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Basics of RETAINING WALL Design
Eighth Edition
Revised
Hugh Brooks Civil and Structural Engineer
A Guide for the Practicing Engineer
January,
2010
HBA PUBLICATIONS, INC. P.O. Box 826 Corona del Mar, CA 92625
Basics of Retaining Wall Design Eighth Edition
Hugh Brooks, SE
Copyright © 2010 Hugh Brooks
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced without written permission from the publisher. Eighth Edition, third printing Printed in the United States of America
HBA Publications, Inc. (Retain Pro Software) P.O. Box 826 Corona del Mar, CA 92625 www.retainpro.com
ISBN 9780976836407 109876543
Disclaimer
Although it is intended that the material herein is accurate and represents good design practices, it is possibleand even likelythat errors may occur. These are my views, my code interpretations, and my design practices. Other engineers may have differing views. Therefore, each of you, as engineersofrecord, must assess this information and assume responsibility for your designs. Neither Hugh Brooks nor HBA Publications, Inc. can assume any liability for damages resulting from your use of the information in this book.
Basics of Retaining Wall Design
Page i
the supreme excellence is simplicity" James Watt (17361819) Inventor of the steam engine Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page ii ."Ofall things. but proverbially so in mechanics.
9. Effective Fixes Topics and Caveats Design Examples A. H. F. 11. Appendix Tiltup Walls Pilaster Masonry Restrained (Nonyielding) Sheet Pile Walls Soldier Pile Walls Why Retaining Construction Walls Fail. 21. 23. C. 6. 8. 24. 10. D. 2. 18. 17. Terminology Overview Simplified Walls Building Codes and Retaining Forces on Retaining Earthquake Cantilevered Walls (Seismic) Design Stem Wall Design Soil Bearing and Stability Footing Design Pier and Pile Foundations Counterfort Cantilevered Gravity Walls Gabion Walls Segmental Swimming Retaining Pool Walls Walls Walls Walls Retaining Walls 12. 3. 13. G. 4. Index Uniform System for Classification of Soil (USCS) Summary of Design Equations Masonry Design Data Development and Lap Lengths Sample Construction Notes Conversion Factors Reinforcing Bar Conversions SII US Reference Bibliography Notations & Symbols Moments on TwoWay Plates Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page iii . 15. 20. Why this Book? About Retaining Design Procedure Soil Mechanics Walls. 22. 16.CONTENTS AT A GLANCE 1. I. 14. J. E. 5. 19. B. 7.
Why This Book? The User. Building Codes and Retaining Walls What Building Code(s) Apply To My Project? Uniform Building Code (UBC). About Retaining Walls Evolution of Retaining Structures A Definition The Precision IIlusion Types of Retaining Structures Retaining Wall Terminology What The Terms Mean 5 5 5 5 6 9 10 3. Why It Was Written? Scope of This Book Feedback 1 3 3 3 3 3 2.TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface 1. '97 and California Building Code (CBC) '01 The National Fire Protection Association (N FPA) Referenced Codes 23 23 23 23 24 6. Design Procedure Overview StepbyStep Design of a Cantilevered Retaining Wall Design of a Restrained Retaining Wall Establish the Design Criteria Design Criteria Checklist 11 11 11 12 13 4. Forces and Loads On Retaining Walls Determination of Loads and Forces Lateral Earth Pressures The Coulomb Formula The Rankine Formula '" Surcharge Loads Wind Loads Water Table Conditions Detention Ponds/Flood Walls Cascading walls Vertical Loads Impact Loading 25 25 25 26 26 28 32 32 33 33 34 35 Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page iv . Soil Mechanics Simplified A Soil Primer The Soil Wedge Theory Explanation of Terms The Pickle Jar Test The Investigation Soil Bearing Values 15 15 16 17 21 21 22 5.
Cantilevered Walls Tabulate Overturning and Resisting Moments Proportioning Pointers Overturning Moments Resisting Moments Vertical Component of Active Pressure From a Sloped Backfil. and Caissons When to Use Piles or Piers? Design Criteria Pile Desiqn Example 12 Counterfort retaining Walls 67 67 67 67 67 68 68 68 69 Description Proportioning Design Overview Desiqninq the wall Designing the counterfort (or buttress) Designing the heel Designing the toe Stability '" Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page v . Footing Design 58 58 58 59 59 59 60 60 Basics of Footing Design Embedment of Stem Reinforcing Into Footing Toe Reinforcing Heel Reinforcing Minimum Footing Thickness Minimum Cover for Footing Reinforcing Horizontal Temperature and Shrinkage Reinforcing '" 11 Pier and Pile Foundations 61 61 61 61 62 Piles. Desiqninq The Cantilever Wall Stem Basics of Stem Design Dowels from Footing into the Stem Horizontal Temperature Reinforcing Shrinkage Reinforcing Key at StemFooting Interface Masonry Stem Design Concrete Stem Design 43 43 44 45 45 45 46 48 9. Soil Bearing and Stability . Piers. Determining Soil Bearing Pressure Overturning Stability Sliding Resistance Footing Keys Deflection (Tilt) of Walls Global Stability 51 51 51 51 52 53 53 54 55 55 56 57 10. Earthquake (Seismic) Design Earthquake (Seismic) Loading Vertical Distribution of Seismic Force on Stem Seismic for Stem Selfweight 36 36 40 41 8.7.
Gravity Walls 72 72 72 Overview Design procedure 15.13. Swimming Pool Wall Design 92 Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page vi . Segmental Retaining Walls (SRWs) 77 77 78 79 79 79 80 80 80 80 81 82 82 82 83 83 84 85 85 86 86 87 88 88 88 89 89 91 91 An Overview Gravity Wall Design Check Lateral Soil Pressures The Coulomb Equation Check InterBlock Shear Check Sliding Check Overturning Check Soil Bearing Pressure Soil Bearing Capacity Seismic Design Geogrid Wall Design Construction Ssequence About Geogrids Gather Design Criteria Select Masonry Units Internal" and "External" forces Determine Lateral Soil Pressures Select Geogrid Determine Geogrid Embedment Determine Depth of Reinforced Soil (total base width) Check Overturning CheckSliding at Lowest Geogrid Layer Check Sliding at Base Check soil earing Pressure Soil Bearing Capacity Seismic Design Building Codes & Standards Getting Help '" . Gabion and MultiWythe Large Walls 74 74 74 75 76 76 Description Design Foundation Pressures Seismic Design Gabion Walls Using Mechanically Stabilized Earth 16. 17. Cantilevered TiltUp Walls 70 70 70 70 71 71 71 Description Construction sequence Design procedure Freestanding walls Erecting the panels Resources 14.
Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) B. F. Restrained (NonYlielding) Walls 96 96 96 96 97 Description Dual Wall Function "At Rest" Active Soil Pressure Seismic Force on NonYielding (Restrained) Walls 20. Sheet Pile Walls 98 98 98 99 Description Design Procedure References 21. Pilaster Masonry Walls 94 94 94 95 95 Description Filler Wall Design Pilaster Design Footing Design 19. 22. Retaining Wall Design Examples 111 205 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 215 Appendix A. 23. E. G. D. J: Summary of Design Formulas Masonry Design Data Development and Lap Lengths Sample Construction Notes Conversion Factors Reinforcing Bar US/SI Conversions Reference Bibliography Notations & Symbols Moments And Reactions For Rectangular Plates Index 219 Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page vii .18. C. Soldier Beam Walls Why Retaining Walls Fail & Cost Effective Fixes Construction Topics and Caveats 100 100 Description 104 108 Some actual cases 1 09 109 109 109 109 110 110 110 Horizontal Control Joints Drainage Backfill Compaction Inspections The Investigation Forensic Investigations 24. H. I.
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but my hope is that you will find this book helpful in your practice. S. some corrections made. We've had some interesting discussions. This book is not an indepth treatment of the design of retaining structures. There are dozens of references and foundation engineering texts and countless technical papers available for review. These manuals are intended as a companion to Retain Pro software to refresh and update the practicing engineer on the basic principles and procedures used to design a variety of retaining walls. first published in 1996. I hope this new edition will be helpful in your practice. read portions of the draft. finding what you need is time consuming. Surely there will be omissions and probably some errors. And. A reference bibliography is included in Appendix H for those wishing more detailed information. New topics include soldier pile shoring and multiwythe large block (and gabion) gravity walls. and as always your comments and suggestions will be most welcome. Retaining structures are far too complex a subject to treat in a single small volume. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 1 . My challenge was to decide what to put in and what to leave out of a manual. there is always the Internet. however. This Eighth Edition is a continuation of a series that began with a relatively modest manual.PREFACE TO THE EIGHTH EDITION Successive editions of this manual become necessary because building codes change . My goal was to put in the most helpful things a designer needs to know to design most types of retaining walls. New topics were added. P. This Eighth Edition is updated and expanded throughout.and I get suggestions for topics to be added or expanded I also learn from conversations with users of Retain Pro who offer suggestions..E. I express my appreciation to the many of you who have offered valuable suggestions. and there is a design example for each. and faxed informative articles and excerpts from technical papers. of course. Hugh Brooks. hence this compendium. from which hopefully we all benefit. corrected errors. point out errors and often enlighten me.seismic design requirements for example . all design examples updated and new ones added.E.
and segmental retaining walls. You can email me at hbrooks@retainpro. foundation engineering. into this book. gabion walls. rather than about use of the program. Feedback Your comments. both gravity and with geogrids. and compile information from many sources. it became increasingly apparent that many engineers infrequently design retaining walls and need some brushingup. counterfort walls. masonry design. restrained (basement).com. assuming he or she has already acquired a basic knowledge of statics. It is a review of basic principles and building code requirements. I also discovered that there apparently does not exist a single reference book specifically addressing retaining wall design. soldier piles. and the design of simple masonry and concrete structures. gravity. it is widely scattered in numerous textbooks and technical papers on soil mechanics. The User WHY THIS BOOK? This book is primarily for the practicing engineer who has become a bit rusty on the complex subject of retaining wall design. It is also for the student. Those that desire to dig deeper for particular topics there is a comprehensive bibliography in Appendix H of this manual. concrete design. Other topics include sheet pile walls. It will also be helpful to plan checkers (barring arguable code interpretations). Hence. Why It Was Written During my many years of providing technical support for Retain Pro. and all sorts of related topics. tiltup retaining walls. and suggestions will be welcome. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 3 .1. I attempted to condense. corrections. simplify. the design of retaining walls is not an everyday design task. Over half of the technical support questions I receive are about basic concepts and code requirements. However a single volume on retaining wall design for the professional practitioner could not be found. Although there is very considerable amount of information available. pilaster walls and pile/pier foundations. Hopefully. Scope of This Book This book treats most types of retaining walls: conventional cantilevered. it will ease your comfort level to design retaining walls and give you a good overview ofthe process. soil mechanics. including my own experience. particularly code requirements.
a liquid or other materials. The Great Wall of China. and we've been keeping soil in place ever since with increasingly better methods and understanding. shaped. Soil is a mixture of earth materials and although its characteristics can be closely defined its actual in situ behavior will not precisely fit theory. or thereabouts. Any student of ancient construction methods is awed by their ingenuity and accomplishments. The early engineers in ancient cultures of Egypt. and hopefully safer and more economical designs. transverse bamboo poles were used to tie the walls together . Major advances in understanding how retaining walls work and how soil generates forces appeared in the 18th and 19th centuries with the work of French engineer Charles Coulomb 1776. A significant body of work was the introduction of soil mechanics as a science through the pioneering work of Karl Terrzaghi in the 1920s. were masters at invention and experimentation. soil mechanics and the design of retaining structures has advanced dramatically in recent decades giving us new design concepts. the "equivalent fluid pressure" of soil is not truly triangular. Evolution of Retaining Structures ABOUT RETAINING WALLS: TERMINOLOGY In the year onemillion BC. A Definition: A retaining wall is any constructed wall that holds back soil. and. Even the most casual observer looks in wonder at the magnificent structures they created and have stood for thousands of years . and learned how to do it better with each succeeding structure. Rome. The Precision Illusion Let's not fool ourselves. Today. or woman. and the Mayans. Our calculations are the best we can do with assumptions we make and the results are never fully accurate. laid a row of stones atop another row to keep soil from sliding into their camp. an anonymous man. Even though the science of soil mechanics is well developed and reasonably well understood. Thus was constructed an early retaining wall. That's why we use factors of safety. learning primarily through intuition and trialanderror what worked and what didn't We marvel at their achievements. and later by William Rankine in 1857. Indeed. but they used what they had. and who is better remembered for his work on electricity. With great skill they cut. for example. and a better understanding of soil behavior. For example: the straight line we assume for the angle of rupture is actually somewhat concave. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 5 . Greece.a forerunner oftoday's "mechanically stabilized earth". and set stone with such precision that the joints were paper thin. their equations are familiar to every civil engineer. As the adage goes: engineering is an exact science based upon assumptions.including countless retaining walls. So keep precision in mind when calculating beyond the first decimal point. These early engineers also discovered that by battering a wall so that it leaned slightly backward the lateral pressure was relieved and the height could be extended . Reinforced concrete would not be developed for thousands of years. where there is an abrupt change in elevation. it is still not an exact science and remains both an art as well as a science.an intuitive understanding of the soil wedge theory. We make simplifying assumptions to make our designs manageable.2.
with both concrete and masonry. The pilasters cantilever up from the footing and are usually spaced from four to eight feet on center. partially or solid grouted. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 6 . can also be constructed using formed concrete at the base. and reinforced. A variation for masonry cantilever walls uses spaced vertical pilasters (usually of square masonry units) and with infilled walls of lesser thickness. Hybrid walls. Types of cantilevered retaining walls include: Masonry or concrete walls Masonry sterns are usually either 8" or 12" concrete block masonry units. Cantilevered walls are classified as "yielding" because they are free to rotate without any lateral restraint. Most of these will be discussed in later chapters. and can be tapered for economy. usually 6" masonry. where higher strength is required. These walls are usually used where lower walls are needed . usually with the taper on the inside (earth side) to present a vertical exposed face. The counterforts act as cantilevered elements and are structurally efficient because the counterforts are tapered down to a wider (deeper) base where moments are higher. or both. Higher walls require 12" blocks and are often stepped back to 8" thick as the retained height diminishes.under about six feet high. The high cost of forming the counterforts and infill stem walls make such walls usually not practical for walls less than about 16 feet high. Cantilevered retaining walls These are the most common type of retaining walls. The stems of a concrete wall must be formed. Counterfort retaining walls Counterfort cantilevered retaining walls incorporates wing walls projecting from the heel into the stem.Types of Retaining Structures There are many types of retaining structures for soil and other materials. then changing to masonry higher up the wall. The stem between counterforts is thinner and spans horizontally between the counterfort (wing) walls. but listed below are the types of retaining walls used today. See Figure 21. but can also take other forms as will be described. Cantilevered retaining walls are generally of masonry or concrete.
Gravity retaining walls This type of wall depends upon dead load mass of the wall for stability rather than cantilevering from a foundation. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 7 . or none at all. overturning. and wood walls are generally limited to low walls because height is limited by size and strength of the posts. Wood retaining walls usually consist oflaterally spaced wood posts embedded into the soil. or rock walls These are usually relegated to landscaping features and retaining less than about four feet high. Pressure treated wood is used. and rulesofthumb prevail (such as a retained height not more than two or three times the base width). Railroad ties are also commonly used for both posts and lagging.Figure 21 Buttress retaining walls Counterfort Retaining Wall These are similar to counterfort walls. sliding. Gabion or crib walls A Gabion wall is a type of gravity wall whereby stones or rubble are placed within wire fabric baskets. and to verify that little or no flexural tension exists within the wall because these are generally unreinforced. but even with treatment deterioration is a disadvantage. Precast concrete crib walls have also been used. Engineering for these walls is limited. Stacked and mortarbonded stone. Wood retaining walls These are commonly used for low height retaining walls. Such walls are generally used in those cases where property line limitations on the interior face provide limited space for the heel of a traditional cantilvered retaining wall. or set in concrete. Another variation is to stack a grillage of timbers and fill the interior with earth or rubble. but the wings project from the outside face of the wall. Crib walls are a variation of the gabion method whereby bins are filled with stone or rubble. Horizontal planks span between the upward cantilevering posts. Higher walls need engineering to evaluate global stability. rubble.
they are classified as "nonyielding" walls because the walls cannot move laterally at the top. The footing is then placed under the wall to complete the construction. that is. Tiltup walls are economical for higher walls. Bridge abutments These support the end of a bridge and retain the earth embankment leading to the bridge. The earth pressure creates a positive moment in the wall. this must be accounted for in the design. Most are patented systems that are typically battered (sloped backward) to reduce lateral soil pressure. but need panel casting space. either cantilevered or restrained at the top. Bridge abutments usually have angled wing walls of descending height to accommodate the side slope of the embankment. A variety of facing block configurations and surface textures are available from many manufacturers. whereby geosynthetic fabric layers are placed in successive layers of the backfill to achieve an integral soil mass that decreases overturning and horizontal sliding. Segmental retaining walls (SRWs) There are many manufacturers offering various systems of stacked segmental concrete units. as opposed to cantilevered (yielding) walls. or other devices that retain soil by stacking components. This is the reverse of a cantilevered wall. reinforcing. Steel sheet units or concrete panels are driven into the soil to provide lateral support below the base of the excavation or the dredge line. To attain greater heights . Technically. also called reinforced earth. but steel sheet piling is also used for temporary shoring on construction sites. Sheet pile and bulkhead walls These are generally waterfront structures such as at docks and wharves. which requires reinforcing on the front of the wall.SRW's utilize mechanically stabilized earth (MSE). These walls are distinguished by having lateral support at the top. with girder bearing support free to slide. These sitecast panels are set on concrete pads at panel ends. the side opposite the retained soil. Sheet pile walls cantilever upward to retain earth are usually restrained at the top by either a slab or tiebacks. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 8 . Such walls are usually designed as "pin connected" both at the top and bottom. thereby with less or no dependence upon fixity at the foundation. Design requirements for bridge structures are usually governed by AASHTO and state Departments of Transportation (DOTs). Footings. or mortar are not used. Abutments are designed as cantilever walls. Restrained (Nonyielding) Retaining Walls Also called "basement walls" (for residential and light commercial conditions) or "tieback" walls. steel bins. with the reinforcing projecting out from the bottom. Stability ofSRW gravity walls depends solely upon the resisting moment exceeding the soil pressure overturning moment. If the girder provides lateral support.Tiltup concrete retaining walls Tiltup concrete walls have been successfully used for retaining walls.up to 40 feet and more . thus requiring a minimal foundation.
such as a floor...Footings for these walls are usually designed for vertical loads onlynot for overturninghowever.. Figure 22... it is often desirable to design a basement wall as a retaining wall too. or waiting until the lateral restraint at the top.: . Note that conventional wood floors framed into the top of a basement wall do not provide a sufficient stiffness to allow for the restrained case./ .. is in place. Anchored (tieback) walls This method is used for higher walls. __ f:tEJNFORC"fNG 1"'£MPE~.. The latter are also known as soil nails.AT\.. The anchors can be placed at several tiers for higher walls. and can be posttensioned rods grouted into drilled holes. or nontensioned rods grouted into drilled holes.. because backfill can then be safely placed without having to brace the wall..~ •. Restraint is achieved by drilling anchors into the zone of earth behind the wall beyond the theoretical failure plane in the backfill. In some cases it may be cost effective to fix the base of the wall to the footing to reduce both the bending in the wall and restraining force required at the top support..J. _ .JR:£/{HORIZONTAL) SHR1HKACt: REfNf' . Cantilevered Retaining Wall Terminology Cantilevered retaining walls have unique descriptive terminology as illustrated below: PR1NCIP . a"C~F'1Lt. Retaining Basics of Retaining Wall Design Wall Terminology Page 9 .. L ..
