcludcs dcscriflbnsof frocesses. A lighl yc. and cvc|rts.Slnf\virry lo in sizclronrsrlrall(r thanthc c. nbout(rrrillionnrillion ilrs (6.1 1() Irillior ycafrl gilixy (t l0 L)illion Our sun is pnfroi rn (no|'ln{)us slirs.y(.y.cc.000 ir) of r rnilc\).llv largcor [rrighr conrpnfcd othcf nnfs. naf nriy be fc(l (thc(or)lcn).w.rcc qLrilc t.000.cyond. of Thc sun is thc ofiginalsourccoJ ucirrlyall ouf cncfgy.lis 1olivc iu nn ngcwhcrrhLrln.I58 DescriL.ing The Suk anrl Other Stars The run ii a slar. is l)ryorr(l hLrm.000.rt. Thi\ proc(ss crealcs lrcnrcndous a noisc.Iqc olour lclcscol)cr (oLLllcss aId t)illiorrs l-hc crrorrllryol sl). Lo.LrUl is F.lcsils tcnr|cr.a d a mass thal ii about110. aldnugh il .ll of cxrrcnlcly liscs. Thc sun dcrivcs cncrgylionr n pfoccss fLrsion whictrhy(l()gcn ils of in at(nrs arc c(nrvcrled inlo hcliurnalonlsuDdercxrrcur(hc.Lali((ltlrc Milky Wiy. Son)c \{) tnf irwni.(ldilionrhcrc l)illior)s lraLlxics nrc ol withir)f. oi erc thnL lhcy il wcrc lo bk)w up t(xlay.on ditions. .I1 is a flrming b.f is t11( liglrt lravcls (nrcycar. nrccalrrolhenfil b{cnlrsc bur n)U (l (locsnol lravcllh()u!th cnl y sp.aledaboul 9l million nlilesJromrhc c.000 tiIncslhc mass lhc c.nh kr largccDoU{h Iol(l d lroo(l pirl ot oLLf to n)lnf systcnrl cokrfof a stnfirxli(.ln LorirprchcLrsiorr.

10 ' ' ' ' \LtDt 24Julor! s21!uuolltlw €6 lnoqt prlpro.W s! uns)tlJ NOIIdIUf.I ralueJ o1 poledluoJ JooJ Jodp^ ot p[os ^Je^J uJnt ol qSnouD toq J 6OOO'tt:atwtt duDt D. Aetaua Jno lo ertnos :tJubuadul 'I6raua tno IIDtlurtu lo nasputiua .S!Iq lVNOIIf.SAq1Vf.tWEIHf.tDll D st n NOrdr{:)s:Iq tY)ts. NNI ssEtu s/quee x 000/0€€ ifrrw leleruPtrp s/quEe x 601 :ralawDlo '4ltDd)tlt J0 stvuttql sawlt000'0tt lnoqv5l lDtltseru b pult .lI1s 'lttuzt aqt tD 1oa4rsuatul aqt o1partdutor lan ltr^tlol2l fiq hd'^ p4 J aAa1 lhaIt $ arntDt2dwu ot plps tu4^ruint at 46noua aru!)t1t atlJ II seseSSuttljeu 1oq :uo\$aduortn$tUd lleq:eduqS 'sasr6p4 [t)at2i]xt lo tq iutu.sulolE u.ttoul reqlo lla ^lreeu + u.kba |pnturxarddtr sl lDrlt DQululp tt sbq uhs a4 qxJee ruo{ 9allru uorllrut t6 :u0rD)01 uoltttod .qluq \rDeq ^ot tt t4 dk to ptuu t4u'a )t1olo 6aI al l.(Hd 69I SulqlDsaq .Solp^q ^llsotlJ :uolleotl o lLlrl DqJ '4lJW )Llt U0S)SIXA UtAlD lp41 lo puq nqp fta^a lpvau su ttuai ostDt! 4lihaq\r 'Lt26aqtqlo apbu tttsoLu U s! NOIIdtUf.

r .I" Nnn.l'. J Li. r."" J .t \hlttlc t.||h}''r{s.'". Dinrc sions\holrt(tlrc .**" l.trldyr! dcscribcs how you feelnboUr sonrclhing.*.". b uts! it$.. Scicnlir.J 11J"1.n"n.iptii ! n $incc tn u!!rll\. ( 1'lheGlJndcdnyon}h"'"{.|..rout.h. Lil:i: Lf]:ln'''J J L:. Thc word...D(lroncrcrc. r ."" Iil. ol mullicolored? Adjcclivcs mlrlt bc objedivc. f 1-". II | n . p : p es". r ) .". Liri:. 8 4 8I n e l ( r ! I I h i € h .d r I i .r to be .R. ScicnccdeDlnn(ls ()t)iedivilynnri prrrision jn ils r1rscfiptions.lnsparenl opnqLrc? of silvcN.hti d....r+r* .r. il rs lunrinous dul1? or brighlor dilnt rr.J J L:h:.| Iii*i.r I Irhe\ir... sutiiccrj!.'l I a .enrimcrcr. u r d f:rs''lfn...000 milcs?l(X1.J hi.r'> l'.000 Inilcs? Thc rvr)r(l //r/ir1is br.. . r a 5 . i LTh( J J MJunr Lrcr.. . I. ( r c r n t . J i .J Lr f'"""n I f. n .t.j i! a rcllLivc Lcmr."". llnh'ct\dl\. it docsnoLbfirrs t)ul an inage ro nrind.rtt it \cLlD... u d . il n nrilc Dccd ts long?50 nliles?1.!t li!. i e). lrhe\Dn | | . n pI. I o""a I t..k.'. whiLe..j The 1 ' ( r | u r c I u r 1 .c..:l'i:.r-l lil.rr d..*.:Theptut. 0 0 ul . .ts ro bc sl)crili(. lo havc.. l:.".jiui:i ) Using Precise Desciptiors.r:l::''.rol.'"-.. ') l.r.Tltt t)st ernntt tt\t utc.rr..160 Describing Se tence Pt7ttefi1s D E S C R J B I N CC H A R A C T E R I S T I C S '' 1 8 .nd bciutilLrl To a as or 1rl1\ vcry lilltc...il''J ".y. e r d r |u . | I rr-'r".| ..lrc. dcscribc corrrct lanra\Lic loru.{tihitttr.. .cr.t tnt\. I rF r .'. J r c 1 r u u F h .

L )rtrtrriljsLll prsrliru st.!\ r$rrurrrs rll si^lNrlpE IUPW aul.r.I() lcql Jsrlsl).rrr1.' i.rtllpol^J .M:rrll ol rlqtsso(isr? 'fro.rPlos I 'Lrrlllnoru lsrqliq rlll sl ls)rr^a trrno!\l 1 '.ro1)o 9l rlqrx)u€I pr3!l zr tu)rudsuurt ll ilriJDrJ 0l LIiJnor'6 rFoorus S ilqrpi € rlquurruPLl z rlqnlos'l 'siq!)sJp rJLll JUorl)sDnulqlru()riluuu 'snlrlrrco{lr puulsrtpun )q..l .()M.ro /r turpprl.Moll(I ro.{)!ll sp.IoJ Burru.o 9 lr.ri^ n(rllillll ! rilll[ itt()) ro (lu]t0 nrrl/.pw) pa.^lt)ilp!iJLtt.4tuqt Moqso-[ suorldu)sJl) 'llrV]' tlorl lcli'ur.qilh sanuxa{pv rlqeilpru 9 :)rtsnD)tz rlqllsnq(u{))02 .{q prLU.ir.iDluidru)l JruJrns 'r^ln).{!^'\P stlltu 000't sr troPtrol '9 '0000't rql < Jq) I sr Lrns lo .[ z 'I n Slrol P Lrp8iq quPr uo {r'I I 'JlJIlurrrs rrolu lr r)Ptu IlnoM lPq^{rlPls J^odursrP iirrrMollot rlllJo qrei LIrr^tuorM srreqa rLrlturrl)c l)uus)u urlDls I9t Butqlrrs.r MolloluorLrliirq v IlrMisdrl)i.iVrrn IptirrLr lrl ro'sjl/.'Jii!rril pllor)s r.() pro.ro.rJ u 0) s rorrr.\rlr.4JlPoru pisn irLisi^Jrrrlpv ol ur\ou)LIrrl))r)r!lriLIllr si^|)ilpu qslliluSsLrnolr 'iJlpo(r.]i10/ su tl)rls q.rqLi sa^ltta{pv tttlAr tiulqlrtsad v srilllporu.ro) ssrl sr lrrls t 'rilooJ Jre !rnsiql Jo srriPl rJlno aql € 'rrit 00E'<sr uonuE) pocr) Dq.q!)sip r?rLrsP pirPld rq siP^{le plnoqs s.4'\ sl rrlJlpolll 'l)roM u _rJqtoo9 s)IJIP0LU rrqlr)si)P .'suqslirrs to sllrJpnls ol nlrlsnjuo:l SJLLIIIJLTrcSJJP SJ^N]iIPE )S)LII LrDl )rP sqri^ or .)sLripSl rlIulo^ /l ssi)l.c .ro'rsu.Io rsn iql )^lo^Lrl rrrlJo suol(llr)sic 'l)ol).

