ENGLISH GRAMMAR

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Past Continuous Tense
English Alphabetic Parts of Speech Sentences ³ Verb to BE ³ Verb to DO ³ Verb to HAVE Nouns Countable Nouns  Spelling Rules for Plurals  Uncountable Nouns Definite & Indefinite Articles 
         

               

Future Continuous Tense Present Perfect Tense Past Perfect Tense Future Perfect Tense Present Perfect Continuous

Pronouns Object Pronouns  Reflexive Pronouns  Relative Pronouns  Making Questions How any/ some/ Making Negative TENSES Present Simple Tense  Past Simple Tense  Future Simple Tense  Present Continuous Tense 

Imperatives Modals Comparing Adjectives Adverbs Active & Passive Transitive & Intransitive Verbs ... Prepositions Question-Tags ´ Conditional if Reported Speech Countries and Nationalities 

   

English Alphabet

Capital Letters
A N B O C P D Q E R F S G T H U I V

.1

J W
.2

K X

L Y

M Z

Small Letters
a n b o c p d q e r f s g t h u i v

j w 

k x

l y

m z

Consonant Letters
b c d f g h j k l m n p q r s t

v w x 

y

z

Vowels Letters
a e i o u

Parts of Speech

Noun

Ahmed, book

Pronoun

I, he, she, it, etc. ««..

Verb Adjective

Play, played, will play

rich man

Adverb

Ahmed writes quickly. .

Parts of Speech

Preposition

Ahmed goes to school.

They traveled by plane.

Conjunction . Interjection

Ali and Ahmad visited us yesterday. Alas! She died. . !

Parts of Speech

Article : a, an, the

a
.
an

This is a book. . This is an apple. . This is the book I bought yesterday. .

. .

the

:

: Ali doctor. : Ali is a doctor.

(

):

Sentences

Simple Sentences Compound Sentences Complex Sentences

Simple Sentences
: : I saw a boy. The boy was riding a bicycle. : I saw a boy riding a bicycle.
(1 (2

Compound Sentences

: and/ but /or

and: Ahmed did his homework yesterday. Anas helped him.
: :

Ahmed did his homework yesterday and Anas helped him.

Compound Sentences

Khaled is rich.
:

but: He is unhappy.
:

Khaled is rich but he is unhappy. or: We can play football. We can watch TV.
: :

We can play football or we can watch TV.

Complex Sentences
: Main Clause Subordinate Clause : Noun Clause Adjectival Clause Adverbial Clause

Clause & Phrase

A clause is a combination of words containing a verb and has a complete meaning. : . I saw the man who was carrying a stick.

A phrase is a combination of words forming part of the sentence but without a verb. : . I saw the man carrying a stick.

³Verb to BE

³

It is used as a principal and a helping verb.

:
Subject Present Past Past participle ( I He, She, It We, They, You am is are was was were been been been )

Verb to BE ³
. . :Examples I am a pupil. They are boys.

³

Negative Sentences with the verb to ´ BE

³

We make negative statements with the verb to BE by using the word not after the verb to be. ( ) (not) .
Affirmative
I am at home. You are tall.

Negative
I am not at home. You are not tall.

Making Questions with the ´ verb to BE

³

³Yes´ or ³No´ questions and short answers

:
³Yes´ or ³No´ questions
Affirmative

( ) ( )
Short Answers
Negative

Be

+Subject

+ Complement

Yes + Subject + Be

No + Subject + Be + not

Are Were

you the boys

a teacher? at school?

Yes, I am. Yes, they were.

No, I am not. No, they were not.

Verb to DO ³
:
Subject Present

³

It is used as a principal and a helping verb.

Past

Past participle ( )
done done

I, you, we, they He, She, It

do does

did did

. .

Verb to HAVE ³

³

It is used as a principal and a helping verb.

:
Subject Present Past Past participle (
I, you, we, they He, She, It have has had had had had

)

. .

Negative Sentences with verb to HAVE as a main verb ´ ³

Subject

+ do/does/did

+ not

+ have

+ Complement

I He They

do does did

not not not

have have have

a car. a new watch. breakfast this morning.

Making Questions with the verb to HAVE as a main verb ´
³Yes´ or ³No´ questions

³
Short Answers
Affirmative Negative

Do/Does/ Did

+Subject

+have

+ Complement

Yes + Subject + do/does/did

No + Subject + do/does/did +not

Do Does Did

you he they

have have have

a car? a new watch? Breakfast this morning?

Yes, I do. Yes, he does. Yes, they did.

No, I do not. No, he does not No, they did not.