Poor drainage of weep holes is the result of weep holes becoming clogged with weeds. Grade: The surface of the soil or paving. Footing key: A deepened section of the footing for greater sliding resistance.What The Terms Mean: Backfill: The soil placed behind the wall. Toe: That portion of footing which extends in front of the front face of the stem (away from the retained earth). Unless properly designed and maintained. Weep holes: Holes provided at the base of the stem for drainage. Stem: The vertical wall cantilevering above the foundation. The slope is usually expressed as a ratio of horizontal to vertical (e. Surcharge: Any load placed in or on top of the retained soil. Footing (or foundation): That part of the structure below the stem that supports and transmits vertical and horizontal forces into the soil below. Dowels: Reinforcing steel placed in the footing and bent up into the stem a distance at least equal to the required development length. either in front or behind the wall. Backfill slope: Often the backfill slopes upward from the back face of the wall. Keyway: A horizontal slot located at the base of the stem for greater shear resistance. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 10 . 2: 1). thereby increasing the lateral pressure against the wall. Batter: The slope of the face of the stem from a vertical plane. can refer to either side of the wall. generally measured upward from the top of the footing. weep holes seldom "weep". Retained height: The height of the earth to be retained. Principal reinforcing: Reinforcing used to resist bending in the stem. usually on the inside (earth) face. Heel: That portion of the footing extending behind the wall (under the soil). Horizontal temperature/shrinkage reinforcing: Longitudinal horizontal reinforcing usually placed in both faces of the stems and used primarily to control cracking from shrinkage or temperature changes.g. Weep holes usually have gravel or crushed rock behind the openings to act as a sieve and prevent clogging.
9. 2. check several feet up the stem (such as at the top of the development length of the dowels projecting from the footing) to determine if the bar size can be reduced or alternate bars dropped. Establish all design criteria based upon applicable building codes. Design footing for moments and shears. 6. (See checklist that follows). 4. That the allowable soil bearing pressures are not exceeded. 3. 5. Check and review. and again calculated about the front edge of the footing. impact. Start at the bottom of the stem where moments and shears are maximum. Preferably keep the resultant within the middle third. Since contact between the footing at the heel and the soil below cannot resist tension. calculated about the front (toe) edge of the footing. Check sliding. Select reinforcing. Compute resisting moments based upon an assumed footing width. Compute overturning moments. 2. or any others. wind. Check dowel embedment depth into the footing assuming a 90° bend (hooked bar). 7. seismic. This is usually an iterative procedure. That the stresses within the components (stem and footing) are within code allowable limits to adequately resist imposed vertical and lateral loads. Establish all design criteria based upon applicable building codes.3. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 11 . That it has an acceptable Factor of Safety with respect to sliding. That it has an acceptable Factor of Safety with respect to overturning. Then. surcharges. soil pressures. Compute all applied loads. it is equally important that it is constructed according to the design. DESIGN PROCEDURE OVERVIEW The four primary concerns relating to the design of nearly any retaining wall are: 1. Based upon (4) and (5) calculate the eccentricity of the total vertical load. Is it within or outside the middlethird of the footing width? Calculate the soil pressure at toe and heel. 10. 8. 4. the eccentricity of a triangular resultant soil pressure will shift outside the middlethird of the footing width. Design the stem. axial. (See checklist that follows). 3. for economy. A key or adjusting the footing depth may be required. StepbyStep Design of a Cantilevered Retaining Wall The design usually follows this order: 1. Have all report requirements been met? StepByStep Design of a Restrained Retaining Wall Similar to the above with some additional steps (italicized): 1. And.
If the stem is assumed fixed at base check the soil pressure and design for moments and shears and select reinforcing. 3. The values shown in parenthesis are only given to illustrate those frequently used. If there is eccentricity check reinforcing at stemfooting interface to resist the moment because of eccentricity and ifadequate the soil pressure will be uniform. impact. If the stem is assumed pinned at thefooting interface. (2. If the stem isfixed at the footing. Design the footing.5: 1 unless OK with geotech) Wind. Design the stem. Have all report requirements been met? Establish the Design Criteria The following information will be needed before starting your design. if applicable Axial loads on stem Surcharge loads Seismic criteria if applicable Soil density (110 to 120 pcf) f'. If the stem isfixed at the base. 5.000 psi to 4. thickness. Compute all applied loads (atrest earth pressures.000 psf to 3.500 psi) f (145 psi to 178 psi (strength design) These values are usually given in the report. If ajloor slab is present at the top of the footing. or any others.2. check its adequacy for this lateralforce (sliding). Using statics. a key or adjusting the footing may be required.000 psi) fy (60. check dowel embedment depth into the footing assuming a 90° bend (hooked bar).40) Backfill slope (don't exceed about 1. determine shear and moment at base and design this location. * * * * * * * * Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 12 . try to center the footing under the wall to prevent eccentricity. wind. 6. Usually the same material (concrete or masonry) and thickness will be usedfor the full height. and reinforcing jar this location.000 psf) Passive pressure (150 to 350 pcf) Active earth pressure (30 pcfto 55 pcf) Coefficient of friction (. seismic. surcharges. axial. If the stem is assumed pinned at the base.000 psi) fs (24. 4.000 psi) fm(1. Check and review.25 to . Retained height( s) Depth of soil in front of wall Depth of footing required below grade Allowable soil pressure (1. the maximum moment will be a positive moment near midheightdesign stem material. Select "height" to lateral restraint. lfa restraining jloor slab is not present. 10. Determine reaction at top support and at base. Check sliding.
but doesn't save that much material cost. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 13 • • . sliding coefficient. etc. Usually you don't design for less than twofoot height increments. 10'. What is the slope of the backfill? Level? Is there a water table I need to consider? Is a seismic design required? Are there any adjacent footing loads affecting my design? If the wall extends above higher grade. Perhaps a buttressed or counterfort wall would be better for high walls. is there an impact bumper load? Should the stem be concrete or masonry. perhaps a tieback wall would be more economical (caution: be sure your client has the right to install tiebacks. there is obviously a problem). from level to 2: 1. just use a little judgmentunless there is a steep backfill slope or large surcharges. 6' and 4'. it's not truly a cantilevered wall and requires a different design)? Do I have a investigation or other substantiation for soil properties: active pressure. say. or a combination of the two? How high is the grade on the toe side. or does the wall extend above the retained height? (exposure to wind) How deep must the bottom of my footing be? How will I assure that the backfill will be drained? Will there be any axial loads on top ofthe wall? If so. if the retained height along the length of a wall varies from. in which case it should be designed. such as parking. determine how many conditions for which you will need a design. In this case. If the wall is on a property line. Perhaps the same retained height has several different backfill slopes. You rarely "design" a wall less than 4 feet high.Design Criteria Checklist After you have established all your criteria. Here you need to use a little judgment in determining the number of cases. 8'. and other items I need to consider? Also consider whether a cantilevered retaining wall is the right solution. the eccentricity? What about surcharges behind the wall. On the other hand. or tiltup? Lastly. you would not want to specify the 12foot design throughout. you would probably design for 12'. allowable bearing pressure. and is a parking area. or using precast panels. soil density. the following checklist indicates additional items to check before starting your design: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • What building codes are applicable? Do I have the correct retained height for all of my wall conditions? Is there a property line condition I need to know about? Is there a fence on top of the wall. To design for onefoot height increments is not only tedious. above the top of the footing? Is there a slab in front to restrain sliding? Is there lateral restraint at the top of the wall (if so. say. When you have gathered all this information. unless there are different surcharges or other conditions. zero feet to 12 feet. trucks. If the height of the wall is over about 16 feet. you're ready to start. passive pressure.
for stability. The safety factor for overturning should be at least l. be at the bottom. must be within acceptable values. (Note: For cohesive soil. must be sufficient to resist the lateral force pushing on the wall. To resist sliding. the coefficient of friction is replaced by a reduced value of the unit cohesive bond between the footing and soil in psf. plus the passive pressure in front of the wall.) The stem must be designed to resist both the bending caused by earth pressures. FreeBody of Cantilevered Retaining Wall Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 14 . The recommenced safety factor against sliding is l. including the soil above the footing. Each of these subjects will be discussed later.:3Pa Figure 31. and material stresses. including allowable soil bearing. such that the resisting moments are greater than the overturning moments. seismic if applicable. Figure 31 is a freebody force diagram illustrating forces on the wall see.5. and any axial (vertical) loads imposed on the wall. The maximum bending and shear stresses in a cantilevered wall will. resist both overturning and sliding. including the effect of surcharges placed behind the wall. wind if applicable. of course. R R =CD+0+@+0+@+ Pv Ph=Pp+Pf Ph=cos. the wall must have sufficient weight.5. To resist forces tending to overturn the wall (primarily the lateral earth pressure against the back ofthe wall).Basic Design Principals for Cantilevered Walls A cantilevered retaining wall must. the weight of the wall plus the weight of the soil above the footing plus vertical loads on the wall and any permanent surcharges multiplied by the coefficient of friction.
Some common designations of soil are: Boulders Cobbles Gravel Sand Silt Clay > > > > < < 12" 3" < 12" #4 sieve < 3" #200 sieve < #4 sieve #200 sieve (0. Such swelling can cause considerable pressure on retaining structures. It's a complex subject for which most of us have neither the time nor inclination to master.074 mm) 0. so we employ consultants. or somewhere in between.005 to 0.if it is kept dry it won't swell. noncohesive. Soil is further classified as being cohesive. and so forth. but the USCS classification system is most often referred to in the foundation investigation reports you will read. soil derives its strength from interparticle friction between grains. and a #200 sieve has 200 openings per inch. or granular. or ~" each. The distribution of grain size in a soil sample is determined by a grain size analysis. and is classified according to the mix of the grain size of the particles making up the mass. for this reason clay backfill should be avoided. and is reproduced in Appendix A. and the amount by weight retained on each sieve is noted as a percent of the total. such as the AASHTO system. Sand and gravel are examples of noncohesive soil. mainly by removal and replacement with suitable material. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 15 . Here are a few basic concepts about soil: Most soil is the result of the decomposition of rock. In a sieve test a sample is passed through successively smaller sieves. Expansive soil consists of clay that changes in volume with changes in water content. a #4 sieve has four spaces per inch. The most generally used classification by particle size is the Uniform System for Classification of Soil (USCS). Cohesive soil derives its strength from the cohesive bond between particles.4. and if the site contains expansive soil. as represented by finegrained silts and clays. With this information the engineer can classify the soil per the USCS chart. Noncohesive. It is important that water not be allowed to penetrate expansive soil. Noncohesive soil is the type usually assumed for analysis of lateral pressures against a retaining wall. Sieve sizes use a numbering system where the number indicates the number of spaces per inch. We rely on the expertise of those of our peers who went on to become engineers. A Soil Primer SOIL MECHANICS SIMPLIFIED Most of us remember very little from our Soil Mechanics 101 course taken in college.002 mm There are other classifications systems. For example. the engineer will recommend measures to minimize its effect.
soil modulus. The point of slip is noted. the engineer will determine the bearing capacity of the particular soil by determining its frictional resistance. the horizontal force against the wall would be equal to the weight of the "wedge" of soil. whereby upper portions of the ground may freeze seasonally or permanently. Sandy soil requires confinements to develop shear strength. <1>. a shear force. therefore the tan" (F IP). separated by a virtual slip plane. local expertise and experience will apply. Any soil mechanics text will cover this topic thoroughly.5 friction factor along the slope plane. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 16 . and solved by simple statics. When soil samples (cores retrieved from drilling) are taken to the laboratory for testing. and other properties applicable to the design of the structure. which is F/P. slipping along a plane he assumed was 45°. foundations should be placed below the frost line. is This is an oversimplified explanation. with depths ranging from a few inches to 8 feet or more. called the angle of internal friction. However. He then assumed a 0. the bearing capacity of the soil is actually a function of shearing stresses between the particles. The shear between particles can be either frictional resistance (sliding friction between particles) or in the case of clayey soil. the soil behind it would slide down. such as Alaska. coefficient of friction. F. While a principal force P is applied perpendicular to the plane. The basic formula for shear resistance developed along a plane of rupture is: s=c+ptan<1> s = total shear resistance (stress). He will also test to determine density (weight) of the soil. that is. The strength of the soil is usually thought of as its bearing capacity. The coefficient of friction within a soil mass cannot be measured as easily as. the lateral pressure was about onehalf the weight of the soil wedge. p = normal stress. The engineer and applicable building codes will address this local concern. is applied laterally. To prevent the added pressure of swelling because of freezing and thawing.The depth of penetration is a term used in colder climates in the northern US. and successive tests are recorded for increasing normal stresses. This data is used to determine the coefficient of friction. In areas where the ground is permanently frozen to a great depth. He reasoned. say between two solid surfaces. which then halved the lateral force. c = resistance due to cohesion usually expressed in psf. A soil sample is confined in two opposing boxes. The shearing strength of the soil is the controlling factor for determining its bearing capacity. as for example a lack of confinement is illustrated when you step on sand at the beach you notice that the sand displaces sideways under your feet. its cohesion. compression capacity. The corresponding angle. = The Soil Wedge Theory for Retaining Walls How much pressure does the retained earth impose on a retaining wall? One of the early investigations of this problem was reported in a 1729 publication by French engineer Bernard Belidor. and <1> angle of internal friction. He started with a simple premise: If a wall retaining soil was suddenly removed. that if the plane was without friction.
(also famous for his work with electricity . particularly as they apply to retaining walls. or reaction. To keep this soil wedge in place. and that there is zero friction at the soilstem interface. FreeBody of Soil Wedge Later. His solution is the wellknown Coulomb formula used today (see page 26). which is its area times the soil density. Scottish engineer William Rankine simplified the Coulomb formula. which is assumed to have a direction inclined at the wall friction angle. and friction between the soil wedge and the face of the retaining wall.and other scientific achievements). His formula takes into account the effect of a backfill slope. It is actually concave. by use of differential calculus to identify the range of rupture planes to determine the minimum horizontal thrust. are defined in the following: The rupture (or failure) plane This is the line along which the soil wedge is assumed to slip. B SoiiWedg<: fts5umed Planeof Rupture Figure 41. He solved the problem of differing lateral pressures for varying assumed slip planes. and the reaction against the soil behind the wedge. Explanation of Design Terms: Some commonly used terms. The latter force. This formula also accounted for varying backfill slopes. and one parallel to the plane. but a straight line is assumed for mathematical simplicity. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 17 .French engineer Charles Coulomb further developing this theory in the 1770's. and which acts vertically downward. the three forces shown in the freebody diagram in Figure 41 must be in equilibrium.Coulomb's Law . but assumes the back face of the stem is vertical. batter of the wall. The three forces are the weight of the wedge. and the resultant acts against the wall parallel to the backfill slope. The angle this plane makes with the horizontal is theoretically: a = 45° + 4>/2. the reaction against the wall surface. which is the coefficient of internal friction times the normal force. In the 1850s he presented the equally well known Rankine Formula that neglects wall friction and is more conservative than the Coulomb method (see page 26). one normal to its plane. For cohesion less soil this is roughly equivalent to a slope of one horizontal to two vertical (I :2). has two components.
To use the Rankine Formula. The angle of internal friction (usually designated <D)is used in both the Rankine and Coulomb formulas to determine lateral earth pressure. the resultant acts at an angle. thereby resulting in a trapezoidal lateral pressure.plus an angle equal to the batter angle of the back face of the stem. It is assumed to obey Pascal's law. result in the oftused lateral pressure of 30 pef. This will give you the coefficient of active pressure. It is assumed to be a triangular distribution with zero at the ground surface and a maximum pressure at the bottom of the stem (for stem design) or bottom of footing (for overturning design). expressed in pounds per square foot per foot of depth (pcf). you need to know the angle of internal friction. The line of action of the resultant for the Rankine formula is assumed to act at an inclination of'[I. for Design Lateral Soil Loads. to increase linearly with depth. because the volume ofthe wedge of soil increases (see Figure 42). of the friction angle at the soilwall interface. value of 0. that is. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 18 . Multiplying a soil density of 110 pcfby a K. or can be computed from the Rankine or Coulomb formulas if the soil angle of internal friction and. As discussed later. which specifies a minimum of 35 pcf for sandy soil and up to 80 pcf for clayey soil. are given. Its value increases with increasing backfill slope. Active soil pressure This is the unit pressure. K. The engineer generally gives this value. K. which is not generally recommended to be used for cantilevered walls. 0. (Note that for the Coulomb method. Angles of internal friction range from 3235° for well graded sand. imposed upon the wall by the wedge of soil behind the wall. if applicable. Also see ASCE 705. The pressure diagram will be trapezoidal if a surcharge is applied. such as the Direct Shear Test. forming a triangular pressure gradient behind the wall. This pressure is the coefficient of active pressure (Ka) multiplied by the soil density. The active pressure is usually given to you by the engineer as an equivalent fluid pressure (EFP). which when multiplied by the soil density gives the active pressure in pounds per square foot per foot of depth (pcf). obtained from one of several laboratory tests. 2732° for silty sand. the angle of the backfill slope. for example. from the horizontal. and further diminishes for clay because of the lack of coarse particles. Table 51. a surcharge load over the backfill is considered an additional depth of soil. It is mobilized at the moment the wall begins to tilt (or slide) and the wedge begins to slide down along its angle of rupture. for a level backfill is generally close to 0. usually assumed to be 1I2<D to 2/3<D. measured from the vertical.Angle of internal friction: This is the most important value for determining lateral pressure and bearing capacity of granular (noncohesive) soil. and the slope of the backfill. the wall friction angle. It is a measure of the shearing resistance of the soil because of intergranular friction. less for sandy silt.30.27 would.
Kp. Passive pressure provides resistance to sliding by opposing the active earth pressure. " .:~~:~'1I I ====~~/. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 19 . It is obtained by multiplying the soil density by the coefficient of passive pressure. I ' _ _:.. is in the Rankine formula to reflect this increase..I / WEDGE FOR LEVEL BACKFILL =:/ :=:1 I Figure 42.d. The engineer generally gives this value. Commonly used design values (Rankine) for sloping backfills. Passive pressures are usually in the range from 250 .. These values are guides only and determination should be made by a engineer. particularly for slopes steeper than 2: 1. The backfill slope angle. .350 pcf. = 1 / Ka). or other applied external forces directed into the retained earth by surcharge loads on the backfill. The Rankine formula for Kp is the reciprocal ofKa (K. assuming a soil wet density of 110 pcf.Figure 42 shows backfill volume and surcharge volume and not active pressure. are: 0 Level: 5: 1 Slope: 4:1 Slope: 3: 1 Slope: 2:1 Slope: I1h: 1 Slope: 31 pcf 33 pcf 34 pcf 36 pcf 45 pcf 77 pcf The slope angle cannot exceed the angle of internal friction. Passive soil pressure: This is the resistance of soil to being pushed against by a rigid surface.. an angle of internal friction 0[34 and "rounding". IADDED VOLUME lIOR SLOPED BACKFILL ""''. Increased Wedge Volume with Sloped Backfill With a sloped backfill the active pressure on the heel side will increase because of the added height ofthe soil wedge. ~. This effect is illustrated in Figure 42.../ ..
Do not use the full value of cohesion for adhesion on other than very soft to soft clay. EFP values are the product of K. per cubic inch (lbs/in ') and its value varies depending upon the size of the footing. B ~ tooting width. applies to nonyielding walls which are laterally supported and restrained from movement at the top and bottom. Equivalent fluid pressure (EFP): The equivalent "hydrostatic" soil lateral pressure (i. Backfill slope: The slope of the backfill behind the wall cannot exceed the angle of internal friction for cohesionless soil. the resisting force is the adhesion between the footing and soil. or else adhesion approximately equals cohesion times a reduction factor. * Y or K. rather than the frictional resistance. granular. Saturated soil has a higher density. Also known as the coefficient of sub grade reaction. Load tests to determine its value are done on a onefoot square loaded plate. water content and degree of compaction. prevents the wall from sliding. This. A general rule is to limit this slope to 1. Its value is usually between 0. Soil modulus. The atrest condition also occurs when the backfill is highly compacted. Note that for cohesive soil. ~ value obtained by plate test. and is generally around 100 psf. measured from the horizontal. Angle of repose: This is the angle. for sand. 1 r k.(soil/earth friction resistance) = (passive resistance required) Passive pressure is discussed further in Soil Bearing and Stability. This will be discussed further in the section Restrained (nonyielding) Walls. Coefficient of friction: This is the frictional resistance at the contact surface between the bottom of footing and the soil.5: 1 (which corresponds to an angle of internal friction of 34°). it is an indicator of the compressibility of a soil. expressed by: (Heel active force) . together with passive pressure resistance at the toe (toe & key).. designated "k". obeying Pascal's Law). depending upon gradation. Soil density: Weight of soil is usually assumed to be 110 to 120 pcf. It is used to compute resistance to sliding by multiplying the total vertical force by the coefficient of friction. Its units are lbs. such as socalled "basement walls". but it cannot excel <D. because of the added weight of water filling the voids between particles. with the latter commonly used. Soil below the water table is described as being submerged and the weight is the estimated weight minus the unit weight of water. and the value thus obtained must be adjusted for the width of the footing in accordance with the following often used formula: k ~ k.Passive pressure applied to retaining walls does not cause overturning. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 20 . such as clay. designated K.(toe active force) .40. soil will form when loosely poured on a flat surface. that a pile of dry. This cohesive force is given in pounds per square foot of contact area.25 and 0. It is a function of the roughness of the bottom of the footing. (B2. it is the resistance to the net driving lateral forces. It is often used to estimate the tilt of a cantilevered retaining wall.e. "At rest" soil pressure: This lateral pressure. * Y . it is about 34°.
