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Effect of foliar application of macro and micro nutrients on production of green chilies (Capsicum annuum L.)
Q. B. Baloch1*, Q. I. Chachar1 and M. N. Tareen2
Agriculture University Tandojam-70060-Pakistan. Research Institute, Quetta, Pakistan. Baloch, Q. B., Chachar, Q. I. and Tareen, M. N. (2008). Effect of foliar application of macro and micro nutrients on production of green chilies (Capsicum annuum L.). Journal of Agricultural Technology 4(2): 174-184. A commercial foliar fertilizer, HiGrow is a composition of various macro and micronutrients was applied on chilies at the concentrations 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 ml/L water in addition to soil applied NPK fertilizers at 50-50-25 kg ha-1 to investigate their associative effect on production of green chilies. HiGrow at 8 ml/L water resulted 68 cm plant height, 6.93 branches plant-1, 118.86 fruits plant-1, 4.19 cm fruit length, 395 g fresh chilies fruit weight plant-1 and 14977 kg fresh chilies yield ha-1; while decreasing concentration to 7 ml/L water produced 67.86 cm plant height, 6.53 branches plant-1, 117.20 fruits plant-1, 4.14 cm fruit length, 391.33 g fresh chilies weight plant-1 and 14562.33 kg fresh chilies yield ha-1. HiGrow at 6 ml/L water formed 66.46 cm plant height, 5.80 branches plant-1, 112.36 fruits plant-1, 3.89 cm fruit length, 351.66 g fresh chilies weight plant-1 and 12696.33 kg fresh chilies yield ha-1. Similarly, the reduced HiGrow concentration to 5 ml/L and 4 ml/L water caused significant negative effect on all the growth and yield components of chilies. However, the control plots produced 63.46 cm plant height, 4.20 branches plant-1, 93.06 fruits plant-1, 2.87 cm fruit length, 388.33 g fresh chilies weight plant-1 and 10525.00 kg fresh chilies yield ha-1 which were significantly lesser than foliar fed plots. There was a consecutive improvement in growth and yield components of chilies with increase in HiGrow concentration, but such increase beyond 7 ml/L water was not so pronounced and hence 7 ml/L water was considered to be an optimum HiGrow concentration for commercial production of chilies. Key words: chilies, foliar fertilizers, HiGrow, growth, fresh fruit yield.
Introduction Chilies (Capsicum annuum L.) belong to the nightshade family, Solanaceae and originates from South America; the name comes from Nahuat via the Spanish word chili (Wikipedia, 2006). Chilies are very rich in vitamin C and pro-vitamin A, particularly the red chilies. Yellow and especially green
Corresponding author: Q.B. Baloch; e-mail: email@example.com 178
chilies (which are essentially unripe fruit) contain a considerably lower amount of both substances. In addition, peppers are a good source of most B vitamins, and vitamin B6 in particular. They are very high in potassium and high in magnesium and iron. Their high vitamin C content can also substantially increase the uptake of non-heme iron from other ingredients in a meal, such as beans and grains (Sparkyby, 2006). The yield of chilies obtained in Pakistan is far less than the potential exists. The causes of low yield may be due to improper cultural operations, inputs etc. Of the inputs, N.P.K. fertilizers play a significant role in successful chillies production (Jack et al., (2006). Balanced nutrients are paid little attention. Its deficiencies emerge in the farmer’s field and are recognized as the symptoms on foliage and reduction in the quality and yield. Rapid uptake of nutrients applied to crop foliage ensures a fast response within the plant as micronutrients directly enter the metabolic processes. Micronutrients are completely available to the plant and thus particularly effective because they are not fixed or diluted in large volumes of soil. However, overdosing or application at undesired time can lead to crop damage. For intensive cropping
with continuously high yield levels more micronutrients are required, and hence it is best to use more frequent applications at the lower rate. If slight deficiency symptoms are already visible on the plants then larger quantities of micronutrients are necessary to achieve a curative effect. In cases of severe deficiency, when the plant parts are obviously discoloured or distorted and partially dying-off, the plants are so weakened that they react very sensitively to any type of treatment. For this reason the lower rate should be applied repeatedly at 2-week intervals (Anonymous, 2007). Besides, foliar application of various macro and micro nutrients has been proved beneficial, foliar feeding is a relatively new and controversial technique of feeding plants by applying liquid fertilizer directly to their leaves. In some cases, a dramatic example being tomatoes, this goes against long-standing structures ever allowing the leaves to get wet. While the conventional wisdom is "don't even spray your tomato plants, only water them by soaking the ground beneath", modern gardening techniques strongly recommend spraying the leaves of a tomato plant with fertilizer, as part of the normal fertilization routine (Anonymous, 2004). Foliar fertilizers are being used in vegetable and fruit crops that contain various macro and micro nutrients. Foliar fertilizers are known to immediately deliver nutrients to the tissues and organs of the crop. For instance, 80 per cent of the phosphorus applied through conventional fertilizers may get fixed up in the soil but up to 80 percent of the foliar-added phosphorus is directly absorbed. The study showed that crop yield in chillies enhanced when Journal of Agricultural Technology 2008, V.4(2):177-184
micronutrients were applied in combination .The foliar application of zinc 3.0 ppm, copper 1.0 ppm and boron 0.5 ppm gave maximum net return to the growers. Similarly for chili, the treatment of 100 per cent NK + three sprays of Polyfeed + two sprays of Multi-K produced the highest number of fruits per plant, dry fruit yield, net income and benefit cost ratio. Increasing frequency of Polyfeed spraying from three to four times do not increase the number of chili fruits per plant (Jiskani, 2005). Considering the significance of foliar fertilizers for chillies, this study was carried out to investigate the effect of foliar application of macro and micro nutrients on production of green chillies, using a commercial product called “HiGrow” which consists of essential macro and micro nutrients. Materials and methods The experiment was laid out in a three replicated randomized completely block design using chillies variety “Ghotki” in a plot size of 3.0m × 3.5m (10.50m2). The land was thoroughly ploughed up by giving 2 dry plowings, the clods were crushed, and leveling was done to eradicate the weeds and to make the soil surface leveled for uniform distribution of irrigation water during soaking dose. Ridges were prepared at the distance of 60 cm and the sub-plots were separated from each other by 45 cm wide bunds. Each block then was sub-divided into three beds. The beds were separated from each other by 30 cm wide bunds. The sowing of seed for nursery was done on 16th February, 2006 and on attaining the age of one and half month, the nursery/seedlings were transplanted on one side of the ridges on 30th March, 2006. Chillies crop was given various foliar applications of HiGrow, which is a compound commercial