Verb to HAVE as a helping verb

´

³

Verb to have is used as a helping verb to form the perfect tense. .

:
They have lived here for two years. Adel has just finished his work.

Negative Sentences with verb to HAVE as a helping verb ´ ³

.

not
:

I have lived here for a long time. I have not lived here for a long time.

Making Questions with verb to HAVE as a helping verb ´ ³
³Yes´ or ³No´ questions and short answers : . : They have lived here for a long time. Have they lived here for a long time? Yes, they have. No, they have not.

Other Uses of Verb to HAVE

´

³

To express necessity in the present and past have to, has  to, had to. : . I have to leave now. ________________________________________________ With some modal auxiliaries. : . You had better see a doctor. ________________________________________________ ____ To show that something is caused by another person. : . I have my shoes cleaned every week.

Nouns
Nouns are words we use to name: : .
People Things Places Ideas Feelings man, father, teacher, neighbor, « book, table, sugar, fruit, « school, street, city, house, «.. freedom, honesty, truth, «. happiness, anger, boredom, joy, «.

Countable & Uncountable Nouns

Countable Nouns: are things that are counted as one, two, three, and so on.
: .

Uncountable Nouns: cannot be counted.
. :

Countable Nouns

These nouns have singular and plural forms. . 

Before singular countable nouns you can use a/an.

(a/an)
You cannot use singular countable nouns alone without words such as: a, an, one, my, your, his, etc. .

Spelling Rules for Plurals

We form plurals of most nouns by adding ³s´ to the singular noun. ³s´. Singular one book one horse Plural two books many horses

Spelling Rules for Plurals

es

sh, ch, z, x, s

Singular match bus dish box

Plural matches buses dishes boxes

Spelling Rules for Plurals

ies
city baby
.

y

y
Plural cities babies

Singular

s

y
Plural boys keys

Singular boy key

Spelling Rules for Plurals

es

o

Singular potato tomato
.

Plural potatoes tomatoes

s

o
Plural radios zoos

Singular radio zoo

Spelling Rules for Plurals

es

v

fe

f

Singular knife shelf
:

Plural knives shelves Plural classrooms policemen

Singular classroom policeman

Spelling Rules for Plurals

:
Singular man woman child person foot tooth goose mouse Plural men women children people feet teeth geese mice

Uncountable Nouns

Uncountable nouns cannot be counted.

es , s
: salt, coffee, tea, food, meat, gold, music, blood.

an

a

Uncountable Nouns

flour information butter sugar news milk rice rain cloth

salt coffee food gold glass paper wood steel music

meat knowledge tea blood cheese bread furniture grass marble

Uncountable Nouns

. :
Coffee is a traditional drink in Saudi Arabia. Milk has many minerals.

. Two cups of tea are not enough for me. Five liters of oil do not operate this machine.

Definite & Indefinite Articles
a/an
are used as indefinite articles. .

The
is used as definite articles. We put a before a noun starting with a constant sound. . a We put an before a noun starting with a vowel sound. . an

Indefinite Articles ³a´ & ³an´

We put ³a´ before a noun starting with a constant sound. . a We put ³an´ before a noun starting with a vowel sound. . an Vowels :

a

e

i

o

u

Indefinite Articles ³a´ & ³an´

We use a/an
Before a singular countable noun. Before a job, a particular group of people or a nationality.

.

a table an egg . Saleh is a doctor He is an engineer. She is an English woman. He washes his hands ten times a day. (means every day).

With numbers that mean every.

´ ³

Indefinite Articles ³a´ & ³an´

We DO NOT use a/an
No article is used with abstract nouns and the names of metals. . No article is used before plural or uncountable nouns. . There are books on the table. Milk is good for you. Love, beauty, hatred, wood, silver, gold

The Definite Article ³The´ ´ ³
´ ³
A noun that is the only one of its kind. Names of rivers, seas, oceans, etc . A noun which is the object of a sentence. The names of musical instruments.

The is used before: :
. . ........ . .
The river Nile The Ka aba The Arabian Gulf The Red Sea Umar answered the question. Can you play the piano?

The Definite Article ³The´ ´ ³
The is used before: : Names of some countries. With some time expressions. With dates. With some general expressions. . . ´ ³ The United Kingdom The U.S.A. at the weekend in the evening On the first day of every month. Listen to the radio/news. Go to the market/desert.

. .

The Definite Article ³The´ ´ ³
Use article with the name that is repeated. . No article is used with the names of studies of subjects. No article is used before such words as school, home, bed, work, etc. No article is used before such words such as day and month names. . I do not like science. My favorite subject is mathematics. I am going to school. I always go to bed early. I saw a man. The man was young.

