DRUG ABUSE AND STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NSIT IBOM LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF AKWA IBOM

STATE.

A Research Project
By
SILAS, INEMESIT JOSEPH 06/28033

Submitted To
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING, FACULTY OF EDUCATION, UNIVERSITY OF CALABAR, CALABAR, NIGERIA.

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR THE COURSE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed) DEGREE IN GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING.

ii

DECEMBER, 2010.

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CERTIFICATE The is to certify that this project was carried out by Silas, Inemesit Joseph with Matric No. 06/28033 of the Department of Educational Foundations, Guidance and

Counselling, Faculty of Education, University of Calabar, Calabar, under my Supervision.

Signature:…………………………………….. Dr. Isaac Ubi Project Supervisor Date:…………………………………….

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DEDICATION The Research project is dedicated first: to God Almighty, then to my parents and siblings and finally; to my detractors – the more their obstacles, the greater my resolve to tower above them.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS In the course of carrying out this study, I received considerable assistance from various individuals. An immeasurable debt of appreciation is due to Dr. Isaac Ubi, my project supervisor who despite his tight schedules took time to go through this work from the beginning to its completion. His constructive suggestions, corrections and advice were helpful in broadening my

perspective of the study. I am equally grateful to my Head of Department Dr. (Mrs.) E. A. Uwe, Prof. C. G. Asagwara, Dr. (Mrs.) J. S. petters, Dr. P. N. Asuquo, Prof. M. T. Joshua, Dr. (Mrs.) A. E. Asim, and Prof. D. I. Denga, their intellectual support in the lecture room played significant roles in this research study. I also acknowledge the support of the staff of the General office: Mr. E. E. Ekpenyong, Mr. Matthew. A. Udo, Mrs. Agnes. Usoh, Mrs. Eugenia. Inameti, Mr. I. O. Esia and Mr. Godwin I. Esau. I am particularly grateful to Mr. Jove Obot and Apostle

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Elijah Effanga for their untiring and inexhaustible, love, patience, financial assistance, comfort, prayer and

encouragement. Finally, appreciate my friends and colleague Mr. & Mrs. Cyril Abuo, Nten Ochuwe, Otobong Udo, Mrs. Blessing Esin, and Mrs. Udeme Enebong, their intellectual discourse and interaction were sources of encouragement and assistance in many ways to me. God Bless them all.

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ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to examine the effect of drug abuse on students’ academic performance in secondary schools in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. In an attempt to do this research questions were raised, hypotheses formulated. A sample of two hundred and forty students from six secondary schools in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State was used. A 20-item Likert type questionnaire designed by the researcher and approved by the supervisor was used to gather data on drug abuse from the sample. The dependent variable was measured using a performance test developed by the researcher and validated by the supervisor and other experts in three core subjects of English language, Mathematics and Biology. Pearson Product Moment Correlation was used to analyze the data for the five hypotheses. Based on the findings conclusions were made that there is a significant inverse relationship between drug abuse through intake of hallucinogens, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, intake of narcotics, intake of stimulants by students and their academic performance. Based on the conclusion, recommendations were made, which include that Federal Government, states and Local Governments should adopt an approach for preventing drug abuse in our secondary schools by improving the quality of academic life

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and help fulfill the academic mission of secondary schools. Public and private school administrators should target at the vulnerable segment of our society, such as the older children, adolescents and young adults. Such educational measures should be carefully presented through methods that avoid threats and dramatization. Parents and schools authorities should educate their pupils on the need to stay away from destructive effects of these drugs.

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LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Summary data of all variables in the study Table2:Pearson product Moment Correlation analysis of the relationship between intake of hallucinogens and students academic performance (N=200) Table 3: Pearson product Moment Correlation analysis of the relationship between consumption of alcohol and students academic performance (N=200) Table 4: Pearson product Moment Correlation analysis of the relationship between cigarette smoking and students academic performance (N=200) Table 5: Pearson product Moment Correlation analysis of the relationship between intake of narcotics and students academic performance (N=200) Table 6: Pearson product Moment Correlation analysis of the relationship between intake of stimulants and students academic performance (N=200) 45

48

50

52

54

56

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TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE CERTIFICATION DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ABSTRACT LIST OF TABLES TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11

-

-

i ii iii iv vi viii ix 1 5 7 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 15