fertilizer, particularly prepared for foliar application of various macro and micronutrients to improve the foliage and production of chillies. The HiGrow is manufactured by the Agriculture Technology Institute Karachi containing Nitrophen (4 %), Nitrogen compound (12%), Iron (2 %), Magnesium 2%, Manganese 2%, Boron 2%, Copper 4%, Molybdenum 2%, Potash 8%, P2O5 12% and Calcium 8% (w/v). The NPK fertilizers were applied at the rate of 5050-25 Kg ha-1 in all the experimental plots uniformly. The nitrogen was applied in the form of Urea (46% N), while P in the form of di-ammonium phosphate (18-45% N-P) and sulphate of potash (SOP) was applied to get the required dose of K. Interculturing was followed by earthing and weeding operations were performed when the crop had good stand. Plant protection measures were also kept in operation and three sprayings were done when it was felt that the pest population is crossing economic injury level. For identification of insect pests and spraying recommendations, the help was acquired from Entomology
Section of Agriculture Research Institute, Tandojam. Up to the final harvest, the crop was irrigated when felt necessary and three sprayings of insecticides (Dimethoate) were applied against fruit borers. For recording observations on various parameters, five plants in each bed were selected at random and labeled. The data thus recorded were tabulated and statistically analyzed to discriminate the superiority of treatment means, using Least Significant Differences (L.S.D) (Gomez and Gomez, 1984) and Mstat-C Computer Software. Results and discussion Plant height Chilies received foliar application of HiGrow at the concentration of 8 ml/L water resulted plants of maximum height (68cm), closely followed by 67.86 and 66.46 cm plant height observed when HiGrow was foliarly applied at the concentrations of 7 and 6 ml/L water, respectively (Table 1). The results further indicated that reduced HiGrow concentration of 5 and 4 ml/L water produced plants of lesser height i.e. 65.86 and 65.60 cm, respectively. However, the least plant height of 63.46 cm was recorded in control, where only soil applied NPK fertilizers were used and foliar application of HiGrow was controlled. The results of the present investigation are in concurrence with Radulovic (1996), who applied foliar application of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Fe, B, Zn, Mn and Cu and resultantly these nutrients were established in leaves, indicating the possibility of reducing the application of nitrogen fertilizers. Number of branches The chilies crop that supplied with foliar application of HiGrow at the concentration of 8 ml/L water produced maximum number of branches (6.93 plant-1), followed by 6.53 and 5.80 number of branches plant-1 at 7 and 6 ml/L water, respectively (Table 1). The lower HiGrow concentration of 5 and 4 ml/L water produced relatively lesser number of branches i.e. 5.20 and 4.26, respectively. However, the minimum number of branches (4.20 plant-1) was recorded in control plots, where only NPK fertilizers were applied. Similar results have been reported by Sharma et al. (2000) using compound liquid fertilizer containing most macro and micro nutrients “Polyfeed and Multi” alongwith NPK and mentioned that these fertilizers provide nutrients to the
plant by foliar application and significant effect on branches per plant. Journal of Agricultural Technology 2008, V.4(2):177-184
Number of fruits Foliar application of HiGrow at the concentration of 8 ml/L water produced maximum number of fruits (118.86 plant-1), followed by 117.20 and 112.36 fruits plant-1 at of 7 and 6 ml/L water, respectively (Table 1). The reduced HiGrow concentration of 5 and 4 ml/L water resulted reduction in the number of fruits to the level of 102.56 and 99.60 plant-1, respectively. However, the lowest number of fruits (93.06 plant-1) was recorded in control plots. Similar studies have also been conducted by Jiskani (2005) who found that foliar application of zinc 3.0 ppm, copper 1.0 ppm and boron 0.5 ppm produced the highest number of fruits per plant and increasing frequency of Polyfeed spraying from three to four times did not increase the number of chili fruits per plant. Fruit length Foliar application of HiGrow at the concentration of 8 ml/L water resulted significantly longer fruits (4.19 cm) followed by average fruit length of 4.14 and 3.89 cm at 7 and 6 ml/L water, respectively (Table 1). The minimizing HiGrow concentration to 5 and 4 ml/L water further decreased fruit length to the level of 3.78 and 3.37 cm, respectively. However, the minimum fruit length of 2.87 cm was obtained in control plots. Similarly, Anonymous (2007) applied a foliar fertilizer “Fetrilon-Combi” in chillies and found considerable improvement in fruit development and crop yields as compared to those supplied only with straight chemical fertilizers. Fresh fruit weight The fresh fruit weight was remarkably maximum (395 g plant-1) in plots fertilized with foliar application of HiGrow at the highest concentration of 8 ml/L water followed by average fresh fruit weight of 391.33 and 3.51 g plant-1 achieved from the treatments under foliar application of macro and micro nutrients (HiGrow) at the concentrations of 7 and 6 ml/L water, respectively (Table 1). The reduction in HiGrow concentration to 5 and 4 ml/L water further diminished fresh fruit weight to 337.66 and 308.00 g plant-1, respectively. However, the minimum fresh fruit weight of 288.33 g plant-1 was obtained in control plots. These results are in line with those of Patil and Biradar (2001) who applied foliar fertilizer “Polyfeed” and found significant effect on fruit weight of chillies.
Fresh fruit yield Fresh fruit yield was remarkably maximum (14977 kg ha-1) in plots fertilized with foliar application of HiGrow at the highest concentration of 8 ml/L water followed by average fresh fruit yield of 14562 and 12696.33 kg ha-1 at 7 and 6 ml/L water, respectively (Table 1). The reduced concentrations of HiGrow i.e. 5 ml/L or 4 ml/L water further deteriorated the fresh fruit yield to 12059.33 and 11187 kg ha-1, respectively. However, the minimum fresh fruit yield of 10525 kg ha-1 was recorded in control plots. These results have been further supported by Jiskani (2005), who reported that significant effect on crop yield in chillies was recorded when micronutrients were applied in combination with NPK instead of alone; while Lovatt (2005) indicated that
foliar spray of 1 % either Polyfeed or Multi ‘K’ at 45, 60 and 75 days after planting increased the crop yield by about 10 % over unsprayed control. Conclusions Consecutive improvement in growth and yield of chilies was evident with increase in HiGrow concentration. but application beyond 7 ml/L water was not effective and thus 7 ml/L water was considered to be an optimum HiGrow concentration for commercial production of chillies. Table 1. Mean values for various growth and yield components of chilies as influenced by foliar application of macro and micro nutrients (HiGrow).
