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Plant layout Part I

Plant layout Part I

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PLANT LAYOUT

PLANT LAYOUT FOR BAKERY INDUSTRY INTRODUCTION: Bread is major product for bakery industry, because which is major consumption by people. Commercially bread manufactured by three types like S2, S4 and family type bread. INGREDIENTS: Wheat flour, Yeast, Sugar, Salt, Water, Shortening, Milk solids. PROPORTION OF INGREDIENTS: Flour: The flour should be of good quality prepared from hard wheat with a protein content of at least 11 %. It should prove quite satisfactory in laboratory bread making tests. It is customary to give the other ingredients for 100-gram flour. Fat: The quantity of fat(shortening) used can be varied from 2-6%. Shortening improve the loaf volume. Fat imparts a velvety and softer crumb and improves the grain of bread. Water: The optimal quantity of water required for making a good varies with the hydration capacity of gluten in the flour. 100grams of good quality flour will require about 60-64 ml of water. Sugar: The quantity of sugar used in bread making may vary widely from 2-6%. It has been reported that a part of the cane sugar is fermented by yeast producing CO2 . Yeast: Baker’s yeast is usually incorporated at level of 2-3%. Yeast is made into a slurry and added to the flour before making the dough. The dough is allowed to undergo fermentation for 3-4 hours. Salt: Salt is added at 1.5-2.0% level in bread formulation. The function of salt in bread is three: 1. Improve the taste and flavor, 2. Stabilizes the fermentation process, 3. To give strength to the gluten. Fermentation takes place rapidly when salt is added.

Milk solids: Fluid milk is often used in bread made in homes or in small industries. Skim milk powder (SKMP) is used in large industries. The quantity of SKMP used varies from 3-8% for 100 gram of flour. EFFECT OF BREAD QUALITY: The number changes occur in bread when stored for a few days. These change known as staling of bread and are briefly described below: Crust staling: The principle reaction, which occurs in crust staling, is the transfer of moisture from the interior of the loaf to the crust. The crust processes considerable hygroscopic properties and so it absorbs moisture and becomes soft and leathery. The wrapping of bread on waxed paper or moisture proof films favors the staling of crust as it prevents loss of moisture from the crust. It losses the original aroma and flavors and develops an off odor and bitter taste. Crumb staling: The crumb becomes harder and more crumbly due to loss of moisture. There is marked deterioration in flavor. Bread stored at low temperature (0°C) hardened to a greater extent then that stored at 43°C but the bread stored at 43°C developed an off flavor and the crumb turned brown. Ropy bread: This rapiness in bread is caused by contamination of dough with B.mesentericus. The spores of this bacterium are not destroyed by heat during baking of bread. A sticky, gummy material, which can be pulled into threads, develops in the center of the loaf 1 to 3 days after baking. The bread also develops a strong off-flavor. MANUFACTURE OF BREAD: The stages involved in the manufacture of bread are: 1. The preparation if the dough, 2. Fermentation of the dough, 3. Baking. METHODS FOR PREPARATION OF DOUGH: Three methods are commonly used for the preparation of the dough: 1. Straight line method, 2. Sponge and dough method,

3. Mechanical dough method 1. Straight-line method: • • It is a batch process Mixing is conducted until the dough attains the desired smoothness and elasticity.  Minimum labor requirement  Less fermentation time  Better flavor Disadvantages:   Inflexibility require fixed fermentation time Ripe-ready dough must be baked when ready.

Advantages:

2. Sponge-dough method: This method consists of two stages; a) Formation of sponge, b) Development of dough a) Formation of sponge: The sponge contain about 50-60% of total flour to be used, the total quantity of yeast and malt and sufficient water to yield slightly stiff dough. b) Development of dough: The sponge is mixed with remaining quantity of flour and water and allowed to ferment for a short time 3. Mechanical method: • • • It is continuous method, No bulk fermentation and consequent losses are avoided, Allows addition of extra water and produces better bread from weaker flours