You'll notice fairly clear lines of stratification: gravel to sand on the bottom. Any other precautions the designer should be aware of. Fold a paper towel over the top and tum the jar upside down to drain the water. but a similar j ar will do.. Let it dry for a few days (don't use the microwave!) then shake it up and pour it out. Slope stability analysis Seismicity (peak ground acceleration. Now you have saturated soil. Let the jar stand for 30 minutes. Here is a list of information that may be included in a report: .. You were probably able to add a volume of water equal to about ~ of the volume of sample soil.The value k can vary from a low of less than 100 lbs/in ' for loose sand to over 1000 lbs/irr' for clay. . Then slowly withdraw it and notice the friction resistance. Pour water into the jar until the water reaches the soil surface. You will likely notice a slight slump of the soil because of consolidation. . but any soil will do. proximity to faults. Now pour in more water. Watch how the soil settles and stratifies. Presence of ground water Liquefaction potential. . and shake vigorously for 30 seconds to mix the soil and water. Passive soil pressure Active soil pressure for various backfill slopes. Soil classification Allowable soil bearing value Adjustments in soil bearing for width and depth of footings. .. preferably mostly sand with some silt and a little clay. You need a tall slender pickle jar with clear glass and a capacity of at least two cups (16 oz. The slope of the soil is the angle of repose. overlain with silt and probably a thin layer of clay on top. use it to give an approximate classification of your site soil. Scoop up a sample of soil to fill the jar about half full. Atrest active pressure for restrained (nonyielding) walls. no change in volume. Also.. screw the lid on tight.). .. etc. ... You can now classify your soil sample fairly well by comparing it with the Uniform System for Classification of Soil (see Appendix A). Page 21 Basics of Retaining Wall Design .) Presence of fill and site preparation requirements. . it's a learning experience! The Investigation Most agencies require a soil report prepared by a geotechnical engineer to establish permissible soil design parameters and identify other geotechnical concerns for your project.... Watch the soil cling to the sides (adhesion). Play some more. . The Pickle Jar Test I've done this and it's an interesting and informative way to learn about soil. Coefficient of friction (concrete to soil).. . Now remove the lid and push a table knife to the bottom. Wiggle it sidetoside and watch the pressure bulge. and maybe some floating organic debris. and you can visualize the voids. . .. Its value is should be provided by the engineer.. .
When is a Soil and Foundation Investigation Required? The local building official may have the authority to waive an investigation report if the soil is reasonably well known or a report was prepared for a nearby site. allowable soil bearing pressures range from 1.2. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 22 . This table lists allowable bearing values for soil classified by the Uniform System for Classification of Soil in Appendix A. However. Section 1803. Foundation Analysis and Design. the requirements for when a report is required are specified in !BC '09. you can refer to Bowles. you could use the presumptive values presented in the !BC '09 Table 1806. for those interested in the process. and other texts. subject to acceptance by the local building official. Although we leave the computation of allowable bearing value to the engineer. s" Edition. Soil Bearing Values Generally. these values can be increased by onethird when wind or seismic forces are present. Additional increases are permitted for increased width and/or depth of a footing beyond the minimum values specified by the engineer.000 psfto 4.000 psf. Chapter 4. When applicable.Engineering is a specialty authority beyond the civil license and subject to state licensing laws similar to other professional disciplines. Alternatively.
org. principally ASCE 705 Minimum Design Loadsfor Buildings and Other Structures. for example). Their current edition is NFPA 5000: Building Construction and Safety Code.) are collectively referred to as the "lCodes".g. with the exception of stateowned or leased public schools and essential service facilities. Southern Building Code. and ACI 530 for structural design issues.6 ofCBC'07). Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 23 . IBC 2009 references or modifies other standard codes. Chapter 7. the last in a series first published in 1927 by the International Conference of Building Officials. ASCE 7. 2009 Edition. for which retaining walls over 12 feet require seismic design (see 1611A.org. The current edition is 2009. Seismic design requirements for retaining walls per IBC are discussed in Chapter 7 of this book. The following codes are most often adopted or cited. BUILDING CODES AND RETAINING WALLS What Building Code(s) Apply To My Project? Always check with the building official having jurisdiction to learn what code(s) they are using and if any local amendments apply to your project. etc. some with local modifications (California Building Code. Uniform Building Code (UBC). It addresses construction protection and occupancy features necessary to minimize danger to life and property. plumbing. It is an adaptation of the IBC with minor modifications and is essentially the same as the IBC There are not any specific seismic design requirements for retaining walls. and Standard Building Code) into one national building code. The IBC Website is www. International Building Code (IBC) This is now the dominant code adopted by most jurisdictions. '97 This now defunct code. The NFPA web address is www. Also refer to Earthquake (Seismic) Design.5. electrical. County Club Hills. This code references ACI 318. The IBC was a culmination of efforts to merge the "model codes" (Uniform Building Code. Illinois. The IBC is compiled and published by the International Code Council (ICC). was the dominant code in the Western states until replaced by the International Building Code. California Building Code (CBC) '07 This California code was first published in 2001 to replace the '97 Uniform Building Code.nfpa. NFPA 5000: Building Construction and Safety Code (National Fire Prevention Association) NFP A 5000 has been promoted in some states. The series ofInternational Building Codes (e.iccsafe.
2003.mil. This is discussed in Chapter 7 of this book. the following may also apply: AASHTO LRFD Bridge and Highway Design Specifications. and The Masonry Society. National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP). and sample calculations: The web address is: www.astm. VA. 4th.org. NAVFAC Design Manual 7.s. That design manual contains information on many aspects of retaining structures.02. This is not a code.aashto. but referenced by !BC and NFP A as guidelines for seismic design. American Concrete Institute (ACI). www. D. standards.usace.navfacnavy. The 2003 Edition NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations/or new Buildings and Other Structures. This is the standard of reference on materials and processes cited in all codes and specifications.108) Also known as MSJC. and other regional codes often refer to the following standards for structural issues: Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. Army Corps of Engineers Design Manuals. The standard for concrete design. MI. particularly information in the Commentary. Building Code Requirementsfor Masonry Structures (AC! 530. SEI. Refer to www. West Conshocken. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). Published by ASTM International. 2007. developed by the Building Seismic Safety Council for FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency). Comprehensive design procedures. Foundations and Earth Structures. Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete (A C! 31808). Edition. www. contains often referenced information on seismic design of retaining walls.000 specifications.army. Washington. this masonry code is published jointly by ACI.org. Depending upon the jurisdiction. Annual Book of ASTM Standards. It's 70+ volumes covers over 11. per se.mil for more information. This often referenced code covers loads and seismic design.Referenced Codes mc 2009. Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC). Detroit. u.C. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 24 . ASCE 705 Published by ASCE. Reston. PA. CBC '07.
. Determination of Loads and Forces FORCES AND LOADS ON RETAINING WALLS The design of retaining walls may include any or all of the following (each will be discussed later): • Lateral earth pressure • Surcharge loads • Axial loads • Adjacent footing loads • Wind on projecting stem • Impact forces • *Seismic earth pressure • *Seismic wall selfweight forces *Discussed in Chapter 7 Lateral Earth Pressures The purpose of a retaining wall is to retain soil.+1.6. Most lateral pressure theories arc based upon the sliding soil wedge theory. in simple terms. hence the lateral pressure of the soil against the wall is a primary design concern... There are the two basic equations for computing lateral earth pressures: The Coulomb formula and the Rankine formula. '~'. and it is this wedge of soil that the wall must retain. The soil wedge theory The development of the soil wedge theory for cantilevered retaining walls was discussed in Section 4..1 .. assumes that if the wall was suddenly removed. . This.' ··.: ~ ~PLANE ASSUMED OF RUPTURE Figure 61. ~: . H p .::'0(:. FreeBody of Lateral Forces Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 25 . a triangular wedge of soil would slide down along a rupture plane. " :: ..'.. W .
and if zero friction is assumed between the soil and wall. friction angle at wall face. = = (1 . and which takes into account backfill slope. The Rankine equation is a simplified version of the Coulomb formula and does not take into account wall batter or friction at the wallsoil interface. then the Coulomb formula reduces to the familiar Rankine formula: K. is: Ka= ~~~~Sin sirr' (ex + . (horiz.) = cosJ3 K. An example of its use will be described later for both the Coulomb and Rankine formulas. J3= Angle of backfill slope of internal friction of the soil a = Wall slope angle from horizontal (90 for vertical face) 8 Angle of friction between soil and wall (usually assumed to be 2/3~ to 1/2/~) ~ = Angle 0 = Figure 62.sin <l» / (1 + sin ell) cosp K.) sin (<jl+0)Sin(<jlf3).I.) = coso K. The Coulomb Formula If backfill is level. The lateral pressure factor Ka will be the same for the case of a level backfill and zero wall friction. The Rankine Formula In the 1850s.s~n<jl 1 + sm<jl Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 26 . and angle of internal friction. As such. A cosf3 cosf3 + ~COS2 ~COS2 13 . angle of rupture plane.cos ' <jl = (horiz.cos ' <jl 13 .2 sin (ex . J3= Angle of backfill slope ~ = Angle of internal friction If the backfill is level the Rankine equation can be written as: K.( ex Sin ex  u 10)[1 + K. is the coefficient of active pressure.0) sin (ex + (3) ·2 .The Coulomb Formula The Coulomb Formula. = tan 2 (45 _1J or 2 = 1. The Rankine Formula for active pressure: K. Scottish engineer William Rankine further developed the Coulomb approach (along with many other scientific accomplishments) and introduced what is probably the most commonly used formula for lateral soil pressure. it is a conservative approach to the design of retaining walls. the soilside wall face is vertical. where K.
poorly graded gravelandclay mixes Wellgraded. poorly graded sandclay mixes Inorganic silts and clayey silts Mixture of inorganic silt and clay Inorganic clays of low to medium plasticity Basics of Retaining Wall Design USCS Classification GW GP GM GC Active pressure Atrest pressure 30 30 40 45 60 60 60 60 SW SP SM SMSC SC ML MLCL CL 30 30 45 45 60 45 60 60 60 60 60 100 100 100 100 100 Page 27 . = Assume: <p = 34°.Example: Then K. horiz. poorly graded gravelsand mixes Clayey gravels.37 and corresponding horizontal equivalent fluid weight of the soil a horizontal backfill Figure 63.6 . clean sands. and parallel to. the backfill slope.cos ' 34 26.6 = 0. gravelsand mixes Poorly graded clean gravels. cos 26.6 + ~COS2 = OAl K.6 .cos/ 34 cos 26. clean gravels.6 ~COS2 ~ = 26.37 x say 110 pcf = 40 pcf for Backfill Material Wellgraded. = Al x cos 26. The Rankine Formula Note that in the Rankine analysis the active pressure force is assumed to be applied at onethird the retained soil height and inclined at the angle of.6 26. IBC '09 and ASCE 705 have identical tables of minimum lateral pressures. poorly graded sandsilt mixes Sandsilt clay mix with plastic fines Clayey sands.6° (2:1 slope) cos 26. gravelly sand mixes Poorly graded clean sands. sandgravel mixes Silty sands. condensed below: Lateral Pressures (pound per square foot per foot of depth) = 0. gravelsand mixes Silty gravels.
Lateral Soil Pressures (Condensed from IBC '06 and ASCE 705) Surcharge Loads A surcharge is any additional vertical load applied to the soil above the top of the wall. WSURCHARGE P2 t H/3 i H/2 . See Figure 65 (Active Pressure from a Uniform Surcharge Load against Wall) to illustrate this effect.Figure 64 . ! o = SOIL DENSITY P1 == KaWH P2 = Ka<S'H2 (1/2) Figure 65. This is equivalent to a uniform surcharge of 240 psf (assuming a soil density of 120 pcf). A 250 psf surcharge is commonly used for highway loading. paving or an adjacent footing. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 28 . The lateral pressure will have minimal effect if the load is located more than the retained height away from the wall. IfH20 truck loading could occur close to the wall (closest wheel within about onehalf the height distant from wall) then a Boussinesq analysis can be done. It can be live load from a parking lot or highway. Active Pressure from a Uniform Surcharge Load against Wall Highway surcharges The usual added surcharge when highway traffic is close to a retaining wall is to add two feet of earth.
Grading contractors are aware of this and often report tilting of the wall during these operations. Backfill compaction can produce a K. far in excess of most surcharge design loads. condition. Compaction testing may be required. A ruleofthumb is that an adjacent footing will have little effect on lateral pressure against the stem if it is further than the height (base of stem to base of applied adjacent load) away from the wall face . compacted by repeated by backandforth runs of the compactor or loader. The Boussinesq equation follows: Where tenus are defined below and in Figure 65 for a point load: o r = Lateral Pressure. Ibs. Based upon the theory of elasticity. and have a footprint under each track of about 30 square feet if the loader is trackmounted. it results in a curved pressure diagram as illustrated in Figure 67. multiply the computed lateral pressure from the above equation by 21I = 6. and must be considered. such as square or rectangular footings.Backfill compaction surcharge Backfill is often placed by a front end loader dumping sand or gravel behind the wall. r = Horizontal distance from point of application on wall to plumb under P z = Depth.at a slope ratio of 1:1.000 lbs. coming within inches of the wall. This value for sand and sandyclay Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 29 . A typical loader will weigh about 30. The Boussinesq equation. note that the Boussinesq formula is sensitive to the assumed Poisson's ratio (11) for the soil. It is the contractor's responsibility to place backfill so as to not damage or overstress a wall. ft. and sometimes assign a worker to monitor plumb of the wall during these operations. Also. especially if the wall is restrained. or "point loads". This results in shorttime construction loads of about 1000 psf. Adjacent footing loads are classified as either "line" or "strip" loads" which are uniform loads parallel to the wall.60h above the bottom. though computationally very laborious is often used to calculate the influence of adjacent loads on a wall is shown in Figure 66. psf P = Point load. The resultant force acts about 0. Adjacent footing surcharges If there is an adj acent footing that overlays the area of the soil wedge this surcharge will exert lateral pressure against the wall. The backfill should be placed in layers of about one foot. R = Diagonal distance from P to point of application =~r2 +z2 11 = Poisson's ratio NOTE: If a "line load".28 (derived from the Boussinesq equation).
/ I .. Boussinesq Equation Pressure Diagram This is a very time consuming computation because it requires a calculation for each increment of wall height. The Bowles text is an excellent reference on the use of the Boussinesq equations. iz .// I I ! I ..2 to 0. H Figure 67.£_"J I 1 / y//"" ".ranges from about 0.:: ./ I ' . I I I I ./  I I 1 . //1 r" y z .> /   R ::: r:::: Jr + Jxl + yl 1 Zl z Figure 66. because it Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 30 . Boussinesq Equation Figure 66: (Boussinesq Equation Pressure Diagram) shows a plot of the resulting pressure curve./ ./ .5. The computations are further compounded if it is other than a point load.
For simplicity. The line load P. 1. the above Figure 67 uses C.g.30 for coarse grained soil with some silt. and unconservative shear and moment at the base. where y = x (tan 40°). is a lateral pressure coefficient depending upon the type of soil (paraphrased from Terzaghi. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 31 .then requires a separate computation for each square foot under the footing. where C. R = C. exerts a resulting force R acting against the wall at a distance y below load P. p A$$umed Ohtributi()n 1. See Figure 68. or in the case of a line load or strip load (the latter is a line load but several increments wider.5:1 slope (Terzaghi proposed an equilateral triangle). Simplified Lateral Pressure from Line Load This treatment of adjacent footing loads is brief.39 for fine silty sand and some clay. Terzaghi and Peck propose a simple method for computing the lateral load and point of application from a line load (e. A simplified solution may be to assume a uniform load against the wall equal to the adjacent footing load divided by the height from footing to bottom of adjacent footing. acting at a distance x from the wall. However. Some engineers merely assume the bearing pressure under the adjacent footing projects downward at a 1. 0. Appendix F. neither of these computations provides the distribution of lateral wall pressure against the wall.5:1mn Figure 68. This would yield overly conservative moments and shears near the top of the wall. such as a wide footing parallel to the wall). numerous computations must be made for the cumulative pressure affects against a vertical unit length of wall. 0.30. This may be an underestimation because it does not give the pressure bulge near the top as shown by the Boussinesq equation. page 364): 0. For further reading consult the texts in the bibliography. = 0.26 for clean sand and gravel.00 clay and silty clay. continuous footing) behind the wall. NAVFAC and AASHTO also have frequently referenced charts for determining lateral pressures from line and point loads. and computes the adjusted surcharge at the level where the projection intersects the wall. a more indepth treatment is not within the scope of this book. P.
This pressure diagram is shown in Figure 69.27 Y = 110 pcf Surcharge . Water Table Force Calculations. where F is in psf and v is wind velocity in mph. Using IBC 2006. The submerged weight of a soil can be approximated as 5/8 x its dry unit weight. plus the surcharge of the soil above the water table. Water Table Conditions If a portion of the retained height is below a water table. Except for freestanding walls the onethird increase is generally not applicable.3. this results in "F" = about 12 psf. which terms can be determined from Section 6. Y is wind velocity in mph.2 are used.27 (11062.4) x 7.100 psf Water = 62.10. 80 mph wind. and qz is the velocity pressure at midheight and can be computed by Equation 615: qz = 0.6 when using strength design method. Other codes and conditions may apply when wind is a consideration.00256 K. C.27 x 100 psf= 27 psf. The customary formula for wind pressure is F = .see IBC Section 1609). = 0. considering Exposure "C".4 pcf Forces: 0.2.85.27 x 110 x 6' = 178. and ignoring the Importance Factor "I".62.2 0.5= 96. Assume: K. the IBC code permits a onethird stress increase for shortterm loading if ASD combinations of 1605. can generally be taken as 1. K. 0. plus the submerged weight ofthe soil (its saturated weight .4).Wind Load on Projecting Stems When an exposed wall extends above grade. If wind overturning and stem moments are significant stress components. For Strength Design the IBC load factor for wind is 1.0026 v2 . G is gust factor which can be taken as 0. where F is design wind pressure in psf. the active pressure of the saturated soil will increase below that level. v: I. K.5.4 x 7. reference is made to ASCE 705 for wind design (with some exceptions generally not applicable to "fences" . This additional pressure for the saturated soil is equal to the pressure of water. Equation 625 of ASCE 705 gives the following simplified formula: F = qz G Cf. For example. it is subject to wind pressure which creates an additional overturning force.4 62.5 = 468 Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 32 .
consider the horizontal thrust of the upper walls.5' 3.5 178.5' M 2. is to apply the vertical load P v of the lower wall as a lineload surcharge force P.5 96. For this condition. Hydrostatic pressures If the water table is above the foundation the soil density below must be adjusted for buoyancy (saturated weight minus water weight). but a horizontal thrust as well. If the liquid can seep under the footing.2 x 6/2 178.5/2 468 x 7. Cascading wall conditions come up frequently and a good reference for design is not known to the author (it would make a good PhD thesis!). then apply its horizontal thrust P. as sketched in Figure 610.354 Figure 69. and be conservative! advice is recommended and the nature of the underlying soil may require a global stability analysis (most consultants have software to perform this). use the Boussinesq equation to obtain a cut force on the wall. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 33 . or cascading.Summary for overturning: P 27 x 13.079'# 5. piggyback style. because not only is there a surcharge from the wall above.012'# 904'# 4. be careful. as an assumed uniform load against the stem ofthe lower wall. Another possible solution. Cascading walls Occasionally walls will be stacked one behind another.2 x 7.388'# 17847'# = 4.5' 2.4 pet (or that of the liquid).4 x 7. Detention ponds / flood walls = x 6. located "x" from the wall.5/2 Ht. to point of application 365# 535# 1337# 362# 1755# 4354'"# 17.10' Water Table Force Calculations When retaining liquids the procedure is similar to an earth retaining wall except that the equivalent fluid pressure is 62. The footing weight should be reduced (concrete weight less water weight) to account for its buoyancy. suggested by a engineer.847 /4.75' 9. then the pressure above and below the heel equalize and only the buoyantadjusted dead weight of the heel can be used to resist overturning.13% grater than dry weight. would be to sketch a failsafe slope that would model the event if both walls were considered one mass exerting pressure on the lower wall. Weight of saturated soil is about 10% . This requires very careful design for the lower walls.75' 2. Two possible solutions are suggested: Alternate #1 shown on Figure 610. Alternate #2.464'# 5.
for example. such as when it is designed as a retaining wall so that backfill can be safely placed before the restraint is provided. ledger.ALTERNATE #1: Assume Equilvalent backfill surcharge ALTERNATE #~ Assume P unifomly distributed over Y and ~+. If restraint does occur. otherwise the wall does not perform as a cantilevered retaining wall. Vertical point loads on walls. If X > Vertical loads include: Axial loads on the stem These loads are applied directly to the stem..5:1 Y probably little effect on lower wall Figure 610. If one side of a building. This spreading of the load results in relatively low compressive stresses at the base of the stem.. Axial live loads on the stem will increase soil bearing pressure and resisting moments. or bridge member. would result in an axial stress (in addition to wall weight) of just 125 psi. therefore need to assessed separately from axial dead load for most critical condition. are assumed to spread downward at a slope of two vertical one horizontal.. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 34 . a 24 kip load atop a 12" concrete wall on a twofoot wide bearing. and assuming 14 ft high. say 1. For example. Sometimes a wall is designed for both conditions._l apply Pv as adiacent \_ footing Assumed rupture line.. Bearing stresses directly under a beam or girder reaction must be checked. Cascading Walls Vertical Loads Verticalloads provide stability by resisting overturning.\". Any vertical load imposed upon the stem of a cantilever design retaining wall must not provide lateral support. such as from a beam reaction. then designed as a basement wall for the condition after the restraint is in place. such as from girder reactions.c.. rests on top of a wallit could be reactions from a floor or roofthe abutting diaphragm should not restrain rotation of the wall.. the wall should be designed as a "basement wall." whereby the restraint at the top results in a positive bending moment in the stem.