Treatments Plant height (cm) No. of branches per plant No. of fruits per plant Fruit length (cm) Fresh fruit weight (g plant-1) Fresh fruit yield (kg ha-1) T1=Control 63.46 c 4.20 d 93.06 d 2.87 d 288.33 e 10525.00 e T2=HiGrow @ 4 ml/L water 65.60 b 4.26 d 99.60 c 3.37 b 308.00 d 11187.00 d T3=HiGrow @ 5 ml/L water 65.86 b 5.20 c 102.56 c 3.78 b 337.66 c 12059.66 c T4=HiGrow @ 6 ml/L water 66.46 a 5.80 b 112.36 b 3.89 a 351.66 b 12696.33 b T5=HiGrow @ 7 ml/L water 67.86 a 6.53 ab 117.20 a 4.14 a 391.33 a 14562.33 a T6=HiGrow @ 8 ml/L water 68.00 a 6.93 a 118.86 a 4.19 a 395.00 a 14977.00 a SE± 0.4165 0.0755 1.0379 0.0657 2.2224 65.4614 LSD 0.05 1.750 0.3163 4.3610 0.2766 9.3380 425.10 LSD 0.01 2.398 0.4334 5.9750 0.3790 12.790 536.90 CV% 4.54 5.73 4.37 4.34 5.58 5.71 Values followed by same letters do not differ significantly at 0.05 probability level.
Journal of Agricultural Technology 2008, V.4(2):177-184
Anonymous. (2004) Chillies Home Page. Global Commercial Services for the Spice Industry. Spizes.Com. Quest International. http://www.Spizes.com. Anonymous. (2007) Micronutrient fertilizers: Fetrilon Combi, a foliar application for vegetables. http://www.agnova.com.au/resources/Fetrilon-Combi-guide. Gomez, A.K., and Gomez, A.A. (1984) Statistical procedures for agricultural research. (2nd edition). John Wiley and Sons. New York. Hangarge, D.S., Raut, R.S., Malewar, G.U., More, S.D. and Keshbhat, S.S. (2002) Yield attributes and nutrients uptake by chili due to organics and inorganics on vertisol. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities 27(1): 109-110. Jack, H.E., Syndi, B., Krystle, C. and Axiom, C. (2006) How to grow a tomato plant under different fertility regimes. WikiHow, pp. 1-10. Jiskani, M.M. (2005) Foliar fertilizers — fast acting agents. Daily DAWN, the Internet Edition, Monday December 5, 2005. Lovatt, C.J. (2005) Formulation of foliar phosphorus fertilizer for chillies.
http://www.freepatentsonline.com/6929673.html Patil, R. and Biradar, R. (2001) Effect of foliar application of essential nutrients on chillies. Agricultura Tecnica Santiago 51(3): 256-259. Radulovic, M. (1996) Soil and vegetable nutrients supply in the region of the Zeta Montenegro. Review-of-Research-Work-at-the-Faculty-of-Agriculture,-Belgrade 41(1): 31-40. Sharma, B.R., Chadha, A.P.S. and Bajpai, H.K. (2000) Response of chili Capsicum annuum Linn. to nitrogen and phosphorus levels under irrigated condition. Advances in Plant Sciences 9(2): 213-214. Sparkyby, F. (2006) Sparky Boy Enterprises. Planet Natural, pp. 1-6. Wikipedia. (2006) Chillies: history, cultivation and processing. Wikipedia, the biggest online students’ website, pp. 1-6. (Received 26 August 2008; accepted 22 October 2008)
Effect of Secondary and Micronutrients on Yield, Nutrient Uptake and Quality of Chilli*
Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) is an important spice cum vegetable crop of commercial importance in India and has unique place in human diet. Economically, chilli is a good choice for generating higher income among the farming sector. Chilli is an energy rich crop and obviously the requirement of nutrients including secondary and micronutrients is very high (Bidari, 2000). Unless the soils are replenished with all the nutrients taken up by the crop, there will be persistent nutrient exhaustion posing a great threat to sustainable chilli production. Since chemical fertilizer alone will not be able to meet the total nutrient needs, integrated use of all potential sources of plant nutrients seems to be the only option to maintain soil fertility and crop productivity. In transitional belt of Dharwad district, the chilli is extensively grown for red dry fruits in deep black and medium black soil. The secondary and micronutrients of these soils are low and requirement for the crop is high. The research information is also lacking on the effect of secondary and micronutrients on yield and quality of chilli. It is essential to study
the response of chilli to secondary and micronutrients. A field experiment was conducted at Main Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad during kharif, 2001. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with three replications. The soil was medium black having pH of 7.6, available N (210 kg ha-1), available P (32 kg ha-1), available K (318 kg ha-1), Ca (C mol (p+) 33 kg-1), S (30 kg ha-1) and Fe (5.5 ppm). There were nine treatment combinations viz., T1- NPK alone (control), T2NPK+FYM, T3-NPK+Fe,T4- NPK+S, T5-NPK+Ca, T6- NPK+S+Fe, T7-NPK+Ca+Fe, T8-NPK+Ca+S Karnataka J. Agri. Sci.,17 (3):(553-556) 2004
* Part of M.Sc.(Agri) thesis sumbitted by the senior author to the University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005
and T9-NPK+Ca+S+Fe. Chilli crop was planted on 19th July 2001 with spacing of 60 cm x 60 cm. N, P and K (100:50:50) were applied in the form of urea, diammonium phosphate and muriate of potash respectively. FYM @ 10 tonne, Ca @ 30 kg (calcium carbonate) and S @ 60 kg ha-1 (elemental) were applied 10 days before transplanting in the main field. Half of the recommended dose of fertilizer (NPK) was applied at the time of transplanting. Remaining 50 per cent of N, P, K and full dose of Fe @ 12 kg (iron chloride) were applied after 6 weeks of transplanting. The application of FYM along with major nutrients (NPK) recorded significantly higher dry chilli fruit yield (844 kg ha-1) when compared to NPK alone (695 kg ha-1). But it was on par with NPK+S+Fe (844 kg ha-1), NPK+Ca+S (841 kg ha-1) and NPK+Ca+Fe (840 kg ha-1). The fruit weight hill-1 and hundred fruit weight were significantly higher with the application of NPK+FYM (86.6 g and 200.5 g respectively), as compared to the NPK alone (Table 1). However, rest of the treatments were on par with each other. Similarly, increase in the yield of chilli due toapplication of FYM along with major nutrients was reported by Shashidhara (2000). Application of NPK alone recorded significantly higher weight of discoloured fruits (112.0 kg ha-1). Rest of the treatments did not differ significantly with each other. This may be due to desirable effect by the application of Ca, S and Fe either directly or through FYM. Since Ca has desirable effect on fruit growth, development and quality help in delay the ripening and senescence and thus resulted in good quality fruits (Sharma et al., 1996). The