Background to the study Theoretical framework Statement of the problem Purpose of the study Research questions Statement of hypotheses Significant of the study Research assumptions Scope of the study Limitation of the study

-

Definition of terms CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4

Drug abuse through intake of hallucinogens and academic performance Drug abuse through alcohol consumption and students’ academic performance Drug abuse through cigarette smoking and students’ academic performance. Drug abuse through intake of narcotics and students’ academic performance. -

19 23 26 27

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2.5

Drug abuse through intake of stimulants and students’ academic performance. Summary of Literature review -

-

28 31

2.6

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Research design Area of study 33 34 35 35 36 36 37 38 38 39

Population of the study Sampling technique The Sample Instrumentation -

3.6.1 Validity of the instrument

3.6.2 Reliability of the instrument 3.7 3.8 Data collection procedure -

Data Preparation and scoring

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 4.2 4.3 General description of variables/data 43 46 57

Hypothesis-by-hypothesis presentation of results Summary of results -

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4.4

Discussion of findings

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-

-

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CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Summary of the study Conclusions 63 67 68 69

Recommendations

Suggestions for further studies

REFERENCES APPENDIXES

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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background to the study In recent times, so much has been said about drug abuse and addictions. The history of taking drugs for nonmedical purposes dates back thousands of years. Man has always been adapt at discovering and utilizing mood altering drugs. Drug abuse means indiscriminate use of drugs without regards to medical practitioners’ or doctors’ guideline. A drug is also abused when it is taken for any other purpose other than that for which it is intended and in a way that could damage the user’s health or ability to function. Most of the drug is used in such large quantities which in turn produce certain dangers to the individual. According to Sonnerdrcker (1991) drugs were initially used only for treating or curing illness and controlling

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diseases. During the prehistoric period, people used various substances to reduce pain suffering and to alter their feeding in order to achieve a state of well being. With the passage of time, due to the inconsistent and continued use of drugs their other characteristics were discovered. Hence, many of the

drugs are now being used for other purposes rather than medicine (Tiautman 1966). Many drugs are used as a means of enjoyment or used for preventing daily tiredness. People use some drugs to induce themselves to work beyond their capacity. Today, drugs are being used indiscriminately by people with the intention to enjoy, avoid stress of everyday living, and to slow down or become excessively active. This indiscriminate use of drugs is what Rimm and Somerwill (1977) and Aliyu (1981) called drug abuse. The dilemma posed by drug abuse has reached such an alarming state that most countries see it as being social crises. A significant number of deaths from accidents and violent crimes in different countries today have been traced to

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the activities of people under the influence of drugs (Awake October 2005). It is true that in our society today, drug abuse has created a lot of social problems ranging from truancy to delinquency among our youths, to family disharmony and destitution (Awake April 2003). For example these drug dependent youths could make themselves available to be used as thus, fraudsters and paid assassins. In the same sense, young girls under the influence of drugs are known to be parading themselves on the streets at night in towns and cities as prostitutes thereby exposing themselves to various types of diseases and as a result of this, they drop out of schools and cannot further their education. Confirming the social implications of drug abuse Anokwu (1979) observed that high incidence of child delinquency is attributed to drug abuse. Odejide, Banboye and Ikuesan (1987) reveal other social aspects of drug abuse to include dropping out of school, promiscuity, loss of sense of

responsibility and deliberate self havoc.

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One might readily argue that students’ drug abuse has reached epidemic proportions in secondary schools. There

was a time when secondary school students represented some of the Nigerians most lively ambitious and energetic population. However, the students’ drug abuse of today has severely tarnished that image. Thus according to Stockwell (2001) “attitudes towards society among secondary school students today have changed beyond recognition”. Though laws have been enacted and stiff penalties marked out against the unauthorized use of drugs, people including students obtain some of these drugs illegally from patient medicine dealers and peddlers who make these drugs available for the public. Because of the illegal sources from which these drugs are obtained, students often abuse the use of the drugs, in excess which does not fall in line with medical prescription. The situation is worrisome especially because it has affected students’ academic performance.