COMPOSITION OF BREAD: Ingredients Straight dough Method (parts) Flour Water Yeast Yeast food Salt Sugar Fat skmp 100.0 65.0 3.0 0.2-0.5 2.25 8.0 3.0 3.0 Ingredients Sponge-dough method (parts) Sponge 65.0 45.0 2.5 0.2-0.5 35.0 25.0 2.25 8.0 3.0 3.0 Mechanical method (parts) 100.0 60.3 2.8 0.5 2.1 7.6 3.0 3.0 Dough

Flour Water Yeast Yeast food Salt Sugar Fat skmp FIRST MIXING:

The ingredients are placed in the mixing bowl of capacity of 200 kg. The mixer is working under the double crank mechanism. The ingredients are properly mixed by the action of double machine. The time for mixing is 30 minutes. The resultant product is called as dough. FERMENTATION: The fermentation is done for 1 hour and the quality of bread depends upon fermentation period. Yeast plays a major role in fermentation process. SECOND MIXING: The purpose of the second mixing is to incorporate the air particles into the dough. The mixing time is 20 minutes.

DIVIDING: In the dividing sector, the twin pocket divider was used. The divider has twp pockets. The size and shape of the boxes are adjustable. So we get the required shape and size of the dough. ROUNDING: In the rounding process, the dough from the dividing unit through the belt conveyor and enter into the rounding machine. Inside the machine the spiral blades are provided to make round size. In the process the heat is liberated and the temperature of dough is increased. INTER MEDIATE PROOFING: In this process, the heat is removed from the dough, which is generating during the dividing and rounding process. The intermediate proofed has 75 trays and completion of one cycle requires 7 minutes. MOLDING: It is the final shaping and sizing operation. In this process, three pairs of rollers are rolled with different directions. The vanaspathi and sunflower oil was used as a lubricant for the roller. Then the thin molded dough is sent to the final proofer. FINAL PROOFER: In the proofer, the steam is passed over the bread at the temperature of 200c with 16-kg/cm2 pressures. Horizontal tube boiler produces the steam. The proofing time is 1-1.5 hours. BAKING: Baking is done in the large capacity oven. The baking temperature is 215°c for 27-32 minutes. COOLING: After the baking was over, then the bread was cooled into the room temperature. The taken for cooling is one hour. SLICING AND PACKAGING: The action of slicer slices the cooled bread and then the breads are packed in polythene bags each.

PROCESS FLOW CHART FOR BREAD: Selection of ingredients

First mixing (Maida+ sugar +yeast) Fermentation Second mixing Dividing Rounding Inter proofing Molding Final proofing Baking Cooling Slicing Packaging

LIST OF MACHINERIES MACHINERIES Dough mixer Divider Rounder Moulder Proofer Baking oven Cutter&slicer NUMBER 2 1 1 1 1 2 CAPACITY 250 kg/hr 250 kg/hr 250 kg/hr 250 kg/hr 75 box/cycle 75 box/cycle 250 loaf/hr POWER SPACE REQUIRED REQUIRED, m2 3 hp*2 (4*4) 2 1 3 3 1 3 1 hp hp hp hp hp hp*2 (3*3) 2 (3*3) 2 (3*3) 2 (4*4) (4*4) (1.5*1.5)

ABSTRACT: Location Product Total area Building area Water source Labours Power requirement : Sangrur : bread : 1000 m2 : 700 m2 : Bore well : 22 : 16 hp

PLANT LAYOUT FOR BREAD INDUSTRY 05 01 08 10 05 00 09 11 06 12 01. Raw material storage 10. Proffing section, 02. Office room 03. Restroom, 04. Reception, 05 mixing, 06 fermentation section, 07. Dividing section, 08. Rounding section, 09. Moulding section, 10. Proofing section, 11. Baking oven, 12. Cooling section, 13. Cutting and slicing section, 14. Packaging section, 15. Finished products storage, 16. Toilet, 17. Water tank,