llccl is 6. . | | r I r r r .ll nLrclcus b. A J . conrplclcs cachof thcscrcrltcl)ccs. r . ' r( l | .q -cdadjeclives. ' r . rr . .j . \\l1i(lt rrc lonncd lionr thc vc$ ro dlfut. disin!cgra!fd 4 . oxidizcd tr. r r r r . . Circlc rhc lcllcr ol lhc inswcr lhat Lrcrr is. calibr.s . calibr. . . I|r iullrrmclll a. A . 2.L . Walcf rhal hasbcc pLrrilicd is . rr.llc(l s . r r t insLrlrnrenr a. i r h . . . h . A substaDcc conrbiDcs dral nrclals rvilh oxyScn agcnr oxidizjng agcnt b. conprcsscd b. \ i .disrilling wntcf a. er ' r r ri d i r . . Lr. r j | . t r . or adjectivL. dislillcd walcr olbreakingapan is a L A DuclclLs is iD thc proccss th. l c \ i . calibraring inslrumcnr b. disinlcgf.ting rlLrrlcLrs il. . J .? arr{idilulrd...rc a (onltncL((i aclioD: dehydrated plant: plant that has dried up magnetized rocl(: rock that has been made into a magnet diffus€d light: light that is spread out cauterized woundr wound that has b€en deadened by burning or searing Look at lhis cxaurplc lhc ol Many vcrbscan lonn cilhcr -i?.?irlr.n l.rprcssinll . .: to dllute: xo weaken or thin with water or another liquid dlluxing agentr agent or substance thal dilules or thlns a liquid diluted solution: solution or liquid that has been diluted or wcakcned Usikg Adjectivcswith -ed and -ing.162 Dcscribing Adjcclivcs rhal arc ibfincdwith lrj ircqLrcnlly i]rdicalc cc(airradior)rhnris ir fcflbrrncd by lhc noun or occlrrsro the noun: grinding machine: machinc that crushes substances into small bits recording mechanism: device rhar records sound refining process: process that purifies mctals revolvinB platform: a stand or surface that turns Adiccrivcs arc la ncd ivilh fd 1i(quently lhnl indi(. calibraring inslrumcnt b. co. .l . A gaslhal hasbcenrcdu(cdin vohrmcby prcsslrfc n gns gas .

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arc Thcy cnril radiali(nl.fnrilrf ol Lhccarthl)y gascs. vcrl). suchas r.Il is l. Synonyms antonyms. Cal(iunr n rilvcty |ncl. The bronlosaufus a largcdinosaur. ol 4.164 Describirg Writing SmoothSentenes. 5. nlso ll 6. rhancD(irc -Ihc pan oi LhcLrrailr. and or conlaining worlj. is.i ol is mnfbl(. anLl thc Scnlcnccs phraser (lt A lisl ofthe word'smcanings.IL is har(lnn(l \hirry. blo(xl(locsr)o1 is.rrcllircs.!:1.s rechnical and manlrals conrain gloss. a4nnedlE/ 'alaaq lki. It is fourrdin linrrstonc.ryt Sincc your book bcforc goingro ir diclionary.Ir is r a(lcol sc!cril kin(1. 7.1s is c.rsjrivc !.nd (h. eachseries olsclrlcnccs. chcck .) manylexrbool.L a/4d aj le.a!oi(l short. crnniLc is. Hcnn)l)hili. lle lh"zl bceaj p/aaaJ. Lrsc Englidrlo EnglishdictioDary. (lisc:r\(.x 4lr4s.r. livcrl lt in shallowlvalcr lr arc planls.1 or Lrnlhmiljar words. 5. is import.n igncou\rock.adj. chop|tr scnIn irl()flnalion nchic!c lcnccs. lcw wor(ls.(Tcsr by lookingLrf . ladiecrivc). I Uranus the lhird largrn planel. thc (lor l)11)1x y. and u.ll hn\.rlk. (Lr. aD Choosconc lhfl iri conrplctc cnolrgh covcrrhc wordsyou will nccd.at tinrcsyou rvill rrccd!o conslrlt dictionary chcck thc a to nlcaniDg an impoflaDl ol word.t.ry tcrnrs. Ir lhc ii. Thc grccnhousc cllcctis thc w.lnt look rhroughthc (lcllniliorrs to 'ir 1ofiDdthe oDcrhal is approfriatc you. Pa( ofspccch. is i|lhcrilc(1. QLrasars sl. your locabulary largccnoughso thal yoLL un(lerstand rrosl As K)or].flil(r objc(Ls. is orbilcdby mrny lhiu rings. 2.) to ir A gooddictionary con!ains ld ol inli)rmalioD will hclp you L() a that !rndcrst. l! may includc aDd l 2.or vcrt) $a1can carryan objccl). (irlransirivc vcrb). lound ir thc sheUs marincanimnls. UM%2. ccfcbfunl lhc ]argcsl is ll Lhc conlrols musclcs.ln dcflnilions. When wriling dcscripliont. irc READING SKILLS vocabulary Buildi. (noun). Rooror dcrivatiurof rhc word (Lhat whcrcdid iLconrcftonr?). rnliL mofc rirlinlio]l QLrasiN galaxies.r.LrolrL was ir thirty Lons. ]rro{css Thc i\ graduil.rL is lr leastl5 s. colrrbinc ol rclnlc(l bits lo a smooficrllow.lg Altlrcughi! is not a good idea () inrcrrlrpl rcadiDg lcclurclo look up .'Ihcgascs lfnppc(lin thc alnx)sphcrc..i /5 taklltle.rr(l lhc corrcct mcaDiDg uscol thc word. wcighcd. corlllols scnscs.rlrv. a of . L 4.l.

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166 Describing 4. Cosnrcrays are dangerous to human beings. a. space b. eanh 5, The sun's rays arer/fered through the atmosphere that we don't receive so their full stength. b. scrccncd 6, In warm climates, water is sometimes heatedby Jolarcncrgy. a. sun b. electric

grcwdarkon thc 7. Theea(h'sshadow eclryslthe sun'slight,so ir suddenly moon. a. blocked b. absorbed 8, ln a desert. temoenture fte altemates between extreme heatand extreme
cold. a. varies D, nscs

9, 'lhe fogdiJfuted lightsfrom the street tharvisibility the waspoor. so a. spread b, concentratcd 10. Some rdr mounbinsand craters be se€n l can from the earth, a. moon b, sun 1 1 .The plan€tMercury hasno ralelr?r. a. moon 0, atmospnerc 12, Thespace flightwaspostponed to ddvsBe due weather conditions. a. favorable b, unfavorable

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A goodtechnique textbook for reading to readthetitlesandsubtitles turn is and each into a question. example, For fromthe title ofthe passage below,you would "ls formulate question, th€ moona nic€place visil?"and thenreadto find the to your the adswer, method helpyou to focus themainpoints, This will on maintain concenFation, readmorcrapidly. and il Skimfie followin8 ro passage Iind its mainideaand thc kind of informallon contains thenanswer and these two questions. to do it all in thrccminutcs. Try L what is the main point of the passage? a. Themoonis a niceplace visit,but you wouldnl want Q livethere. to b. Themool!is not a dce place visit,and you wouldnl want to live to lhere, c. PoeE don't know anything aboutthe moon. don,tknow anything d. Scientists aboutthe moon. 2. \,vhich of theseiopics is coveredin the afticle? '. a. rhefirsr ]andhg rhemoon on phases rhemoon b. Lhe of c. dre climateon the moon d. how the moonaffects eafth's the tides