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1.2 Theoretical framework The idea that school-related problems and substance use coexist has been incorporated into many theories that provide explanations for substance use and offer problem behaviours. For example one of the most influential theories, Hirschi’s Social Control theory (Hirschi, 1969) proposes that the major sources for establishing social norms are the school, the family and peers. He proposes that students who lack strong bonds to these pro-social people institutions are more likely to be involved in delinquency. One of the most well known (and applied) theories that include a strong social control component is the social development model. Hawkins and Weis (1985) stress the important of school bonding as a critical component of their model. They suggest that a strong school bond is characterized by a student’s attachment to pro-social peers, a commitment to conventional academic and social endeavours at school and a demonstrated belief in established, pro-social norms. The social development model

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hypothesizes that students who are not well bonded to school are more likely to follow anti-social path through adolescence. Another prominent theory is Primary Socialization

Theory (Oetting and Donnermeyer, 1998) which emphasizes the mediating role of peers in social learning. Adolescents with delinquent peers are more likely to obtain social reward for delinquent behaviour, including drug use, and therefore learn and adopt attitudes favourable to drug use. Primary Secondary theory posits that students who lack a strong commitment to school will be more likely to become involved with delinquent peers, which in turn may lead to their own involvement in delinquency (including drug use). One other theoretical framework that is important to consider is strain theory (Cloward and Ohlin, 1960). This theory hypothesized that adolescents are more likely to engage in delinquency, including drug use, when faced with a significant discrepancy between their personal aspirations and their perceived opportunities. That is, students who desire

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success but perceive that success is not personally obtainable are more likely to engage in delinquent behaviour. Lack of success in school is considered as one of the major sources of strain.

1.3 Statement of the problem This study was precipitated by the dwindling academic performance of students in Akwa Ibom State occasioned by the high rate of drug abuse among them. Looking at the level of indiscipline in our secondary schools today, one can easily find out that drug abuse plays a detrimental role in academic performance of students in post primary schools. Drug abuse has now reached an alarming proportion within the society. Tarlier reports shows that about seventy percent of patients attending Neuro-psychiatric hospitals today in Nigeria are students. Oviasu (1976) found out that 21.3 percent of those classified and admitted in a psychiatric hospitals in Benin city, Nigeria following use of marijuana were students. Reports

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also show that there has been a sporadic increase in the rate of drug abuse among students in Post primary Schools and consequently, school indiscipline (such as lateness to school, skipping classes, failure to complete assignments, armed robbery, burglary, high rate of road and fire accidents, juvenile delinquency and other societal ills. These problems have aroused great attention to so many well meaning Nigerians including students all making efforts to study and analyze factors and problems associated with drug abuse. Thus, the basic problem of this study is the poor academic performance of students in secondary schools, occasioned by the researcher’s suspicion that it is the result of drug abuse among the students.

1.4 Purpose of the study

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The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of drug abuse on the academic performance of students in secondary schools. Specifically, the study investigates: 1) The relationship between drug abuse through intake of hallucinogens and students academic performance. 2) The relationship between drug abuse through alcohol consumption and students academic performance. 3) The relationship between drug abuse through cigarette smoking and students academic performance. 4) The relationship between drug abuse through intake of narcotics and students academic performance. 5) The relationship between drug abuse through intake of stimulants and students academic performance.

1.5 Research questions

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The following research questions are deemed necessary for this study.
i) What is the relationship between drug abuse by students

through intake of hallucinogens and their academic performance?
ii) What is the relationship between drug abuse by students

through alcohol consumption and their academic performance?
iii) What is the relationship between drug abuse by students

through

cigarette

smoking

and

their

academic

performance? iv)What is the relationship between drug abuse by students through intake of narcotics and their academic

performance. v) What is the relationship between drug abuse by students through intake of stimulants and their academic performance.

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1.6 Hypotheses The above research questions were converted into the following hypotheses. 1) There is no significant relationship between drug abuse by students through intake of hallucinogens and their academic performance. 2) There is no significant relationship between drug abuse by students through alcohol consumption and their academic performance. 3) There is no significant relationship between drug abuse by students through cigarette smoking and their academic performance. 4) There is no significant relationship between drug abuse by students through intake of narcotics and their academic performance.

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5) There is no significant relationship between drug abuse by students through intake of stimulants and their academic performance.