17 02

07 13

14 03 16 04 15

PLANT LAYOUT FOR BISCUIT INDUSTRY INTRODUCTION: Biscuits are common baked items available in shops. Biscuits vary in size, shape, filling and type of recipes. Biscuits require care, attention and good procedure to get a better product. The materials required are maida, sugar, salt, and milk, shortening and leavening agents. Variations can be introduced by altering of ingredients; manipulation of ingredients and care should be taken in preparation of dough. Occasionally egg is added to increase the volume, taste, and flavor of biscuits. MIXING OF INGREDIENTS: Biscuits can be classified into hard and soft dough. Hard dough can be further classified into  Fermented dough  Puff dough  Semisweet dough Fermented dough: It is prepared by the addition of yeast to flour. Fermentation results in softening and mellowing effect on gluten. Puffed dough: It requires very strong flour with high gluten content. The dough contains flour, water and salt. Other ingredients like hard fat (margarine), nuts, flavors (essence) are added to the puffed dough to enrich the dough. Semisweet dough: Soft flours are used for the preparation of semisweet hard biscuits. The addition of corn flour and potato flour helps to reduce the strength of gluten in this type of biscuits. Soft dough is prepared with the flour containing less amount of gluten. Soft dough can be prepared by two methods.  Creaming  All in one Creaming: In this method, fat and sugar are blended to form a smooth homogeneous cream. The creaming helps to develop uniform mixing of ingredients. This adds air to the product. In this, mixing is continued till the dough is developed. All in one: All the ingredients are blended together. The aerating chemicals, salt, color and essence are mixed in water and added. The mixing varies with the type of biscuits.

PROCESS FLOW CHART: MIXING PROCESS

Selection of ingredients

Addition

Mixing process

Dough

MANUFACTURING PROCESS

Short dough

Dough feed conveyor

Metal detector

Molders Panned web (it transfer to band) Baking Q.C.inspection Cooling

INGREDIENTS / RECIPES USED FOR VARIOUS BISCUITS: Ingredients Maida Sugar Fat Salt Milk powder Liquid glucose Ammonium bicarbonate Sodium bicarbonate Lecithin Water Flavors MIXING: In the preparation of biscuits, mixing is very critical. The dough has to be mixed for a minimum period to obtain a tender and crisp biscuits. At the same time, mixing should be such that all the ingredients are well dispersed and the dough become cohesive enables shaping of biscuits in a mould. Mixing is done in two stages, Creaming and Mixing stage. All the ingredients except flour and acetic ingredients are mixed first at gentle speed and it forms a cream. The flour is then added to the cream and mixing proceeds until uniform depression of cream over the flour takes place. Horizontal type of mixer is used. MANUFACTURING: Manufacturing is the important operation where the dough after mixing is moulded, baked and cooled. The most important aspect of molding is to create biscuit of uniform weight both in line and across the over band. Hard dough varieties are molded in different way. They are made into laminators, sheeted and molded. The dough then passes through cutters and gets reduced in size. The cutter roller rolls over the dough sheet and gets cut with the support of rubber roller, which is placed below the canvas. BAKING: Baking is another stage of operation where the following changes take place, • • Development of rigid porous structures Reduction in moisture Quantity 100 30-40 15-25 1-1.25 2-3.3 2-30 0.75-1.0 0.75-1.0 0.3-0.5 5-9 as desired

• • • • •

Surface coloration Gelatinisation of starch Liberation of gases Loss of water vapor Expansion of gases.

COOLING: During cooling, interchange of moisture between the product and atmosphere occurs. Generally, the cooling time is 1.5 times that of baking. LIST OF MACHINERIES: MACHINES Weighing balance Dough mixer Dough sheeter Molder cutter Baking ovens Cooling conveyor Packing machine Storage Office Lab Rest room Toilet NO 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 CAPACIT Y 250 kg/hr 250 kg/hr 250 kg/hr 250 kg/hr POWER REQD SPACE 1.5*1.5 3*3 2.5*2.5 3.5*3.5 5*4 5*3 5*5 10*10 4*3 5*5 3.5*3.5 5*5 REQD TOTAL SPACE REQD 2*2 4*4 3*3 4*4 5*5 5*4 6*6 12*12 5*5 4*4 5*5 4*4

3 hp 3 hp 1 hp 3 hp 3 hp 3 hp

10 t/day

ABSTRACT:

Name of the industry Total area Total building area Total power required Total water required Total investment Profit percentage

: : : : : : :