application of NPK+Ca+Fe recorded significantly higher oleoresin yield (109.41kg ha-1) as
Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences: 17 (3), 2004 compared to application of NPK+FYM (98.46 kg ha-1), NPK+Ca+S (96.75 kg ha-1), NPK+S (87.98 kg ha-1) and NPK+Fe (87.91 kg ha-1). But it was on par with NPK+Ca+S+Fe (108.08 kg ha-1) and NPK+S+Fe (107.08 kg ha-1). Application of NPK alone recorded significantly lower oleoresin yield (64.50 kg ha-1) compared to other treatments (Table1). These results are also in conformity with the findings of Maheshwarappa (1997). The ascorbic acid content in green chilli substantially increased with the application of FYM, combination of secondary and micronutrients along with major nutrients (NPK) as compared 100 NPK alone (Table 1). The results agree with the findings of Partima Singh and Dube (2000). The nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and sulphur uptake were significantly higher with combined application of secondary and micronutrients or with FYM along with major nutrients (NPK) over NPK alone. The application of major nutrients (NPK) along with FYM recorded significantly higher nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and sulphur uptake (63.93 kg ha-1, 18.54 kg ha-1, 76.71 kg ha-1 1182.14 mg hill-1 and 363.08 mg hill-1, respectively) as compared to NPK alone (Table 2). The rest of the treatments were on par. There was no significant difference with respect to iron uptake due to different treatments. However, maximum iron uptake was recorded with the application of FYM along with NPK (27.96 mg hill-1) and lower iron uptake was in NPK+Ca (23.94 mg hill-1) and NPK alone (25.35 mg hill-1). In the present investigation it is evident that, there was increased uptake of N, P, K, Ca S and Fe with combined application of FYM or combinations of secondary and micronutrients along with NPK as compared to NPK alone. Increased N, P and K uptake due to the application of organics has also been reported by Chavan et al. (1997). Increased Ca uptake is attributed to additional quantity of Ca applied directly or through FYM. Similar results were reported by Santos et al. (1990).
Table 1. Yield, yield components and quality parameters of chilli as influenced by secondary and micronutrients Yield Fruit Hundred Weight of Oleoresin Ascorbic Treatments (kg ha-1) weight fruit weight discoloured (kg ha-1) acid (g/hill) (g) fruits (mg 100 g-1)
(kg ha-1) T1-NPK alone 695.46 60.83 189.9 112.00 64.50 59.50 (Control) T2- NPK+FYM 844.39 86.60 200.5 100.00 98.45 76.60 T3 NPK+Fe 803.44 78.10 195.9 99.96 87.91 60.07 T4 NPK+S 768.47 78.00 192.3 102.00 87.98 78.73 T5 NPK+ Ca 723.24 76.27 195.4 99.00 75.48 62.17 T6 NPK+S+Fe 843.86 83.90 197.6 92.50 107.08 76.73 T7 NPK+Ca+Fe 840.42 85.47 198.1 96.00 109.41 74.83 T8 NPK+Ca+S 841.20 80.27 198.2 98.00 96.75 79.83 T9 NPK+Ca+S+Fe 839.38 82.60 196.5 95.83 108.08 81.67 S.Em± 33.70 2.98 1.78 2.84 2.22 1.08 LSD (0.05) 100.99 8.95 5.35 8.53 6.66 3.25
Table 2. Nutrient uptake and economics of chilli as influenced by secondary and micronutrients N P K Ca S Fe Gross Net Cost of Treatments (kg ha-1) (kg ha-1) (kg ha-1) (mg hill-1) (mg hill-1) (mg hill-1) returns returns cultivation (Rs.ha-1) (Rs.ha-1) (Rs.ha-1) T1-NPK alone 53.50 14.82 63.93 973.64 312.04 25.35 27818 16875 10943.00 (Control) T2- NPK+FYM 63.93 18.54 76.71 1182.14 363.08 27.96 33776 20833 12943.00 T3 NPK+Fe 55.55 16.09 66.26 1014.15 363.11 29.93 32137 20894 11243.00 T4 NPK+S 54.25 15.73 65.62 1075.85 332.44 25.44 30739 18296 12443.00 T5 NPK+ Ca 53.75 15.59 64.50 1012.56 310.99 23.94 28930 17837 11093.00 T6 NPK+S+Fe 57.93 16.82 69.52 1155.40 351.52 27.93 33754 21011 12743.00 T7 NPK+Ca+Fe 56.66 16.43 68.00 1138.92 356.38 27.82 33617 22224 11393.00 T8 NPK+Ca+S 57.84 16.77 69.41 1163.98 358.73 27.84 33648 21055 12593.00 T9 NPK+Ca+S+Fe 56.23 16.31 67.48 1175.13 360.93 27.78 33576 20683 12892.00 S.Em± 1.48 0.45 1.85 46.60 13.03 2.04 11348 932 LSD (0.05) 4.43 1.36 5.54 139.64 39.03 NS 40.40 2792 *NS- Non significant
Effect of Secondary.......................
556 References BIDARI, B. I., 2000, Assessment of yield and quality of Byadagi chillies (Capsicum annuum L.) in relation to soil and management practices in Dharwad district (Karnataka state). Ph. D. thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad. CHAVAN, P. J., JIMAIL, S., RUDRAKHA, G. B., MALEWAR, G. V. AND BAIG, M.I., 1997, Effect of various nitrogen levels through FYM and urea on yield and uptake of nutrients and ascorbic acid content of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.). Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science, 45: 833-835. MAHESHWARAPPA, H. P., 1997, Agronomic investigation on Kacholaum (Kacmpteria galanga L.) and arrowroot (Mavanta arundinacea L.) grown as intercrop in coconut garden. Ph. D thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, 65.
The economic analysis of different treatments revealed large variation in gross returns per hectare. The gross returns was maximum in treatment applied with NPK+FYM (Rs. 33,776 ha-1) followed by application of NPK+S+Fe (Rs. 33,754 ha-1). The lowest gross returns (Rs. 27,818 ha-1) was realized with the application of major nutrients alone (Table 2). In the present study, the net returns was higher with application of
NPK+Ca+Fe (Rs. 22,224.0 ha-1) followed by application of NPK+Ca+S (Rs. 21,055.0 ha-1 and 1.67), NPK+S+Fe (Rs. 21,011. ha-1), NPK+Fe (Rs.20,894.ha-1) and NPK+FYM (20,833. ha-1) and NPK+Ca+S+Fe (20,683. ha-1) as compared to application of NPK alone (Rs. 16,875.0 ha-1). This is mainly because of higher fruit yield obtained with application of FYM or combination of secondary and micronutrients along with NPK and low cost was invested on secondary and micronuirients compared to NPK + FYM (Table 2).