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168 Describing s h i r c b y i ( s o w n l i q h l ; i l r c l l c c l sl b c l i g h l o f r h c s u n . u n l i k e l h r ( n n h , L o r v c v c r , r h e r € i s n o a L n o s p h c r ct o d i l l i r s c l h c l i g h t a s d n y b c c o n l c sn i g h t a r d n i g h Ll L r . r s i n t o d a y . C h a n g c sf r o m l i s h t l o d a r k . r n d d a r k l o l i g h l o c c r r rl l r d c l e n l y . The llrnar sky is black. (BIuc sky on lhc eadh is t)(xlLrcc(l by rhc staltering ol b l u e l i g h t i n t h € s p c c l r u mb y f a r t i . l c s o f a i r . ) o u r l r c x n j t r l i t a n n r c v i s i b l ci n l h c d a y l i m c , b n l y o u w o u l d h a v c t o s h i c l d y o u r c y c s f r o l n t h c u n f i l l c r c ( l s L r n l i l h rr o ( S T h e r ei s n o s o u n d o n t h c n x x r n . S o u n d L f a v c l s r r w i v c s o i i r i r n n ) l e c L r l c t . i n c c t h e r € i s n o a i r , l h c r c i s l r o t h i n g l o L r . r l s l n i ls o t n d . L c a v c y o u r l r . n s i s l o r h o n l t . A l s o , t h e m o o n i s r r c l a n r a l n c l l t r c w n y l h c c a r l b i j . Y o L rc a n l c a v c y o u r r o m | n s s T h c m o o n i s a s a t e l l i t co f t h c e a r t h , r c v o l v i n g a ( ) L r r x l L h c c a n h o n c c c v e r y l r v c r l t y { r i n c a n d a h a l l d i r y s .T h c n r o o n i l s c l l f a l c s , b u 1 i l d o e s s o v c r y s l o w l f . T h c r c l b r c L h c r . m c s i d c o l t h c m o o n i s a l w a y s v i s i l r l e1 0 L r s .l - ( )g c l l { ) l h c r r n ) o | r , y o l | w o u l d h a v e t o l r a v e l 2 4 0 , 0 0 0m i l e s ,a d i s l a n c e h a l i s n b o u l l h c s n r r l c s c i f c l i n g J l t h c c a r l h a 1t h e e q u a ( n t c n l i n l c s . I t i s c l c a r t h n l i i y o L rw c r c n r a k i n g a t r i p k ) t h c m o o n , y o u w o u l ( l n c c ( i l o | d r k s f i r c r c L h a na l m l h b n r s h a n d a c h a n g co f u n d c r w c a r . l l s a ( l v c r s (( o n ( l i L i o r r v 1 ' o t l l ( l makc it vcry dillicLrll bf a visilor lronr the cirlh.

is Ir(li(.lc whL'thcr cachol lhc lollowings(a(cnrcDlssl.11c(l Makitlg In.ferenccs. (1), (,s), in slillc(l in lhc l).ssagc imIlic(ll)y olhcrinii)rrrratiou lhc passagc or lrcithcf (N). (Do,rcrin(licalc whclherlhe sl.lcr cul is lruc or hlse.) nor jr)rplicd

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by 2, Thc lidcsorl (he eaflh arc cnuscri lhc Inoor], lhnu orl 3. A pc$oDwould wcilth lcssoi) thc rrnx)n bccaLrs(' il 4, Thc moon hasro walcr or atnn)ifhcre (.rxxgn8rnvlry. 5. I1rvouldbe difljclrh havcan aryur('rltwith nnneoncon Lhc lo 6. Thc m(xrnorbilslbc canh aboutoncca nronth. 7 w( dlsn). \'. rh{\Jr f .rJ( | l, t"',... old. 8. Thc canh is 4.6 billim yearu 9. Thc rcmpcrarur€ thc nroongocsul) 1o200"c. on 1 0 . H L r m n D e i n g sc o u l d n o 1 l i v c o n t h c n 1 d J n . b
Plants coLrld no! grow on rhc moon.

lhan lhc c.dh h.s. oi 12. The moon hasmofe exlrcmes Lcmpcralurc

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4. Vcnus is the cbscst plame!to the carth and thereforcdrc onc can seelhc bcsl. Jupilcr may be a ball of gaslhal h shrinking.is mLrsirinrr. poin6 dircclly loward lhc slrr. T 1 . Recenlevidcnccshows therc may bc lilt on Mars. Thc suD'sgravity kccps!hc planetsin orbit. 7 . "nxl nf arr'r Bfout. I L Thc tail of a coDret . hdicatc whclhcr cach oflhc li)llowill8 slalcnrcnts rrue (7) or falsc (l) basedon thc iDformaliol in thc lcclore. Marshaschanges 5 .lima!e. scicntisls J . 2 .. Thcrc is morc likely 10 bc lifc oD vcnlrs than on any olhcr l)larlcl dLleto its modcralcclimate.170 Describing is U dersta dihg the Lectale.leroi. Thc farrhcslplanet{rom lhc su is Uranus. Thc rings ol Sa n revolvc arolrnd lhc plancl likc salellilcs. 1 0 . No planel has morc thaD lwo salcllitcs. 9 . like lhc carlh. Bririslr Thc a. in.

bsao S'NDIS CNIIIUM (alr.{ MoLl{l.'bdrursl aslrlrun Jqr Jo rsow 'vr 'queJ Jql u{' ' rrp trqt guJlJLU sJtDnJtJW ar PUPI 'lno urnq tPql srPts sroJlrw ' z I Jre ltI SurqrDsre .l :suo!lsanb ^olloJ Bu ar{lJo erxosr:Msue {llensn lll..t Jo sdoliqt tuori sa^etlslpe'Jrllel 3lq e rou 1J!.lrueldp .aJI Jo u oJ luppunqe lsoru aql Ilrurd rno^ l0lool 'tr.llli)ruap Jllleltuuorrp .iulllets&J.Uos.tuDlde .suosers sderrelod spqlr .qlprller.l)elq g rrntqtdLucl urooJlD plnbll sl teql Jpl u D / .rFlqtsrup pllnr 9 sp pcsn ':iultooj^ddeq e sr)npord .^ lt ot surddpq lpqM zJtsPI zlBus alrJJ zlool 1r s:op MoH) zs)lsrrJlrprpqr lerrslqd sl! erp lprlM .€l raqtsnolll aleu ol (rnJlns .{q {ulql tunlsseto(l unlpos qllM leJlo llo Sullloq.llq . zl Jo xalpl aql tuo{ sJltroJ 'lpp ^jo^c tl rsn nol .4^ Drlqo ro )ruelsqnse Jo uortdrDsop runualrs V 6u!q!.cplxolp.srJll rllspl.9 lelulug pa8iirl-lnoJe uro{ sruroJ lernteu p slullp ploJ pue rrJJor LrlpunoJ.(q rpput .ql snouoslod { e JJITU lcql prlq lPuJnl)ou z Slet E sdlqJlelnduoJ rlslu 01pJsn.6 are rtuos .ado)so.lptulup Sulqleuos iialqlDsrpslunl i)iel urq|suolldlDsrp Jalrqasaqlluo{ Lualr qreo .uop no^ JI pup.tuelnurlls.ropo lrrn s .{ ruo slql lr8 no.uleqJJs Jruos.( uollur^ullo .{ .I 'r! .{Jlturpl sluopnrs /l1oll rno.mu.oulqJeur.{poqll1o.0t pue rlrrlll Jo IInJsl .letulus rlP rqt salnllod reqt'rullosoSlo Sulurnq aDlduroru! r(qprJnpord.tJnpordploqrsnoll B I I ro lalldnl pue quPr rllt uD^4liq pol9)ol.s!3 ssrllolor p .{c^pqpuBSsslrrno.llur.8nrp p .rJlut tnoqlrM ilqlsnu! tsrltureq e .se8 .uoqle)JouuoJp.{ p!( ieH ieH) rplxo snolllu .( s uprlrJvue .!!lurpl SJNIOd NOISSnIST(I SJJJI 'aJeds .!.1 .luBld.rrnDus ot snotupJ'l)rfqo ue seq)ns lDllsrli)'eruEtsqns.lrqu .a)ustsqns qllM prlPoq ro) przllreJln^ .s roJwlF{I €r (aprtprq uaq.