BISCUIT INDUSTRY 600 m2 300 m2 16 hp 1 litre/kg of the product Rs. 50,00,000 50%

PLANT LAYOUT FOR PRODUCTION OF BOTTLED BEER INTRODUCTION: ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES Alcoholic beverage is a drink that contains ethyl alcohol. Alcoholic beverages are made chiefly from such grains as barley, maize, and rye, or from grapes or other fruit. There are two main groups of alcoholic beverages, fermented drinks and distilled drinks. Fermented drinks contain from 5 per cent or less to 20 per cent ethyl alcohol. The principal fermented beverages are beer and wine. Distilled beverages, also called spirits or liquor, contain from 12 to 55 per cent or more ethyl alcohol. They include brandy, gin, rum, vodka, and whisky. PROOF OF ALCOHOL As is well known, all alcohol used for beverage purposes is subject to a very high excise tax. This tax is based on the strength of the particular alcoholic solution, such strength being ascertained by a specific gravity determination. "Proof Spirit" is used to express the strength of alcoholic solutions. In the United States, any alcoholic solution containing 50% alcohol and 50% water by volume is said to be proof spirit, or 100 degrees proof, or simply 100 proof. For example, ordinary 95% (by volume) commercial ethyl alcohol is 95/50 x 100 = 190 degrees proof, or 90 over proof. The two terms to remember then are O.P. (overproof) and U.P. (underproof). 100 litres of 190 degrees proof alcohol would be taxed as 190 litres of proof spirit. The British system is in use in Canada and is more complicated. According to this system, any alcoholic solution containing 57.09% (by volume) alcohol and 42.91% water is said to be proof spirit or 100 degrees proof. BEER COMPOSITION OF BEER Water More than 90% of beer is water. There are many salts and minerals in the water, the quantity and variety of which affect the ultimate flavour of the beer. The minerals in the water will also influence the head formation. Malt Malt is the sugar to be fermented that comes from the grain. Grain cannot ferment by itself. When the grain is left in water, allowed to germinate and then dried, fermentable sugar is released. This procedure is called malting. Barley malt is by far the most important sugar-containing raw material for producing beer. Only malted barley can be used in the brewing process. Sugar

In addition to the malted grain, sugar is often also added to help the fermentation. Hops Hops give beer its bitter flavour and are also a natural preservative. Only the flowers from the female hops are used for beer. The hop flowers contain lupulin, a resinous substance that gives the typical bitter flavour. Hops also contain substances that make the beer last longer. Hops also contain isoflavons with phyto-oestrogens these substances are of more importance in functional nutrition. Yeast Yeast is a single cell micro-organism. It is needed in the brewing process for converting fermentable sugars into alcohol and carbon dioxide. When converting sugar into alcohol many types of aromatic substances are formed that also determine the character of the beer. NUTRITION IN BEER Water Sugar Protein-Less than Fat Vitamin B2 Vitamin B1 Vitamin B6 Minerals BEVERAGE Beer Wine Cidar Champagne Brandy Whiskey Rum Gin Rectified spirit : : : : : : : : 90% 3% 0.5% Nil 0.07mg 0.01mg 0.12mg Fe,Cr,Cu,Si,k SUBSTRATES Cereals Grape juice Apple juice Grape juice Wine Cereals Molasses Cereals Cereals ALCOHOL(%) 4-8 10-22 8-12 12-13 43-57 51-59 51-59 51-59 95.0