1.7 Significance of the study The significance of this study cannot be over

emphasized in a rapidly developing country such as Nigeria. The country’s hope of creating a democratic, egalitarian, self reliant and dynamic economy with full opportunities for all would not be achieved if the youths are not drug free. This study will enlighten the youths on the inherent danger of drug abuse on their academic performance and educate parents and teachers on the early detection of drug abuse of their wards. It will offer recommendations that will help the government and other organizations concerned with the menace of drug abuse in solving some of its problems. it will also help other researcher in this field to have first hand

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information

on

the

role

drugs

play

on

the

academic

performance of students. Emphatically this study will expose the researcher to the opportunity of amazing readable articles, data and quotations related to drug abuse for youths to read have an insight into the modern trend of drug abuse. This in effect will place them in a good position to make positive decisions about drug abuse and to join in the campaign against drug abuse among students in Nigeria society.

1.8

Assumptions of the study. The following assumptions have been made on the

study.

Pressure of work and pressure to succeed in competitive situations may encourage drug abuse.

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 Peer

group

influences

students’

use

of

drugs

in

secondary schools  Availability of drugs encourages students’ abuse of drugs in secondary schools.  Drug taking habits of parents’ influences students in taking drugs in secondary schools.  The variables of study drug abuse and students’ in taking drugs in secondary schools.

1.9 Scope of the study Though the task of the research is to investigate the effects of drug abuse on the academic performance of students in secondary school in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom state. It will be difficult if not impossible to cover all the secondary schools in Nsit Ibom. Accordingly six secondary schools in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area have been selected from the total number of twelve

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secondary schools in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area for the study. Again students that will be given questionnaire will be those in higher classes. This will be done because the researcher expects them to understand the questionnaire better and therefore provide more useful answers and information.

1.10 Limitation of the study Equally unwillingness information. the of Also, researcher the was to hindered reveal by the

respondents

important the

transportation

problem

hindered

researcher. The researcher found it difficult to move from school to school to gather information for the research study and as such fewer school were reached than expected.

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1.11 Definition of terms Addiction: A state in which an individual is physically dependent upon a particular substance and suffers when it is devoid to him. Adolescence: The time of life between puberty and maturity. The youth period from 12 years to 20 years. Cannabis: This is hemp plant commonly referred to as marijuana, Indian hemp or “grass”. Dependence: A state of period or chronic intoxication, detrimental to the individual and the society produced by the repeated consumption of the drug. Depressant: Drugs that act to decrease body cell activity and induce drowsiness and sleep.

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General drugs: Drugs used to combat infection and disease and have mild effect the body and mind, for example analgesics, anti-malaria and antibiotics. Hallucinogens: They are the most powerful of the

psychoactive drugs and change the user’s mood, mental attitude and environment. Narcotics: Drugs that affect the central nervous system to dull the senses, relieve pains and cause sleep. Psychotropic excitement Stimulants: Drugs that excite body cells to increase activity and stimulate the central nervous system. Sedatives: Drugs that cause drowsiness or excitement. Tolerance: A condition that develops when a body becomes accustomed to a drug and no longer responds to the original dosage of the drugs. drugs: Drugs that cause drowsiness or

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CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW The national outcry on the hazard of drugs point to the fact that drug abuse has reached a staggering proportion. For sometimes now, the media have been reporting on drug trafficking and abuse as well as the number of people arrested in connection with drugs deals. The problem is spreading like a plague in most countries of the world and is associated particularly among the youths. Drug use and abuse has now penetrated virtually every stratum of the society. The rich poor, the successful, the gainfully employed and the

unemployed alike are all involved in drug related deals. In recent years, the demand for drugs is becoming high. This may be due to increase in drug trafficking, easy access and availability and its euphoric effect on the user. So alarming is the state of drug trafficking and abuse, that it has become a major concern to our country. The hostilities and

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drug related offences led to the birth of National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) in December 1992 to combat drug related offences such as trafficking, consumption,

cultivation and possession etc. Thus, according to Achalu (2004), drug abuse has to do with the taking of drug under circumstances and at doses that significantly increase the risk or hazard to the individual user or others. Summarily, drug abuse can be said to be excessive or addictive use of psychotropic substances for non-medical purposes.