....

.

on Monday, in June in summer (sometimes in the summer). before breakfast.

Pronouns
A pronoun replaces a noun.
Subject Pronouns Object Pronouns Possessive Possessive Adjectives Pronouns Reflexive Pronouns

I you he she it we you they

me you him her it us you them

my your his her its our your their

mine yours his hers its ours yours theirs

myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourselves themselves

Pronouns
We use a pronouns instead of a noun when it is clear who or what we are talking about . .

Examples Ali is a good student. He has passed all his tests.

Object Pronouns

We use an object pronoun After a preposition.
Do you live near them? Send the box directly to me.

After to and for with verbs like make, give, send, lend, pass, take, show.
The little boy made it for her.

Reflexive Pronouns

Reflexive pronouns are used:
for emphasis
Did you do the decorations yourself ? I did the painting myself.  

With some special expressions
Help yourself . Enjoy yourself. Behave yourself. I live by myself. (I live alone) 

Relative Pronouns

The relative pronouns are used to join sentences together.
. : . . -1

who which

. that . whose

. . -2

Relative Pronouns

Who

[

]

.

:

who

Here is the man. The man is a doctor. who The man : Here is the man who is a doctor.

:
1) The man came here. The man is a doctor. The man who came here is a doctor 2) My friend swims well. He lives here. My friend who lives here swims well.

Relative Pronouns
Whom
.
[ ]

: The man came here. I visited him. ( ) The man whom I visited came here.

whom

:

whom

him

:
1) The man was working with me. I paid him. The man whom I paid was working with me. 2) This is the girl. You gave her a flower. This is the girl whom you gave a flower.

Relative Pronouns

Which

[

]

:

.

which

He found his book. He lost it yesterday.

which
)

his book

him

: ( He found his book which he lost yesterday.

:
1) This is the house. I live in it. This is the house which I live in. 2) This book is cheap. It is very useful. This book which is very useful is cheap.

Relative Pronouns

That

[

]

:

.

that

This is the boy. You met her. This is the boy that (whom) you met. I have a bird. It sings. I have a bird that (which) sings.

Relative Pronouns

Whose

[

]

:

.

whose

This is the man. His car hit the boy. This is the man whose car hit the boy.
the man
. car
whose

car

Making Questions

: Helping Verbs : am ± is ± are ± was ± were ± have ± has ± had ± will ± would ± shall ± should ± can ± could ± may ± might ± must ± ought to : Are they doctors? They are doctors. Can they help us? Can she help us? Will you go to the market? 

Making Questions

:

do

s :

(1

They play tennis. Do they play tennis? I write books. Do you write books?
( )

: does

s

(2

: Ahmed plays tennis. Does Ahmed play tennis? Huda watches TV. Does Huda watch TV?
( )

Making Questions

: did : They watched TV last night. Did they watch TV last night? 

(3

I played football yesterday.  Did you play football yesterday? ( ) : .
No Yes

Making Questions

:

Wh Questions
Where? When? Why? What? Which? Who? Whom? /

Making Questions

Wh Questions (Cont.)
Whose? How? How many? How much? How long? How old? How far?

Steps for Making a Question

: When, Where, Why . ( )
helping verb

(1 ..etc (2 (3 * * * (4 (5

:

do does did
. .

s s

Steps for Making a Question

:

.

They are going to eat meat. What are they going to eat? meat they They played tennis at school. Where did they play tennis?
ed
. .

are

*

did at school
.

*

Steps for Making a Question

: I : you we you you I your
who

my
what

.

:
Who broke the window? What describes accidents? Ahmed broke the window. The book describes accidents.

How
How
He was very pleased when he met his friend. How was he when he met his friend? Thirty boys are in this class. How many boys are in this class? I am twenty years old. How old are you? You paid five pounds for this coat. How much did you pay for this coat?

How many How old

How much

How
It is 450 KM from Dammam to Riyadh. How far is it from Dammam to Riyadh? This rope is two meters long. How long is this rope? This fence is four meters high. How high is this fence? Sami is one meter and a half tall. How tall is Sami?

How far

How long How high How tall

/ some / any
.

some

1) We have some books. 2) Somebody was there. 3) He is somewhere.
.

any
:

1) Do you have any books? 2) Is anybody at home? 3) Is he anywhere?

:
1) We do not have any books. 2) I did not see anybody. 3) He is not anywhere.