SAFE LEVEL OF DRINKING FOR PER DAY CONSUMPTION: Category MEN BEER ml 672 WINE ml 280 DISTILLED BEVERAGES ml 84

WOMEN AGED

336 FEW

140 FEW

42 FEW

FLOW DIAGRAM OF BEER PRODUCTION RECEIVING OF MALTED GRAINS CLEANING WORT PRODUCTION BOILING OF MASH PRIMARY FERMENTATION

HOPS

YEAST + SUGAR

MATURATION FILTRATION BOTTLING PASTEURIZATION COOLING LABELLING STORAGE

PROCESS EXPLANATIONS In our industry, we are purchasing only malted barley because we procure the malted barley proximity to the unit. The purpose of procuring malted is to prepare the starch in the barley for easy degradation during mashing, whereby it is transferred into easily fermentable sugar. Furthermore, the malting and drying gives taste and colour to the beer. The raw materials are received and cleaned with vibrator and then stored in a silo. For Wort production, the cleaned malted barley is ground by using with hammer mill. The ground malt is collected in a grist bin or a hopper before being mixed with water in a pre-masher during the mashing process. The mash is heated to a high temperature in the mash-tun to activate the enzymes built up during malting. The next step is the separation of the grist residues. This takes place at the lauter tun.When the first wort (the extract from the water and the malt) is separated, the remaining extract is washed out of the spent grains by spargings: that is, spraying hot water over the grains.

The last extract (last runnings) are used in the mashing of the next brew. The spent grains are used as animal feed.The wort is brought into the pre-run vessel and then to the wort kettle, where it is boiled together with the hops. During the boiling, proteinous substances coagulate and fall out, together with hop residues and tannins.The so-called trub also named hot break is separated from the wort in the whirlpool (which has a tangential inlet), circulating the whole inflowing batch at speed. The result is that the hot break settles like a cone at the bottom of the whirlpool about 25 minutes after wort pumping is finished. The hot break is collected and pumped back into the lauter tun to be added to the next brew. The wort is cooled down from its 95°C to approximately 8°C in a heat exchanger (a wort chiller), transferred into the gauging vessels, and then passed to the fermenters. Wort cooling produces hot water, which is normally returned to a hot water tank in the brewhouse and used for brewing/spargings and for cleaning. All vessels and pipes in the brew house are cleaned using the CIP (Cleaning-in-Place) system. The cooled wort is aerated, yeast pitched by a metering pump, and fermentation is started in the conical fermenters. Fermentation normally takes seven days.During fermentation, the yeast settles in the cone of the fermenter. The most active yeast is taken out of the fermenter for re-utilization in another batch. As the yeast is multiplied by approximately six or seven times, there is a considerable amount of excess yeast from each fermenter. The surplus yeast has widespread uses, from animal feed to pharmaceutical purposes, but can also be discharged to the sewer. When the main fermentation is finished, the green beer is pumped into storage tanks for maturation. During the maturation, a second fermentation takes place under high pressure, building up dissolved carbon dioxide in the beer, while the remaining yeast settles out. This deposit yeast is used for animal feed or is discharged. The maturation can also take place in an unitank, which is used for both primary fermentation and maturation. The finished beer is prepared for bottling or kegging by filtration and addition of carbon dioxide. To ensure a standard quality, some batches of beer are blended and colour may be added. Before filtration, the beer is cooled down to 0-1°C to minimize the risk of it foaming in the filters. The beer is normally filtered in a coarse filter and a fine filter. To avoid too high a filter resistance, kieselguhr is used as a filter medium. The beer is bottled under counter pressure and the bottles are sealed. A spraying device takes foam residues away. After passing a fill height inspector, the bottled beer is pasteurized, labelled and packed

The bottles (new or returned) are passed through the bottle washer for cleaning. The bottles are alternately soaked and sprayed in the washer; first with warm water, then with a hot caustic solution, thirdly sprayed and rinsed in hot and cold water, and finally a last cold rinse before they are conveyed to the bottling machine. After bottling, the beer goes to the pasteurizer. The bottles pass slowly through different zones with increasingly hot water (up to 62°C), and then slowly cooled down to approximately 25°C. The water in the tunnel pasteurizers is circulated and thus used repeatedly. Any breakage is normally collected in containers and returned to the glass manufacturers for recycling.