Guard rails require 50 plf applied to the top. Most textbooks advise that it be used only for overturning resistance. Axial loads are usually from a connecting floor or roof. Impact Loading If the wall extends above grade and a parking area is adjacent. and increase the overturning resistance. Weight of structure This includes the weight of the stem and footing. This results in relatively low axial stress in the stem. ASCE 705 specifies 6. Assume the impact load spreads out at one horizontal to two vertical. This vertical component could be used for added resistance to sliding. the stem should be checked at incremental descending points as the impact force spreads over a greater stem length. or more for impact.5 psi.is inclined from the horizontal. This is assumed to be a straightupanddown column of earth (although in actuality this is probably an unlikely assumption).000 lbs. Weight of soil This includes the soil over both the heel and toe.5 x 12)] = 14. this inclination is assumed to be the same angle (parallel to) the backfill slope.33. A shortterm stress increase of 1. The latter is assumed to act at the plane of the back of the wall footing heel for a cantilever wall. But remember that live load acting at a negative eccentricity (toward the backfill) could produce unconservative results. and typically much less. simulating a spread footing design. reduced soil pressure. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 35 . This is equivalent to spreading its effect over a length of wall equal to the distance from point of application down to the plane being checked. or a single concentrated lateral load of 200 lbs. In the Coulomb method. These inclined forces resolve into a horizontal and vertical component. P is inclined at the wall friction angle at the soilstem interface. When using the Rankine formula. it is conservative to ignore the stabilitizing influence of this force. you may want to design for impact from a car bumper. Caution should be used if for some reason a very high axial load was applied because it could change the bending characteristic of the footing. P v. Stem and footing weight These loads add to soil bearing pressure and contribute to overturning and sliding stability. would seem appropriate for these conditions. When considering the effect of impact. Vertical component of active pressure The vertical component of active pressure force is another vertical load. for a 12" masonry wall this added compressive stress for 2.000 lbs/ft. applied at a height of 18" above grade. For example a very high heel soil pressure because of a high axial load could reverse the bending from negative to positive. consider the eccentricity with respect to the stem centerline because it will affect both stem design and stability. then the line of action of the resultant earth pressure. If the backfill is sloped as illustrated in Figure 61.Also.000 lbs/ft would be [2000 I (1l. For example. and rarely would exceed about 2.
7. Designer should check applicable local and State codes that may have specific seismic design requirements for retaining walls.4. identifies items to be included in the report to be submitted ". and IBC 2009. They often vary with jurisdiction. Section 9. acceration used in the MO equation (See following) and presented in NEHRP. . 1..1.1.7. The applied seismic forces shall be determined in accordance with Section 9. but implies some discretionary latitude by the "authority having jurisdiction".2.. 1803.14. Part 2.12. Commentary. the owner shall submit to the authority having jurisdiction a written report that includes an evaluation of the items in Section 9. This is the k. The seismic requirements ofIBC 2006. Section 1613.5.1 reads as follows: . It is also argued that because retaining walls are often at a distance from structures that would be affected by such failures and thus are not a lifesafety issue. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 36 . which require a seismic design if the retaining wall is more than 12 feet high. requires "A determination of lateral pressures on basement and retaining walls due to earthquake motions".7. Some argue the necessity of seismic design of retaining walls.7.5.2.7. The now defunct Uniform Building Code (UBC '97) and its successor California Building Code (CBC '07) do not appear to specifically require seismic design of "earth retaining structures" with the exception of stateowned or leased public schools and essential faculties.1 and the lateral pressures on basement and retaining walls due to earthquake motions". 7. considering compensating safety factors (e. reports usually give only the peak ground acceleration applicable to the location and leave the application of this information to the designer.g.5 or higher for overturning) and lack of seismic damage incidents to retaining walls (waterfront structures subject to liquefaction excepted).7 or IBC'09. Kramer) acknowledge that seismic design of retaining walls is a highly complex issue. IBC '06. This section applies to all earth retaining walls. refers to ASCE 705 which in Section 9.. 1802. compounded by the assumptions that must be made to allow an indeterminable problem to become solvable using concepts of statistics and differential calculus.g.5 is used for design. based upon the recommendations of the report.4.5. these arguments appear moot considering the mandatory language ofIBC and ASCE 7. but exempts this requirement if a peak ground acceleration of SDS/ 2. when required by the authority having jurisdiction "] This clearly requires a seismic analysis of "earth retaining structures". Bowles..1 [This section states that " . However. The determination of both static and seismic (dynamic) pressure on retaining walls is still an emerging science. though becoming codified. The selection of an "effective" site acceration for use is somewhat arbitrary. However. Seismic Design Overview EARTHQUAKE (SEISMIC) DESIGN Texts that address seismic design of retaining walls (e.
<p = angle of internal friction. one of the most important and influential is an ASCE paper titled Design of Earth Retaining Structures for Dynamic Loads. They considered this lateral force to be an inverted triangular wedge of soil behind the wall. Another contribution was a subsequent ASCE paper by Robert Whitman titled. to be applied to this wedge acting against the wall. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 37 . This was an adaptation of the Coulomb formula to calculate the total (seismic and static) pressure and introduced the variable 8. this becomes: KAE= ~~~cos O sm sin 2 (90 + 0 . widely referenced today.( 0' 5:) [1 cos 0 sm aslll a + + u + sin (¢ + 5) sin (¢ .fJ) r/J I sin (90 + ~2 + 0) sin (90 + fJ) j2 The total force (active and earthquake). (90 for a vertical face). MononobeOkabe When the acceleration is zero. This equation is presented in Figure 71. ~ = backfill slope. }i (y) KAE H2 where y = soil density and H = Figure 71. for the combined static and seismic factor.5 ¢ sin (¢O. 1990. 2 ( 90 + 0 + 12 ¢I l 1+ sin 1. In this paper they cite the pioneering studies by Mononobe (1929) and Okabe (1926). KAE Equation KA becomes the familiar Coulomb formula. static + seismic ' . based upon the MononobeOkabe theory.2 . KAE = active earth pressure coefficient. by Seed and Whitman.The MononobeOkabe equations Of the many investigations of dynamic forces on retaining walls. = 0.fJ) ]2 Where 8 = tan1 kll' a = wall slope to horiz. k. and 0 = wall friction angle. SeedWhitman proposed a simplified formula. the results from which were presented at a 1970 Cornell University conference. 0 For a vertical wall face and 0 assumed to be ~ .O'fJ) sin (a + 5 + 0' ) sin (a . Seismic Design and Behavior of Gravity Retaining Walls. The horizontal component is KAE cos O. which they termed KAE. P AE = retained height.¢) . which is defined as the angle whose tangent is the ground acceleration (8 = tan1 kb).
is 0.75 k. The seismic component (KAE. This simplification.60H. KpEis: KpE= cos B' sin 2 sin ' (aB+¢') [ 1+ sin(¢+5)sin(¢B'+j3) sin (a + 5 + B') sin (a .The passive earth pressure coefficient. H is the height from top of footing to retained height. The KA component is the familiar triangular distribution acting at H / 3. then KAEapproximate would be 0. k.6H. Note that the inverted "triangle" is actually trapezoidal because ofO. for example. For stem design. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 38 . neartriangular. which tend to combine into a uniform load over the height of the wall. However. This would suggest an 83% increase over static KA. might read "for seismic design add a uniform lateral force = 20 H2 with the resultant applied at 0.j3) 2 asin (a + B'+ 5) Note: The passive pressure coefficient decreases under seismic conditions. 8.5H. calculation error resulting from assuming a triangular distribution is not significant.75 kh. if the height of the resultant is at 0.495. Such a requirement.6 H. The height to the combined resultant can be obtained by the formula: y= The direction of force application.6H.KA) is assumed to be an inverted. act at an assumed height of 0. per the Coulomb formula. therefore.30 and KA = 0. is particularly helpful for checking stem moments and shears at various heights when y = H / 2. trapezoidal pressure diagram with the resultant force (maximum at the ground surface) acting at a height of 0.5 KAEYH. for overturning and sliding. H is the height to the back face of the footing.6H". Seed and Whitman (1982) suggest an approximation ofKAE = KA + 0. cos = (X) PAE· A simple approach to the design for seismic is suggested by the overlapping force triangles.27. the stem moments and overturning are greatly increased because 0. which is often assumed to be ~ . Some engineers use this method to give an added uniform seismic force over the full retained height with resultant acting at 0. along a virtual vertical plane extending from the bottom of the footing to its intersection with the backfill grade. w = KAE yH 2H 2 = 0. Therefore. where w is the equivalent uniform lateral static plus seismic force. is assumed to be inclined at an angle (from horizontal) equal to the friction angle at the back face of the wall. KAEhas two components (seismic and static). Therefore. however. If. the horizontal components can be assumed to be PAE horiz.
This is a design value and not necessarily the most severe acceleration that could occur at the site. is the horizontal ground acceleration used in the MononobeOkabe (MO) equation to compute lateral seismic earth pressures against retaining walls. Go to http://earthquake. the factor of safety maybe 1. Army Corp of Engineers appears to require this concurrent force. Geological Survey address.php (Java required).5. Assuming your code is IBC 2009.) For example. Unless an arbitrarily reduced value of kh is used.Seed and Whitman's paper suggests that few building codes (at that time) required seismic provisions for retaining walls. (A latitudelongitude web.1 when seismic is included.75%g.gov/research/hazmaps/dcsign/indcx. with a 2% probability of exceedence in 50 years. It seems excessively conservative.7 to convert for design for overturning. This is a U. Additionally.0. select from the contours the Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) ground motion for 0. which are generally around 1. sliding and soil bearing. Determining kb k. zip code 92660. onethird to onehalf the peak ground acceleration is often used (see Kramer and others). because such forces would merely reduce the safety factor to an acceptable value greater than 1. or 1.usgs. Newport Beach. hence the 0. Just enter your zip code.2. gives 185.2 second. If designing for these agencies check their requirements.1807.S. Seismic forces are factored forces.3. There is an easier way. generally 1.S.6 percent "g". California (high seismic area!). which have identical charts. are adequate to protect the wall for short term seismic forces. PA .6H f Figure 72. and for ASD these forces can be reduced by 0. using the USGS Hazard Maps: Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 39 . The starting point is to determine the peak acceleration applicable to your design. Here is an example procedure for obtaining a design k. Application of Seed Whitman Method An arguable issue is whether to include the inertial force of the wall combined with seismic earth pressure both NAVFAC and U. and concluded that the factors of safety for static design. Note that retaining walls are "short period".856. or ASCE 705.2 second selection. See IBC 2009.0. and a peak ground acceleration (PGA) of 84. spectral response acceleration at 5% of critical damping.
8.5.375 k.From charts. = SSD 2.5 Ka+ .856 (All terms defined in referenced codes) SMS= Fa s. yH 2 2 If resultant acts at 0.856 = 1. 11.5.40 x 1.24 Per NEHRP. + 0. 7.5. ~ 0.856 = 1. Part 2.0 (This is a function of soil characteristics and value of S. = 1.50 Simplified Seismic Force Application The NEHRP 2003 Part 2 Commentary.5 Base moments.1: where k.3 k. states Seed and Whitman's proposed simpler kh is the peak ground acceleration modified per Provisions Sec. 7. See Table 1613. using this simplification.5. are therefore: MAEbasc PA (H/3) + (ll.375 Kh Y H2 H =(. approximation: 7. Commentary.1: See also IBC '09.PAE= .6 H) = = yH3 (0.375kh) (yH) Page 40 Basics of Retaining Wall Design .PAE)(0. the approximate uniform lateral pressure on a stem is: .1.24 = 0. = Sos I 2.5 H.225 kh) An observation from this is that the base moments from static and dynamic (seismic) are equal when k.856 Sos = 2/3 SMS= 0. SMS= 1.0 x 1. Fa = 1.5Ka y H2 + .3 in IBC '06).5Ka yH + .75 KA Vertical Distribution of Seismic Force on Stem Here is a simplified method for assuming a uniformly applied force to the stem: By Definition: Total force on stem: PA + ll.5 = 0.17 K. S.667 x 1.
For design example, assuming K, = 0.35, k, = .34, y = 120 Fp
=
36H Ibs / ft lateral pressure
Note that this simplified formula is not valid if there is a sloped backfill which would significantly increase seismic forces. Seismic for Stem Selfweight This is an arguable issue: whether to include the seismic force due to selfweight of the wall acting simultaneously with the lateral seismic to earth pressure force. It does not appear to be defined in the codes. AASHTO, however, in 5.5.4 states: " ... seismic designforces should accountfor wall inertiaforces in addition to the equivalent staticforce, where a wall supports a bridge structure ... ". But section 5.6.4, referring to flexible cantilever walls, states that "Forces resultingfrom wall inertia effects may be ignored in estimating the seismic lateral earth pressure". Judgment indicates that seismic selfweight should be applied simultaneously with seismic due to earth pressure. Using ASCE 705, Section 15.6.2 (Rigid Nonbuilding Structures): Fp in equation 15.45, for cantilevered wall and assuming Ip Reduces to: Fp
= =
1.0,
0.30 SDSWp
Per above design example where SDS= 0.85,: Fp 0.30 x 0.85 x 1.0 Wp = 0.26 Wp
Alternatively per ASCE 705, 13.3.1: This method for F, applies ifthere is a lateral support at top.
O.4apSDS I p ( 1+2x Wp h
Rp h, ap 1.0, Rp = 2.5, is 0.30 Sds r, Wp
_x
J
h
=
r, minimum
hr
0 at bottom and 1.0 at top.
F, for design is average between top and bottom For example design, Sds= 0.85, Ip = 1.0 :. Fp [[(0.4 x 0.85 x 1.0 x 1.0 x 3) / 2.5] + (0.30 x 0.8 x 1.0)]] 0.50Wp
=
0.33Wp
Basics of Retaining Wall Design
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Seismic Force on NonYielding (Restrained) Walls Several texts (e.g. Kramer) propose the following formula (slightly revised): L1Peq = Y k, H2, acting at a resultant height of about O.6H Where L1P is the total added lateral force due to seismic, y is the unit weight of soil, and H is eq the retained height. The resultant acting at O.6H gives a slightly trapezoidal force diagram, however, for ease of calculation a uniform load can be assumed with less than 2% unconservative error. It should be noted that there are so few incidents of earthquake damage to such walls that many experts agree that seismic design of restrained (e.g. "basement") walls may not be necessary, particularly given an adequate factor of safety for the service level design.
Basics of Retaining Wall Design
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8.
Basics of Stem Design
DESIGNING THE CANTILEVER WALL STEM
First, here are two very rough rules of thumb for assuming stem thickness: If a concrete stem, try one inch in thickness for each foot of retained height, but not less than eight inches. If masonry stem, 8" is usually adequate for walls about six feet high, and 12" for walls to 12 feet. Less height for walls with sloped backfills. The controlling design condition for reinforcement occurs at the bottom ofthe stem (top of footing), where the maximum stem moment occurs. However, it is not economical to use the same steel design higher up the wall where the moment is less (unless the wall is very low). Usually, after the base of the stem is designed, another design is performed several feet higher, usually at the top of the dowels projecting from the footing. At this point alternate bars can be dropped, or sizes reduced, for economy. If the wall is very high, you may want three or four cutoff levels and perhaps a change in stem thickness or material. The diagram in Figure 81 illustrates this concept.
REDUCE: e .... SIZE R ANO/OO DROP Al T£RHA TE BARS
I
rr I
.
cF
REDUCE BAR SIZE AND/OR DROP Al,..lERNA iE BARS
I
!
~'"
E){lEND DOWELS FUU HEIGHT
:='"
j~= c=
....
e'"
r
cF cF
cF._
._  
r
f




.HOOKEOBAR
I.~\
rTt
~':J
_....Q_.,
"',4
.l
'"
EMBEOhtENT
~__j OEPTH
LOW
WALLS
MEDIUM
WALLS
HIGH
WALLS
Figure 81. Reinforcing Placement in Stem A handy rule to remember is that for a triangular equivalent fluid pressure behind the stem, the moment diminishes to onehalf of that at the base at O.20H above the base. For example, for a 10 foot retained height, the moment is one half its maximum at two feet above the base. Therefore, for nearly all cases, the moment is onehalf or less at the tops of the dowels. Often the stem projects above the retained height to provide a fence barrier, or a wood fence may be added to the top of the stem. In such cases, the wind load on that portion above the earth should be considered in the design, as it contributes to overturning. If the stem is essentially a yard wall, with very little earth retention, then remember that the wind can blow from either direction, which will require the wall and footing to be checked for both conditions.
Basics of Retaining Wall Design
Page 43
If there is a concentrated vertical or lateral load, such as impact, assume that a point load spreads downward, along the length of the wall, at about two vertical to one horizontal. In other words, the overturning force at the base of the stem is spread over a distance equal to the height from the base to point of impact. Dowels from Footing into the Stem The reinforcing at the bottom of the stem will consist of footing bars bent up into the stem as dowel bars. Unless the wall is relatively low, say four or five feet, it is not economical to extend the dowel bars to the top of the wall, because the moment in the stem diminishes rapidly with height (as stated earlier is halved at about 1/5th the height). Vertical bars must only extend up to where they are no longer required, at which point either alternate bars can be dropped, or spliced (lapped) with lesser size bars. Bars must extend up into the stem a distance equal to the development length of the bar, or the required lap distance for the continuing bars, whichever is greater, provided however, that they extend at least 12 bar diameters beyond where they are no longer needed for.moment requirements. The lap length required for the continuing bars nearly always governs. The required development length and lap lengths for both masonry and concrete are shown in the Table below. Hooked bar embedments into the footing are also shown. Note the footnote assumptions below the Table. Lap Splice t.enqths'" and Hooked Bar Embedments (inches)
I···.·
Masonry(2rfA.=1500· Grade 60 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 L
H(4)
psi 2000.psi 34.9 9.4 43.6 11.8 52.3 14.1 76.3 16.5 87.2 18.8
Concrete·(3)
Grade 40 20 25 30 35 40
3QOO psi
28.5 7.7 35.6 9.6 42.7 11.5 62.3 13.4 74.2 15.4
4000 psi 24.7 6.7 30.8 8.3 37.1 10.0 54.0 11.6 61.6 13.3
24 30 36 42 48
L
H(4)
L
H(4)
L
H(4)
L
H(4)
(1) (2) (3) (4)
Min. lap for spliced bars, inches, assumes fy = 60 ksi 40 bar diameters for fy = 40 ksi and 48 diameters for fy = 60 ksi (48 diameters shown) Min. lap is development length x 1.3, assuming Class B splice. Cannot be reduced for stress level Assumes standard hook and not reduced by ratio As (required) / As (provided) Note that IBC '06, 2107.5, modifies ACI53005, Section 2.1.10.7.1.1 which has the effect of deleting the following onerous development length equation (29) in ACI53005:
(5)
"L" = lap length; "H" = hook bar embedment.
