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of uncertainty in income and employment to the farmers. In this contest, it is imperative to evolve suitable strategy for augmenting the income of a farm. Integration of various agricultural enterprises viz., cropping, animal husbandry, fishery, forestry etc. have great potentialities in the agricultural economy. These enterprises not only supplement the income of the farmers but also help in increasing the family labour employment. 1. The integrated farming system approach introduces a change in the farming techniques for maximum production in the cropping pattern and takes care of optimal utilization of resources. 2. The farm wastes are better recycled for productive purposes in the integrated system. 3. A judicious mix of agricultural enterprises like dairy, poultry, piggery, fishery, sericulture etc. suited to the given agro-climatic conditions and socio-economic status of the farmers would bring prosperity in the farming.
Advantages of Integrated Farming System
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Higher food production to equate the demand of the exploding population of our nation Increased farm income through proper residue recycling and allied components Sustainable soil fertility and productivity through organic waste recycling Integration of allied activities will result in the availability of nutritious food enriched with protein, carbohydrate, fat, minerals and vitamins Integrated farming will help in environmental protection through effective recycling of waste from animal activities like piggery, poultry and pigeon rearing Reduced production cost of components through input recycling from the byproducts of allied enterprises Regular stable income through the products like egg, milk, mushroom, vegetables, honey and silkworm cocoons from the linked activities in integrated farming Inclusion of biogas & agro forestry in integrated farming system will solve the prognosticated energy crisis Cultivation of fodder crops as intercropping and as border cropping will result in the availability of adequate nutritious fodder for animal components like milch cow, goat / sheep, pig and rabbit Firewood and construction wood requirements could be met from the agroforestry system without affecting the natural forest
Avoidance of soil loss through erosion by agro-forestry and proper cultivation of each part of land by integrated farming Generation of regular employment for the farm family members of small and marginal farmers.
COMPONENTS OF INTEGRATED FARMING SYSTEM 1. Crops, livestock, birds and trees are the major components of any IFS. 2. Crop may have subsystem like monocrop, mixed/intercrop, multi-tier crops of cereals, legumes (pulses), oilseeds, forage etc. 3. Livestock components may be milch cow, goat, sheep, poultry, bees. 4. Tree components may include timer, fuel, fodder and fruit trees. Factors to be considered The following factors have to be considered while selecting IFS in rainfed areas. Soil types, rainfall and its distribution and length of growing season are the major factors that decide the selection of suitable annual crops, trees and livestock components. The needs and resource base of the farmers also decides the selection of IFS components in any farm. 1. Suitable grain crops: According to soil type we can select suitable crops. Black soil: Cereals: Maize Millets: Sorghum, bajra Pulses: Greengram, blackgram, redgram, chickpea, soybean, horse gram Oilseeds: Sunflower, safflower FIbre: Cotton Other crops: Coriander, chillies, Red soil Millets: Sorghum Minor Millets: ragi, tenai, samai, pani varagu, varagu Pulses: Lab- lab, greengram, red gram, soybean, horse gram, cowpea Oilseeds: Groundnut, castor, sesame 2. Suitable forage crops Black soils Fodder sorghum, fodder bajra, fodder cowpea, desmanthus, Rhodes grass, Mayil kondai pul, Elusine sp., Thomson grass Red soils Fodder cholam, fodder bajra, Neelakolukattai (Blue Buffel Grass), fodder ragi, Sanku pushpam
(Conch flower creeper), fodder cowpea, Muyal Masal (Stylo), siratro, marvel grasses, spear grass, vettiver 3. Suitable tree species Tamarind, Simarouba,Vagai (Ladies tongue), Arappu, Kodai vel, A.tortilis, Maan Kathu vel, A.mellifera, Neem, Hardwickia binata, Ber, Indian Gooseberry, Casuarina, Silk cottonetc. are suitable for red gravelly/sandy red loam soils. Karu vel, A.tortilis, A.albida, Neem, Vagai, Holoptelia integrifolia, Manja neythi, Hibiscus tilifolia, Gmelina arborea, Casuarina, Subabuland Adina cordifolia are suitable for black soils. 4. Suitable livestock and birds Goat, sheep, white cattle, black cattle, pigeon, rabbit, quail and poultry. Agronomic approaches for increasing overall productivity and sustainability of IFS The various agronomic approaches for increasing the overall productivity and sustainability of IFS: i) Adoption of improved cropping system according to the rainfall and soil moisture availability ii) Selection of suitable grain crop species, tree species that supply pods/leaves for a longer period or throughout the year iii) The surplus fodder leaves, crop residues etc. during the rainy season should be preserved as silage/hay for lean season (summer).
