Instructed By:

Name Index Number Field Group Date of Performance Date of Submission

: G. R. Raban : : : : :


Advantages of using a thyristor switch in place of a mechanical switch 1. A thyristor switch takes less time to operate as it does not contain any moving parts. Therefore, a thyristor switch is capable of operating speeder than a typical mechanical switch. 2. Thyristors consume very low power when compared with a mechanical switch. Mechanical switches produce heat due to its internal coil resistances, which also causes considerable power loss. 3. Consider about the switching frequency of an application, thyristors can be applied to larger switching frequency applications where normal mechanical switch cannot operate. 4. Comparing the power handling capacity with the size of the device, a thyristor is smaller in size but has a greater power handling capacity. 5. If the switching task is done by means of a mechanical switch there would be an arc generated via the two poles of the switch during the switching. But the thyristor will not produce such arc, thus providing safety. 6. Because thyristor ON/OFF operation is governed by electricity (Voltage) it is much easier to use thyristor switches over mechanical switches when an electrically controlled system is available such as most modern control systems. 7. The operating behavior of thyristors can easily be determined by means of manufacture’s data sheets, whereas normal mechanical switches do not have characteristics that can be used to obtain transfer functions of the device. 8. It is much reliable to use thyristors over electro-mechanical relays or switches because of the robust operation of the thyristor for a longer period time with minimum possibility of errors. 9. Maintenance cost of a thyristor is less when compared to a mechanical switch. A switch often requires rust removing and lubricating.

Applications where the thyristor is preferred over mechanical switches 1. Three phase inverter-switching circuits are constructed using thyristors. The switching frequency employed is larger, which mechanical switches cannot achieve. 2. Stepper motor control circuits are built using thyristors where high precision movements are required. 3. Fluorescent lamp ballast designs are done using thyristors where normal inductive ballast are replaced.

4. Automatic night lamp designs can be implemented by means of thyristors and Triacs since it involves low voltage components such as LDRs as well as normal 230V bulbs. 5. When automatic power flow control is required in cases like dam gate operation with electric motors or barrier controlling of car parks, thyristors are used in designing such control systems since it can handle larger capacities of power as well as can be easily controlled. 6. In aircraft power systems, modern automobiles, and power generation, rectification is carried out using thyristor based electronics. Surface mounting package type thyristors are available on the market and enable more compact circuit designs. 7. Thyristors are also used in electronic fan regulators that are more economical power saving wise, and compact in size compared to traditional transformer based regulator.

Comparison of dc and ac switch operation The DC switch operates with the use of an extra commutative circuit. This is used to open the switch. Once the gate voltage is applied to the thyristor it will conduct as far as it is forward biased. This conduction can only be stopped by bringing the current to zero. This is achieved by the commutative circuit. The commutative circuit has a capacitor charged due to the conduction of the thyristor. It is partially connected in parallel to the thyristor and the connection is completed once the conduction needed to be stopped. The AC switch doesn’t need the commutative circuit as the voltage across the thyristor changes twice during a single cycle of the AC waveform. This feature is used to open the switch. The AC switch consists of two thyristors connected in parallel and opposite to each other. This connection allows the device to conduct the both half cycles of the AC waveform if the gates are supplied with a voltage supply. This voltage supply is the control variable and in the each cycle the two thyristors get fired separately. In the positive half cycle the forward biased thyristor will conduct while the other remains reverse biased and therefore open circuit. In the next half cycle if the gate signals are still available the previously conducted thyristor becomes reverse biased and therefore it stops conduction while the other thyristor starts firing due to both forward biased voltage and the applied gate voltage. These actions continue sequentially until the gate voltage stops.

How the over current opening be used to protect a power electronic circuit Over current protection of power electronics devices is a very important fact. These devises are more sensitive and may cause damage due to over currents and most of them are expensive. In a power electronic circuit the application of mechanical over current is impractical because of their operation, speed and the size. Therefore the thyristor switch is very easily employed in a power electronics circuit to avoid over currents. The operation is very easy; the over current detector generates a voltage signal and that signal can be applied to the gate terminal of the thyristor such that the firing of the thyristor will allow the over current to bypass the power electronic device. Since this can be achieved very fast the damages for the power electronics devices can be reduced.

Advantages of light triggering in practical circuits  When using light triggered thyristors instead of electrically triggered thyristors in HVDC transmission, the external electronics circuit’s components on high voltage potential for protection and triggering can be omitted thus leading to an increase of the reliability of the system. This is due to the high blocking capability and integrated protection functions of light triggered thyristors.  In Static VAR Compensation (SVC) applications thyristor valves are used to connect capacitors or inductors to an AC grid to compensate reactive power. SVCs increase the reliability and availability of transmission systems.   Because of the high di/dt capability, light triggered thyristors can be used in many pulse power applications such as magnetic deformation and crowbar applications. In several existing applications ignitrons are in use. These devices will be replaced because of the pollution that can be caused by Mercury. Light triggered thyristors are a solution for most of these applications.

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