Basics of Retaining Wall Design
Page 44
5 10 _15 10 ~. #6 18 18 18 ~~" 18 18 18 18 18 48 48 48 48 40 #7 . better crack control) where you may want additional reinforcing.0007 AI!Masonry and . K 1.5 for #8 Masonry cover but not less than 5 db This requirement results in much longer lap lengths and has met with considerable objection.~Concrete Concrete C on crete * Concretc* Concrete* ::.=::::: = 2 0.4 for #6.5 bars.Development length in masonry is given in MSJC 2008 as: f "". CMU eMU CMU CMU CMU . The table below shows minimum requirements for both concrete and masonry (CMU).002 db f. IBC 2009 modified this requirement (only for ASD) to: Id = 0. For Grade 60 reinforcing this equation requires 48 bar diameters. There may be conditions (climate.. _.0 for #3.  __ ...4.002 A" for concrete #4 #5 Thick #3 17 18 6 9 14 18 7 8 12 18 8 7 11 17 9 6 5.. and 1. Horizontal Temperature / Shrinkage Reinforcing Horizontal reinforcing is necessary to control cracks from temperature changes and shrinkage. Key at StemFooting Interface Another use of the term "key" is a longitudinal slot formed into the top of the footing and into which the bottom of the stem fits. but not less than 12". 10 16 24 32 12 24 32 12 24 16 8 16 . or just the middle Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 45 .48 24 48 6 16 32 48 8 1. 18 12 17 9 14 18 14 8 18 16 7 12 .13 db fy Y K d y = = P. aesthetics. This slot can be the full width of the stem. Horizontal Temperature/Shrinkage Reinforcement for Concrete and Masonry Walls Typical Horizontal Rebar Spacing for . 1. 48 The ACI requirement for reinforcing in both faces of concrete walls over 10 inches thick is waived for retaining walls in contact with earth...7. . Mat'l Concrete Concrete Concrete .
c. of friction = 0. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 46 . is the design procedure similar to Strength Design for concrete.33 = 2519 plf . Both are codepermitted options Using ASD.0. We often compute the shear stresses at the base of the stem as if it was monolithic.60 = 16. <1>. OK if only consider shear friction In this case.000 x 0. concrete shear is adequate. therefore to convert seismic forces to ASD divide by 1.240# > 1. rather than a "cold joint. if its depth is sufficient to resist the shear force. fm is typically 1500 psi and fy for Grade 60 reinforcing is 60. which is in addition to tension requirements for bending design. However. The purpose is intended to offer more shear resistance at the interface plane.half. This requires a certain amount of tension in the reinforcing must be used for this clamping force. all or part of the shear can be resisted by compression against the side of the keyway.60 coef. Alternatively.11 = 0.90 for flexure and 0. Let's investigate this for an assumed condition: 3800 = = 32. except earthquake forces are already factored.000 psi. loads are factored by 1." By providing a keyway. Design of Masonry Stems Masonry is designed using two methods: Allowable Stress Design (ASD) and Strength Design (SD). Strengthreduction factor.4.J2000 Stem = 67.9 psi 12 x 9.60 x 60. Shear friction theory considers the reinforcing steel that crosses the joint as clamping the joint together such that sliding of the joint cannot occur unless the coefficient of friction is overcome. or the reinforcing yields to allow slippage. Refer to MSJC Chapter 3 for SD requirements.800# . Allowable flexural stress is: £. also known as LFRD (Load Resistance Factor Design).9 OK But also check shear friction available: vn = As fy fl ~ assume = 0.1> 32.33 Fm. another way of resisting shear at this interface is to consider "shear friction" across the joint.80 for shear and splices.in this case 7/8" "bolts" at 16" O.75 x 2 .63 Vc ~ = 0.'. Use load factors per ASCE 705. Strength Design.75 = . =3350# / 1.33 Footing 12" 3. = 0. you could use shear values for embedded bolts . but it can be seen that shear friction offers considerable resistance if necessary.assuming 2000 psi concrete or grout.
Typical "d" Distances for Masonry Stems Bar Position Bars in center Bars at edge  "d" Distances for Masonry Stems 6" wall 2. 32" O.8 9. published by the Masonry Institute of America. 4th Edition. the step should be made on the inside (earth side) so that the outside of the wall is a flush vertical surface. but good information. consideration must be given to providing sufficient lap development length for the reinforcing extending into the section below. 4th Edition by the Masonry Society (www. 14" or 16". and are either solid grouted.8 7. but on thicker walls the bars can either be centered or next to the inside face (the face adjacent to the earth!). Somewhat outdated code wise.masonrysociety. Table 1.25 10" wall 4.c. and assume about 2" from the face of wall to the centerline of the bar. When the stem thickness is reduced higher up the wall. and rarely. 48" O. 40" O. The wall weights for these combinations are shown in the Table below: Lightweight 103 pef Wall Thickness Solid Grouted 16" o. 10".In Appendix B you will find a summary of masonry design formulas and allowable stresses. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Medium Weight 115 pef Normal Weight 135 pef 6" 52 41 37 36 35 34 8" 75 60 55 10" 93 69 61 12" 118 88 79 6" 58 47 43 8" 78 63 5 10" i 12" 98 80 72 124 94 85 6" 63 52 46 8" 84 66 61 10" 104 86 78 12" 133 103 94 89 86 83 Page 47 . An excellent reference for masonry design is James Amrhein's Reinforced Masonry Engineering Handbook.c.25 12" wall 5. See Table 1 below for "d" dimensions for various masonry stem thicknesses. or grouted only for cells containing reinforcing are grouted. With sixinch walls the reinforcing must be placed in its center. it is usual to solid grout the wall.8 5.c. Although only cells containing reinforcing need be grouted.0 16" wall  13.c. Vertical Cored Grouted at 24" O. Remember that for masonry stems the vertical bars must be spaced on eightinch modules to accommodate the block cells. 8".c.8 8" wall 3. medium weight (most common) or heavy weight. When stepping the wall.org). These are industry standards. 12. Shear and moment calculations are based upon the "effective depth d" of the moment. Masonry stem thickness is nominal block thickness': 6". Los Angeles. Another good reference is Masonry Designer's Guide.0 Concrete masonry units (CMU) are designated either lightweight.
6 for earth pressure. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 48 . Although arguable. Per MSJC this is 0. Concrete Stem Design Concrete stems should be at least eight inches thick to allow space to place the reinforcing within the forms. which.2 for dead load. or 32" on center. for F.000 psi). wind.0007. however. In the latter case. Stress increases for Allowable Stress Design (ASD) Using the Alternate Basic Load Combination per IBC '09. Dowel bars into masonry stems Footing bars bent up into a masonary wall must extend at least the development length of the bar. Accordingly. Strength Design is commonly used for concrete stem and footing design. "weep joints" should be provided at the lowest course at the outside grade. MSJC 2008 requires that the sum of the vertical and horizontal reinforcing ratios be at least 0. #5 bars at 48" on center or #4 bars at 32" would suffice for an 8" wall. it should be at least 0.002 and that the least in either direction be 0.0007 horizontally. This can be done by omitting the head joint (side joint between blocks) at every other block. See Table on page 44. and live load. but not more than three times the wall thickness. Specify gravel behind so the joints won't clog. Nearly all reinforcing is now specified as ASTM A 61590.To relieve water pressure.4 for fluid pressure (or any welldefined density). therefore the seismic load factor is 1. where all applied loads are factored per ACI requirements: 1. Minimum reinforcing in masonry stems The ACI Code. Spacing should not exceed 48 inches. Concrete ultimate compressive strength is usually specified asfc' = 2. The maximum spacing of reinforcing in a concrete wall. Earthquake forces are already factored. and at least 0.0. it is generally not practical to exceed #8 bars at 8" on center. Grade 60 (J. Maximum reinforcing in masonry stems When using Allowable Stress Design also there is not a maximum.0015 dbFts. both vertical and horizontal is 18" per ACI. For r. = 24. this length cannot be reduced by the ratio of actual stress in the bar to its allowable stress. Always check with most recent and applicable code! For a summary of concrete design formulas see Appendix B.2 a onethird stress is permitted when wind or seismic is combined.' = 3. As the principle reinforcing is always vertical. vertical reinforcing for an 8" wall would be a minimum of#5 at 32" or #4 at 16". = 60. and 1.0013 times the gross crosssectional area. Usc 1. This combination also allows a reduction for seismic by 0.7 to convert to ASD.000 psi or greater.000 psi equals 36 bar diameters.500 psi.3.000 or 2. Section 1605.
and 1Yz" for #5 and smaller.c. is given below (taken from the CRSI Handbook): 6.. #5 bars at 17" O.002 times the wall width times its total height).e.60. and fy. Minimum reinforcing in concrete stems The minimum amount of reinforcing required to ensure a ductile failure is: min = 200 (= . When concrete is placed against earth. required areas of reinforcing A handy formula for determining area of reinforcing.000 psi) f .8fcbMu <D(fy)2 (b and d in inches. using strength design method.000 psi) Where p is the ratio As/bd For an 8" wall. and M.000 psi and}. d Determining = 5.5". however. = 60. this would be #5 bars at 3" O.0033 forJv = 60.75p (= 0. and fy is ksi.75 x p (rho) balanced: Max = 0. this formula becomes: Reinforcing cover The cover distance from reinforcing to face of concrete. the total horizontal reinforcing should be at least equal to . y For example for an 8" wall with d = 5. If the wall is over ten inches thick temperature reinforcing is required in each face unless in contact with soil (basement walls). would be required. But.Horizontal temperature reinforcing is required to be at least .5.019 foric = 3. But remember that more horizontal reinforcing decreases visibility of cracks.002 x the gross cross sectional area of the wall (i. such as at the bottom of the footing. for a given M. this is rarely the case. the above minimum can be waived.c. must be at least 2" when exposed to earth or weather for #6 bars and larger. if the provided reinforcing is more than onethird greater than required by design. f. Maximum reinforcing in concrete stems The maximum amount of reinforcing to ensure a ductile failure is 0. or if the wall is placed directly against earth without forming. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 49 . in inchkips) For fc = 3. the minimum cover is 3".000 psi.000 psi.
3ed.1. it is a Class B splice. See Appendix D for development and lap lengths.v. mc 2009. Special inspection requirements for concrete and masonry Inspection requirements for concrete are in Inspection requirements for masonry are in mc 2009. If more than half the bars are spliced. in nearly all cases the dowels are stopped a certain distance above the footing. where they are lapped with continuing bars of lesser size and/or increased spacing (because of a reduced moment higher up the wall).l and 1704. See Table on page 44. In these cases it is the lap length. and this requirement was waived if halfstresses were used. The required lap lengths for each are.Development length of reinforcing The development length formula is given in Appendix B (Summary of Design Formulas). Extension of dowels above footing For low walls. and 1. Note that reduction in lap length for stress level is not permitted per ACI '08.5. The usual case for retaining wall stems is Class B splices. 12.5. Note that development length can be reduced by the stress level in the reinforcing. plus 12 bar diameters. Note that UBC '97 required a somewhat more stringent Special Inspection if full stresses were used.4. Lap lengths (discussed above) cannot be reduced by level of stress. However.4. With the demise ofUBC this issue is now moot. and As required is more than onehalf As provided. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 50 . or B. Development length per se will rarely apply (except for footing heel and toe bar development extensions) but is used to determine lapped bar splice lengths. respectively. that must be met.15. Table 1704. To qualify as a Class A splice. the dowels from the footing need only extend upward for the development strength of the bars. Table 1704.3 fd.3. less than onehalf the bars are spliced and As provided must be twice As required. not the development length. requiring 1. Laps and splices Where bars are spliced (lapped) the splices are classified as either Class A.
.e. Proportioning Pointers Here are a few points and guidelines to help you proportion the footing: • • • • • The width of the footing for most conditions will be approximately 2/3 of the retained height. and soil pressure. Because it is a triangular load. its point of applications will be 113the retained height above the bottom of the footing. Moments Overturning Overturning moments are horizontally applied forces multiplied by the moment arm from the bottom of the footing to their point of application. Otherwise. It is usually most advantageous to have more of the footing width on the heel side of the stem. Lateral pressure due to surcharges is a uniform load applied to the back of the wall. try to keep its depth less than about onefourth the retained height. the height used to compute overturning is at the plane ofthe back of the footing (i. and not over about two feet. The primary force causing overturning is the lateral earth pressure against the wall.CANTILEVERED WALLS and Resisting Moments Overturning The easiest way to check stability. sliding. If you need a key for sliding resistance. Wind pressure on the stem projecting above the soil or on a fence sitting atop the wall can also cause overturning. If there is a property line on the heel side. This will put more soil weight on the heel to improve sliding and overturning existence. you will have a sliding problem requiring a key. is to set up a table showing each force and load element. Seismic may also contribute to overturning. try to get at least some heel width for the additional soil weight. If the backfill is sloped. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 51 .9. the footing may need to be wider because soil pressures are usually greater at the toe. With this. together with the its moment arm measured from the lower front (toe) edge of the footing. you can view an overturning/ resisting summary and check your computations. Overturning moments are illustrated in Figure 91. Tabulate SOIL BEARING AND STABILITY . where this plane intersects the ground surface). Wind pressures are computed in accordance with the applicable building code. therefore its point of application is 1f2 the height and the moment arm is from that point down to the bottom of the footing. and generally range from 12 to 30 psf as was discussed earlier. An example of such a table is shown on Design Example #1 in Chapter 24. This was discussed in Section 7. If there is a property line on the toe side.
Resisting Moments Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 52 . 4 3 2 Pv <<Moment arms from toe Figure 92. These forces include the stem weight. a factor of 1. footing weight. and on Figure 92.5 to 2. The generally accepted factor of safety against overturning is 1.0. resisting moments are the sum of all vertical loads about the front edge (toe) of the footing. the weight of the soil behind the wall and over the footing. Overturning moments can be visualized as shown on Design Example #1. a surcharge if applicable and any axial applied to the top of the wall. The total resisting moment is the summation of these loads multiplied by the moment arm of each measured from the front edge of the footing.TI ~ Figure 91.1 is permitted by IBe 2009. When seismic is included. Resisting Moments Overturning Momentsfor H' a Cantilevered Retaining Wall By convention. although some agencies require more.
This vertical component acts to resist overturning. there is also a vertical component of the lateral pressure resultant. This is simply the total overturning moment. which is assumed to act on a vertical plane at the back of the footing. Vertical Component of Active Pressure There is.not sliding or to reduce soil bearing. taking into account property line or other conditions that may restrict the heel or toe distances. divided by the total vertical load. restmg overtummg W Basics of Retaining Wall Design = Total vertical load Page 53 . this decision is left to the engineer. this results in a vertical component of about 30% of the horizontal pressure. by adding additional weight to the footing. the Coulomb formula. If the backfill is level. However. results in a vertical component equal to P(sin 8). In other words: x=~~~ W M . Most texts recommend using the vertical component only to resist overturning . Determining Soil Bearing Pressure To determine overturning and resisting moments. minus the resisting moment. Typically. which assumes the line of action is the friction angle against the stem face. Figure 93. however.Vertical Component of Active Pressure From a Sloped Backfill In the case of a sloped backfill. This is done as follows: First determine how far from the edge of the toe the resultant acts. you can determine the soil pressure by determining the eccentricity of the total vertical load with respect to the centerline of the footing width. This vertical component is also assumed to resist sliding. M . controversy over whether to use this vertical component for soil pressure calculations because its use significantly reduces soil bearing pressures. See also Figure 61. you need to tabulate these values as illustrated on Design Example #1. See Figure 93 (Vertical Component of Active Pressure). After you have assumed a footing width. When the wall starts to rotate there will be a frictional resistance along that plane tending to anchor the heel of the wall. eccentricities and soil pressures.
Meyerhof Method An alternate method for determining soil bearing is to assume a rectangular. pressure distribution under the footing. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 54 . assumes a uniform stress block on the toe side. With seismic. This results in somewhat less toe bending (and easier to compute toe moments and shears!). within the middle third) for the footing to be in theoretical contact with the soil for its full width. = .2e. It is similar to Strength Design for concrete..=~ M . This factor is the ratio of the total resisting moment to the total overturning moment. The uniform soil pressure is the total vertical load divided by an assumed width of d . 1. rather than trapezoidal.± 2d d W 6We verticalload d = Width of footing e = Eccentricity If the resultant is outside the middle third. =  W O.75d 1. or: resisting F. In this method. the triangular pressure diagram shifts to the left and becomes triangular and the resultant moves outside the middlethird. where d is the footing width. and e is the eccentricity of the total vertical load with respect to the footing centerline. If this is the case. Overturning Stability The generally accepted safety factor against overturning of the wall is 1.1 is used.5. the soil pressures at toe and heel can be computed as shown in the following formula: Soil pressure W = Total .S. This method is used. because soil cannot sustain "tension" between the soil and footing.5e The allowable soil bearing value is usually dictated by the engineer. e= ftg width 2 x The eccentricity must be less than onesixth of the footing width (that is. then: Soil Pressure. If this condition is allowed. and discussed. and usually varies from 1000 psf for poorer soil (or without a substantiating soil investigation) to 4000 psf for dense soil. in the Segmental Retaining Wall chapter.0.Then the eccentricity is the difference between this distance and half the footing width. often referred to as the Meyerhof Method. M overturnmg . Some engineers and agencies require 2.
More commonly. The net driving force causing a wall to slide is the active pressure on the heel side. Sliding is resisted by two components: Friction resistance: This is the resistance of the total vertical weight multiplied by the coefficient of friction between the base of the footing and the supporting soil. resulting in a trapezoidal passive pressure distribution. Tests have shown that actual friction coefficients are closer to 0. and the cohesion (adhesion) between the bottom of the footing and soil provides lateral resistance. however. zero at the ground surface in front of the wall and maximum at the bottom of the footing or bottom of a key if applicable However.Sliding Resistance The sum of all the horizontal forces pushing against the wall must be resisted to prevent a sliding failure. A key is a deepening of a nearcentral part of the footing..g. the triangular passive pressure distribution extends to the bottom of the key. with some agencies requiring more. It is considered a triangular distribution. the net driving force would be zero). Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 55 . friction resistance is not applicable. Keys usually vary from 12 to 18 inches wide and from 12 to 36 inches or more in depth. the engineer provides this value.25 to up to 0. usually around 100 psf of contact surface. Footing Keys: If the frictional resistance to sliding plus the passive pressure resistance is not sufficient to give a 1. The customary minimum safety factor against sliding is 1. increases the passive resistance when a key is added by assuming an increased depth for computing passive resistance. Both frictional resistance and passive pressure can be combined to provide resistance. The Rankine or Coulomb formula can be used to compute the passive pressure if the angle of internal friction is know.5.70. See also the above discussion of the Amrein method. Passive pressure: Passive pressure is the resistance of the soil at the toe to lateral movement from the active force at the heel section. is usually loosely placed. With a key. its passive pressure is usually neglected.45. the depth of soil above the toe is usually neglected in the determination of sliding resistance. 50% passive).5 safety factor against sliding. suggested by Amrein. It generally ranges from about 200 pcf to about 350 pcf. the report will give its value. If this is applicable. The latter pressure derives from the depth of soil in front of the wall. The coefficient of friction is usually determined by the engineer. and in front of the toe. so that an additional depth of footing is available to further resist sliding by increasing the passive resistance. (Justification: If the depth of soil on the toe side was the same depth as on the heel side. Cohesion resistance: With cohesive (silt and clay) soil. It is the reverse of active pressure. Another theory. thereby significantly increasing the passive resistance. less active pressure on the toe side. and varies from about 0. reports often limit the percentage of each which can be used in combination (e. because the soil above the footing. a key can be used or the thickness of the footing increased. The wedge of soil in front of the wall must be pushed upward and out of the way for failure to occur. usually accomplished by trenching. 100% friction. However. resulting in considerably greater resistance. It assumes an additional depth below the footing equal to the average soil bearing pressure divided by the soil density.
the flexural of the cross section is sufficient. If the ratio of depth to its width is less than about two. the horizontal movement at the top of the wall.4 2'(j' t: jEt' "6" Ftg. fr= 12x(142)2 6 = =288 . passive 240 pcf = 2. depending upon soil conditions. of friction x total vert. and by geometry.000. The horizontal movement at the top is the sum of the deflection of the stem and the rotation of the base of the footing because of soil pressure compression at the toe. Bending of a key strength example stresses in the key because of passive pressure must be investigated. Figure R. see the below.55 = J2000 122 psi N ote that passive force req'd [ ] = total active heel side . load. say a depth greater than half the footing width. Is there then a "paddlewheel" effect whereby the passive pressure against the key adds to the overturning moment? It's been discussed. This value must be provided by engineer.coef. tota I aVaI a e paSSIve = 2 243 X 1. The front face of the wall can be battered Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 56 . reinforcing is usually not required. By knowing the toe soil pressure and the k value (modulus of sub grade reactionequivalent to modulus of elasticity). The soil modulus can vary from 200.000 pci to 2. 240x5 In ab ove examp Ie.passive force toe side . and W is the width of the footing. the settlement of the toe can be computed. = = 2.936 288 =139~5¢"fc = 39. and may be valid. To compute the flexural stresses in the key. The deflection of the stem can also be computed by conventional means (using effective moment of inertia of the stem section). Key 1.005 times wall height).Here's a concern regarding using a very deep key.6 x 2080 x 12 = 39.936 = 5 x . H is the overall height. Tilt (lateral deflection) at top can be given by the formula ~top = ~soil H/W where ~soil is the compression of the soil based upon stress and soil modulus. Checking Stress in Key Deflection (Tilt) of Walls A cantilevered wall must rotate slightly at the top to mobilize the soil wedge assumed in the design (some texts say .52 =2730 2 # Figure 94. Assume K. 2 ilabl .0 = Allow.480) x 2' x I' 2 + 480x 2 x ( ~ x 2 = 2080'# J + "# Stem s= M.000 pci.0 x 120 = 360 Mkey (1200 .