FARMING SYSTEM RESEARCH IN TNAU Studies on farming system in TNAU commenced as early as 1976. Two centres were identified for the study viz., Paiyur (Dharmapuri District) and Yercaud (Salem District). Prior to the commencement of the research programme, preliminary farm surveys were conducted at both the centres to ascertain the average size of farm holdings and to understand the existing cropping pattern and practices. Based on the survey, 5 treatments viz., crop + dairy (3 milch cows), crop + poultry (6 layers), dairy cum poultry (3 milch cows + 6 layers) improved cropping alone and farmers¶ cropping pattern alone were taken. Of all the treatments, in Paiyur, in a 2.00 acre farm, the dairy based farming gave the maximum income (Rs.12,180/ha/yr) and employment (518 mandays) in a year. In Yercaud the dairy cum poultry farming gave the maximum income (Rs.13, 822/ha/yr) and employment (556 mandays). In mid eighties TNAU has approached farming system development from three dimensions viz., education, research and extension. A post-graduate programme on Farming System Management was offered. Under this programme the M.Sc.(Ag). Students have worked on rice based Integrated Farming System at Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute, Aduthurai involving
dairy, goat, poultry cum fish culture and at Agricultural Research Station, Aruppukottai under dryland situations. The results of the studies are furnished below: Wetland: At TRRI, Aduthurai, an effort was made to study the role of poultry-cum-fish culture as a component in mixed farming under small farm conditions. The study was conducted in a holding of 2.0 ha. In one hectare conventional cropping system (CCS) as practiced by farmers was taken up. In IFS area an extent of 0.96 ha was utilized for crop activity, and an area of 0.04 ha was allotted for poultry cum fish culture. The results indicated a net income of Rs.20,188 per ha and Rs.11,730 per ha in IFS and CCS respectively. The additional employment generated from IFS was 150 mandays over CCS. Field experiments were carried out at the Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute, Aduthurai with duck cum fish culture as a component in the mixed farming. Two farm holdings each with the size of one hectare were selected for conducting the study. In one holding, conventional cropping as practiced by farmers was followed. In another plot, cropping was practiced in an area of 0.973 ha and an area of 0.027 ha was allotted for duck cum fish culture. Economics of mixed farming was compared with existing cropping system. A net income of Rs.13,790/- was obtained from an hectare of existing cropping system (Kuruvai - Thaladi rice - rice fallow Pulse) and a net income of Rs.22,676 was obtained from the modified cropping system (Rice - rice - cotton / maize) even with an area of 0.973 ha allotted for cropping. The additional profit from modified cropping alone was Rs.8,886/-. From duck cum fish culture as a component in mixed farming system a net profit of Rs.1,441/- was obtained from an area of 0.027 ha. Totally an additional income of Rs.10.327/- was obtained from the mixed farming system over existing cropping system. The existing cropping system could generate only 252 mandays whereas mixed farming system generated 396 mandays. The additional employment generated from mixed farming was 144 mandays over and above the existing method of cropping.