such subslancc asrubbcr. or carboll dk)xidc Your lofic scll(cllcenliglll bc is a dcfiniti(nr(d lolrg dcscril)tior) a tyPcofcxlclldcd dclil)ilkjn) hl your PafagraPh. slraw.lt may bc oblaiDed hoalinll for lhermomclcrs. and lhc southweslcrn callcdan amalgam. whcre is il found in nature?How abundanl is it? nrcrcuryand (ic_ thc Rcad thc following paragraphwhich dcscribcs substancc lcrmine \ir'hichof lhe abovc qucstionsil aiswcrs.silverymclal lhal is a liquid al (x)m tempcrallrrc. ofa wrilea dcscripti(nr rlalllral .6timesas dcnse waler.Ilaly. Mercury at as is 13. saltwalcr. whdl Jrc rtschcnricdllr. -39" C. Mercury is a luslrous. India an{l Il Egypl. Whcn mcrcory combineswith ccrlain metals (such as silvcr. and boilsat 3t7'C.loolh fillings. or lio) thc rcsulling alloy is unilcd Mercury comcsIrom spain. Mcrcury is one of a fcw elcmcntsthat was knowD in a|cicnl chin. sard. Mcrcury is usc(l by Slales.frcczcs does rot combine readily \. mercury sullidc (ci labar). zinc.bul it does react wilh nitric acid lo fonn mcrcury nitralc and with srlfuric acid 1()form mcrcury s lfale.172 Drs(ribinP ) rvc ( 2.rr.r'ithoxygen. one wdy to concludc 10 is how lhc subslallce oscd describe wood. alllminuol. and pholographicplatc$ wi ng a Descriptlotl ait.r(l(n\l(s (whit is il Innri('rll H"w LL\'\il Lr(h slrch as walcr ol il comes in con(acl wilil otbcr subsran{es or react whcn oxyger?) 3. is answcras many of the abovcqucsliolsas yoll can. diamond..

{pul lseJJloj aqt 1^llllqeqordJo surrrt ul prtrlpJrd :q .^ rorulSuc eql ..tl)!qJ^ Jql uo rJqlga^{ Jsr) pE Jo sl){Jr rql lrlpard ol slqp aq lsnu ta}Jot e suSlsepoq.puo)rs p Jo uolpp.rJp ot pelPlDPr 3q upr asdtrrr up l{lrlErDJE atlnb p4rtprrd aq uer sluJ^r ruros .r luJr.roplsuo) 'lsu!p3€ soiltslno lJJtotd u9) rA1lJlpald ue) a.\ pue /salpnbqUpa /sruP)lllnq se qJns slatspsrplPlnleu Jo uolDlprrd aql Iq pr^ps aq plno lpql so^!lJo lrqtunu oql .a)ua!rs Jo plalJ iJr^a Jo Upd p sl uoltrlprrd 'suoltdnl..aseaslppJlull { eJpru38 reqlous ro Ellqdoureq Sulllrequl pllqr rplDlupd €Jo pooqllqll rqt DIp d tsnu lsl8ololq rqt pup lruro) PJOllqio tql plpJld ot spJJu Druouollsp rqJ .l )!ue)lo.qt tr!p.rcd 001 sl rrnlpu Jo tot^pqeq ernlnJ aql Jo uorlrrpald ou 're^a^ oH ^^orrourolulEl Jo eJUeqJ lusriad gz p JJunouup .ld ot sl uollpSllsa^ul rulluelrs n€ Jo leoS rqt NOIJ)N(IOUJNI raqpahl aqJ 6q1rlpard 71 raldeqr .rpxJ roJ.aldu.€Ll 'suope^rJsqo ^€u uo paspqsuollJlpaldJuger pue NnfpEol lpeal Jq sde^{plsnur lsllurps Jqf ulPtr.{luo upr srrqlo .\{ lgqA\ lpqt uolldunsse rqt uo prsPq sl puE /rrnlnj .{poq uPurnqaql uo-peq puspooS qloq -str{Jr s]! lrlprd ()1 alqeoq lsnur Snrpn^ou e sdole^ep oq^{ lstruoqr rql .

Ye1.They saw shipsdesccnd ovcr rhe horizon and oblervcd lhe curvedshadowofthe canh on rhe moon during a Iunar eclipsc. the If post could not have casl a shadoyr' roon. Thcn. wc do nol feel thc movcmcnt or thc wind bccausceverythingaround us.174 Predicting Short Reading Readthe folbwing passagc and find threc prcdictions.Thenthe Nonh Polctills awayfromlhesun and I he seasonsre rcvcrscd. Allhongh the eanh is spinnirg at a spccdof over one lhousandmilcs an hour. a On March 23 and Septcmbcr2I. thc GreekastroromerEraloslhenes noted thal at noon on thc first day ol summcr.aDd the sidc turDcd arr. But therc wcrc ancientGrcekswho had known rhis rwo thousandyearsearlicr. plus lhe tiltiDg of fic earth or its axis. in 200 Lc. North Polc lihs loward lhc sun rhc and lhc northcrnhenlisphcrccxpcrienccs summerwhilc thc southerD hcmisphcrc haswintcr.five hundredmilcs !o lhc norrh. moving at thc samespced./ay fron thc sun will havc nighl. The eanh also revolvcsarouDdthe sun oncc cvcry year.yoll woliki find Lhedaysand nights equal cvcry placeyou went.orce everytwcnly-four hours. lfyou travclcdaround the canh on thcsctwo dalcs.from April through Septembcr. . rhe side ol thc cardt facingfic s!D will have daylight. At any given lime. rir'hen sun was at its highcs!. is The cffectis similarlo riding in aDairplaui. on il was reportedthat a vcrlical post cast a shado\'r'. WhcD thc snn's rays arc nearly overhead(ro1 whcn lhc earth is closcslrc lhe slln) aDd lhc days arc long. at The eallh spins.l Tums The eanh is round.no wind will blow lt oul.and sixreenlh-ccnlutyexplorcrsIikc Columbus and Magcllan provcd it.callsing!rs to havc day and night. iDclllding tbc atmosphere. Thc air moveswjth you. fiflccnlh. the sameday in Alcxandria.or rotatcson its axis. the earth had becn llal. lf you light a malch on aD airplanc. The Wo .ils rays shonero rhc botlom of a veflical wcll irl thc Syene.. great amounts of the sun's radialion arc absorbcdand thc wcalher is hot.Egypl.This ycarly rcvolnlkD. the North Polc is not lcaning $ward or away ftom thc sun. For example. causcsthc scasoDs.

lll i(lo) plnoM ollJll]tlo iql'JltH) 'Ltoaup ^ollt.ql uaq taaql punolltFp^ul nofJI NOII3Iq.rrr))o()1 slql) uolllpooJ tl!0lltJJl tnll iulo) oslpll!A/t J)UlS't118 latu.{epaql puu plno4{ noi salep o.Mnot aJuld ptlba sl46!Lt {JaAr Itub stttpa\t pull pltlo/Ano/i'stltp oN tt:.{-.^rr4 tlh\ ut$ a4J6u11]t{ 4trn )4t lo /p!s .&l eseql uo plro/L{ eql Punore pele^erl no ( anll trl()) tql-s^rlp isilll llo pl()M s! lt lolr iorlr ro il)rLr lD)tll)qrfillq uo!lJlpoid iql il)llFln ir! suolllpuo) iql purlor0li^r-illol ilrlllun tru no.Lls t )s111)rq )ou plnar tsadt4l IDLIuarq Pp4 tlub) a4]Ji ( pillulnJrq lollllu) tlonJlpird )ql )tll iLIr 'o.rd OI HSI'IDNE 9NISN .4t )utLtLtl^lliluD tv :urddeqlttM 3ulrttruosleqt tu!elJDsi uollr!p.) ^lsnol^qo-ilqlssod[l sl trol]!puor NOIIf.id Y NOITtrICAUd V I)I(IAUd gtI 3ul|rrpr.7 ^ropeqs e lsPJ e^Pq lou plnor lsod aql leu uerq peq qlee eql 'ri^)^ oH I U iri.IqlIUd lISISSOdWINY Ienba s1q3!uPUP s.IOdAH Y tno 1l^rolq III^i puln ou eueldrleup uo q)leu e IqBII noi (lrLLItJc suollrploJ rtlPllJ)Jl)nrl Jtuor II!.1uoll)lpJ slqll 'aup4tlDuD uo ')hatl $on rylDut)t ttt6! a(! lM pu!410u NOtrfI(!lud g'IsYsoud Y 't\$!Lt1^tJ4 uns 111/"1 )qt ttto4trtft paulit )p!s )4t pua Uiu[ap .IUd IVJIISH.^ sLro0lpllo) tql J! i|.olrrrql ruu(nr s! rluD.rl] suolllpLlol 'lui.