The engineer will determine whether this is an issue based upon analysis of the underlining soils where the proposed retaining walls will be constructed.g. If there is a potential for global stability failure they will recommend remedial measures such as deepening the footings or otherwise repositioning or reconfiguring the walls. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 57 . I ~"i li"t"d Rot. J"sum11<l Centerof ~. Slope stability analysis is a vast subject and numerous methods of analysis are in text books. Slope stability analysis is similar to global stability but the latter includes super imposed "loads" on the slope plane. An arbitrary center of rotation is assumed ("0" above) and the rotational force caused by the weight of the components within the soil mass are evaluated by taking their weights x distance from 0.tion Figure 95 One method of analyzing global stability is illustrated in Figure 95. designated + or .for appearance. A rule of thumb might be a batter of 1/200th the height ofthe wall (e.in the illustration by summing the moments causing the mass to rotate and comparing this force with the unit resisting shear along the curved lower boundary a factor safety can be determined. Global Stability Global Stability is a term similar "slope stability". 5/8" for a 10 foot wall). This is a trial and error method to determine the most critical slip surface (circular) plane which is a function the shear value of the soil. With this type of failure the walls remain in tact but the soil mass slips and rotates as a bowl shaped mass. whereby an entire soil mass under and encapsulating one or two tiered retaining walls slips in a rotational pattern because of poor shear resistance of a lower layer of soil.
Strength design requires the soil pressure to be factored to compute shears and moments. Both the toe and the heel of the footing are subjected to bending and shear forces.2.6..10. and pressure attributable to the weight of earth or other dead loads be factored by 1. the dowels are considered hooked bars and the embedment required is determined by the following formulas (see ACI 31808. idh f)' or 8d~ min. Embedment of Stem Reinforcing Into Footing It is important to extend the stem reinforcing into the footing.7 {A v f cAs 0..5 . 12. The critical section for maximum shear. These moments are the sum of the upward acting moments from the soil pressure and the downward moment of the weight of soil and footing.3 (d) which states that excess reinforcement can be credited except where " . Section 12.. at the toe is at the "d" distance out from the face of the wall. and for the heel it is at the face of the wall. That is. See the Design Examples for procedure. Basics of Footing Design FOOTING DESIGN Use the Strength Design (SD) Method to design retaining wall footings. Figure 101." Required dimensions and radii of hooked bars are shown on Figure 101 (Hooked Bar Bend Requirements) . Hooked Bar Bend Requirements Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 58 . 02d b or 6" sreqmre . or in the case of masonry stems the toe moment critical section is at onequarter of the stem thickness in from the face.. dJ provided or8db where db = bar diameter lhb= required hooked bar embedment Whether or not the embedment depth can be reduced by the stress level in the reinforcing depends upon the interpretation of ACI 31808.5): Ihb = fy =rr: ( 0.6. Note that by statics the toe or heel moment cannot exceed the stem moment so the latter may control. Some engineers believe all soil pressure should be factored by 1. Footing design based upon strength design requires factoring the upward soil pressure attributable to earth pressure by 1.anchorage or development is not specifically required . The critical section for bending for both toe and heel is at the face of the concrete stem.
Development Heel Reinforcing These bars at the top of the footing resist bending in the heel. Toe Reinforcing Reinforcing for the toe generally consists of the dowel bars bending outward toward the toe. Moment ri113 Hooked Bar Embedment (Adequate?) Footing Dev. concrete or masonry stems. Shear is computed from the face for both concrete and masonry. alternate bars may be dropped as the moment decreases toward the toe. This required development length will be significantly less than that required for stem bars into the footing. Check the development length beyond the face of the stem for the toe bars. if it is required. such as a property line condition. This will serve the dual purpose of providing key reinforcing. for concrete stems. If the toe distance is large. Max. but be sure to provide sufficient bending reinforcement at the face of the stem plus development length. the vertical stem reinforcing may extend down into the key at least the development length.If there is a key directly under the stem wall. Minimum Footing Thickness Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 59 . shear is computed from a distance "d" from the face of the stem. See Figure 112 below. These bars are typically positioned 2 inches clear below the top of the footing. because the "d" distance in the footing is greater than in the stem. over four or five feet.55 (f'c)lI2. The maximum moment occurs. As stated above. as stated above. at the face of the stem for concrete. In either case. These bars must extend a sufficient development length past the face of the stem. Where there is not a toe. because the "hooked bar" development length may not be adequate. Length Required? of Toe Reinforcing Figure 102. Stem Also check Heel Bar development beyond Stem Face 10. and for masonry stems it is onefourth of the stem thickness in from the face. The allowable shear stress is 0. the stem reinforcing dowels bend back toward the heel. the critical section for moment is at the face of the stem. and onefourth the stem thickness in for masonry stems.
p = 0.5 and 22. a minimum area ratio of 0. Minimum Cover for Footing Reinforcing The required concrete cover over reinforcing bars at the bottom of the footing is three inches. less than the footing thickness.4.The minimum footing thickness is the sum of the required hooked bar embedment length. Horizontal Temperature and Shrinkage Reinforcing Stem horizontal temperature and shrinkage reinforcing was discussed in the section on Designing the Stem. Given a IS" thick footing and 3" cover. its omission is at the discretion of the engineer considering the conditions. reinforcing may not be flexural strength of the concrete may be adequate to resist the moments. Adequacy of flexural strength If the toe or heel distance required. A minimum of two horizontal bars (longitudinal) should be provided. this would require a #5 bar for each 18" of footing length.jf. it is wise to provide a "minimum" amount of reinforcing.0014 > 0. where rp = 0.3) 18] = 0. Although reinforcing may not be theoretically required. 9. however.31 / [(15 . The allowable flexural stress for plain concrete (Strength Design) is: fr = 5rp.5.0012 Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 60 . There is not a similar code requirement for footings. the When computing flexural the section modulus must is small. In this case.3. Usually.J 22.0012 is suggested.8) to allow for possible cracks.1.60 See ACI '08. plus cover of the reinforcing at the bottom. At the top of the footing it is two inches. stresses in unreinforced concrete the footing thickness used to calculate be reduced by two inches (A.
If a masonry retaining wall has spaced pilasters. Single rows of piers are relatively easy to install. With higher walls a double row of staggered piers is common practice. PILES accomplish this by either driven (steel. Piers. Small implies conventional diameters < 24". or other sitespecific concerns. Caissons are usually large diameter piers. The staggering provides for greater overturning resistance using small diameter piers. Design Criteria Design criteria for piers and piles is usually provided by the engineer because IBC '09 Section 1803. and are either driven precast concrete. are probably more commonly used. the need for greater lateral (sliding) resistance. or castinplace in drilled bores. Using the recommendations of the foundation investigation report the designer can then select the proper size and penetration of the pier or pile. the designer should provide the total vertical load imposed by the retaining wall (weight of stem. testing requirements. but can have narrow shafts with a flared (bell) bottom for greater bearing area. minimum pile spacing. Some codes define a pier (as opposed to a pile or caisson) as having a depthtodiameter ratio less than 12. This investigation generally includes: recommended type of piles or piers suitable for the site. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 61 . concrete. the pilasters can be cantilevered up from an embedded pier (Pilaster Masonry Wall. To aid the engineer. as opposed to large diameter piers that might be needed for overturning or high retaining walls. When to Use Piles or Piers? The recommendation to use piles or piers to support a retaining wall will usually come from the engineer. or both. Chapter 18). allowable capacity curves for the various alternates.5.11 Piles. and related recommendations. Neither type is often used for retaining walls. Their supporting capacity is achieved by a combination oflateral surface friction and end bearing. aligned under a retaining wall. soil. surcharges. sitespecific precautions. footing. including lateral design criteria.5 requires a foundation investigation for deep foundations "unless sufficient data upon which to base the design and installation is available". This is achieved either by end bearing or frictional resistance along the lateral area of the shaft. or timber) to either bear on hard strata or develop sufficient skinfriction through the depth of penetration. and resist both the vertical and lateral loads imposed by the wall above. driving and installation requirements. Singlerow drilled castinplace piers. PIERS is a term used to describe a relatively short castinplace concrete shaft foundation. penetrate to better soil. Conditions which would suggest using piles include poor or compressible underlying soil. and Caissons PIER AND PILE FOUNDATIONS Each of these foundations performs essentially the same function: to penetrate soil to a depth sufficient to achieve greater load bearing capacity than would be provided by a spread footing. and any additional axial loads ) and the total base shear (sliding force imposed by the retaining wall). and. space limitations when a conventional footing may be too large. Concrete piles are usually the choice for retaining walls and abutments. CAISSONS is a term often used interchangeably with Piers.
or the lateral force can be resisted by bending in vertically aligned piles.397 '# . d = distance from c.232 # Convert to 8 ft tributary length: Vbase= 34. for retaining walls this is achieved by the footing.024 x 1. referencing the foundation investigation report.and provide the appropriate specifications.g. therefore footing weight about the same. Reduce footing width to 7 ft.L. Sliding stability is an essential consideration for any retaining wall. Vbase 4.335# max.253 # = pver! = 8.54 = 52. say. of piles to specific pile (= 2).use one or the other. In the latter case. which also serves as the pile cap. Combining lateral pile bending with battered pile resistance is not recommended . However.272 + 52. passive pressure that can be included.034 # e (eccentricity from C..024 # Vert. Pile Design Example: For this example assume the same vertical load and horizontal force as Design Example #1: Use two rows of piles.024 /2= 17. and what lateral deflection under seismic conditions will be tolerable. space 4 ft.012 # Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 62 . Pile Design The design requirements for piles are covered in !BC '09 Sections 1808 through 1812. Consider possible site clearance problems and consult the installing subcontractor for suitability of your design when using battered piles. apart. To resist a lateral force piles may be either battered such that they resist the axial component of the lateral force. a batter exceeding 4: 1 should be avoided. ftg.397x2 _ = 2 4 62 . Generally. Where multiple piles are used the code requires interconnected lateral restraint at their tops. on center longitudinally.) = 1. and increase thickness to 24".54 ft. P = P =  LV ±  LMd Ld2 72. 8 ft. . load per pile . centered under footing. and. It is important that the owner retain the engineer to observe the aspects of the installation for conformance with the recommendations of the report. such as the depth to contra flexure (maximum moment). the report should provide criteria for designing or checking the piles for bending. V to each pile = 34. M = 34. P = 72. = n n = number of piles (= 2).
Determine required length (penetration) of pile for 62. reduce pile spacing or use an additional longitudinal row.864 + 62.335 # per curves in geotechnical report.5 times the pier diameter. Chapter 21.Determine moment. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 63 .864 # Total axial load in pile = 35.584 # Assume batter = 1:3 :. which is input as an added lateral force over a given depth of the pier.335 = 98. V = 33. such as 1. and permissible lateral (passive) bearing values. If loads or moments are excessive. Spacing and diameter depend upon design requirements for sustaining both vertical and lateral loads. aligned in a single row under the footing (which serves as a pile cap).024 x (32 + 12)112 = 35.199 # Determine total penetration required for this total axial load. Figure 121 The report will give recommendations and design values for end bearing values. Piers are usually spaced from six to twelve feet on center and diameters vary from a minimum required 24" to 36" or more. Creep is another factor the investigation may require. The consultant may recommend piers where upper soil is weak. Pier Foundations These are most commonly drilled bores. See discussion under Soldier Pile Walls. and castinplace concrete after the reinforcing is placed. If impractical to resist by bending. use one battered pile on outer row. The engineer may allow an increased lateral area for passive resistance. or where space is not available for conventional foundations. Axial load into pile from shear = 34. skin friction if allowed. and reinforcing for bending per criteria in geotechnical report. pile size.
the formula per (BC'09. Where a moment. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 64 . in psf. An alternative to a rigorous analysis for point of contra flexure (maximum moment and zero shear).2S(Mg I S3 b)]'/2 Applied moment at ground surface Same as SI above. Distance in feet from ground surface to applied load Applied lateral force S. and practice have commonly reduced this to onesixth the depth. such as from a retaining wall with a triangular lateral load. Also.1) is: d A b d h P = O. V sual practice is to increase "d" by 15 to 20%.3. based upon a depth of onethird the depth of embedment.36h/A)]1/2] 2. note that "b" can be increased by a factor up to 2 to get the "effective diameter" consult the engineer.2. When the diameter and depth have been determined. 1807. The embedment depth will vary depending upon whether the pier is laterally restrained at the top or unrestrained. S3 = = [4. assume a value for "d". For a design example see Design Example 12.2. the formula per lBC 1807.3.3. = usually three cycles. This solution also requires iteration for "d". Depth of embedment required. With this determination the maximum design moment is obtained. the next design task is to design the pier for lateral bending.34P/Slb Diameter of round footing or diagonal dimension of square footing. fixity is often assumed to be onethird the depth of the pier below the ground surface. and shear V g are applied. except the allowable lateral passive pressure per lBC '09 Table 1806. Section 1810. The depth required is a function of the pier diameter. compute S. If there is lateral restraint at the ground surface. Allowable lateral passive pressure per IBC '09.Specific design requirements are covered in IBC '09. it could be assumed that P could be substituted for Vg and hi could be equivalent to MglVg in the above formula. and solve the equation for "d" iterate until dassumed dcalculated. The solution of this equation requires iteration to determine "d". Chapter 24. It is important to note that this equation is an equilibrium statement.2. and the applied moment and lateral shear. An important design consideration is the depth required such that passive pressures are not exceeded.2: d M. 1807. that is F IS = 1. For the condition where there is not any lateral restraint at the ground surface (such as a slab). This value is usually given in the report. Mg. but not over 12 feet for use in the computation of S. finiteelement/spring analysis.SA [1 + [1 + (4. allowable passive pressures. However. observation tests. that is. or to apply a factor of safety to the lateral pressure or to the passive pressure provided by the engineer.2.
55 x 2 x (3000)1/2 x 707 sq in = 42.67 times the circular diameter.5") = 2. clearance = 3".5" Cover d D 0.6 kips Page 65 . The width is assumed to be equal to the gross circular column area divided by 0. Allow shear. This is illustrated in Figure 122.8D Circular Pi.Whitney Approximation Method Whitney equivalent "d" Use ACI equations: a = 2/3 (30") = 20" = ' As/y . x 0. in. Help for this difficulty came from an ASCE Transactions paper published in 1942 by Charles Whitney.85/cb = (S x Y:. thus vastly simplifying the calculations and reportedly with close agreement with a rigorous analysis.90 AJy ( d .80 times the diameter of the circular column. If compressionside reinforcing is neglected.55 x 2 x (fc')112 Basics of Retaining Wall Design X Ag = 0. but also the depth of the traditional Whitney stress block changes with the depth of the circular segment. because not only are the bars at varying "d" distances. assume an equivalent rectangular section with total depth equal to 0. (conservative and easier computation). assuming applied moment is increased by point of fixity being 116depth of pier below footing cap (assuming no lateral restraint at surface. <DVn = 0.S5 x 3000 x 29..52" <DMn = 0.80 x 30) = 29. <D = 0. ( Gross area of circular column = 1[ = 3000 psi.52 12)] = 3198 inkips Compare this allowable moment with applied moment.#8 bars. with the separating distance equal to 2/3 the diameter of the circular configuration. x 0.Calculating the moment capacity of a round column with bars in a spiral reinforcing configuration is highly complex. In the Whitney approximation method. Whitney equivalent rectangular width = 707 / (0.90 x 8 x Y:. In it he devised an equivalent rectangular section. The reinforcing is assumed to be onehalf on each face. Design Example using Whitney approximation method to determine Mn Assume 30" diameter. if applicable). 8 .79 x 60. fy = 60.000) I (0.000.79 x 60.~) = 0.67<1 a.8 times the diameter.90 302 / 4 = 707 sq.(2.000 [ 20 .er Whitney Equivalent Figure 122 . then the "d" distance for design is assumed to be 0.
For example. versus an allowable of 0. Between piers the footing will be subjected to torsion.000 psf end bearing pressure results in only 56 psi.6. Section 11. But check if considered significant. This equation is: <D (f c)1/2 ( A 2 cpI Pcp) where Acpis the footing area and Pcp is its perimeter. Shear is generally not a problem considering the typical footing width (for lateral force) and wall above for vertical shear.5. additional torsion reinforcing is required per ACI 11.25 x 3000 = 750 psi. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 66 . Refer to.1 that allows a "threshold torsion" value below which no torsion reinforcing is not required. If this is exceeded. an 8. ACI 31808.Axial stress can generally be ignored because it usually is less than 10% of the allowable axial stress.
One text (Foundation Engineering Handbook. Proportioning The spacing between counterforts for economical design should not exceed the height of the wall. then drop or delete alternate bars.12 Description COUNTERFORT RETAINING WALLS A "counterfort" wall should not be confused with a "buttressed" wall. Design the toe as a cantilever from the wall. Designing the wall The wall is a twoway slab. fixed at the base. Therefore. and supported (fixed) at each end where it crosses the counterforts. span ratios. Design the heel as a longitudinal beam between counterforts. After establishing the retained height. It is suggested that this negative moment reinforcing (placed on the earth side. The steps in the design of a reinforced concrete counterfort wall are as follows (each step will be discussed later): 1. fixed at the bottom to the footing. 2. Included are tables (they may be difficult to read) for various end conditions. sliding. 5. such as property line locations.03 K. Design the wall as described below as a twoway slab. of course) be extended up to about onequarter of the height of the wall. A counterfort wall has a stiffening element on the inside of the wall. The two are different. Design Overview The design of a counterfort wall can be somewhat complex because the number of components which must be designed differently than for a conventional cantilevered wall. The decision to use either a buttress or counterfort depends up site restraints. 4. 1975) suggests (modified): M = 0. 6. an approximation could be made to design the cantilevered base as 1/6 the moment of a pure fullheight cantilever. and other Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 67 . y H3 which is roughly equivalent to the fixedend moment with a triangular loading with fixed bottom and laterally supported at top. An assumption for vertical moment must be made based on the magnitude of the negative cantilever moment from the footing. within the retained earth. It will be a tapered tension member. 3. These were prepared for the Water Resources Division of the Bureau of Reclamation. usually onehalf to threequarters of the retained height. Design the counterfort. WinterkornlFang. or larger for surcharges or sloped backfill. and is often onehalf to twothirds the wall height. The width of the footing will usually be about twothirds the wall height. and aesthetics. and soil pressures. overturning. See Appendix J for tables showing moments and reactions for twoway slabs with varying end conditions. A buttress wall has its stiffening element on the outside exposed side of the wall. Check the final design for stability. Determine the footing width required and soil bearing at both the toe and heel because you will need these dimensions to establish the counterfort dimensions. You can add an estimated weight of the counterforts prorated as a uniform longitudinal axial load. and for stability calculations design as if the wall is a continuous cantilevered wall. select a spacing for the counterforts.
and the upward soil pressure. If the moment is not large it may be prudent to place all reinforcing at middepth of the heel. This beam can be designed as a continuous beam (w L2 / 12) with top reinforcing between counterforts and bottom reinforcing under counterforts. Its applied lateral load from the retained soil will be a triangular distribution based upon the tributary area between the counterforts. Dowels from the footing should extend into the counterfort about three feet. the pressure reduces nearer the top. The heel dimension will be determined by stability calculations of the counterfort (overturning. The base moment and shear can be determined. Designing such horizontal reinforcing for a lateral pressure at onehalf the wall height would seem prudent.or slightly below the top of the wall for aesthetics . flaring from the top . Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 68 .variables. and the dowels in the stem bend outward toward the edge of the toe. therefore at that height the moment should be recalculated and a lesser amount of reinforcing provided that would continue to the top. the simplified procedures described herein should be adequate for most cases.8fcbMu <p (fy )2 (b and d in inches. and L» 60. however.000 psi. Perhaps check the design at the top of the dowels then use that reinforcing thereon. the following CRSI equation can be used to determine reinforcing required: 6. but it is probably practical to use the same horizontal reinforcing full height. and because the counterfort tapers.000 psi. similar to a conventional noncounterfort wall. The counterfort can be considered to be a vertical tapered beam with tension on the earth side. hence less reinforcing will be needed. When the moment (Mu) and "d" (effective depth) distance have been determined. fc and fy is ksi. and M. Using these would give more accurate values. the moment and shear lessen higher up the counterfort. There will be some continuity across counterforts. soil pressure. Designing the toe The toe is designed as a cantilever from the wall. Counterforts are usually 12 inches thick. with the appropriate uniform load being the net difference between the downward weight of the soil and concrete in the heel. Use your judgment to detail the reinforcing because the need for negative vertical reinforcing diminishes near the counterforts.to near or at the edge of the footing heel. this formula becomes: Designing the heel The heel can be designed as a longitudinal beam spanning between counterforts. and sliding). in inchkips) For fc= 3. therefore it is suggested the horizontal reinforcing be placed in the center of the wall. Theoretically. as does horizontal reinforcing near the wall bottom. Designing the counterfort (or buttress) The counterforts are generally tapered.