2.1 Drug abuse through intake of hallucinogens and students academic performance

Hallucinogens is a general name and drug here include marijuana, hashish etc. Marijuana is a green brown or grey mixture of dried shredded leaves, stems, seeds and flower of the hemp plant (cannabis Sativa). Cannabis is a term that

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refers to marijuana and other drugs made from the same plants-strong forms of cannabis include sinsemilla (sin-sheme-yah), hashish (“hash” for short), and hashoil. All forms of cannabis are mind altering (psychoactive) drugs, and all contain delta-a tertrahy-dro cannabino (THC), the main active chemical in marijuana. They also contain more than 400 other chemicals. THC affects the nerve cells in the part of the brain where memories are formed. This makes it hard for users to recall recent events it is hard to learn while high – a working short term memory is required for learning and performing tasks that call for more than one or two steps. As people age, they normally lose nerve cells in a region of the brain that is important for remembering events. Chronic exposure to THC may hasten the age related loss of these nerve cells. Although scientists do not yet know whether the use of marijuana causes mental illness, it is established that high doses of marijuana can induce psychosis

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(disturbed perceptions and thoughts), and marijuana use can worsen. Psychotic symptoms in people who have schizophrenia. There is also evidence of increased rates of depression, anxiety, and suicidal thinking in chronic marijuana users. Some frequent, long-term marijuana users show signs of a lack of motivation (termed a motivational syndrome). Their problem include not caring about what happens in their lives, no desire to work regularly, fatigue, and a lack of concern about how they look. As a result of these symptoms, some users tend to perform poorly in school. Chatterji (2006) showed that marijuana use in high school is associated with lower levels of educational

attainment, and concluded with an appropriate conjecture that “public policies that are effective in reducing substance use during high school should have some impact on

educational attainment.

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Adolescent drug use including marijuana is related to many negative outcomes in both the short and long term. For example adolescents marijuana user are more likely than non users to drop out of high school, involved in human immune deficiency virus risk behaviours and exhibit other forms of delinquency Brook, Balka, Whiteman (1999) and Brooks, et al (2002) and Brown, et al (2004). They are also more likely arrested NIDA Research Report Series (2002). Ellickson et al (1992) grouped the risk factors for adolescent drug use into three categories, perceived environmental factors exposure to deviant peers and parents who use drugs, poor family bonding, poor school bonding, low academic orientation, behaviourial factors (poor academic achievement), tolerance of delinquency, prior involvement in delinquency, prior

substance use and intrapersonal factors (e.g. rebelliousness, depression and perceived risk). Hawkins et al (1992) reported that low academic achievers are more likely to be drug users.

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2.2 Drug abuse through alcohol consumption and students’ academic performance.

Alcohol consumption is a major social problem in Nigeria that can affect people of all ages, from all backgrounds, and all social classes. As the third leading preventable cause of death in the United States, alcohol consumption is also responsible for several harmful health consequences (CDC, 2004). It also contributes to most suicides, violent crimes, emergency room admissions, traffic accidents and violence incidents. One aspect of particularly alarming concern within this social issue, it that of alcohol use by adolescents and teens (Konblum and Julian, 2007). Although, alcohol is the main cause of death for people under 21 (NIAAA, 2005), there is growing evidence to substantiate the fact that underage drinking is strongly associated with academic and social problems, potentially undermining success in domains of competence that are crucial for successful adult development

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(Masten et al, 2008). Presrey and Meiliman (1997) reported that about 25% of students faced academic problems caused by alcohol abuse such as earning lower grade, doing poorly in examination and missing classes. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (2005) reported in a study of more than 14,000 students that 21.6% who drank during the year prior to the study had fallen behind the school work and 29.5% had missed classes because of alcohol abuse. Idown (1992) maintained that alcohol abuse exposes the students to avoidable trauma, unprovoked violence, road accidents involvement etc, when this happens such students will not be able to take his/her academic seriously and this has a negative effect on his/her academic performance. Alcohol use affects the entire body, including the brain in a variety of ways. Presrey et al (1996) reported that the first attribute to be affected is judgement. He further stressed that one who uses alcohol may finds it difficult to make good

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decisions, to make them quickly or to be realistic when making them. There is a little doubt that alcohol use has a damaging effect on academic performance. In fact, one national study showed that at four-year institution, college students with an ‘A’ average consume 3.3 drinks per week whereas students with a ‘D’ or ‘F’ average consume 9.0 drink per week. The same study showed that sizeable percentages of college students also report having done poorly on a test or project or having missed class because of their alcohol or other drug use in the previous twelve months (Blinge, 1996). In another study, Wechsier (1995) found that since the beginning of the school year, nearly one-third of high-risk drinkers had missed class and 21% had fallen behind in their school work because of their drinking. It is not just those who use alcohol and other drugs who were affected by that use. The Harvard study by Wiechsier (1995) also found that on campuses where more than half the students were classified

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as binge drinkers, 68% of non-binge drinkers reported that since the beginning of the academic year, their studying or sleep had been interrupted because of other students’ use of alcohol.