Making Negative
:

not

Helping Verbs are: : am ± is ± are ± was ± were ± have ± has ± had ± will ± would ± shall ± should ± can ± could ± may ± might ± must ± ought to : They are happy. They are not happy. He can help us. He can not help us.

Making Negative

Long forms & Short forms of Verb to be
(Affirmative) Long Forms
(written)

(Negative) Long Forms
(written)

Short Forms
(spoken)

Short Forms
(spoken)

I am He is She is It is You are We are They are

I¶m He¶s She¶s It¶s You¶re We¶re They¶re

I am not He is not She is not It is not You are not We are not They are not

I¶m not He¶s not She¶s not It¶s not You¶re not We¶re not They¶re not

Making Negative

.
not
:

.

(do, does, did) :
:

Affirmative
some both««and sometimes as«««as all every ....... .... either«..or ......

Negative
no, any neither««««.nor neither««««.nor never not so««««..as not all no, not every

TENSES
1. Present Simple Tense
(What always happens?)

. . : every generally rarely always often never usually sometimes from time to time

TENSES
1. Present Simple Tense
(What always happens?)

I go to school everyday. They usually sleep at 11.00 p.m. We often drink coffee in the morning. She is never late to school. . s Ali drinks milk every morning. A cow gives us milk.

:

TENSES
2. Past Simple Tense (What happened yesterday?)

.

ed

Irregular verbs :
last ago

yesterday

in 1988 AD, in 1415 AH:

TENSES
2. Past Simple Tense
(What happened yesterday, last night ?)

was were

I, He, She, it They, We, You

I watched television last night. They visited their uncle yesterday. We went to Makkah two months ago.

TENSES
3. Future Simple Tense
will happen tomorrow, next week, in the future?) (What

3.
. . .

will will

shall will we I
. :

shall shall

tomorrow

next

in the future

in 2010 AD, in 1430 AH :

TENSES
3. Future Simple Tense
happen tomorrow, next week, in the future?) (What will

I will go to school tomorrow. They will play football next Friday. He will join the army in the future. : am , is , are going to

TENSES
4. Present Continuous Tense (What is happening now?) .

am / is / are +
I He, she, it They, we, you :
now

+ ing

:

am + verb + ing is + verb + ing are + verb + ing

at the moment

look listen

at the present time

TENSES

4. Present Continuous Tense (What is happening at the moment?)

I am reading at the moment. They are watching television now. Look! The bus is coming.

TENSES

4. Present Continuous Tense

:
like wish hope appear believe love hate hear fear trust want dislike think consider understand prefer feel seem fit

TENSES
5. Past Continuous Tense (What was happening? )

.

was / were +

+ ing
:

:

when

while

as

because : .

TENSES

5.

Past Continuous Tense

While I was sleeping, a thief entered my room. . When we were eating, my father came. . ( ( )

)

TENSES

5. Past Continuous Tense

:

:

A thief entered while I was sleeping .

My father came when we were eating .

TENSES

5. Past Continuous Tense

:
while

. while .

TENSES
6. Future Continuous Tense
(What will be happening?)

.

( will + be +

+ ing )
:

:

at from«to ..

by all

in after

TENSES

6. Future Continuous Tense

By 7.30 tomorrow, I will be flying to Cairo. They will be waiting for you at 5 o'clock .

TENSES
7. Present Perfect Tense . (What has happened?)
Past participle

.

has / have + past participle
: since yet recently for ever already

I

:

just never

TENSES

7. Present Perfect Tense

I have lived in Riyadh for six years. I have not visited him since 1995. Ahmed has already finished his homework. She has written three letters just now.

TENSES
Since & For
Since means from some definite point or period n the past up to now
‡

. . since
2 o¶clock Monday yesterday last night last week/ last month/ last year 1996 last century he came««««

´
For means a definite period of time

³
‡

´

³ for
a moment 3 minutes an hour many hours 3 days/ 5 weeks / 4 months a year 10 years a century

TENSES
8. Past Perfect Tense
(What had happened?)
Past participle

. :

had +past participle
:

I

after when

before as soon as

TENSES

8.

Past Perfect Tense

I had washed before I prayed. They went home after they had finished their work. Ahmed had done his homework before he went to school. As soon as they had bought a car, they drove to Makkah. .

TENSES
9. Future Perfect Tense
(What will have happened by ?)
Past paticiple

. :

will + have + past participle
:

I

by

at

TENSES

9. Future Perfect Tense

By 2.00 this afternoon, I will have finished my work. At 10.00 tonight, she will have written five letters.