.Force Components Alternatively. Stem W"'i'9!1~ fc(.:r(J~ f.."''''' pre1.11H Cowatetlort weight/!lpoacinq oY&r tOB.ing. as shown below: Principal wall reinfOrc.<HZ0l1toloompOIl6ot crt Fg Pm. (l 'j= 4 Add f:sumnBlfJ$B 5#.:.l3Ure .CMU Counterfort Wall Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 69 .:. The overturning and resisting moments are then computed to determine safety factors and soil bearing pressures.. See Figure 121 for forces acting. over heIRel :..'lf~5W!re {lJ$ing n>tlJVk~n. a counterfort wall may be constructed of masonry._ _ . _ ~ p h= .fl)cting S6t.l on fjlopecl bllct:."".e Of __ Ht F r H(. W1 W W3 '!! P IN "N. as if it is a conventional continuous cantilever wall.r. f'""' F.tq..nGe Fdt:trClt'lte<~i:!$to'tJ<::::1i& or EfPi cnl'l"".Stability Overturning and sliding calculations assume the wall and counterforts act as an integral unit.o.... is nonzontal Comj)1ression battress or b'mce Figure 122 ._. Include the weight of the counterforts...~~~ =.Qn) Figure 121 . CowlOmb rur if apphc{ltJie _kh>re Jot.
reinforcing is placed. Check the soil bearing pressure under the setting pads for the panel weight . and retaining walls are now commonplace and the use of this technique can be advantageous for retaining walls in general. The temporary setting blocks at each end of a panel. provision must be made for stacking panels on the site. a bondbreaker is sprayed on the bed to prevent bonding of the wet concrete to the bed. because a crane is necessary for erection. Construction sequence After preparing a 3" . panels can be stacked on top of each other. remain in place and integral with the footing as shown in Figure 131. and the concrete for the wall is placed.it's usually reasonable to allow double the allowable bearing pressure for shortterm bearing. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 70 . edge forms are set. trash area enclosures. This method is particularly advantageous for long walls.4" thick concrete casting slab (later wasted). Tiltup yard walls. separated by a bond breaker. Unique to using tiltup panels. dock walls. and because a casting bed is required. Just remember when detailing the individual panels to show the dowels projecting the proper distance out of the bottom of the each panel.TiltUp Freestanding Design procedure Panel Design of the wall and foundation are the same as a castinplace wall. up to five or six high as desired. Dowels project from the bottom of the panels into the footing excavation to provide a moment connection when concrete is placed.13. Reinforcing at Center Seltin!) SIOCK toch tnt! of Panel Figure 131. Connections must also be made for joints between panels. However. a trench for the foundation is first excavated and the panels set on temporary concrete setting blocks and the panel is temporarily braced. Description CANTILEVERED TILTUP WALLS Tiltup concrete construction is a growing segment of the concrete industry and now accounts for over 50% of all lowrise commercial buildings and about 90% of industrial and warehouse buildings. To save casting area. The primary advantage of the use of tiltup concrete is speed of construction and the elimination of expensive formwork necessary for castinplace walls.
caries it to its final position and lowers it onto the setting pads. meaning inserts are cast into the top edge of the walls. They will check for tensile stress in the panel when it first lifts free (when it is a simplespan beam with bottom resting on casting slab and top supported by lifting hardware). If these concerns are understood.org. The crane then lifts (tilts) the panel free from the casting surface and. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 71 . with the panel hanging plumb. published by the TiltUp Concrete Association (TCA).A lowslump concrete mix should be specified for the footing to ensure minimum vertical shrinkage which could leave a gap under the wall. The vertical reinforcing is best placed in the center of the panel of freestanding walls because these walls are subjected to walls subjected to wind and seismic forces which can occur from either direction. Foundation design Design the foundation width.tiltup. near each end. Resources A Chapter standard reference for tiltup design and construction is The TiltUp Design & Construction Manual. and reinforcing as for a conventional cantilevered wall. Erecting the panels This type of wall is relatively low (as opposed to tiltup panels for a building) so that the panels can be "end picked". it might be prudent to leave a one inch gap under the panel (cast the concrete short of the wall) for drypacking a few days after the foundation has been placed. Freestanding walls Tiltup can also be advantageous for freestanding walls provided the length of walls justifies the use of a crane for erection. the design for lifting can also be done by the design engineer. Their web site is www. to which the lifting cables are attached. Depending on the application. Design for lifting stresses and inserts is usually done by a lifting hardware provider. depth.
3. Alternatively use the Rankine formula with the force diagram in Figure 141(a). Gabion walls. 5. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 72 .5 minimum). and determine factor of safety (1. and mass concrete is discussed in this chapter. Check stability by computing overturning moment. Verify that little or no flexural tension exists in the wall. Calculate the dead weight of the wall. If soil is clay. Check at several locations by calculating the section modulus of the wall and lateral moment at each selected height. batter of the wall. Coefficient of friction is generally 0. If the backfill is sloped. Design procedure The design of a gravity retaining wall of concrete or bonded (mortar/grout) stone involves six basic steps: 1. The Coulomb Formula (see Chapter 4) should be used because it includes backfill slope. 2. cohesion would control. Determine the lateral soil pressure and its line of action. which is assumed to act vertically at the back edge of the wall footing. and the soil friction angle at the wall interface. 4.the design is intuitive to the astute builder. including all components and any superimposed surcharge or axial load. 105. do not require a building permit per IBC '09. stones. Overview GRAVITY WALLS Gravity walls depend upon bulk weight for stability. crib walls.14. and if without a surcharge. and largeblock gravity walls are discussed in Chapter 15. 6.40.25 to 0. plus tributary earth weight over the base. Most gravity retaining walls are relatively low. Note that retaining walls not over four feet from bottom of footing to retained height. as opposed to a cantilevered retaining wall fixed to a foundation. Some of the many types of gravity retaining walls were described in Chapter 2.2(4). you can use a vertical component of the active pressure. Based upon (1) compute the resisting moment about the front edge of the base. and do not require engineering per se . The line of action for the resultant lateral force is assumed to be the wall friction angle plus the inclination angle of the wall batter. resisting moment (per above). such as used in landscaping. Check sliding. The design of the more common types of gravity walls composed of rubble.
Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 73 . Force Diagram for Concrete Gravity Wall For concrete gravity walls some reinforcing is advisable for crack control.002AgIoSS minimum horizontal reinforcing for walls.Figure 141. ACI requires O. For example calculations for a gravity retaining wall see Design Example 9. Chapter 24.
Similar in concept. Figure 151.5 for overturning is considered adequate. precast large concrete blocks. Since mesh openings are generally 3 inches square the rock infill should be 3 inch to 8 inch clean hard stone. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 74 . can be laid one or more blocks deep (wythes) and stacked to retain soil to 12 feet or more. Design Methodology Since the units are wired together and due to their mass they are considered one cohesive mass for design purposes. They are designed or analyzed in the same manner as gravity walls. in three foot by three foot by three foot steel wire panel sides which at the job site are unfolded to form the cages. A safety factor of 1. For aesthetics. Perpendicular to the plane of the wall the wythes can be 1.15. if the front face is flush. which are commercially available from a number of vendors and concrete plants. 3 or more units deep and can be stacked in successive courses to a height usually not more than about 15 feet. They are filled with rock. If the infill is well graded it increases density (weight). Similar wire basket walls have been used since ancient times and the word "gabion" does not refer to an inventor but rather to Italian and Latin words meaning "cage". tied together. generally. Descriptions GABION AND MULTIWYTHE LARGE. and assembled into the retaining walls.BLOCK WALLS Gabion walls consist of steel wire baskets filled with rock and stacked as units to form gravity retaining walls. Density of the Gabion units is usually taken as 120 pcfbecause soil and vegetation can penetrate the rock intercises and weight can be affected by gradation of the infill. Forces Acting on Gabion Wall Lateral pressures are computed by the Coulomb method shown in Figure 152 below. Today. they are manufactured. 2. They can be laid with the front exposed side flush or with successive blocks stepped back. Resisting moments are taken about the front lower comer of the first row and overturning moments are applied to the back face using the Coulomb method for calculating Ka For forces acting on a Gabion wall see Figure 151. it is usually tilted into the soil 6°.
often gravel. Overturning moment resistance is simply the weight of each course multiplied by the distance from the front reference point edge to its center of gravity on a per foot of wall basis. M.1.5. Hence the horizontal component of Pais cos [(8 ± (soilwall interface angle.8) sin (a +~) <I> ~ = Angle of backfill = Angle of internal a = 90° + (tilt angle) 8 = Angle of friction slope friction . then the soil bearing pressure is: Soil Bearing = V / W ± 6*V*e / W2 If resultant is outside the middle third. The total lateral force.(soilwall interface angle as shown in Figure 161). and since there can be not tension at footing soil interface. This value should be at least 1. This eccentricity should be within the middle third of the base width. between soil and wall (usually assumed to be 2/3<1> to 1/2/<1» Figure 152. depending upon back face inclination)] .) [sin(<p+8)Sin(<p~)]2 1+ sin (a .Eccentricity. where H is the vertical retained height adjusted for inclination if applicable. M. Pa= Ka * Y * H2.5*e) Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 75 . the soil bearing becomes: Soil Bearing = V / (0. Coulomb equation When the Coulumb equation is used to compute lateral pressure. the a angle to insert is 90° + (positive tilt angle) . load Resultant is within the middle third of the footing if e :S W/6.I. = Overturning moment.75*W . W = Base width. V = Vert. = Resisting moment. Successive stack courses are added and accumulated to obtain a total overturning resisting moment.(assumed soil/wall interface angle per figure 151). Foundation Pressures Gabion walls generally do not have a concrete footing but rather are set on a firm level base. Ka= ~~~~~sin 2 asin(a8) sin2 (a + . From this the soil bearing value is (assuming resultant within the middle third): e .Sliding resistance is the ratio of total weight of the wall divided by the total lateral thrust. To compute soil bearing value from knowing the resisting moment and overturning moment the following equation can used for determining eccentricity from the center of the mass.
Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 76 . For example: http://www.45.l is the coefficient of friction at the basesoil interface. this concept and the design procedures are discussed in the next chapter on segmental walls. Gabion Walls Using Mechanically Stabilized Earth Although gabion and large block walls can be stacked to accommodate considerable retained heights.5 or 2.is similar to the discussion for segmental walls in the next chapter. where I. usually the range of 0.25 to 0. embedded between block layers and extending back into the soil to achieve an integral soil mass. Termed mechanically stabilized earth (MSE). conditions may wanant increasing their capability by using horizontal layers of geogrids.Sliding Sliding on the base must also be checked. Sliding safety factor (usually 1.l I Pa(horiz).html. Note that although this section deals with "Gabion" walls the same methodology may be used for precast concrete blocks stacked in nearly any configuration.0) = V * I. or similar mats.gabions.if applicable . The best source of information is from vendor literature. References Few textbooks discuss gab ion walls.net/technical. Seismic Design Seismic design .
in the US. The length of the reinforced zone is usually a minimum of 60% to 70% of the wall height.to as much as over 15 degrees from vertical. weighing two tons or more and placed by small cranes. however. For example. such as pins between units. If space is unavailable. behind shopping centers. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 77 . Segmental Blocks Segmental Blocks are concrete blocks with compressive strength of 3. and configurations. The designer has a choice of block sizes. The vertical separation between geogrid layers is usually two. Advantages include relatively fast construction. The blocks vary in size. The block width for the most commonly used blocks is 18 inches. All of these blocks weigh between 30 and 110 lbs each. These are seen everywhere: leaning against hillsides alongside highways. a segmental wall is not an option. The blocks are designed to allow construction of walls with vertical batter .16. and configurations. The angle of offset from vertical is termed batter. For many engineers.angle of the wall face to the vertical . but varies with design requirements. To control batter most segmental blocks have offset lips or other means. where stability depends solely upon the resisting moment of the stacked blocks to exceed the overturning moment of the lateral soil pressure. to control the offsets as successive blocks are placed. each layer must be properly connected to the block facing by engaging the geogrid within block joints. For higher walls. The blocks come in many choices of texture. MSE) which can be used en masse to improve resistance to overturning and sliding. composed of drystacked masonry blocks are effective and economical and have gained wide acceptance. To be effective. and other applications. color. Segmental walls are oftwo types: pure gravity walls. and extending behind the wall and beyond the failure plane a distance sufficient for anchorage. So called "big blocks" are also available from some vendors. sizes. This stability problem limits the height to four or five feet. Blocks with dimensions smaller than these are available for nonengineered landscape applications for retaining heights of 3' or less. Their design can be quite complex. Reportedly. from a variety of vendors. These do. designing segmental retaining walls is a niche market. this requires an available space behind the wall of approximately 70% of the wall height within which to place the geogrid layers. a footing is not needed (just a gravel setting pad) and the units are drystacked without mortar. particularly for higher walls using geogrids. the more common type of segmental walls use layers of geogrids placed in the backfill for soil reinforcement as the wall is constructed.to three blocks. providing tiered grade changes for residential developments. Description SEGMENTAL RETAINING WALLS (SRWs) Segmental retaining walls (SRWs). have these limitations. although some vendors offer larger blocks enabling greater retained heights. reinforcing.000 psi or greater. 200 million square feet are constructed annually. Retained heights of 40 feet or more can be achieved (using geogrids) far exceeding economical limits of conventional masonry or concrete retaining walls. Consultation with a selected block vendor is recommended and many offer design software. they are manufactured per proprietary designs at licensed local plants. and. if a segmental retaining wall requires geogrids for stability. or grouting. This results in a mass of reinforced soil (also termed Mechanically Stabilized Earth. with the most commonly used blocks being 8inch high with depths varying from 10" to 24". textures.
5. depending upon the batter of the wall and depth of block used. Weight per square foot of wall surface is often assumed to be based upon 130 pcf for both block weight and infill.Forces on Gravity SRW Walls This limits the height of gravity walls to about 45feet. All vendors have web sites for more information and technical data. Best source: a Google search for "segmental retaining walls". The design procedure follows these steps: Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 78 . Figure 161 . 1. segmental gravity walls depend only on their resisting moment exceeding the overturning moment by a factor of safety of at least.Segmental Block Examples GRA VITY WALL DESIGN For stability.Angle of wall batter = tan" [(offset per block) / (block height)] Most blocks have interior voids which can be infilled with backfill material. polter tv t H Figure 162 .
The shear resistance will be the weight of block above which compresses this joint ("N" value) inserted into the vendor's tested shear resistance equation. for which the phi angle is about 34°. before tipping over. The equation for this is: Hinge height Don't' = (block depth) / [(tan (batter angle)] stack higher than this or the wall will overturn! Determine soil properties: density and phi angles for both internal (backfill soil) and external (insitu. Wall height is considered the full retaining height. This is often dependent upon proximity to distributors. with offsets. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 79 .) K. and configuration desired. Ideally it would be USCS Group GW (wellgraded gravels. The batter angle is determined by the blocktoblock offsets and is equal to tanI [(offset per block) / (block height)]. size. Kah (horizontal component!). Check Lateral Soil Pressures Calculate coefficient of active pressure. Check "hinge height". The friction angle is usually assumed to be 2/3 phi (backfill soil). little or no fines. The maximum interface shear will be at the lowest joint. which is the height to which blocks can be stacked.( a 0 5:)[1 + K. Determine surcharges if applicable.h) Sin(<!>+8)Sin(<!>I3)]2 sin (a . Use the Coulomb equation because it accounts for the friction angle at soilwall interface and the batter angle. of backfill slope ~ = Angle of internal friction a = Wall slope angle from horizontal (90 + batter angle from vertical) 8 Angle of friction between soil and wall (usually assumed to be 2/3~ to 1/2/~) 0 B = Angle = Check InterBlock Shear The shear at any depth "z" = Kjhoriz) [y Z2 0. per Unified Soil Classification System ~ see Appendix A). The Coulomb Equation Ka= ~~~~~ Sin sin2 (a + . Determine the retained height required and embedment depth below grade. including the embedment. gravelsand mixtures.8) sin (a + 13) = coso ·2 a Sin . or natural) soil. and if seismic design is required (see below for seismic design). Embedment depth is usually one block course or one foot. Backfill should be a wellgraded granular soil.Select the block vendor for texture.50 + (0 + L) z] where y = backfill soil density and 0 and/or L = Dead load or Live load. (horiz. backfill slope if applicable.
The safety factor against sliding should be at least 1. This assumes a rectangular pressure distribution under the footing.[[(resisting moment) . adjust accordingly. The effective base width is less than the full width by a distance equal to twice the eccentricity of the imposed load on the full footing width (easily verified with a diagram). + 0. Ultimate soil baring capacity can be calculated using the classical Terzahi equation: Qultimate Yd N. or the friction between the setting pad and insitu soil below. where N = weight of block stack.0 per NCMA. ft.5]. = Be = effective bearing width Soil bearing capacity B . The total vertical force is assumed to be distributed uniformly over an effective base width.often assumed to be 40°. If more than one wythe.2e. N is the weight above. This is generally given by the formula R = N tan cDe.5. e = [(base width) / 2] . 0) batter angle. d Be = effective bearing width. Check overturning Overturning moment at any depth "z" = Ka(horiz) [y The resisting moment = 0. where B is the total bearing width.5 N (t + H Z3 0. ft. * tan 0)). The overturning ratio (resisting moment / overturning moment) should be at least 2.5 y Be N.(overturning moment)] / (total vertical load)]. where R is the resistance available. = wall H = height of wall. Check soil bearing pressure For SRW walls the MeyerhofMethod is used to determine bearing pressure. (an additional term to include cohesion is omitted because cohesion is = usually assumed zero) y = = density of underlying (insitu) soil depth of embedment of bottom block. This is the resistance offered by the coefficient of friction between lowest block and the gravel setting pad. as opposed to a triangular distribution. t = depth of blocks.Check Sliding The total sliding force is the shear at the base of the wall.17 + (D + L) Z2 0. (see above for methodology) Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 80 . and cDe is the friction angle of the base (insitu) soil.
and 8 = wall friction angle. and the latter uses the kb factor applied to the wall mass. two components must be considered: seismic force from earth pressure and seismic force from wall inertia. KAE = active earth pressure coefficient.0 56.(}'fJ) sin (a + 5 + (}') sin (a . are nondimensional coefficients per table below for usual range of soil friction angles.1 29.fJ) <P ]2 Where e = tan1 Kh. This reference also gives similar equations by Meyerhof and Hanson. For their equations refer to Bowles' Foundation Design & Analysis.2 asm .3 31 32 33 34 35 36 20. The former is computed using the modified Coulomb formula below.Ka) Y H2 0. = angle of internal friction.Ka) D H + k.KA) For additional overturning due to seismic the earth component is assumed to act at 0. ~ Added seismic force = (KAE . and N.2 41. page 220.1 48.8 Seismic design . Fifth Edition. a = wall slope to horiz. ( "') a + o+ u [1 + 0 sin (¢ + 5) sin (¢ .0 30. The seismic component is usually designated as ilKAE (= KAE . <Pi ~q Ny 26.2 35.2 26. generally for walls up to 6' height. Depending upon the location and local building codes. seismic design may not be required.¢' ) cos {} sm ' . w = weight of wall psf.3 37. = backfill slope. static + seismic sin 2 (a + {} . The horizontal component is KAE cos 8.5 + (KAE . (90 for a vertical face).6 H and the dead load and wall inertial forces at H /2.63 23. However.4 33.N. H = height of wall.Gravity Walls Seismic design for segmental gravity walls would rarely be required because of the relatively low height and exemption from most codes. and in some cases up to 12' height. w H The latter term is the inertial weight of the wall. D = dead load surcharge if applicable. if seismic is required. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 81 .