2.3 Drug abuse through cigarette students academic performance

smoking

and

Cigarette is a ‘gate way’ drug. It is described so because it is usually the first drug that is used before other drugs are tried out (Indiana Preventive Resource Centre, 2003). Abuse of this drug can lead to sharp decline in academic

performance, increase report of truancy and expulsion from school. It brings about the alteration in the chemistry of the brain of the abusers. The World Health Organization (WHO 1980) observed that tobacco smoking cause the death of people in different countries. WHO (1986) reported that students who engaged

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in smoking often experience an early onset of cough and shortness of breath, and are susceptible to life threatening diseases such as cancer. In such a situation, the students’ academic achievement may be affected as the disease may lead to death or drop out of school.

2.4 Drug abuse through intake of students academic performance.

narcotics

and

Narcotics

is

a

central

nervous

depressants

and

analgesics. The drugs involved are opium, morphine, heroine and cocaine. The psychoactivity of the drug is depressant. They are medically and legally used as analgesics and pain relievers. Consequences of abuse include degradation of character and will power, drowsiness, respiratory depression, nausea, and physical dependent. Frazer and Martins (1961) revealed that cocaine makes the abuser to feel excessively depressed after a feeling of

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high and over confident in both physical and mental ability. It interferes with the abuser’s blood pressure which also affects the breath rate and health. A small dose of cocaine can make the abuser to over work himself and this may lead to death (Wilson and Linken 1969). Edwin and David (1990), indicated that cocaine seriously damages that nasal tissue septum and lungs of the abuser, they also experience hallucination, become anxious and confused. A student who takes cocaine before examination or class will not remember what to write or performed badly in the class because of the influence of cocaine.

2.5 Drug abuse through intake of stimulants and students’ academic performance

Stimulants are drugs that excite the central nervous system. An example of this drug is kolanuts. The

psychoactivity of the drug is stimulants. It produces alertness,

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euphoria, excitement, as well as loss of appetite, loss of blood pressure and loss of weight, strong and emotional

dependence. Eitzen (1980) maintained that ‘pressure’ to succeed in competitive situation encourage drug abuse. This is mostly manifest in students and athletes. Some students often leave their academic work for pleasure only to find out that they have a lot to read during the examination period. As a result, they employ drugs to keep them awake in order to cover as much work as possible before examination. It is common to find students chewing kolanuts or drinking coffee to study far into night. Prolong use of the drug reduces the power of concentration of students who spent all night to prepare for examination. Omudude (1992) observed that the need to study awake especially during examinations is one of the reason why students use drugs.

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Caffeine is viewed as a drug, and it is proven that more people in the United State are addicted to it than any other drug, including alcohol, tobacco and marijuana (Gomley, 1996). According to Troyer and Marlke (1984) psychiatrists have been labeled behaviourial patterns attributed to caffeine consumption with the diagnostic term “caffeinism”. These behaviourial patterns can include restlessness, nervousness and insomnia which can last four to six hours after consuming only one cup of caffee (Troyer and Marlke, 1984). Goodman and Gilman (1975) stated that caffeine is a powerful stimulant to the central nervous system and its main purpose, as desired by students is to produce clear, rapid thought and above all keep fatigue at bay. Yet, according to Braun (1996), although caffeine is proven to increase the production of adrenalin and may speed up reaction time in simple

arithmetic skills, it has been proven to worsen performance in longer more complicated word problem. In relation to study habits, it seems that most college students are above the

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simple arithmetic level. Yet many continue to drink coffee daily, assuming ‘heighten’ energy levels will lead to ‘heighten’ academic performance (Gormley, 1996). They believe these caffeinated beverages are ‘think drinks’ and will ‘turn on’ their brains as it increases their arousal and alertness and delays the onset of sleep (Braun 1996). Although research on caffeine affecting the study habits of memory and recall are few, Braun noted that caffeine only improves the mental ability of speed and not power. In other words caffeine only degrades performance in logical reasoning which is what most college level materials entails.