PARTIMA SINGH AND DUBE, B. K., 2000, Influence of calcium on yield and fruit quality of tomato. Indian Journal of Horticulture, 57 : 148-152. SANTOS, I. S., BARBEDO, C. J., PIZIGATTI, R., FERREIRA, J. M. AND NAKAGAWA, J., 1990, Studies on the Ca and B relationship in capsiums. Horticultura Brasileira, 8 : 19-23. SHARMA, R. M., YAMDAGNI, H . G. AND SHUKLA, R. K., 1996, Role of calcium in Horticulture A Review. Haryana Journal of Horticultural Sciences,25: 205-212. SHASHIDHARA,G. B., 2000, Integrated nutrient management for chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) in Alfisols of Northern Tansitional Zone of Karnataka. Ph. D. thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad.
Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences: 17 (3), 2004 Department of Agronomy M.N. MALAWADI University of Agricultural Sciences, G.B.SHASHIDHARA Dharwad-580 005 Y.B. PALLED (Received: July,2003)
Karnataka J. Agric. Sci., 22 (5) (1090-1092) : 2009
Yield and quality of chilli (cv.Bydagi dabbi ) as influenced by secondary and micronutrients
Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) is an important commercial vegetable crop grown in India. In the recent years chilli growers are getting the low productivity of the chilli crop. This in turn affected overall production of chilli in the country. To increase
the productivity, adoption of recommended package of practice is need of the day. Macro and micronutrients play a vital role in the physiology of plants. The application of secondary and micronutrients has become necessary in the production of chilli crop for improving the quality of the chilli crop, among the secondary and micronutrients Calcium (Ca), Sulphur (S) and Iron (Fe) played a major role in the chilli production. Application of Ca, S and Fe has been studied for yield improvement of several vegetable crops but little work has been done in this zone particularly on chilli. Therefore, the present investigation was carried out to study the effect of secondary and micronutrients on yield and quality of Bydagi chilli. The investigation was carried out at Agricultural Research Station, Devihosur, Haveri, Karnataka during 2003-04 to 2006-07 on chilli variety Bydagi dabbi. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design consists of sixteen treatments with three replications and the gross and net plot sizes of the experiment were 6 m X 4.8 m and 5.4 m X 4.2 m respectively. The standard agronomic practices were followed during experimentation. The recommended doses of inorganic fertilizers (NPK) @ 100:50:50 kg ha-1 was applied along with various doses of secondary and micronutrients as per the treatment. The sixteenth treatment consisted of only organic sources of nutrient application. The data on growth parameters, yield parameters, yield and quality parameters such as per cent white fruit were recorded at the stage of harvest. The pooled results of the experiment revealed that RDF + Ca+S+Fe @ 50+50+20 kg ha-1 recorded significantly higher chilli yield (1189 kg ha-1) compared to the rest of the treatments except RDF + Ca+S @ 50+50kg ha-1 (1119 kg ha-1) and RDF + Ca+S+Fe @ 25+25+10 kg ha-1 (1176 kg ha-1) (Table 2) .The results are in conformity with finding of Hussain et al. (1989) and Singh and Varma (1991). Similar trend was observed during all the three years of experimentation. Similar results of increase in yield due to the application of secondary and micronutrients were reported by Pillai, 1967 and Pillai and Vadivelu, 1966. They reported ZnSO4, CuSO4 and MnSO4 either through soil or foliar application was beneficial in increasing the yield of chilli to the extent of 5 to 20%. Hatwar et al. (2003) reported application of micronutrients Viz., Zinc, Iron and Boron in combination resulted in improvement of both growth and yield parameters and yield of chilli crop. The significant increase in dry pod yield of chilli due to the application of secondary and micronutrients in combination is mainly due to the higher yield parameters such as number of fruits per plant and growth parameters such as number of branches per plant and plant height (Table 1). The increase in growth and yield parameters with the application of secondary and micronutrients were mainly due to enhanced photosynthetic activity resulting in production and accumulation of carbohydrates and essential auxins. This might be attributed favorable affect on growth and retention of fruits which intern might have increased the number of fruits per plant.
Table 1. Influence of secondary and micronutrients on growth parameters and yieldof byadgi chilli (Pooled from 200303 to 2006-07) Sl. Treatments Plant No. branches No. fruits %White Yield No. height / plant / plant fruits (Kg/ha)