siua ir hadbeen rr hidden. .1lcen.rcnptnber thcIo awin L Thtrtturc tet$e with will is ustld Wcdktiont thdt arc tikll.xr fu.""r.y iral.t)t contetruc.r. If De war had ended a year €arlicr.tca dt bcltltfi e. 2./. 3. Imishr J p....".:lf rhe eclipsc is hidden.he {ff]ilt} n""" . Thc Jor nolak would. the Neverthelets. the Iwoulal .176 Predicting Sentence Patterns PREDICTION 4clryer Th€re lwiu be) an eclipse tomorrow /djsiv4 The eclipse{will be hidden} by thc ctouds. Lmishl J IMPOSSIBLE REDICTION P fwourdl dclin:IfI hadsludied.} pdssiv.I jcould I have passcd.4 It i1 rains. relatio ship lxprissedh th? settarcc is true... ) .). . many tlv. we {will gd wel.llcoutd I pass. lhe pholos {will b€ ruined.lil/e| lfrs(udled.t (Jbt . Snlce wat did ot nd ld kt." .the subinlctiv.t t...n/. At1! predietia rht:ttit bdtedou d pon eonditia.Iom werc n uted instntl olwas (Jot eran41lc.} HYPOTHETICALPREDICTION a."...d Jar hytotndiiil. l f I w e r er i c h . the prcdictit e :.l.".. With iI clauset. could. PROBABLE PREDICTION acrir.'s woutd have becn sayed.irrvcr rheeclipse rf werehiaaen. phoros rrre {['i"#J . Lmishl J Notes:Whcn witiflg ptedictiotls. Lmishr J p. $ milhr a u\. phoros .

LIl.'F/$ afl lf 'ssr. l i u u q r p l n o M ^ i l l r u .(H) IL'rltrqt(xliLI ro Jlqlqor(l sr slrolrrpJ.lrnj nJl .z lrlur 01fJsn rq rru).rrq(lnrLUrL's..r!rlr u sr tl lt .9 ')iD)s .{q .rre)rl] Jl 8 01 'IUJJrlrJl.{xo 'dn prLunq .q.rr.oiJpt'roMI.rr^.siqr jo rlrpJ rilupq) s ourva.'( 'Apn)s IllM i JM.9 rq plno^^Pp)lrcqlnluripllrqt 'p)zurr)lsurl r.iEp lo juoll DrlxJ LrDo^eq plno^\ )M lnoq ruo {rpq slrolr rln l)i^our .rrdor(l iti^4 J8puq rLIlJl t 'ijuluroru I1ur tqjrl.o))l. Ffwn arx .rpr )!lt p)telrurd p!q rortrur )ql lt .JI I 'sisnul).t llr^r! o15t ol pituiq sl ^.{l.st rpqr.l)alultlsUl s)lt^.s.lt .f .ln:))o torr ptp rlql uortrpuor rroprspqsr t€qtilro.)^PqplnoMtr ']r.td tltuapl $u /ZI SurD!prrd .! lll^ iulSu) )qt lrnt r!lt lt 'lroq .uorl)rprr(l P il(llss(x1rur ol suorr ut rrp)id lprnr$od. i i l '^.€ llrM lr 'P)^csrq 'ulutilu)lroJ p not sr !)rnr r-i .\ .( llrM uousnqlo)'tursird rrD u.toc o l .Urrolrp.{oLll jl Jlu 'isdll)r rLIl iis lllM i.)lr uu Lrr^liJ uo)u sr I|M lr Jl I 'piiollrrp .)iJ.p drur pEqouprto^iql fr rl rrrrq )^!q ftno^\ rFhrd nulur l|z 'i^tossrp --dllr^\lr rrtP^\ol p.q aqlssodwl qulpft ttoJ '^ oLrs Luntlll^ ulsJirll') o0 ^\oliq sdorpalllulJd[rrt.srqr lo LIrc:)jJLII:)qM)tD:tll\ttt .td lotlrLltodlH 6ulytlrlut.s ruiJr .t .lio.]sop )(l iilipl rrt prluq rsr . l D n u r t ( x l.Jn)r u lt 'IrltPl .tJrt pDLI.iiienrSrrpl iures rql rlo({s i^ JI t 'a P"/t"d --f 'f.rpr rLIlJt t .lo l)p \rrr r.{rl ol u suolr)11)ir(i ilquqor(l )srrlt Jorl)u) iiiuuLl:r 'suoutrya.lj ut ).z llr^'ls)^rl.rd.suo!1rlp2..lp.41 ol isn iJ(ILT UiI rn))O tOLr ^ollrJOiUrUluql iUO 'Sttuql 'ooltJlpiid l!)ll)rll(xl.rVrr7r'r p r 1a* b ff l s 'pr ssPQ Ino^ i)M P r/!1JI I .t:}Llt .ru lt wvd w117/"a/4 'P".^'l JI 'ri)lliq rrllnr qiu) purrlslrprnl plno^{ )^.r(1.r )llJLIl rllt urort llrJ rl(tde )qt JI 8 '^^olil 'riirpll) )tl).'rs(1ullo) lolr plrlo^\ 1l 'pruiJrsrp.r .\ Illtu iql l] 'DPl(lrlut pup.(d) (1) rt(lrs\o(tlur .M 't!litu.(ur.l)l)! sr rpSns I n .

If compurers could makc brcaklbst. (nrst). If thc oxy8crl wcrc coolcdsufficicnrly. 2. baby lhc would be a girl. Many lives would havc bccr savcdif scicrllisls (predicl) thc rcrnado. Complelclhe lollowing prcdidi(nlsby filling in lhc propcr form of the verb in parcn(heses. had it bluelitmusrcd. If the eggceil werc fcnilizcd by spermcarryingan . 5 . ir k) 7 . yr'ill not grow il they L PlaDis niuogel. If lhere wer. 8. preilicli(xrs l{)gical im.r'inter coDlcs. (lunl)lhc (liqucly). 8. lf he ate a balarceddic!. he would be hcallhicr.I.000 milcs hour. The calciumwould mclt if yorl (rcach)a speed (hcal)it lo 845"C. (hibcrnalc). ctcthc&tbwing ir any or Oeating C0nr verbform.'Do irrcgularvcrbs. bcars thc If thc iroDbar wcrc cxposcd air. way. If lhc nandardswere lowcr.ir would conlinuc iI irs orbil. If I could go anywhcrc in lhe world. 7 . morc studcnBwould pass. Cot pletifig Sentences. If thccompound bccnan acid. \_ .rrchromosomc. usingthc corrccl aginativc it t Thercwould bc fewcr tra!fic accidar:irs fea'pk dila I /)44'l a?tA &. a2p (bc) dcfi(icnt in 3 .ns.178 Predicting 5 . WheD \. If ftc sarcllilcwere nol inrerruprcd. Predicti. 6.tw Peoplcwould be hcahhier if The air would bc clcancr il Schoolwould bc casierif If human beiigs could lly. A satcllite go in1oorbit whcn it will pcr of 18. If we could conlrol lhc weadrcr.