2.6 Summary of literature review Drug abuse is fast becoming a problem not only in our society, but also in our school system. Its alarming rate have attracted concern from various bodies/organizations, media houses as well as churches. The review of literature was

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focused on the effects of drug abuse on students’ academic performance. Information has been provided under various sub-heading, thought several authors have written on related topic internationally not much have been done locally in this area. Hence, the present study is to fill the gab noticed in this area.

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CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter describes the design and method adopted for the study. headings. It is presented under the following sub-

3.1 Research design The design used in this study was the survey research design. Nwana (1981) defines survey approach as an examination of existing conditions of something in its natural setting. Also Trace and Treece 1977 asserted that “a Survey research could be referred to as a non-experimental design in which the researcher investigates a school or a group of students in order to provide accurate qualitative description”. It is a

description research in which a sample is drawn from the population data and is collected through questionnaire, interviews and observations. For this research only

questionnaires were used for data collection.

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3.2 Area of study

This study was conducted in six secondary schools in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Nsit Ibom is one of the thirty-one (31) local Government Areas of Akwa Ibom State created in 1991. It is bounded by Uyo Local government Area in the North, Etinan Local Government Area in the West, Ibesikpo – Asutan Local Government Area in the East and Nsit Ubium Local Government Area in the South. It has Afaha Offiong as her headquarters. The Local

Government Area has a landmass of 18.7 square kilometers with seven urbuan towns. Afaha Offiong, Afaha Nsit, Ikot

Nya, Mbiokporo I, Mbiokporo II, Ikot Ntuen and Oboetim.

It is one of the most thickly populated Local Government Area and has a total of twelve (12) secondary schools.

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3.3 Population of the study

The population of this study comprise of all SS II and SS III students in secondary schools in Nsit Ibom Local

Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. The Local Education Committee (L.E.C.) in Nsit Ibom records a total of One thousand four hundred and forty students in both SS II and SS III in the selected secondary schools.

3.4 Sampling technique

The sampling technique adopted for the study is the simple random sampling technique. This sampling technique was considered appropriate because it gives every member of the population an equal opportunity of being selected for the study. The researcher

adopted the hat and draw method of balloting. Here, names of the twelve schools were written on pieces of papers, roll each paper slip into paper ball, mix these paper balls in a hat

36

and then draw six paper balls. The names of schools drawn represented the required schools to conduct the study.

3.5 The sample The sample of the study is made up of Two Hundred and Forty (240) students randomly selected from SS II and SS III of selected six schools in Nsit Ibom shows that forty (40) students were selected through a simple ballot of yes or no from each of the sampled; schools. 40% of the sample was SS II while 60% were SS III. 3.6 Instrumentation The measuring instruments used for data collection for the study were a questionnaire and a performance test in three core subjects designed by the researcher with the help of the supervisor. main sections. The questionnaire was divided into two Section A was designed to collect the

respondents’ personal data such as sex, age etc.

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Section B was Likert – type, made up of 10 items to measure Drug abuse. In this section the respondents were

required to rate themselves on the rate at which they have taken drugs without the prescription of the doctor.

3.6.1 Validity of the instrument

To secure the validity of the instrument use the questionnaire developed was given to the supervisor and an expert in measuring and evaluation in the University of Calabar for screening and vetting. The relevant items were By so

retained while the irrelevant items were dropped. doing; both face and content validity were ascertained.

3.6.2 Reliability of the instrument

To

determine

the

reliability

of

the

instrument

(questionnaire) a trial test was carried out using fifty (50) students drawn from the area of study. Test – retest method was used to determine the reliability estimate of the

38

instrument. This was to determine the internal; consistency of instrument. To carry out the test the researcher

administered the questionnaire to the 50 respondents and after two weeks interval the same respondents were given the same questionnaire to complete. The scores for the two sets of administration were correlated. The coefficients of

correlations stood at 0.68 and 0.71 for drug abuse and academic performance respectively,

3.7 Administration of the instrument

The instrument was administered by the researcher in person in each of the selected schools. The respondents were informed of the exercise and on the need to be honest in terms of giving objective response free of influence of costudents. The researcher with the help of some teachers

administered the questionnaire personally. At the end of the exercise the respondents were asked to return them,. researcher ensured that the entire The

administered

39

questionnaires were all carefully returned from the sampled schools.