TENSES
10. Present Perfect Continuous Tense
(What has been happening?)

.

has / have + been +

:

+ ing
:

I

for

since

TENSES
10. Present Perfect Continuous Tense

I have been studying English for six years. She has been sleeping since 2 o¶clock.

(I am still studying English)

(She is still sleeping)

TENSES
10. Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Present Perfect Cont. : Present Perfect
Maha started making cakes three hours ago. There are now one hundred cakes on the table. :
Present Perfect Continuous Tense

She has been making cakes for three hours.
Present Perfect Tense

She has made 100 cakes..

Imperatives
Imperatives are verbs used at the beginning of sentences either in the affirmative or negative to indicate instructions, invitations, signs and notices or telling someone what to do.
. The Imperatives uses the simple form of the verb such as: walk, read, open,«.etc. .
‡

Imperatives
Give Instructions Mix the flour and the sugar. (Affirmative) Take two tablets every four hours. (Affirmative) Make Invitations Come in; make yourselves at home. (Affirmative) Please start; do not wait (Negative) or me. Tell someone what to do open your book. (Affirmative) (Negative) Do not forget to post the letter.

f

Imperatives
Give Warnings (Affirmative) Keep out! Danger. Make Signs & Notices (Affirmative) Push. (Affirmative) Insert 2 X 50 SR. (Affirmative) Keep off the grass.. Make Requests Please open the door (Affirmative)

Modals
A modal has only one form of the verb for all persons, but it can have several meanings and time frames, depending on the context in which it is used.
. Form shall, should, will would, may, might, can, could, ought to + ( ) Modals have no infinitives or past participles. . must,

Modals
Modals Expresses: : Promise Determination Threat Example You shall take a reward. He does not want to obey me: but he shall. You shall be punished if you come late. You should obey your teachers. You should stop smoking. He will visit us tomorrow. I will travel when I like. We will do as you wish.

shall

should

Duty Advice or opinion

will

The simple future tense. Determination or promise

Modals
Modals Expresses: :
Possibility

Example

might

I hoped that I might succeed. I thought that the weather might change He can do it carefully. He is able to solve the problem. I shall be able to help you.

can, am/is/are able to shall be able, will be able could

Ability Ability in the future Past, present or future possibility / / Necessity The past form of must: past necessity

Fahad could drive his car a year ago. Ali is not in class today. He could be sick. Do not leave now. It could rain now. You must listen to your teachers.

must had to

Faisal could not come to our dinner party. He had to stay home to study.

Modals
Modals

Expresses: : Advice

Example You ought to help the poor.

ought to + infinitive ought to have + past participle

Actions that were advisable in the past

You ought to have studied. (You did not. That was a mistake)

Modals
Affirmative Negative Question Short Answers

Affirmative They should eat now. They should not eat now. Should they eat now? Yes, they should.

Negative
No, they should not.

He will leave. He would succeed.

He will not leave. He would not succeed.

Will he leave? Would he leave?

Yes, he will. Yes, he would.

No, he will not. No, he would not.

I might succeed.

I might not succeed.

Might I succeed?

I may sleep.

I may not sleep.

May I sleep?

Modals
Affirmative Negative Question Short Answers

Affirmative

Negative

I can do it. He could talk. We could have a test tomorrow.

I cannot do it. He could not talk. We could not have a test tomorrow. You must not go now. You ought not to help them.

Can I do it? Could he talk? Could we have a test tomorrow? Must you go now? Ought you to help them?

Yes, you can. Yes, he could. Yes, you could.

No, you can not. No, he could not. No, he could not.

You must go now. You ought to help them.

Yes, I must. Yes, I ought to.

No, I must not. No, I ought not.

Comparing Adjectives
1. Comparing Short Adjectives

than

er

:
Ali is older than Ahmed. My Car is faster than yours.

.1
‡ ‡

r . safer than safe simpler than simple
.

e
‡ ‡

er

i

y
easy heavy

y
‡ ‡

easier than heavier than

Comparing Adjectives

1. Comparing Short Adjectives :
.

.2

est

the
Everest is the highest mountain. This is the biggest building in Riyadh.
‡ ‡

e . the safest
.

e
safe
‡

est

i

y
the easiest easy

y
‡

Comparing

Adjectives

2. Comparing Long Adjectives
: . .1

beautiful dangerous important

difficult correct fluent
.est

er

than

more

Jeddah is more beautiful than Riyadh. French is more difficult than English.

Comparing Adjectives

2. Comparing Long Adjectives
:

.

the most Amal is the most beautiful girl in her class. This is the most important subject in this book.