Machineries Required:

Equipment 1. Vibrator 2. Hammer mill 3. Solar Dryer 4. Pasteurization vat 5. Fermenter 6. Boiler 7. Filter 8. Bottle washer 9. Vacuum filler 10. 11. 12. 13. Generator Conveyor Storage Bin Maturation Tank

Capacity Kg/hr 2000 200 300 kg/day

No. 1 1

Power Reqd. Hp/V 5 /440 5/440 2/220 2/220 5/440 1/220 -

Area Reqd m2 0.595 0.365 0.45 10 2.25 4 0.3 3 4 4 2.5 17.5 8

Total space m2 1 0.6 1.6 12 20 7 0.8 5 6 7 5 40 35

2 30,800 bottles 1 1 lakh litres 7 1 ton/day 1 5000 1 15500 1 bottles/hour 1 15 Hp 1000 kg/hr 50000 kg 25000 kg 1 1 2 4

ABSTRACT Location Industry Product Capacity Total Power Total Water Building area Total Area Total Investment No. Working days No. Labour reqd. Total Profit : : : : : : : : : : : : Punjab Brewery Bottled Beer 3,08,000 Bottles per day 20 Hp 90,000 litres per day 250 m2 500 m2 Rs.10,75,00,000 200 18 (6 skilled, 12 unskilled) Rs.40,00,000/day (Before Tax)

LAY OUT OF BEER PRODUCTION UNIT

16

17

21

20

0

1

2

3

4

11 12 10 9 8a 8 13 14 15 15a 7a 7 18 19 6 5 22

SECTIONS OF LAYOUT: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7a 8 8a 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 15a 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Security office Cleaning section Storage of malted barley Belt conveyor Wort production Fermentation Fermenter Maturation section Maturation tank Filtration Bottle preparation (bottle washing, bottle sterilization) Bottle filling Pasteurization Cooling Labeling and Storage Administrative block Collection of yeast strains and Drying section Parking Canteen Recreation Gents toilet Ladies toilet Fuel storage Boiler Co2 tank ETP Water tank Generator Quality Control Lab

LAYOUT FOR NATURAL MINERALWATER PLANT Introduction:

      
stopper.

The first recorded history of discovery of natural mineral waters was as early as 400 B.C. Mineral rich waters are created by the flow of water through rocks and soil where mineral salts are dissolved. Many of the renowned springs were touted for their miracle medicinal cures, and promotion of good health. In 1767, the waters of Jackson's Spa in Boston were bottled and sold. 1820- SARATOGA SPRINGS Mineral Water was first bottled and sold There was a rapidly growing demand for its therapeutic miracles. In the early days of mineral waters, the closure of choice was the cork

     

Regulations very later emphasized on the bottling and packaging of natural mineral water. This resulted in the Purification of water obtained from natural sources.

Reverse Osmosis: Reverse osmosis (Nano filtration) filters with a pore size of about 0.001 to 0.005 microns is used for this purpose. R.O is a high pressure, energy efficient separation Process wherein pressures of about 15 – 60 KSC are applied. This allows monovalent salts and retains divalent salts like carbonates and sulphates and solutes having molecular wt. > 300. Efficient process with least MWCO that filters out all micro organisms.

ABSTRACT Industry Product Capacity Total Power Total Water Building area Total Area Total Investment No. Working days Total Profit Pay Back period Break Even point : : : : : : : : : : : : Natural Mineral Water Plant Bottled Natural Mineral Water 30,000 litres/day(8 h) (15,000 one ltr Btls, 600 – 25 lts cans) 15 Hp 35 kilo litres/day 250 m2 500 m2 Rs. 82,00,000 200 15 Rs. 78,00,000 – 95% 1.1 years 15 %

No. Labour required :

Natural mineral water in its packaged state shall contain not more than the following amounts of the substances indicated hereunder: Antimony Arsenic Barium Borate Cadmium Chromium Copper Cyanide Lead Manganese Mercury Nickel Nitrate Nitrite Selenium 0.005 mg/l 0.01 mg/l, calculated as total As 0.7 mg/l 5 mg/l, calculated as B 0.003 mg/l 0.05 mg/l, calculated as total Cr 1 mg/l 0.07 mg/l 0.01 mg/l 0.5 mg/l 0.001 mg/l 0.02 mg/l 50 mg/l, calculated as nitrate 0.02 mg/l as nitrite 2 0.01 mg/l