Another comparative study was carried out with rice-rice-rice fallow pulses as conventional cropping System (CCS) and with rice-rice-rice fallow blackgram/rice fallow cotton and fodder grass along with 3 milch animals as Integrated Farming System. The results revealed that a net return of Rs.8,422/- was obtained from CCS and Rs.10,912/- was obtained from IFS. Net return from dairy enterprise was Rs.8,896/-. The additional net income of Rs.11,477/- was obtained from the dairy based mixed farming over the existing farmers¶ method of cropping. Inclusion of dairy unit generated an additional employment of 190 mandays. The total additional employment generated by dairy based mixed farming was 396 mandays over the cropping system. Research on Integrated Farming System was done both at on-station and on-farm involving poultry cum fish culture and mushroom production under lowland situation; dairy and biogas under irrigated situation; goat rearing and agro forestry under rainfed situation at TNAU Coimbatore. Wetland In wetland situation poultry, fish culture and mushroom cultivation were integrated with crop cultivation. Cropping was undertaken in 0.36 ha and 0.04 ha was allotted for fish pond, the poultry shed was placed above the pond. The poultry unit comprised of 20 bapkok chick and
fisheries comprised of 300 polyculture fingerlings. The results were compared with that of the conventional system. The gross income from the integrated farming system was Rs.70,619/ha1 yr-1 and that of the control was Rs.33,446/- ha-1 yr-1. Of the income from Integrated Farming System 59.3 per cent was from cropping, 8.7per cent from poultry, 7.4 per cent from fish culture and 24.6 per cent from mushroom. The additional net income realized from the integrated farming system was Rs.18,360 ha-1 yr-1.
Fish + poultry
Gardenland Under gardenland situation, dairy and bio-gas were integrated in 1.00 hectare area. The dairy unit comprised of 3 graded jersy cross breed milch animals with two calves. For effective recycling of farm and animal waste, a bio-gas unit of 2 cubic metre capacity was installed. The results of the study revealed that the entire system produced a net income of Rs.20, 702 per hectare per year. Dryland A study was taken up integrating crop and goat rearing under dryland in one hectare, considering small and marginal farmers of Tamilnadu. The goat unit comprised of Tellicherry goats of twenty eves and one buck. The results of integrated farming, system were compared with the control. The gross income from the farming system was Rs.12,400/- and that of control Rs.3,697/-. Of the income from the integrated farming system, 57.4 per cent was from goat rearing. The additional net income realized from integrated farming system was Rs.3400/- as compared to cropping alone. The additional employment gained through integrated farming system over cropping was 106 mandays. OnFarm studies on integrated farming system were conducted in different location in Coimbatore district. A survey of different farm holdings in the study area was done to understand the existing farming system. From this sample, representative farm holdings were selected both under irrigated and rainfed farming conditions. An exhaustive stock, taking of the available resources, potentials, constraints, Farmers¶ preference etc., of these farms were done and improved alternate farming system plans were developed, involving the farmer and with the aid of the technology developed in TNAU. The plans were implemented in the respective farms and monitored by periodical visits to farms. The farms played a participatory role.
Integrated farming system for rainfed black cotton soils Unlike irrigated agriculture, rainfed farming is with full of uncertainties to the extent that getting a normal crop itself is uncertain. To offset the innate difficulty of uncertainties such as uncertain rainfall, heavy downpour and consequent damage of crops and uncertain yield and income, exclusive concentration on cropping technologies may not give a practical solution to the farmers. The solution lies in changing the agricultural system itself integrating cropping with
maintenance of other enterprises. Keeping this objective in view, a well designed farming system has been developed for the benefit of rainfed black cotton soil farmers. Integration of cropping, livestock (goat) and orchard crops is profitable. In an area of four acres, including livestock (1-5 Tellicherry goats) along with cropping 3 acres and orchard crops (one acre of ber or guava or any marketable drought tolerant fruit tree), the additional income obtained over cropping alone was on an average, Rs.3300/-. Depending upon the extent of holding, the size of the components may be altered. Such integration is not only for higher income in favourable years but also to safeguard the farmers from getting disaster income in poor rainfall years.
INTEGRATED FARMING SYSTEM FOR VARIOUS AGRO-CLIMATIC ZONES OF TAMILNADU Integrated farming system models will vary widely in each agro-climatic zones with very high location specific natural resource availability like rainfall, and other climatic factors, soil types and market demand. Based on the agro-ecological condition and successful cropping systems adopted in each zone specific faming system models proposed based on the research carried out and could be recommended with slight modification for each agro-climatic zone of Tamil Nadu.