Comparing Adjectives

2. Comparing Long Adjectives

good bad ( ) ( ) ( far little ) many much

better than worse than more than

the best the worst the most

:

less than farther than

the least the farthest

Adel is better than his brother at school. This girl is the worst one in her class.

(
as

)
..as (

as««..as not as«.as
)

. Ali is as tall as his brother. This bag is as big as my bag.
not as ..as

. Ali is not as tall as his brother. This bag is not as big as my bag.

Adverbs

[

]

An Adverb always modifies a verb.

Most adverbs are formed by adding adjectives. .

ly to the

ly
slowly happily

nice

nicely slow happy careful

carefully

[

]

Adverbs

There are many kinds of adverbs: :

Adverbs of manner: express how an action was done. . : I closed the window carefully. The soldier fought bravely. Adverbs of time express the time when an action is or was done. : . : I m going to leave for Cairo tomorrow. What s going to happen next?

Adverbs

[

]

Adverbs of place: express when an action is done. . : I shall stand here. I ve looked everywhere for my lost pen.
Some words that end in ly can be both adjectives or adverbs. Most of them refer to time. ly : . .

daily monthly

weekly yearly

A daily newspaper is published daily. We get up early to catch an early train.

Adverbs

[

]

Adverbs of frequency tell how often we do something : : . :
always usually seldom never often sometimes rarely occasionally

Verb to BE: Ali is always on time. Other Verbs: : Ali sometimes reads a book.

:

Adverbial Clause of Time
Conjunctions
when, whenever, as, as soon as, while, after, before, until, since
These words (conjunctions) link the adverbial clause of time with the main sentence.

.

: I found a watch. I was walking in the street. I found a watch while I was walking in the street.

Adverbial Clause of Place
Conjunctions:
where, wherever
These words (conjunctions) link the adverbial clause of place with the main sentence. . : Wherever he goes his brother follows him.

Adverbial Clause of Cause
Conjunctions:

because, since, as
These words (conjunctions) link the adverbial clause of cause with the main sentence.
‡

.

:
I stayed at home yesterday because it was raining.

Adverbial Clause of Manner

Conjunctions: As, as if, as though
These words (conjunctions) link the adverbial clause of manner with the main sentence.
. .
‡

as if :

He speaks as if he were a king.
. . was were

It looks as if it would rain. would will

Adverbial Clause of Purpose
Conjunctions: that, so that, in order that These words (conjunctions) link the adverbial clause of purpose with the main sentence. .
a) We use (may + infinitive) when the main verb is in the present or future.

.

(

+

) :

He works hard. He wishes to succeed. He works hard so that (that or in order that) he may succeed.
b) We use (might + infinitive) when the main verb is in the simple past.

.

(

+

) :

He was walking quickly in order that he might not be late.

Adverbial Clause of Result
We use: to link the main sentence with the adverbial clause of result. so + adjective or adverb + that
.

such + noun+ that

:
The man is so weak that he cannot walk. The student walked so slowly that he reached school late. He wrote such good answers that he got he marks. It was such a good performance that everybody applauded.

Adverbial Clause of Contrast
Conjunctions:
though, although
These words (conjunctions) link the adverbial clause of contrast with the main sentence.

.

:
He is poor. He is happy. Although (though) he is poor, he is happy.

Adverbial Clause of Contrast
Conjunctions:
as .as, so as
‡

These words (conjunctions) link the adverbial clause of contrast with the main sentence. .

:
Nabeel is as clever as his father. Sami is not so strong as his brother.
‡ ‡

Adverbial Clause of Condition
Conjunctions: if, unless (if not)
These words (conjunctions) link the adverbial clause of condition with the main sentence.

. : If we are ill, we go to bed. (conditional if type 1) If we work hard, we will succeed. (conditional if type 1) If we worked hard, we would succeed. (conditional if type 2) If he had fallen, he would have hurt himself. (conditional if type 3) Unless the rain falls, the crops will not grow. (conditional if type 1)

[

]
as ..as

as««..as not as«.as
[ ]

. Ahmed drives as dangerously as his brother.
not as ..as

. Hamad does not drive as dangerously as his brother.

Active & Passive

. . : Statements Questions Command

Active & Passive
A. Statements

Ahmed broke the window yesterday. Active . Ahmed ___________________________________________ The window was broken yesterday. The window was broken (by Ahmed) yesterday. Ahmed Passive by .