Mse q)ns stnl) Jsn 'qder8ejsdro cJriJluasaqt txJlrrcJtql uo{ s3ulucJluJltql ssenS .Ie] 'sjcdPdalou Jo rlaql atlr^1puDsproM ro spreJLrcs3ulugcur InJosn lueuodrul lsoru tql pJlas '.{-tclnqeJol rno.sn sI ttlnululnlv < '.'xlut.lJt .IIrS CNT(IVAU 64I Suprlprrd .+tnpgo e^lt = $ua /puos :rlr. JJo.{rpssJ)rurrtr]M 'rnlBJds. rltql {)aq:.. I s! L|olleluloJlll puFu eql Jo atu.{ asu puP nol q}lM srtdgdtlotl lo spreJJsoql fu.lo plllLLlrqr iq t s! uo tqiSnorq leql ssiull!uv € Jnou u! ri^o pilrodsuprl surl ril9M 'sJttlll lLlilJLtl.:stoou ptoll 'turqt )zlJorutt! puP sPro^l Jql iJll)r-'rdot Jlt irpds rno.fuJ ol Jo 'ur{o rnlrr leql rsoqr illPlJJdsa'sproM ^^t o1 uolluallP lPd 9 g t € z I :.r.et = ttfipap peal ol .^tt 'siJu lras3u!^{olloJ II ru!slxo/l^3u!$r!!uaql nlrldruo) ol uoql tsn lltqt puP ritmr pIoM Jo lsll rql ^pnrs raqrisd aofprer /-oaa '-lrnp.a LmIDPrplll)sn(rl v sc poqlJJsaps! strolloruo.{ JsetrJlrloJ qsll8ug}o uolDnpold pup uolsurqrrdrlrorrLIl ol ltsse alqenlP^ulue sl{rBlnqero^ )ftel V fualMd :aulqllrrg /fuqnqoto\ s'I. lleu ro fueu()llJlpe qllM s8u!ueetu 'sProMpDleJ ro slrpd plo.ql Jo ^Pnls aqt = tlooqao \7&a |-oa6 ot ^e{e a)i. Lll 'z ')rllilus Iq ?"/Wrttt2r\ lillleoM .{ll^nru ! sl pullu rlll Iq pJslll.t$ = n66pt4ttsd pulut t-a4risd poolq pue u€aq eql Sul^lo^ul = tolrttst^olprDt slasse^ ueeq t.'Al!r!rDrlr Jo pobil e s! r! isrpr)q nod roj p.olpttt quea .

regularperiods b. The fieory thal thc canh is rhc ccnlcr of rhe Luivcrscis rbc cenrflc ulcory. parlial 7. hcal 4. of . Birds and airplancssccnrlo /q6. A devicedral mcasures heart movcmcnlsis a graph. in L Madamc Curic irrplrad maDylwcDlicth-ccntrlrywoutcDto collduct ticicnlillc rcscarch. A melal rhal can be slrelchcdin() wire is dcscribcd as lle . ln rhe springthc high school applicalions colleges. arc a.180 Predicring 6. a. irrcgular pcriuls . fhe ragwas satuntedwith oil. rTheseasons lhc ycar recur in cyclej.lch ol thcscsertcllccs. obscrvcd 5. Wcalher/r/dc4sts molc accurate$day lhat) cvcr bcforc. obey b. The cxperhnerrt was fionitored'ktreftorr. a. to 8. Thc branchof maficmatics thar dcalswith ntcasllrillgat)(l survcyingthc earrhh mclrv . rcsist L The forecast was f(x dark cloudslhal wolrld bri'lg prccipitdtion. A condirion in which thc hcart slopsbcadng is called ac anesl. I l.a. Vocdbuldry in Corltext. 10. @ srinularcd b. a. 7. a. fuu of b. C]rcle thc lctrcr ol thc aDswcrlhal bcsr nratchcsthe mcaningof lhe italicizcdwod as il is Llsccl c. Thereis no ikfaLlibkcure for canccr. lhc law of gravity whcr) thcylly awaylronr the eanh'ssurlacc. rcquircd 2. enllnicd of 8. dcsilncd b. urctr 9. prcdictions b. dcscripti{nts 6. a. perfect b.

r .^rlr ApLu poE.rnlpr.rr.re r.pJtclnrlmrJpst luql .sLtllots suorprrlppor^.D ! 'rJtsesrp prlrr.riqtu.p ot tlri)lllpr.tdrrcr ijr^ sr liioloro i(lr lt pue Jo i)urr:rsrqt'^ppo. c i q r u r s .uortsiub qrui]rot spro^{ lil i(x)rl3) .\ Inl)st]st tDql IllIs n^urpprr st SuruuD)s J:)ll)u. siiurutD^.rts sr tDllM € (Jinsc:)(u.rrl(lulJr .ro Ur sptoM.rs. p .plro^.uoltcrru(lul JUlJJds rlu)ol oI looq i)UalJJJr Ul 0 ('n .rd .rJllrp sritlreqr.r)s s)l orru DIqt Jlu_L )Llt ot l)urtpup JlJussud rip.^rrd .rrrlltiq^^ rurLur)l -)p or \1)|]ol] prqrlpM s.r.rtll sjt^ suL) ol :iutMolloJ ur.q t r r t r r ) ^ .I !uiddp.Intul:)d!u ur Iq tDoqe tllilnorq sJn-upll) .\ uonultuoJLrl .\ IIDiiL lpnls.rrlu.reauLueJrqtJosu Daql .rq) ll0 slsllq}q^{ llooq rqt lo tuorJiL0 LrlslltrtuorJo ilqet itll Lrs)s ptrcspn)MliI Jlqtss(xl t)Jlrs .{rl Jo (ln iplru itu s.rirrpew1!^ nl uo su^.rotL|lnUtlool p LtJrl^.rl(lrlluJur llrtsst .xiput ..\Lruots ilrDS zt s i ) s s o t.rllrssir(l . \ l e s r s J r r n o s .rt illt tlJq rloru tJljlotgnbJrl0.Lrclr9rldr)ird pup.l (.r(lsLrl sH(rliq pue piniJu]L s.trlUoruq sroPluqM z u Jtll a.qdsollne .r !te.l. q lUolPtnLUnDe P ')lqlss(xkur 4 l t ) r r L ' n b !) ) P u r u r s p p .LIt iql punorD uotleruojl rJLlll:J^.7' trrrs ruo.ti)rltL)i^{ Io stolu)ll)l ol4t r_tu lurlM . l x r o r I D r ) u r $ l ' I I i)slaDur 1l Ltoosnuqxi u ' L U r l q o r (^ r r l r l l i r .\ .4n_r silerpcr suriqter^{ rno puPsr^rlrnoslortuojunsrLI_L rr I iLIlJo slrL11 nr).r(i sroll||!.L . o r r .I(xklo ol pipr^or(l)^pLIlooq srqt LrrsrsDr)xrlo jrqtunlr V 6u!uubxs ' pisnctr pilu.u uortPuu(ll !J(rlrrlllpt so^to^ur x.iitruUurs rrollurrr.)iooqrqt Jo Iu)rtiqpLl({lu p.neLL|Jp 1qlsDDtll p)snc) urrots rLIt a) I8I SutD!pi.rut srurllLriJ l0J rlqel)lp)nlun:)Lll lrrprrd ol ijl pUD rinlurr ^l.\ rrrpird ot spnolr )qt Jo ujrp )ql l)(rc^Is ijllltficrlrrqt pilpntss. L l L a l itqlJiJlrDqr q )lqern_oelpun p '.rsrnorJo nru 'iiunsDri)r()r rrqlur^.{c^4lp uuLLrnq suq.{g rotrUoru ol rtqrssod r)pru srrlndtt()rrrrrolJrlr plrp lr s rll)tEs.qupiilltol .srrorlsilll) . rl l l o J o u o t ) r l d .)$uprre l)uq )rl) tc xipt rqt Ul sfroM iclus iqt r(l loo.\rprM IIv (l r. { 6u!pbau rqt atrrll(isotu.ssiur 'pnolr'iorqslllls rru lo irriJJp.^{{ txru rqr t ne rronrrp (l e sr{Ru pue slep ^lij tscd Jqt ri^o Llrr|!(l lJqtDr^\ rlll rLIt lprauriJ sro[ulJlap lsriJol(xoJ]Ju .{iqt rl)ILIM ullrpro iql Lrls.drurt rrns!iru rulll slu unrlsur uro.llt]olr^ pu!^a.