MACHINERIES AND SPACE REQUIRED: Equipment 1. Storage Tanks 2. R.O Membrane tanks 3. Blow Molder 4. Integrated Filler 5. Bi-Directional Table 6.Trine Labeler 7.Multi packer 8.Palletizer 9. Volumetric filler 10. Product Storage Capacity 1lac ltrs 5000 ltrs/hr 2500 btls/hr 2500 btls/hr 1000 btls 2500 btls/hr 250 cartons/hr 25 stacks/hr 15,000 ltrs/hr 30,000 Bottles No. 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 Power Reqd. Hp/V 5/220 2/220 2/220 1/220 1/220 2/220 2/220 Area Reqd m2 25 9 1 2 2.25 0.5 2 2 2 10 Total space m2 50 20 1.5 3 5 1 3 3 3 12

Case Packager / Multi packer

Integrated Filling Machine

Trine Labeler

Constant Volume Filler

Natural mineral water should contain no parasites and should meet the following criteria:

n: number of sample units from a lot that must be examined to satisfy a given sampling plan. c: the maximum acceptable number, or the maximum allowable number of sample units that may exceed the microbiological criterion m. When this number is exceeded, the lot is rejected. m: the maximum number or level of relevant bacteria/g; values above this level are either marginally acceptable or unacceptable. M: a quantity that is used to separate marginally acceptable quality from unacceptable quality foods.

Process Flow Diagram: Reception of water from springs

Storage

Blow Molding

Reverse osmosis

Integrated Filling

constant volume Filling

Labeling Manual labeling Case packing

Palletizing

storage/Dispatch

Raw Water Storage Tank 1

Raw Water Storage Tank 2

R.O Tank 2

G A T E 1 R.O Tank 1 Bottling Unit

G A T E 2

Office Storage Unit

PLANT LAYOUT FOR SPICE PROCESSING INDUSTRY INTRODUCTION Nowadays people are living a very fast life is which they don't even find time for cooking.In this stage ready made foods like masalas play amajor role &very important role in our day to day life. these readymade produts are very much helpful in making various delicious recipes for our daily food needs. SITE SELECTION:  _ Should be nearer to production area and farms.  _ Ample water supply.  _ Sufficient labour.  _ Availability of finance.  _ Economic and social supports  _ road and railway facilities.  _ eco friendly.  _ ample power supply.  _ readily available raw materials.  _ marketing facilities and publicity. Products: l.Turmeric powder 2.chilly powder 3.Chicken masala 4.Mutton masala 5.Fish masala

PROCESS FLOW CHART: RAW MATERIAL CLEANING ROASTING MIXING MILLING PACKING DESPATCH Raw Material Section: All ingredients used for masalas preparation are purchased and stored here. The ingredients are purchased from wholesale markets. The raw materials are ordered depending on their requirements. The storage section is well furnished with insect guards and sufficient ventilation. It is large enough to store up to 300 tonnes. All ingredients (except chilly and turmeric) are stored here. Chilly and turmeric are stored separately in another room specially built for that. (Capacity: 300 tonnes) Cleaning Section: Redgram, gram dhal, coriander, are cleaned with the use of specific gravity separator (destoner). Experienced persons handle it. It has a capacity of 1 tonne per hour. Roasting Section: All ingredients are fried here. Red gram dhal, coriander, horse gram, Bengal grams, mustard are fried in the roasting machine. The roasting machine is a dual drum machine designed like a feed mixer in which the ingredients are constantly mixed while frying. This avoids over heating and White gingely, poppy seeds, cashew, curry leaf, sombu, garlic, groundnut etc are fried manually because these materials require different temperatures and different duration of frying and also they need more personal care. The required amount of material for each masalas product is roasted here before grinding, except chilly and turmeric product. Pouch packet roll storage room: Pouch packet rolls are obtained in the printed state from Namakkal and Chennai. The information about the product, ingredients, address of manufacture (except manufacture date and M.RP) is printed in these rolls. These pouches packets are