1 T1- RDF+ Ca @ 25 Kg/ha 73.9 8.9 33.6 9.2 926.0 2 T2- RDF+ Ca @ 50 Kg/ha 75.0 9.2 35.5 10.0 968.0 3 T3- RDF+ S @ 25 Kg/ha 74.5 8.7 32.5 11.0 910.0 4 T4- RDF+ Ca @ 50 Kg/ha 78.7 9.7 35.0 10.2 964.0 5 T5- RDF+ Fe @ 10 Kg/ha 76.7 8.9 33.4 11.0 898.0 6 T6- RDF+ Fe @ 20 Kg/ha 77.9 9.6 34.1 10.7 922.0 7 T7- RDF+ Ca+S @ 25+25 Kg/ha 78.8 10.2 36.9 10.4 1037.0 8 T8- RDF+ Ca+S @ 50+50 Kg/ha 77.4 9.6 37.5 8.9 1119.0 9 T9- RDF+ Ca+Fe@ 25+10 Kg/ha 82.0 9.3 36.9 9.2 1013.0 10 T10- RDF+ Ca+Fe@ 50+20 Kg/ha 82.4 9.9 38.3 8.3 1038.0 11 T11- RDF+ Fe+S@ 10+25 Kg/ha 80.3 10.0 36.5 11.1 1012.0 12 T12- RDF+ Fe+S@ 20+50 Kg/ha 82.2 10.1 39.1 9.9 1056.0 13 T13- RDF+ Ca+ Fe+S@ 25+25+10 Kg/ha 83.7 10.2 39.2 7.7 1176.0 14 T14- RDF+ Ca+ Fe+S@ 50+50+20 Kg/ha 84.6 10.5 42.2 7.3 1189.0 15 T15- RDF only (100:50;50 Kg NPK/ha+FYM 73.1 8.0 29.0 12.4 853.0 16 T16- only organics 78.2 8.8 35.9 7.8 949.0 S.Em+/- 3.6 0.6 2.6 0.7 29.9 C.D. @ 5% 8.6 1.5 6.3 1.7 70.8 1091
Karnataka J. Agric. Sci., 22 (5) : 2009
Table 2. Influence of secondary and micronutrients on yield (Kg/ha) of byadgi chilli(Pooled from 2003-03 to 2006-07) Sl.No. Treatments 2003-04 2004-05 2006-07 Pooled 1 T1- RDF+ Ca @ 25 Kg/ha 1150.0 805.0 856.0 926.0 2 T2- RDF+ Ca @ 50 Kg/ha 1170.0 868.0 865.0 968.0 3 T3- RDF+ S @ 25 Kg/ha 1140.0 833.0 758.0 910.0 4 T4- RDF+ Ca @ 50 Kg/ha 1185.0 850.0 859.0 964.0 5 T5- RDF+ Fe @ 10 Kg/ha 1078.0 802.0 814.0 898.0 6 T6- RDF+ Fe @ 20 Kg/ha 1120.0 816.0 832.0 922.0 7 T7- RDF+ Ca+S @ 25+25 Kg/ha 1256.0 979.0 877.0 1037.0 8 T8- RDF+ Ca+S @ 50+50 Kg/ha 1305.0 1098.0 952.0 1119.0 9 T9- RDF+ Ca+Fe@ 25+10 Kg/ha 1212.0 954.0 872.0 1013.0 10 T10- RDF+ Ca+Fe@ 50+20 Kg/ha 1260.0 965.0 897.0 1038.0 11 T11- RDF+ Fe+S@ 10+25 Kg/ha 1220.0 934.0 883.0 1012.0 12 T12- RDF+ Fe+S@ 20+50 Kg/ha 1285.0 982.0 898.0 1055.0 13 T13- RDF+ Ca+ S+Fe@ 25+25+10 Kg/ha 1355.0 1215.0 959.0 1176.0 14 T14- RDF+ Ca+ S+Fe@ 50+50+20 Kg/ha 1362.0 1239.0 1025.0 1189.0 15 T15- RDF only (100:50:50 Kg NPK/ha+FYM 962.0 794.0 805.0 853.0 16 T16-only organics 1002.0 928.0 917.0 949.0 S.Em+/- 24.3 66.4 55.3 29.9 C.D. @ 5% 70.1 159.4 132.6 70.8 Table 3. Influence of secondary and micronutrients on economics of byadgi chilli (Pooled from 2003-03 to 2006-07) Gross Net B:C Sl. Treatments returns returns ratio No. (Rs/ha) (Rs/ha) 1 T1- RDF+ Ca @ 25 Kg/ha 37013 20630 2.26 2 T2- RDF+ Ca @ 50 Kg/ha 38707 21074 2.19 3 T3- RDF+ S @ 25 Kg/ha 36413 20430 2.28 4 T4- RDF+ Ca @ 50 Kg/ha 38586 21754 2.29 5 T5- RDF+ Fe @ 10 Kg/ha 35920 19267 2.20 6 T6- RDF+ Fe @ 20 Kg/ha 36906 19373 2.11 7 T7- RDF+ Ca+S @ 25+25 Kg/ha 41493 24260 2.41 8 T8- RDF+ Ca+S @ 50+50 Kg/ha 44760 24707 2.29 9 T9- RDF+ Ca+Fe @ 25+10 Kg/ha 40507 22924 2.30 10 T10- RDF+ Ca+Fe @ 50+20 Kg/ha 41627 21594 2.08 11 T11- RDF+ Fe+S @ 10+25 Kg/ha 40493 23480 2.38 12 T12- RDF+ Fe+S @ 20+50 Kg/ha 42200 24157 2.34 13 T13- RDF+Ca+S+Fe @ 25+25+10 Kg/ha 47053 28790 2.56 14 T14- RDF+Ca+S+Fe @ 50+50+20 Kg/ha 48346 27804 2.45 15 T15- RDF only (100:50:50 Kg NPK/ha)+FYM 34120 18987 2.19 16 T16- only organics 37960 19285 2.15 S.Em+/- 1328 1328 0.07 C.D. @ 5% 3187 3187 0.16
Similar results were also reported by Reddy et al.(1985) and Bose and Tripathi (1996) in tomato. The economics of the experiment revealed that significantly higher gross return was recorded with RDF + Ca+S+Fe @ 50+50+20 kg ha-1 and RDF + Ca+S+Fe @ 25+25+10 kg ha-1( Rs 48,346 and 47,053, respectively) compared to the rest of the treatments. In these two treatments also recorded significantly higher net returns compared to the rest of the treatments (Rs. 27,804 and Rs 28,790, respectively). Significantly higher B: C ratio was recorded with RDF + Ca+S+Fe @ 25+25+10 kg ha-1 compared to the rest of the treatments. However, it was on par with RDF + Ca+S+Fe @ 50+50+20 kg ha-1 and RDF + Ca+S @ 50+50kg ha-1(Table 3).
1092 References Pillai, K. M., 1967, Effect of certain micronutrients combination on growth and yield of chillies under field conditions. Indian J. Agron., 12 : 358 - 362. Pillai, K. M., and Vadivelu, K. K., 1966, Effect of soil and foliar application of micronutrients on fruit number and yield of chillies under field conditions. South Indian Hort., 14 : 43-47. Hatwar, G. P., Gondane, S.U., Urkude, S.M. and Gahukar,O.V., 2003, Effect of micronutrients on growth and yield of chilli. J. Soil Crops, 13 :123-125. Reddy, F. S., Reddy, M. G., Veeraraghavaiah, R., Subramanyam, K. and Reddy, D. S, 1985, Response of tomato to micronutrients. South Indian Hort., 33 : 408-410. Bose and Tripathi, S. K., 1996, Effect of micronutrients on growth, yield and quality of tomato Cv. Pusa Ruby in M.P. Crop Res., 12 : 61-64. Hussain, S. A., Mohamad, S. and Rao,B. V. R., 1989, Response of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) to micronutrients. Indian J. Agron., 34 : 117-118. Singh, S. S. and Verma, S. K., 1991, Influence of Potassium, Zinc and Boron on growth and yield of tomato (Lycopersican esculantum Mill.) Veg. Sci., 18 :122-124.
Yield and quality of chilli (Cv. Bydagi dabbi).....................