Opiriolr.r 1(r1heenrlh'sclir ale fro|n nrarr'nladt lhrough tilrLhl]asscs havcknown for a Iorrillinc Lhallhc Mcleorobgisls wasrcs.vcrl (lrsnncr will bc alrlcl(Jdo somclhing whelhcrscierllisls ncxr ccntury. howcver.000 lasl i(c agcoccurred n1. aboul 18.anlhc wcalhcrby nLrdyilrg \k) .llcdthc salLrrali(.lnrosphefc lhc Thc strak)sl)hcfc. baronrelcr. fog. corrlajns laycr 8as havcbccnd|1)p|ing ovcrAnlalcti(a con(cn0 atiorrs rnys. is deflcli(nr' ouc problcnr ozorrc (t oTotrc that frolccls(hc eallh l|'()nl stln'sharl ltll lhc a earth. lhis wanning trc|d will . Wcalbcrhasalways lhe 2.c \Lrllar dissolvc fiorc watef thar .onlinuc nnd il n).ll wc corltinue bLr l lassil lrcnres lhcy do orrthc iDcrea:ic lllc poirll whcrc il will bl. mcasurc(l .rkl an(i couldbc vcry (langc|(rus ifrcvcrsiblc chrrrgcs ol or'tll)|cr. Distikguishing Fdclfro. () lircls lhc lcvelol c.lly\ranllin!lsirrcc Thc eanh hirsbccn cyclcs warnlingau{l cooling.1lrllost)hcrc cor. !\.ir ncar lhc cquirt(n than do lhoseDcarLhcNonh aDd SouLh lhc As nlovinglowad lhe polcs.182 Predicting PolesThc warrrr.old air. dl lf as dew.Cn x)n dioxi(lejrr lhc is A sccord proLrlcnr lhc to.l lionl csca|iDg lrilht wjlhoLlt insulal(n Drcvcnt 1() as rnysand aclilrlt aD on lcrrrpcratllrcs lllc carlh rotrl(ifcachlhc ('x_ ol thc prolcction the almosphcrc. vapofin lhc air is nrxjlhcrpredi(L()r' (lisvtves thnn icc(l nnr. irllothef as by Armospheri. irr thc wrilcr Mark Twnin orlcc saiLl. or clouds.y t)ccirusing civiliz.i{ l}rc nir is salurillfdrvilh nloistLrrc. It rcmainslo bc scenwheLhcr nboutil in li'Ic l1). ol coursc. €xccss ou( wllcr is sqLrcc/cd wc havc rain or.cnlcnces (0). and lhcn yolrcin dislon flcasr.r hold nrr) rnorcwaicr 1ea.rr(l to dioxidcin thc air nray .This uDcqLral by winds nrc caosed lhc ()latioool lhc ta'lh is indi(iLorof thc prcssure.callcdgfccnholrsc illlrnrc(l glass a Srccnhousc.r. o.licrccllingcx(cssivc olll in firn(liorrs lhe likc .ncj lcnrl)criLtlrc lDinl.' Twarn fir bLrthc ktrcw lhe im[)da['e ol a was. The Anrcricarr as Lhem rrruch yorL as "Gct yourfacls n.Indicntewhclher ea(h (rt drcse:.JLr'( il r'.li{)n 0warcof (hc IbcL that olrr lcchrrical/irrdLrslfial Lreconrc wcalhcrnnd lhal lhcsc nllcr lhe tlral i|l changcs lhc carth's.rr wcatirer. nrffi(icrr! poirn.rrn I't J . il cools il siIks.Rcccntly.llr '(_!l\ h\r'1. thc gra(lu.rnrl)sphcrc al hc. llcccntly.Ikcl lhc en h . an opi'rbn F l () bcenof inlcrcsr melrand wonrcrr./onc ullravi(tcl (hcnla gI()uP llrall'nlnde ol havctlclcrllline(l lhnL rnlc. Wann air (. Thepoinl at which thc air carrnol the ou n wa n dny.snow bel v fic frccTir)g lenpcralurcs chcnricnl Todry lbere exislsa lhrc.nd soLrth healnlgofthc carrhcauscs a1r.rcplnting cool expands rises. of havc sciclllisls ycarsa8o.llescarchcN at an alarnljrril the lhc ca h and (lcslI1)yirrg oTor)c arcfisinfl iion icals callcd chlo|1)llLrorocarLx)ns cllecl. ilrslas hoLlca js c.rppcaring walcr is squeczcd ol Lhcirir' we sccLhis oul rhe drot)s. Thc inrounl oflvatc. and 10 lhe thc thal hasmovcdtorvnrLl cqrrator rel)ln(c dsingwanD air on thc surlace vlindt Ean lvcn rrorlh. Mariner!uscdl(r fore. nloislLrrc. h nnrie aD(illor a scicnlisl '1 fcpresenls lncl (i_) or idcnlifyirg Iacls.rLx)n nnxm.

E .roJpa a)uo aql 'zr 'uo!rnllod luozo Jteurtlllr) ol rlqp .lJuolM AlJellsn E ^alll rsn?Jcqou.tllroJ uns JqI '9 '.)q rJ^ru 'II lll/LlsduloquptunH rrqlelM eql loluo) 01 alqp rq l.il JgEaql rprulu. 'iiunDur)seJ lSoloroelJur .lllJo JlspMp alp stseJoroJ rJqlltM ' .quE oql . 'rrqtean^ar{t lolerlpul up sl rtnssrtd Jltcqdsorulv ' 8 Jo 'spulM sasneJ Lrollelols.qJ ' a sl Jo 'ulBrp ocueqoou ql!$ Iepol l{lum puEJE€lc €8t SurDrpeld .JrrJIJs.^ou llu stsllurlJs ' 0 1 'salrir BullooJpue BulrulEAqiSnorqlsissedque. ^luo ueJ slslnolorD Jo l 'sDrraluasasaql q)er ut pasnsl se proM psztrlplt 1! or0 Jo 6uluerur Jo cqr srqrl€ur $aq lpql raMsue aql Jo relrgl oql clrllS lartroJ u! A|tlhqorot . ".L 'sa^rllno slo. rql.?"30 ST'II>IS 9NINAJSI'I 'postc^araq louupJ lr /soSugqJ clpullp s.r^rDnpordun q o^lDnpord P 'alurrJ puq rql asnPraq s! ra^u rlrN Jtll Suolec^lr rldoad.{uPW Z 'quer rr.lqlllulur rq lr^alr lllM tiultser oJr llprM .

liqucller a. sh. Wc uscd . b. Prcrc. aonccnlralc wriling dowD thc nlain poinls. ro1fe. lron is a very ve alitu sLrb\l. No onc has cver inve]nle(l perpclual goin8. ou Duringfie fornlsolwo|tls lo savclime.orrec! anylhing thal is not l:lcar. fo|m bLr!nrakcsurewhal yol wrilc is co|nplctc cvidcncc. pcrmancnl Hints:Reriew Note-Taking To skills. Thc windshieldwas trrilcfe.roJl. b.espccially rcvi$.ld lcxlbookchaplcrwhcDcvcr thc le(turc. corrccl ollllinc or Don't woffy aboLrl usingflrll scntences. symbols.trry. hardcncd 11. shorlcned and Uscabbr€viali()ls. Thc r. s()w a. many-sidcd 5.nccbecause can bc Lrse(l a grcnl nLrnberof a. brokeninto pieces h. Reread left olrl and .The computcr has a word processing]4l. arrd many sul)porling dchils (s ch ns examflcs.r'. lhc Take noresas you Iislen Io lhe leclurc "Thc wondcr of walcr. in anylbing Fill 7. 5. R€vicw your noles pefiodically.the more you will rcmcmber./ whcrc lhc accideDl .ling wilh lhc iulo dridfor cerllrrics havcbccrlconvcfLcd g. cuoughlo rcad.rdcrrs 3. The more yoll 8. dry in i1 4.rn thc nrcunlainsidr was duc to lbc hcavy winds and rain. write clcaflysLr you havc your nolcsas soonas possible aflcf class. bc{brca ten. b. capabiiiry all fioli<rn nrachiDc. Lands rhat hrcrc useof irrigarion." PracLicc Thcn use your nores10 complclc lhc skills you havc dcvelopedin this course. wcaringaway a. r. 2.Dor11 6. !o errcrSy kecpthcm 0. nlacl]inc$rcquirc a 9. rccopy you can rcadwhar you wro(c. Lo sllcccss. hardcn€r of 6. I 4. abundart b. .184 Predi. your rolcs. nn)isl a. possilrlc.I|crryoLrr skills esscrtial acadcrnic arc cood rrotc-lakinll followingl rcmcnrber lhe l. b. pcr{ccl grantrrar. Add./to renrovcthc dricd painl. dclact a. nexl €xercise. building up victiIn ha(i brrnpc{l his 7.1s artd the as !o explanalions) pL'ssiblc hch you Lrndcrsland rcntcnrbcr nlaiD poi1llr.