made of polypropylene. These pouch packet rolls are stored in a separate room with racks built in for this purpose. Kitchen: kitchen is situated in the centre portion of the industry. Sensory & organoleptic evaluation of the prepared masalas & other products is done here. Pouch packet roll storae:e room: Pouch packet rolls are obtained in the printed state from Namakkal and Chennai. The information about the product, ingredients, address of manufacture (except manufacture date and M.R.P) is printed in these rolls. These pouches packets are made of polypropylene. these pouch packet rolls are stored in a separate room with racks built in for this purpose. All prepared masalas products are packed here. SOgm, 100gm pouches are packed by automatic packaging machine. 2S0gm, SOOgm, 1000gm pockets are prepared manually. Vadagam and vatthal, payasam mixes are packed by continuous packaging machine. Machinery in Packing Section As we all know the packing section is the very important unit of any industry, in this industry also this section is given utmost care .In the packing section they use both automated machines with least manual intervention in operations and total manual packaging. The former is used for all ground powders like masalas and the latter is used for the packaging of larger sized solids like Vadam, Curd chilly etc. Manual Packaging: This is the most traditional method of packaging adopted for those items that are not produced in very large scale. Many labours are employed for this purpose and they weigh the required quantity o(the materials and pack then manually inside polythene bags and seal them either manually or by using a continuous sealing machine. Continuous sealing machine: This machine is used for sealing the polythene bags, which are manually packed. Descrintion: This machine has a belt conveying unit driven by a motor over which there is a set of eight pulleys in four pairs arranged in series. The outer two pulleys are used for the movement of the packets over the belt drive at the bottom in a vertical position and feed the packets to the heat-sealing machine. The heating coil is insulated using Teflon belts driven between the inner pulleys, which prevents the polythene from melting, and sticking to the heating coil because of their non-stick property. Next to the heating coil is the cooling coil, which is actually circulated with cold water in its inner side, which cools the sealed packets in the sealing area thereby, strengthening the seal. The Teflon belt runs over the cooling also in order to serve the same purpose as above and thereby making the entire sealing operation smooth.

Material and temperature balance sheet: Material of plastic bags Polyethylene Poly propylene Moist proof poly paper Poly paper Poly styrene Polyvinyl acetate Hard PVC Polyvinyl fluoride Aluminum Auger Filler: This is a fully auto mated pouch packing machine with all sorts of automations and electronic controls possible. It is only used in the pouch packing of all masalas for the fixed weights of 50gms and 100gms in pouches. This filling process in the auger filler is taken care by the screw auger by which the set quantity of masalas is fed into the pouches. Grinding Section: Chilly and turmeric are produced in a much larger scale than all other products hence they are stored separately and ground separately in the pulveriser. All other masalas are ground using three attrition mills each. After grinding the chilly and turmeric powder from pulverizing unit, are mixed together with masalas powder. After that, that is allowed for cooling for some time. The details of the pulveriser and attrition mills are as follows. Attrition mills: There are four attrition mills which work on the principle of friction and shear forces developed during the rotation of the criss cross hatched disc against the fixed the disc thereby bringing size reduction of the particles. These have a capacity of 1 ton per day. All the controls in this particular milling section are fully manual and operated skilled and experienced workers. Despatch section: Here, all finished goods are temporarily stored and despatched to dealers. They own many vehicles like vans, tempos and goods carrier autos mainly for the marketing and despatch of these goods. ABSTRACT INDUSTRY CAP ACITY BUILDING AREA COST OF BUILDING : : : : Chilly powder plant 4t/day 0.6 acre(70x42)=2940 m2 Rs 11,76,000 Temperature of sealing, °C 180- 225 180- 21O 200- 225 220- 240 200- 225 200- 225 200- 235 200- 255 200- 235

TOATAL AREA MACHINERY COST TOTAL INVESTMENT NO.OF MACHINES WATER REQUIREMENT POWER REQUIREMENT

: : : : : :

1 acre(80x50)=40000m2 Rs 16900000 4466000+20000000=Rs.646600 17 3000 litres /day 16.5hp

CONCLUSION: Spice studies is necessary to provide new opportunities in the diversification of trade in spices, spice blends, and their products and to find new uses of spices in human physiology. Our knowledge of spices in relation to evaluation of their flavor quality is fragmentary. Flavor is a conglomeration of many contributing factors. We know more about these factors now than we did yesterday. However, further knowledge must be continuously acquired as a first priority in the various disciplines engaged in this complex field of spice favor, if we are to develop methods for its correct and rapid evaluation.

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