BUT NOTE THAT THE 3RD EDITION OF NCMA's DESIGN MANUAL ALLOWS A RECTANGULAR SEISMIC FORCE DIAGRAM RATHER THAN TRAPEZOIDAL AS SHOW ON THE FIGURE. the safety factor for sliding and overturning can be reduced to 1. H Figure 163 . Care must be taken that the geogrids are not damaged and properly engage the joint between facing blocks. CA. but usually a minimum of 60% of the height of the wall.15.1. This base is usually six inches thick and extends a minimum of six inches beyond the inner and outer faces of the blocks. Geogrids are produced by a number of manufactures. which equates to a kh ofO. In high seismic areas this results in a seismic force for which most gravity walls could not resist. Backfill material should be well graded sandgravel mix (preferable types GW or SW) compacted to 90% as it is being placed in layers.SRW with Geogrids Construction sequence Construction begins with an excavation behind the wall extending a distance determined by design. Newport Beach. About Geogrids Geogrids is the term for the sheet material placed in layers within the backfill. and are of the proper length for embedment beyond the wedge rupture plane. is usually assumed to not exceed 0.29! See Design Example #12 which shows the effect of using just kh = 0. the PGA is about 0. The specified geogrid is delivered to the job site in rolls. however. This enables segmental walls to reach retaining heights of forty feet or more. with the higher strength along the rolled axis (perpendicular to the spool). For example. each offering a choice of several materials and tensile strengths. generally twelve feet wide. Forces acting on a segmental wall with geogrids is shown in Figure 163.58.05! If seismic forces are included. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 82 . MSE) which acts in enmasse to resist overturning and sliding. and anchoring each layer into the facing block. Most have biaxial strength. GEOGRID WALL DESIGN The soil retaining height of a segmental wall can be increased by placing successive layers of woven synthetic sheets (geogrids) in the backfill as it is being placed. should be onehalf the peak ground acceleration (PGA). and are cut to lengths required by design. This results in a composite mass of "reinforced earth" behind the wall (also called Mechanically Stabilized Earth. NCMA states k. in my area. The geogrid is then cut to the design lengths.The value of k. A gravel or crushed stone leveling pad is used as a base for the masonry units.
Test procedures in accordance with ASTM or Geosynthetic Research Institute (GRI) procedures establish the ultimate tensile strength for each type of geogrid.4" serviceability connection strengths are available from the block vendors web site or literature. each with a different strength. Also needed is the density and phi value for the backfill material. and will include other recommendations.5. Legacy Reports). consult the project geotechnical engineer to determine whether a global stability analysis is required. Select masonry units Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 83 . and N is the weight of the overlying blocks. material imperfections. The latter can be by pins through the geogrid interstices. and site space available. This will be the density of the soil and its angle of internal friction (phi value).5.27 is the tangent of the blockgeogridblock friction angle. and other strengthaffecting factors.. 0. The peak connection strength and 3. the geogrids are laid in the joint between blocks. with a maximum of 1900 lbs. material degradation. plan view alignment (curves?) and contouring that may require a sloped backfill. It is also available from www. The factor of safety for peak connection strength is generally 1. Pullout resistance is both by the coefficient of friction at the joint plus whatever engagement means is used. and factors included should be possible damage during installation.Each manufacturer offers several choices of their geogrids. This information will be provided by the consultant. and ratio of ultimate tension capacity and design tension. creep of the textile. Where 425 is the value (pounds) of the proprietary geogrid engagement to the block. A further safety factor is applied for design. Another connection value is Serviceability Connection Strength. Determine retained heights. and if additional geogrids are needed to satisfy global stability requirements.5. Gather design criteria After determining the site requirements such as retained heights along the length of the wall. you will need characteristics of the natural (insitu) soil both behind and below the reinforced zone. To be effective in creating the enmasse soil. preferably Group GW on the Unified Soil Classification System (see Appendix A). generally 1. or other means proprietary to each block vendor. The longterm design strength (LTDS) is derived from the ultimate tensile strength value and includes safety factors for longterm degradation.icces. A typical connection value might be displayed as: Peak Connection Strength = 425 + 0. Backfill material should be well drained sand/gravel mix. To accomplish this. loads (surcharges and/or seismic design). such as the need for a global stability check if underlying soil are questionable. soil properties (densities and friction angles for both in situ ("external") and backfill ("internal") material. allowance for damage during construction.27 N. Because this is a failure condition no further safety factor is needed. The generally accepted factor of safety for connections is 1.5. manufacturer. the geogrid must be anchored at each end: into the insitu soil beyond the backfill failure plane (described below) and anchorage into the facing block joint to resist the tension in the geogrid. Therefore a Long Term Allowable Design Strength (LTADS) would be LTDS /1. folding over a lip in the block. Inc.org which makes available evaluation reports from the various vendors (ICC Evaluation Service. This is a tested value for failure when the geogrid is pulled to an elongation of %". To establish connection values each block type must be tested for each anticipated geogrid. NOTE: If slope conditions exist above or below the wall.
size. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 84 . "Internal" and "External" forces The term Internal Forces describes the lateral earth pressure within the soilreinforced zone. This pressure applies force against the wall and creates the tension on the geogrids to maintain the integrity of the soil mass. This is often dependent upon proximity to distributors.Select the block vendor for texture. External Forces describe the lateral earth pressure acting outside and against the reinforced soil zone. and configuration desired.
Determine lateral soil pressures Both internal and external forces must be considered because the properties of the two soil likely will be different (density and friction angle), therefore the K, factor needs to be computed for each soil. The Coulomb equation is generally used for both. The Coulomb Equation is shown below, and note that because the resultant is assumed to act at an angle eS from the horizontal, the horizontal component must be computed. The vertical component is generally ignored.
sin2 (a + <jJ) Ka=~~========~ ·2 .( Sin a Sin a  u + Sin(<jJ+O)Sin(<jJ~)l2 sin (a  0) sin (a +~)
5:)[1
K, (horiz.)
=
coso K,
13 = Angle of backfill slope <p Angle of internal friction of either backfill or insitu soil. = a = Wall slope angle from horizontal (90 + batter angle from vertical) 8 = Angle of friction between soil and wall (usually assumed to be 2/3<pto 1I2/<p) for the external force applied to the reinforced zone eS is but assumed equal to <D.
0
Select geogrid The geogrid manufacturer and type is selected based upon the tension resistance required. This is based upon the depth of the geogrid and the vertical tributary area between geogrid layers. The lowest geogrid is usually placed in the first block j oint about the base, then every second or third joint, but generally not exceeding two feet apart. Spacing between layers may vary with design requirements, but to simplify instructions to the contractor equal spacing is often used. When a trial spacing is selected, the internal earth pressure to each geogrid is calculated. This is the force which must be anchored both to the block facing and embedded into the backfill soil a sufficient distance beyond the failure plane. As described above, the anchorage to the wall is composed of both friction and mechanical devices or other means to further secure the geogrids to the block. This information is available from ICC Evaluation reports or directly from the geogrid vendor. Check required geogrid length for embedment beyond the failure plane. This is calculated from frictional resistance along the geogrid, based upon the weight of overlying soil, the nature of the geogrid surface, and awareness that it has two surfaces on which to develop pullout resistance. Tension in each layer of geogrid, T a, increases with its depth in the backfill, and can be computed by the equation below:
T,
=
KaihZ s A
where Kahi horiz component of K, based upon Ka of internal (backfill) soil; A = soil density; z = depth of = soil above layer, and s = tributary height to the layer. s = [(height to layer above)  (height to layer below)] /2 (Note: an exception is the tributary height above the uppermost layer and below the lowest layer)
Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 85
This value, Ta, would be the horizontal tension on the geotextile or geogrid per longitudinal foot of wall, and from this value the geogrid type (LTADS) is selected. Determine geogrid embedment
To anchor the outer ends of the geogrid it must extend beyond the soil wedge failure plane a distance adequate to resist pullout. The resistance to pullout is provided by the friction between the soil and geogrid (both top and bottom surfaces used), the weight of the overlying soil, and the friction angle of the soil. Additionally, a reduction intereaction coefficient, Ci, is used which is dependent upon the particular geogrid and the surrounding soil. The C, value usually varies from about 0.70 to 0.90. The equation for the required embedment beyond the rupture line, neglecting DL, LL, and additional soil in a backfill slope, is: Le
= """"'
r, Kahi S
2 tan <PiC, Factor of safety (1.5 minimum) Coefficient of active pressure (horizontal component, internal soil). Tributary height between next higher and lower geogrids. Friction angle of internal soil Soil/geogrid interaction coefficient
F, Kaih S <1>i C,
Note that the above equation is independent of the overlay depth z because this factor cancels out in the equilibrium equation: T, = Kaihz A s = 2 L, y z tan <1>i To include dead load, live load (not recommended) and additional soil over the backfill slope, use the complete equation: Fs r, L, = D = dead load surcharge 2lan $,
c{[
D + Y z +tan
0
C:u 
H tan
0))]]
The overall length of one geogrid as required is La + Le, where La is the length within the soil wedge plus the wall thickness, and L, is the embedment anchorage length beyond the failure plane. NCMA recommends extending an additional one foot; AASHTO an additional three feet. Note that this base width is only the minimum for geogrid embedment and additional width may be required for overturning and sliding resistance as discussed below. Determine depth of reinforced soil (total base width)
The base width is defined as the depth of the reinforced soil (to the end of the geogrids) plus the wall thickness. Although this is initially estimated from 60% to 80% of the wall height, it must be checked. The criterion is the failure plane angle which extends upward from the base of the wall and defines the limit beyond which the geogrid must extend for proper embedment. This angle, measured from horizontal, can either be the Rankine failure angle (45° + <1>/2) r the more o commonly used Coulomb failure plane angle, recommended by NCMA. This angle is:
Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 86
a
=~
+ tan
1[
tan (~~) + ~tan (~~) [tan (~~) + cot (~ (0)][1+ tan (8 oo)cot (~+ (0)]] 1+ tan (8 (0) [tan (~~) + cot (~+ (0)]
a = Coulomb failure plane angle measured from horizontal. <D= angle if internal friction of the internal (backfill) soil) ~ = backfill slope, if applicable 8 = friction angle at wallsoil interface (usually 2/3<D) co = wall batter measured from horizontal. The Coulomb line is steeper than the Rankine for most cases; hence it requires a lesser embedment length.
For a given failure angle b, is:
a,
the distance from outside face of wall to failure line intercept, La, for any height
La =

hx tan a

hx tan co + t
t = wall thickness
The quickest way to check the minimum required base width for geogrid embedment is to check the uppermost layer of La + L, then add the front batter of the wall to height h, which is h, * tan co. To determine the available embedment depth for any height h;: L, (available)
=
B t ~ tan a
When a base width is determined based upon required geogrid embedments, it may not be great enough for the reinforced soil block to resist overturning, which will be checked below. Check overturning When considering overturning for an MSE wall the entire reinforced soil zone is considered one mass, therefore the overturning force is the lateral pressure against the end of the reinforced zone  the extremity of the base width. For overturning calculations this is assumed to be a vertical plane (even if the reinforced mass is considered trapezoidal). If there is a sloping backfill, the pressure is against the full height of the vertical plane  from base to intercept with the finished grade. The Coulomb equation is used, with the density and phi values being those of the insitu soil, and interface friction angle, 8, is assumed equal to <D. If a surcharge is present it is to be included  both dead load and live load (but not live load if seismic is included (see Seismic Design below). For overturning, the earth pressure is assumed to act at onethird the total height of the vertical plane, and surcharges at onehalf the total height. Therefore, the total overturning moment is: OTM
=
Ka(horiz)
* Y * <D* H3 *
1/6 + Ka(horiz)
* (DL + LL) * H2 *
Y2
Basics of Retaining Wall Design
Page 87
To calculate resisting moment the weights used are the reinforced soil zone, weight of soil in sloping backfill if applicable, weight of the wall facing blocks, and surcharges if applicable. Resisting moments are taken about the outer edge of the base of the wall. If the wall is battered, this will increase the momentarm distances. Therefore, the total resisting moment, RM, is: RM
=
+ 0.5H tan
w*H*(0.5t + 0.5 tan CD * H) + (B  t)y*H[0.5(B  t) + 0.5H tan CD] + 0.5y(B  t)2 tan ~
CD]
+ (B  t)(O + L) [0.5(B  t)
= total
w = weight of wall, psf; y = density of backfill soil; <D friction angle of backfill soil; B = width; t = wall thickness; ~ = backfill slope;
CD =
base
wall batter angle from vertical; H
=
=
height of wall, ft;
D and L
dead load and live load.
The stability ratio (factor of safety) is: RM / OTM, which should be 1.5 or greater per NCMA. Check sliding at lowest geogrid layer Compute lateral force same as above with z = (H  h.) h, = height to lowest layer Resistance is provided by both soil friction at lowest layer plus blockjointgeogrid interface value which is obtained from equation provided by block vendor, taking the form (1500 + 0.28N), in pounds, where N = weight of wall above, or: Resistance
=
Wearth <De (XXXX + O.XX N) tan +
Check sliding at base For overturning/resisting, Sliding force use the same driving force as above for overturning: [y * <De H/ * 0.5 + (OL) * HI ] *
= Ka(horiz)
Note that HI is the total height at the back of the reinforced zone from base to intercept with the sloped backfill surface. Therefore, HI = H + (B  t) tan B, Sliding resistance is provided by friction between weight of reinforced soil mass plus the weight of the wall. WtotaJ Wwall Wearth wH + y [(B  t)H + 0.5(B = + = Friction Resistance
=
ti tan ~
Wtotaltan <De C,
= Friction
Sliding Safety Factor Check soil bearing pressure
Resistance / Sliding Force
For SRW walls the MeyerhofMethod is used to determine bearing pressure. This assumes a rectangular pressure distribution under the footing, as opposed to a triangular distribution. The total vertical force is distributed uniformly over an effective base width. The effective base width is less than the full width by a distance equal to twice the eccentricity of the imposed load on the full footing width (easily verified with a diagram).
Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 88
Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 89 . where B is the total bearing width.3 37.2 4l.0 Seismic design .3 Minimum safety facor for soil bearing per NCMA is 2.5 YBe N. For these equations refer to Bowles' Foundation Design & Analysis. and N.45) A for external stability (acting on reinforced zone). = (A . ft.l 48. Ny 31 32 33 34 35 36 20.(overturning moment)] / (total vertical load) = Wtotal/ Be = effective bearing width = B . are nondimensional coefficients per table below. kh' which is a function of the Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) for the side. (an additional term to include cohesion is omitted because cohesion is = usually assumed zero) y = = Be density of underlying (insitu) soil depth of embedment of bottom block.MSE WaIls If seismic design is required for your locale or applicable code.2 26. NCMA recommends kh = A / 2 for internal stability (Wall and reinforced zone) and K.0 30. A = Peak Ground Acceleration. page 220.usgs.1 29. Fifth Edition.63 23. Bearing pressure Soil bearing capacity Ultimate bearing capacity is calculated using the classical Terzaghi equation: Qultimate Yd Nq + 0. d Be = effective bearing width. This can also be obtained by entering the zip code at http://earthquake.php. The PGA can be determined from seismic hazard maps in IBC or from ASCE7 '05.e = [(resisting moment) .0 56.2 35.1. the first step in the design is to determine the seismic acceleration factor. Enter the five digit site zip code and select short term structure (0. ft.gov/researchlhazmaps/designlindex.2e.4 33. (see above for methodology) N.2 sec) and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years.8 26.
The value.S (O.S + (KAE .40. however. Note that the value H for this force is the wall height + added height because of sloped backfill. NCMA states that "In practice. (90 for a vertical face). D = Dead load surcharge. the final choice of kh in any calculation may be based upon local experience. for PGA = 0. For this inertial force a depth of reinforced zone need not exceed onehalf the height of the wall.t) H + O. The wall internal force is: k. The force may be reduced SO%. Seismic inertial force from wall.In areas of high seismicity. w H. three components must be considered for overturning and sliding stability: l.Ka) D H + kh W HI Y= density of soil. kh = 0. internal friction. designated ~KAE KAE = ti active earth pressure coefficient. static + seismic sin2 (a+8¢') cos8' sin 2 asin (a + 8'+ 5) [ sin 1+ (¢+5) sin (¢8'/3) sin (a + 5 + 8') sin (a + /3) 0 ]2 <I> = Where = tanI Kh.SH tan ~] 3. Seismic inertial force from earth pressure within the reinforced zone.IS based upon slope stability analogy. Seismic force acting on the back of the reinforced zone. F2. using a height increased by sloped backfill if applicable. ~ = backfill slope. therefore you will need to deduct KA (static) to determine the increased force because of seismic." For insertion into the MononobeOkabe angle e: e = tan" k. and H = height of wall. Furthermore. = O.Ka) YHI2 O. KAE is for both static and seismic.SH . F3. For this force use the MononobeOkabe (modified Coulomb) equation below. The horizontal component is KAE cos 0= KAEH For this case a = e angle of 90° and 8 = <Dextermal Thus: F3 = (KAE . hence: HI =H + (B . back fill or insitu depending upon case. the above can yield improbably high design accelerations.42 or external stability. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 90 . where w force acts at onehalf the wall h = unit weight of wall in psf. and 0 = wall friction angle. For example. Y [(O. Therefore F2 = k. results in unreasonably high seismic forces. (Modified Coulomb) equation for KAE you must convert k. to an If seismic is required. Consequently. a = wall slope clockwise from horizontal. in these areas it is common practice among engineers to use a maximum value of k. Fl.t) tan ~ These three seismic components must be added to static sliding and to increase overturning moment. This 2. and/or prescribed by local building official or other regulations. This component is applied to a vertical plane at the back face of the reinforced zone.
Getting help In addition to the references above. Also see: Bowles' Foundation Analysis & Design. most downloadable in pdf from their web sites.org. Before starting with a seismic design for a SRW always check with the building department or agency having jurisdiction to verify applicability and any specific requirements. Retain Pro Software (latest version Retain Pro 9) also includes the design of segmental retaining walls. the safety factor for sliding and overturning can be reduced to 1. Their web site is www.) I 2] w + llKAEH[th. Edition (NCMA) Segmental Retaining Walls .6 H. Added seismic tension to a layer is calculated by: K.Increase in sliding force = F 1 + F 2 + F3 Increased overturning = FJ (H/2) + F2 (H + 0.) I H] where h. Major SRW vendors also offer design handbooks plus other resources. .h.5H tan ~) 0.h. or CBC '07 directly address segmental retaining walls.org.1.6 ([(h+ . [(h+ .0. both gravity and with geogrids. s".) I 2] [0.Seismic Design Manual. The current standard design references.com.icces. both published by the national Concrete Masonry Association (NCMA .8 . Chapter 12. NCMA offers software for SRW design. Others can be found through a Google search for "segmental retaining walls". Edition.3rd. are: Design Manual/or Segmental Retaining Walls.org).5 + F3 0. Some offer free software. and h. If seismic forces are included. are heights of next higher and next lower layers. Basics of Retaining Wall Design Page 91 . all major SRW block vendors have web sites and offer technical support for their products. 1st Edition (NCMA) Acceptance Criteria/or Segmental Retaining Walls published by ICC Evaluation Services can be obtained from www.ncma.ncma. For information: www.h.www.retainpro. Building codes & standards Neither mc '09. Two major vendors are Keystone Retaining Wall Systems and Allan Block.
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