Agricultural Research Station (Chilli), Devihosur - 581 110 M. SHIVAPRASAD University of Agricultural Sciences, H.D. MOHANKUMAR Dharwad, Karnataka, India. S.A. ASTAPUTRE B.M. CHITTAPUR M.H. TATAGAR R.K. MESTA (Received : March, 2009)
Karnataka J.Agric.Sci.,18 (2):(334-337) 2005
Effect of Micronutrients and Organics on Growth, Seed Yield and Quality of Chilli*
N. NATESH, B.S. VYAKARANAHAL, M. SHEKHARGOUDA AND V.K. DESHPANDE Department of Seed Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005 (Received :February, 2004)
Abstract: Foliar spray of micronutrients at flowering stage increased the growth and yield of chilli. (Capsicum annuum L.) cv. Byadagi kaddi. Foliar spray of ZnSO4 (0.1%) recorded higher yield
(248.26 kg/ha) and quality parameters followed by borax and MgSO4 (0.1% each). Among the organics, vermicompost (2.5 t/ha) recorded higher seed yield (279.35 kg/ha) and quality parameters followed by mycorrhiza (2.5 t/ha) and FYM (10 t/ha) compared to control (48.0 kg/ha). * Part of M.Sc. thesis submitted by the senior authour to the University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005
Introduction Chilli is important fruit vegetable crop grown for fruits. It is used in culinary and other preparations and grown commercially in India. Application of micronutrients viz., zinc, boron, magnesium, sulphur and organics viz., vermicompost, Mycorrhiza and FYM bring profound changes in various metabolic processes within the plant system thereby influence the yield considerably. In recent years, the role of these micronutrients are gaining more importance particularly in chilli to boost not only the productivity but also to improve the seed quality. Hence, an investigation on the effect of micronutrients and organics on growth, seed yield and quality of chilli seeds was initiated. Materials and Methods An experiment was conducted during kharif 2002-03 at Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad. The field experiment consisted of 11 treatments viz., T1- ZnSO4(25 kg/ha), T2- ZnSO4 (0.1%), T3- Borax (10 kg/ha), T4- Borax (0.1 %), T5- MgSO4 (10 kg/ha), T6- MgSO4 (0.1%), T7Sulphur (10 kg/ha),T8 – Mycorrhiza (2.5 kg/ha), T9- Vermicompost (2.5 tonnes/ha), T10- FYM (10 tonnes/ha) and T11- Control (RDF 150:75:75 kg NPK/ha) and laid out incomplete randomised block design with three replications. One healthy seedling of 30 days old was transplanted per hill in each plot of 4.8 x 4.5 m. The half dose of nitrogen (75 kg/ha) and full dose of phosphorus (75 kg/ha) and potassium (75 kg/ha) were applied at the time of transplanting and remaining nitrogen (75 kg/ha) was applied as top dress after six weeks of transplanting. The crop was raised under protected irrigation condition. The plant protection measures were taken up to control pest and diseases as and when required along with intercultural operations. In each plot five plants were randomly selected and tagged to record biometric observations on growth, seed yield and its attributes and seed quality parameters. Seed germination test was conducted as per the ISTA procedure (Anon., 1996). Vigour index of seedling was calculated by multiplying germination percentage and seedling length in centimeter (Abdul-Baki and Anderson, 1973). The seedling length was measured in centimeter on 14 days
old seedlings.The statistical analysis of data was done and presented in table 1 and 2. Results and Discussion Foliar spray of ZnSO4 (0.1%) recorded more plant height (82.8 cm) and number of
Table 1. Effect of micronutrients and organics on different biometric parameters in chilli cv. Byadagi kaddi Treatments Plant height Number of Number of Fruit set Fruit Fruit Dry fruit Number of Seed yield Seed yield (cm) branches/ plant fruits/ plant (%) length (cm) diameter (cm) yield (kg/ha) seeds/ fruit (g/plant) (kg/ha) T1-ZnSO4 25 kg/ha 82.0 25.2 8.9 51.4 8.54 2.76 1385.4 80.9 2.85 113.08 T2-ZnSO4 0.1% 82.8 25.6 17.3 88.6 9.93 2.84 1526.8 85.1 6.31 248.26 T3-Borax 10 kg/ha 73.6 21.0 12.0 67.8 9.83 2.87 1201.5 81.7 3.93 164.34 T4-Borax 0.1% 75.4 22.9 12.5 67.6 11.14 2.88 1144.4 83.4 4.29 170.00 T5-MgSO4 10 kg /ha 74.3 20.0 13.5 74.2 9.70 2.87 1343.1 80.2 4.26 101.96 T6-MgSO4 0.1% 73.8 20.3 14.1 67.4 9.91 2.94 1356.0 82.0 4.67 180.30 T7-Sulphur 10 kg/ha 72.5 20.2 16.4 80.3 9.17 2.79 1215.0 81.6 5.21 202.55 T8-Mycorrhiza 2.5 kg /ha 70.1 20.9 14.4 78.3 9.30 2.76 1392.8 79.4 4.62 182.08 T9-Vermicompost 2.5 t/ha 69.3 22.2 17.1 88.1 11.40 3.20 1540.0 98.4 7.21 279.35 T10-FYM 10 t/ha 73.7 21.3 13.9 76.8 9.03 2.90 1310.4 91.0 5.09 202.49 T11-Control 68.9 19.2 6.6 39.5 7.84 2.36 918.4 56.4 1.22 48.00 S.Em± 2.30 0.95 0.57 1.29 0.25 0.03 7.87 0.11 0.01 0.25 CD (P=0.05) 6.76 2.82 1.62 3.62 0.75 0.10 22.10 0.32 0.03 0.75
Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences: 18 (2), 2005 branches compared to without spray (control). Increase in plant height and branches per plant may be due to the involvement of zinc in chlorophyll formation, which might have helped to influence cell division, meristematic activity in apical tissue, expansion of cell and formation of cell wall (Singh et al., 1989). The other treatments viz., Boron (0.1%) foliar spray, soil application of MgSO4 (10 kg/ha) or sulphur 10 kg/ha) recorded significantly higher plant height and number of branches over control. This may be due to biochemical functions of these elements like, development and differentiation of vascular tissue formation and lignification of cell wall, protein synthesis, organic acid metabolism and they are involved in photosynthesis. The organics (Mycorrhiza, vermicompost and FYM) influenced significantly the growth parameters. Maximum plant height (73.7 cm) was recorded in FYM (10 t/ha) followed by mycorrhiza (2.5 kg/ha) (70.1 cm) and vermicompost @ 2.5 t per ha (69.3 cm) over control (68.9 cm). Higher number of branches per plant (22.2) was recorded in vermicompost (2.5 t/ha), followed by mycorrhiza (20.9) and FYM (21.3) over control (19.2). Increase in growth parameters in these treatments might be due to supplementary effect of micronutrients (Zn, Fe, Cu, B, Mg, S) besides these contained growth promoting substances (auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins) and released by these slowly along with major nutrients applied through soil. Sutagundi (2000) obtained an increase in plant height, number of