Active & Passive

A. Statements

Passive

Active

:
( . (Past participle). . . ) . to be by .1 .2 .3 .4 .5

Active & Passive

A. Statements

:
Active Ali writes letters. Huda wrote the lesson. Saleh will buy a car. Khaled is helping Ahmed. She has eaten the apple. Passive Letters are written (by Ali). The lesson was written (by Huda). A car will be bought (by Saleh). Ahmed is being helped (by Ali). The apple has been eaten (by her).

Active & Passive
A. Statements
:
am, is, are was, were shall be, will be am being, is being, are being was being, were being has been, have been had been can be, could be, may be, might be, must be, ought to be

to be

Active & Passive

B. Questions

Passive

Active

:
( . . . . by ) . to be .1 .2 .3 .4 .5

Active & Passive
B. Questions

:
Active Does Ahmed write letters? Did he eat the cake?. Will Ali buy a new car? Why is he using a pen? Who broke the window? Passive Are letters written (by Ali)? Was the cake eaten (by him)? Will a new car be bought (by Ali)? Ahmed is being helped (by Ali). By whom the window was broken?

Active & Passive
C. Command

Passive

Active

:
. ( . be . ) . to be let .1 .2 .3 .4

Active & Passive
C. Command

:
Active Passive

Do the work.

Let the work be done.

Open the door.

Let the door be opened.

Send this letter to your friend.

Let this letter be sent to your friend.

Active & Passive

. Active Ali does not write letters Dickens wrote those novels, didn¶t he? Dickens didn¶t write that play, did he? Passive Letters are not written (by Ali). Those novels were written by Dickens, weren¶t they? That play wasn¶t written by Dickens, was it?

Prepositions

.

.

A preposition shows the relation between the subject and the object. There are also prepositions of time and prepositions of place. .

Use of Prepositions
Prepositions

Use

Example

on

Days Day + morning, night + Afternoon, evening, date Special days To mean above

On Monday On Friday morning My birthday is on June 10. I will travel on the National Day. The tea is on the table.

Use of Prepositions
Prepositions

Use Season Year Month The morning The evening To mean inside

Example The trees grow in spring. I was born in 1968. The test is in May. I go to work in the morning. I go home in the evening He is in the masjid.

in

Use of Prepositions
Prepositions Use Example

at

Time Festival Meal times The weekend Noon Night To mean place

I will come back at 2 o¶clock. I will meat you at the school festival. I will talk to my father at lunch. We will travel at the weekend. We pray at noon everyday. We sleep at night. He is at the grocer¶s.

Use of Prepositions
Prepositions of Place
Prepositions Use Example

at

at an exact place at work at the table

He lives at number 5, King Fahad Street. Ahmed is at work. They are standing at the dinner table The cat is under the table. The teacher is in front of the class.

under in front of to
/ direction/place

I go to school everyday.

Use of Prepositions
Prepositions of Place
Prepositions Use To mean inside In a country In a town/street in bed In a building or area In a chair / Example Put this book in the box. I live in Saudi Arabia. I live in Al-Madina. The baby is in bed. You were in the club last night. Ali is sitting in his chair.

in

Use of Prepositions
Prepositions of Place
Prepositions Use Example

with from behind between

I write with a pen. I am from Riyadh. The wall is behind the class. Samah is sitting between Fatma and Salwa.

on

TV Time

Ali watches football on TV every Saturday. He arrives on time.

Use of Prepositions
More Examples
Prepositions Example

in on at near between opposite into onto

The medicine is in the bottle. The knife is on the table. Someone is at the door. Ahmed is sitting near the window. The house is between the school and the masjid. The bank is opposite to the post office. The electrician is putting his hand into the TV. The water is spilling onto the floor.

Use of Prepositions
More Examples
Prepositions Example

off out of across over/above under/below through among

The man is falling off the chair. The child is falling out of the window. The carpenter cut across the wood. The light is over (above) the table. The fire is under (below) the stairs. The ball is going through the window. The teacher is sitting among the students.

Use of Prepositions
More Examples
Prepositions Example

in on at near between opposite into onto

The medicine is in the bottle. The knife is on the table. Someone is at the door. Ahmed is sitting near the window. The house is between the school and the mosque. The bank is opposite to the post office. The electrician is putting his hand into the TV. The water is spilling onto the floor.

Use of Prepositions
More Examples
Prepositions Example

round in front of behind on top of at the side of along next to

The car is going round the tree. The child is sitting in front of the TV. The headmaster is sitting behind the pupils. The sweets are on top of the table. The garage is at the side of the house. The man is walking along the street. The bank is next to the baker¶s.

Question-Tags

. . .