I. WESTERN ZONE Wetland Possible components 1. Cropping (0.90 ha) + fishery (0.10 ha) + poultry (50 layers) + 5 kg oyster mushroom production /day. 2. Rice-Gingelly-Maize and Rice-Soybean-Sunflower in 0.90 ha + polyculture fish rearing (0.10 ha), Pigeon (100 pairs) and 5kg mushroom production per day 3. Goat (20 female + one male) + fish (400 numbers of polyculture) + improved cropping system for wetlands Integration of cropping in 0.90 ha with fishery in 0.10 ha, 50 layers of poultry and 5 kg oyster mushroom production per day will result in higher net return of Rs.35,000/ha/ year (or) Integration of Rice-Gingelly-Maize and Rice-Soybean-Sunflower in 0.90 ha with 0.10 ha polyculture fish rearing, 100 pairs of pigeon and 5kg mushroom production per day could result in higher return of Rs.88, 700 in one ha farming with additional employment of 300 man days/year. The highest net return of Rs.1, 31,118 could be possible by integration of goat (20 female + one male), fish (400 numbers of polyculture), along with improved cropping system for wetlands.
Irrigated upland Integration of six crossbred milch animal with 2 m3 biogas production, 2 kg mushroom production and 20 bottles of mushroom spawn with farm forestry and homestead garden results
in higher net return of Rs.34, 580 with 1250 man days employment in one hectare farming under irrigated upland condition.
Biogas plant Rainfed land Integration of grain crop cultivation + fodder production + silvipastoral trees involving trees like subabul, acacia sp., and thorn less prosophis interplanted with cenchrus grasses and rearing of 20 female + one male of Tellicherry goat results in additional income of Rs. 5970/ ha in rainfed farming. II. NORTH WESTERN ZONE 1. Crop cultivation in rainfed lands can be integrated with 3 milch cows, 6 layers of poultry in 0.80 ha land area will fetch additional income (or) 2. Integration of cropping with 2 milch animal, 6 goats in 1.25 ha rainfed land, out of which 0.25 ha with mulberry cultivation for sericulture results in the net return of Rs. 28, 580/year.
III. HILLY ZONE To obtain higher income and regular employment in hilly zone, crop cultivation can be integrated with 2 milch cows, 6 poultry layers and 9 broilers. IV. CAUVERY DELTA ZONE
1. Integration of rice based cropping with 2 milch cows resulted in a net return of Rs. 19, 900 (or) 2. Crop cultivation along with goat rearing (6 Nos.) fetched Rs. 25,400 (or) 3. Cropping with duck and fish rearing resulted in a net return of Rs. 24,110. When the above system is integrated with mushroom cultivation has resulted in a net return of Rs. 25,000 per year.
V. SOUTHERN ZONE Rice based cropping + fish rearing + poultry in one ha land area fetched an additional income of Rs. 9530 in Periyar - Vaigai Command Area. Milch cow + fish rearing + rice based cropping system in wetlands of Tirunelveli district will fetch revenue of Rs. 25,210 as net income. o In rainfed black clay soil, cropping + fruit tree cultivation + goat rearing resulted in better returns 2. Pigeon rearing in IFS
No. of Pigeons No. of pigeonlings expected form 40 pairs Live weight of one month old pigeon lings Cost of Pigeon meat Income/month Income/year 3. Edible mushroom production in IFS Production capacity Quantum of staw/crop waste Spawn bottles required Production cost through IFS Cost of production in commercial venture Income through IFS Production cost for 730kg through IFS Net income through IFS 4. Dairy Farming in IFS Breed Dry Fodder Green Fodder Concentrates Average Milk Yield Milk Production Cost Milk Sales Price Gross income Expenditure Net income 5. Biogas Production in IFS Family Production Capacity Cowdung requirement Cattle Required Biogas Production Value of the Biogas Biogas Slurry
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40 pairs 46/month 350g Rs.40/kg Rs.640 Rs.7,680
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2 kg day-1 5 kg day-1 2 No.s Rs.12/kg Rs.20/kg Rs.18250 year-1 Rs. 8760 year-1 Rs. 9490year-1
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Jercy 5 (3+2) 10 kg/day/animal 25-30 kg/day 2.5 kg/day/animal 5645 lit/year Rs.5/litre Rs.8/litre Rs.43,800 /year Rs.27,375/year Rs.17,235/year
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5 2 m3/day 60 kg/day 3 No.s 730 m3/year Rs. 3,000/year 57 kg/day
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