branches and yield of chilli by application of FYM along with fertilizers. Similar results were also reported by Natarajan (1990) in chilli. Among the treatments, significant differences in yield and its attributes were noticed. Significantly higher seed yield (248.26 and 279.35 kg/ha) were recorded respectively in ZnSO4 (0.1%) foliar spray and vermicompost (2.5 t/ha). The increase in seed yield in these treatments may be due to higher seed yield attributing components such as fruit set (88.6 and 88.1%), number of fruits per plant (17.3 and 17.1), fruit
Effect of micronutrients. . .. . . . .. . .. . . length (9.93 and 11.40 cm) and fruit diameter (2.84 and 3.20 cm).Higher dry fruit yield (1526.8 and 1540.0 kg/ha), number of seeds per fruit (85.1 and 98.4) and seed yield per plant (6.31 and 7.21 g) respectively in ZnSO4 (0.1%) and vermicompost. Increase in the yield components due to increased photosynthetic activity and rate at which ultimately resulted in higher number of fruits per plant and seed yield per ha (Singh et al., 1989). When zinc (0.1%) along with NAA (100 ppm) + urea (2%) sprayed on chilli plants stimulated vegetative growth and also improved the quality of fruits (Ingle et al., 1993). Vermicompost is known to enhance microbial activity which might have helped and improved availability of nutrients through mineralisation and eventually leading to better canopy coverage, higher photosynthesis and translocation of photosynthates from source to sink (Jeevansab, 2000). The beneficial effect of vermicompost may be due to accumulation and availability of nutrients for longer period and reduced loss of nutrients through leaching. Vermicompost is an excellent base for the establishment of beneficial free living and symbiotic microbes and it increases the total microbial population, nitrogen fixing bacteria and actinomycetes. The increased microbial activity improves the availability of soil phosphorus and nitrogen (Yadav and Vijay kumari, 2003). Significant differences were noticed among the seed quality parameters. Significantly higher seed recovery (14.8 and 18.3%), 1000 seed weight (4.47 and 4.26 g), germination percentage (81.91 and 81.76), vigour index (959 and 920), seedling dry weight (4.33 and 4.49 mg) and lower electrical conductivity (0.850 and 0.771 dSm-1) were recorded in ZnSO4 (0.1%) foliar spray and
vermicompost (2.5 t/ha) soil application, respectively. The increase in seed quality parameters may be due to the participation of micronutrients (Zn, Fe, Cu, S, Mg, B) in catalytic activity and break down of complex substances into simpler form (glucose, amino acids and fatty acids etc.,). These inturn, reflected on enhancing the germination, elongation of root and shoot of
Table 2. Effect of micronutrients and organics on chilli seed quality parameters Seed 1000 seed Germination Vigour Seedling Electrical Treatments recovery weight (g) (%) index dry weight conductivity (%) (mg) seed leachate (dSm-1) T1-ZnSO4 25 kg/ha 8.4 4.49 81.29 (64.23)* 900 3.95 0.808 T2-ZnSO4 0.1% 14.8 4.47 81.91 (64.82) 959 4.33 0.850 T3-Borax 10 kg/ha 10.1 4.29 80.18 (63.53) 876 3.89 0.574 T4-Borax 0.1% 11.7 4.26 80.59 (63.18) 913 4.10 0.908 T5-MgSO4 10 kg /ha 10.4 4.41 80.12 (63.49) 863 3.54 0.805 T6-MgSO4 0.1% 13.8 4.33 80.68 (63.94) 892 3.82 0.815 T7-Sulphur 10 kg/ha 16.5 4.19 80.20 (63.56) 870 3.56 0.911 T8-Mycorrhiza 2.5 kg /ha 12.0 4.16 81.32 (64.37) 774 3.63 0.910 T9-Vermicompost 2.5 t/ha 18.3 4.26 81.76 (64.69) 920 4.49 0.771 T10-FYM 10 t/ha 14.4 4.21 80.21 (63.57) 875 4.18 0.790 T11-Control 5.1 4.88 74.25 (59.39) 598 3.19 1.202 S.Em± 0.19 0.04 0.16 22 0.03 0.070 CD (P=0.05) 0.53 0.11 0.60 61 0.09 0.210 *Figures in the parentheses are sin transformed values Vigour index= Germination (%) x (Root+Shoot length in cm)
chilli seedling (Yoganand, 2001). Finally, it can be concluded that foliar spray of ZnSO4 (0.1%) at flowering stage or application of vermicompost (2.5 t/ha) along with 150:75:75 kg NPK per ha (RDF) to Byadgi kaddi chilli variety gave higher fruit yield and with good quality seed.
References ABDUL BAKI, A.A. AND ANDERSON, J.D., 1973, Vigour determination in soybean by multiple criteria, Crop Science, 13: 630-633. ANONYMOUS, 1996, International Rules for Seed Testing. Seed Science and Technology, 29 (Suppl.) :1-335. INGLE, V. G., THAKRE, A. U., BADHE, S. B. AND KHAN, M. A. H., 1993, Effect of foliar spray of auxins, micronutrients with urea on fruit drop and yield of chilli cv. CA 960. Punjabrao Krishi Vidyapeeth Research Journal, 17 : 142-145. JEEVANSAB, 2000, Effect of nutrient sources on growth and quality of capsicum cv. California wonder grown under different environments. M.Sc. (Agri.) thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad. NATARAJAN, S., 1990, Standardisation of nitrogen application for chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) grown under semi-dry condition. South Indian Horticulture, 38 : 315-318. SINGH, S. B., SINGH, T., SINGH, B. N. AND SINGH, S. S., 1989, Growth and yield of chilli (Capsicum frutescens L.) in relation to zinc levels and number of seedlings per hill. Haryana Journal of Horticultural Sciences, 18 : 113-118. SUTAGUNDI, R. B., 2000, Effect of mulches and nutrient
management on growth and yield of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.). M.Sc. (Agri.) thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad. YADAV, H. AND VIJAYA KUMARI, B., 2003, Influence of vermicompost with organic and inorganic manures on biometrics and yield parameters of chilli (Capsicum annuum (L.) var. Pivi). Crop Research, 25 : 236-243. YOGANAND, D. K., 2001, Effect of mother plant nutrition and growth regulators on plant growth, seed yield and quality of bell pepper cv. California wonder. M.Sc. (Agri.) thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad.
Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences: 18 (2), 2005
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