´

³

* . * .

Question-Tags
Questions that we expect the answer Yes ´ ´ :

* There s a supermarket near here, isn t there?
Yes , there is.

.
.

(

)
not

.

*
Yes : *

* You come from the United States, don t you?
. Yes, I do. do *

Question-Tags
Questions that we expect the answer No ´ ´

1) You don t come from Saudi Arabia, do you? No, I don t. 2) It doesn t take long time by car, does it? No, it doesn t.
.

do/does 3) You didn t travel last year, did you? No, I didn t.
.

*

did

*

Conditional ³if´ ´ ³
1) will +

if + present
)

. If it rains tomorrow, I will stay at home. ( :

If you eat too much, you will become fat.

Conditional ³if´ ´ ³
2) if + past would +

.
If Shakespeare lived today, he would use different English.
. : if + subject + past
was

. ( would + )

subject+ would +
were be

.

If I were you, I would buy a new car.

Conditional ³if´ ´ ³
would have +

3)

if + had +

If he had lived in Taif, he would have been happy. If he had visited Makkah, he would have seen the Ka aba.

Conditional ³if´ ´ ³

0)
. (

if + present

present

) If you boil water, it becomes steam.
becomes

.

0)

if + present

instructions
Or Turn the radio off if it is too loud.

If the radio is too loud, turn it off.

If you are under 17, don t drive a car. Or Don t drive a car if you are under 17.

Reported Speech
. Indirect Speech There are four kinds of direct and Indirect Speech. : 1) Statement 2) Question 3) Command 4) Exclamation

Reported Speech
Statement Direct
³I live in Riyadh´ ³We are happy´ She said: "I have not been in the school library recently´. He said to me: "I shall see you tomorrow´. : : They said to him: ³We shall see you tomorrow. We shall visit Ahmed´.
and added that

Indirect
He said that he lived in Riyadh. They said that they were happy. She said that she had not been to the school library recently. He told me that he would see me the next day. (.) They told him that they would see him the next day and added that they would visit Ahmed.
say, says

: She says: ³I will cook the food tomorrow´. We say: ³We are playing football now´.

She says that she will cook the food tomorrow. We say that we are playing football now.

Reported Speech
Question

Reported

Direct

* : -1

:

asked Present Past Past Past Perfect .

. .

-2 -3 -4

Reported Speech
Question
Direct Indirect
He asked me what my name was. The teacher asked me why I was late. He asked me where my book was. if

³What is your name?´ ³Why are you late?´ ³Where is your book?´ :
³Is

if
He asked me if my school was very large..
do does

your school very large?´ .
³Where

do you live?´

He asked me where I lived. I asked him if he went to school.

³Does he go to school?´

Reported Speech
Question
Direct Indirect

) .(
³Where did you go yesterday?´ ³Did Ahmed buy a new car?´ : ³Who is your English teacher?´ ³What are your marks?´

did

+ had past participle
Sami asked me where I had gone the day before. Ali asked me if Ahmed had bought a new car. ask, asks They ask me who my English teacher is. He asks me what my marks are.

Reported Speech
Command

Reported

Direct

* :
ordered begged I advised told

. . .

( ( ( (

) ) ) )

-1

.
to

. .

Please, do

-2 -3 -4

Reported Speech
Command

Direct

Indirect

He said to the servant: ³bring me a glass of water´. The son said to his father: ³please give me some money´. The doctor said to me: ³Drink a lot of water´. He said to me: ³Do not go to the market tonight´.

He ordered the servant to bring him a glass of water. The son begged his father to give him some money. The doctor advised me to drink a lot of water. He told me not to go to the market that night.

Reported Speech
Exclamation : * -1
with anger with admiration with sadness that

Reported

Direct

:
with regret with joy

.
how, what:

-2 -3 :

.!

Alas, Hurrah, Oh :

Reported Speech
Exclamation

Direct

Indirect

He said : ³Alas! I will not find He said with sorrow that he my money´. would not find his money. He said : ³How foolish I have been´. He said with regret that he had been foolish.

Countries and Nationalities
: : ´ ³ :

i, n, ian, ish, ese
: .

Country Saudi Arabia Oman Algeria Libya Palestine Syria

Nationality Saudi Omani Algerian Libyan Palestinian Syrian

Country Britain Turkey China Lebanon France Switzerland

Nationality British Turkish Chinese Lebanese French Swiss

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

Prepared by: Mulla (2002)  Reference: ³Grammar For All Levels´ by Adnan Naim Edited by: Dr Saif H. Al-Ansari  

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