.< lUar4JIpJq llll|1uorlBJrunrrlrooJ ^^oq .1 rno.ijlH.M slrqeqBuqpes.l9trpotll ot +)u rate^ splnblr loqlo ueql lr/uols sld)J pLrD stprq raleM 'saztcjJ ucqM spupdxr tl l! teql ul splnbll rrqlo Jo lprld.j.1uar4Jlp llr^ rq lue-reJJrp IIr.!ro$l.M Jql Jo JOIOJ lDlnleLr . arnrnj .LreDo luqt..f !t6' rq uopernpa ue Bulllo3.M lo r)Ll|-.ruoleUodsuplMoq ./ resM II!/d usruoM puE uaur leqM .aldoed..€l . SJNIOd NOISSn)SI(I ..Moq ssnJslc r8elup^pEslp aq p1no.I J 'Jrntrrl rllt-irr uolteurroJulJql ol Surpro))e (J) rsleJro (J) Jtul sr stuarurlEls8ru^rolloJ )qt Io qJpJ lrqDq..quer rqt ]o squ$-rnql lnoqp srr^o) LrpDo.{ s.qt ur punql sl ri)l€^^ ' z 'pJlprurlsJrr^o .01 'plnbll&Dulprous s!.z apprr cq llt^.uoq rno ^loq .8 .ql iqlJo aSprlMoulp lulql I .l suol)lparct a{pur uorrpuFpul 'sn o.Moq. ?M ' I 'Jnlq ro LlnJ$ s! Iue.zl .Hueq) nr.ql .suutql Bunll 'sroP r)epns pusl iql se lsn!s tllEI plrpsrrlptunolll J)ullnsLrpa)o sprl JrU 9 'sluriurLLl silllupnb snouj. ". [] Jo lsow 't 'arsJns t.l1 u .uos .^rllnq stslluclJS rqt 'sruslup8to Ilr?ol llr)sal(j s! ll tsuuJnqtur^los lpsli^l(rn iLIl prllpJ sl .ued. lu aJJrp llt^.rluql /.{ isn 'arntiaj a 6u!p utt tstzpu n 4t (8I SurDrpJd .€ cq pal o^ur aq nr^^1eql8urq1ruos .louJ el o) JJIe^^ JL J() Lrprro .otojMJ)uo orJJ!) joteto uBrlox.ueiJo 'tJI Ltrstslxi 4ll s.M rurlurrlrp ()1srlou rno.r.l I .qI ' t 'punotS.{Lu Jod.I'^t#1f$:ftt#. E .qup.M s.{{oq .ils! lrte^ tu!^rl ruo{ claer Illpu!:juo tlps s.9 .ral9M lpllt s! lluDcl srqlJoerpr (rlput nql 'ol9ulllr rql.u5^ors!p rgl)uclrs p .rrpnn 1()ulnq rlldsorule.ql 3ul.)rodrlU .{llEnsn sl jtlp.q plnor rrlnJ.

and lic!. r v l t i c h n r i j t h l l ) c a o $lvc(l l)y ()bot hirnrllirrg t nll sLagcs l thc ofcrnlion. r / r/ i D n rvords for predicring jnclLr(lctvcnt nllr. cansuppofl by sureyoLr dcvcloflhe paragrafh suit!. lmaginntivc crcarrvc writing docs not demand suppoling nralcrial lo "provc" . Orhcr rransitiorr lon!. r l h . l o r y h r a s c . t ) r / 6 R o \ v . l s i g n . . r i r r r j \ L r s ( t lt { r c x p r e s s possibilily.\'vl. 4 . o l c o L r s c . ( ' d i c l i o l r .lIitr i. h e l r a r r m i s s i o r ri ( s c l l w o r r l d l n k c i r f r a c t i o Do l a s c c o n d . a . r k c . l ) u r c v c n l l r a l l yl c t l c r s s h o u l d n c v c r l a k c r n o r t L h a D d n y b c l w ( c r r i r n y l w o p o i r t s { ) D L h c E . 1 9 5 a N o r j c c h o w t h c p r c d i c l i o ni : i n r a d c i D t c f c s t i n g r l ( l c o n v i n ( j r r g[ ) y l ) o l h t h c d c l . yL r cp o s s i b l c 0 s c n d (iiryot lcss: :l letleranywhcrc on carlh in onc . l j o r r( ) L r r ( l l h c E a ( h .1 9 r ) : ) . / r h a l N i g b t a f i s c . lltattttlll.186 Predicting WRITING SKILLS Predlcting O n c g o a l o l s c i c n c ei s l o p r c d i c l r / h a t l h c w o d r r i g h l b c l i k ( i r l h c l u l L r r c . l i l r v i l l n ) r r l c ( l . l a 1 t l i l $o l t h t l L t t I R : Att lt1. i]1llt! littttrt. w h c n y o ! w i s h L o s c n d a n u r g c n l m c s s n g r . A 1 t h e l o c a l o f f i c e t h e f o r m w i l l b e f c d i n t o d D r a c h i n cw h i c h \ c a n s l h e n r a f k s o n t h c t a p c t a n d ( o n v c n s l h c n r i r r l o c l c . Ldter.f e w y c a r s l r c r n n o w . . and one ddy.. cvcr) lhc ol(1s t y l c b L r l n a np o s l m c n h a v c b c ( n k r r o w r r l o 1 1 i ( l l h c r r r .lriTc givingdcrails exanplcs. t c d i r e . lhc nain idca ol could sum r.N o t c a l s o L h e i n d i c a l c st h c h y p o t h r l i c n l n a t l r c o 1 l h c p | . Howcvcf. n ( l. 11c10]" witi g a Plediction or Poi on Wrile a paragraph one of lhc Discussion s.) o u v l i l l p u f c h a s c a s r a n d a r dl c ( c r l o f n o n w h i c h y o u w i l l w l e o r t y p c w h a l c v c t y o L r h a v c r o \ r y . T h c f c n r c . y s a r c l l i t c . ' 1 / ! w v c .any concrctccvidenceyou can providc will make yolrr parrgrtlh rorc cffeciivc or nlikc il rhal mer and womenwill dress morebelievable. cxamplc. . l n h o u f s .I n . or Your conclusiorl exprcss waming or hope fLrrthc Iu!ure. i l .t h c d o o r ' t o ' ( l o o r d c l i v e r y r v o u l d c x t c n d l h i s l i r c l o n ' v c r .rw. foinl Ho\'!evcr.dfkr n while.tu tltc !. o u l c d i n t h e a p p r o f f i . L f i c . Thcn orake alrcady wcar pants. A f l h r l r C C l . l s . 1 t h c l o l l o r v i n gp a r a g r a p ht h c w f i l c r I f e d i c t s t h . you predict For Lltal rr you yourclaimbypointingout $'ome by lhe lwen!y-lirsl century. a u d p i c k r d u p a t l b c d c s r i n n t i o nw h c f c t h c y a r e r r l x x l L r ( c ( i ( ) 1 rr L ) l i n k w T f o r n l i d c r r t i c a l i t h r h c o n c y o u i n s c r i l r c d .T h c s c w i l l t ) r r r a d i o e du p l h c r r c i r $ t r c l . l i l c ( i r o d e s c r i p l i o n f h o w l h c s y s t c n lw i l l w o r k a u d l h c ( l i s c r r s s i ooll a l ) o l c n l j i r ll i 1 1 ) L ) l r n r u s t o J l h c l u l r r r c l c D s cw i t h L t/ 1 / .f r o b l e n r s o l p r i v n ( y .inrilr d/ l/rf P. p T h c c x a m f l c f a r a ! r a p h b e g i D sw i l h L h t i r r l r ( X l L r .I h c r l l o ( l n lr 1 ' d / / / ./r' p ( N c w Y o r k i I I .

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