3.8 Data preparation/scoring

The questionnaire is made up of 10 items spanning through section A – B. While section A sought to elicit

information on personal data, section B of the instrument focused on drug abuse and student’s academic performance. Scores given to the responses were categorized as shown: Response Strongly agree (SA) Agree (A) Disagree (D) Strongly disagree (SD) Scores 4 point 3 point 2 point 1 point

Hypothesis one

40

There is no significant relationship between drug abuse by students through intake of hallucinogens and their

academic performance. Independent variable: Dependent variable: Test statistic: Drug abuse by students through hallucinogens. Academic performance Independent t – test analysis.

Hypothesis two There is no significant relationship between drug abuse by students through alcohol consumption and their academic performance. Independent variable: - Drug abuse by students through alcohol consumption. Dependent variable: - Academic performance Test statistic: - Independent t – test analysis.

41

Hypothesis three There is no significant relationship between drug abuse by students through cigarette smoking and their academic performance. Independent variable: Drug abuse by students through cigarette smoking. Dependent variable: Academic performance Test statistic: Independent t-test analysis.

Hypothesis Four There is no significant relationship between drug abuse by students through intake of narcotics and their academic performance. Independent variable: Drug abuse by students through narcotics

42

Dependent variable: Academic performance Statistical test: Independent t-test analysis

Hypothesis Five There is no significant relationship between drug abuse by students through intake of stimulants and their academic performance Independent variable: Drug abuse by students through stimulants. Dependent variable: Academic performance Statistical test: Independent t – test analysis CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION This chapter deals with the analysis of data and the presentation of results arising from the result are also presented in this chapter. The chapter also presents the discussion of findings of the study. All hypotheses were tested

43

at 0.05 level of significance. For orderly presentation of material, the chapter is reported under the following sub headings: 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 General description of variables/data Hypothesis-by hypothesis presentation of results Summary of results Discussion of findings

4.1 General description of variables/data The study was on drug abuse and students, academic performance in secondary schools in Nsit Ibom Local

Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. The independent variable in the study is drug abuse and the sub-variables identified under it were intake of hallucinogens, alcohol, cigarette smoking, narcotics and stimulants. All the

independent variables were measured continuously using a

44

four-point Likert type scale. There were four items on the questionnaire for each variable. The dependent variable in the study is academic performance of students. This variable was measured using a test of general knowledge on three core subjects, namely, English, Mathematics and Biology. The test was developed by the researcher and it was made up of 20 (twenty) multiple choice items. Descriptive statistics emanating from data analysis for all the variable are presented in table 1.

45

Table 1 Summary data of all variables in the study S/No Variables 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. + Hallucinogens Alcohol Cigarette smoking Narcotics Stimulants Academic performance N 200 200 200 200 200 200 X 6.02 7.51 6.52 6.21 7.33 SD 3.19 4.52 3.75 3.23 4.28

79.78 22.54

46

4.2 Hypothesis-by-hypothesis presentation of results

Hypothesis one There is no significant relationship between drug abuse by students through intake of hallucinogens and their

academic performance. The test statistics used in analyzing data for this hypothesis was Pearson Product Moment Correlation

Coefficient analysis (rho). The result is presented in table 2. Result of the analysis in table 2 show that the calculated r-value of -0.56 is in absolute sense greater than the critical r-value of 0.138 at 0.05 level of significance with 198 degrees of freedom. This means that, there is a significant inverse relationship between drug abuse by students through intake of hallucinogens and their academic performance. That is, the more students are prone to drug abuse through intake of

47

hallucinogens the less their academic performance. Based on the result the null hypothesis is rejected.

48

Table 2 Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analysis of the relationship between intake of hallucinogens and students’ academic performance (N = 200) Variables Σx Σx2 Σxy r-cal Σy Σy2 Hallucinogens intake (x) 1203 9247 88055 -0.56* Academic performance 15955 1373925 (y) *Significant at 0.05, df = 198, critical r = 0.138

49

Hypothesis two There is no significant relationship between drug abuse by students through alcohol consumption and their academic performance. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient analysis was employed in testing the hypothesis. The result of the analysis is presented in table 3. Result of the analysis in table 3 shows that the calculated r-value of -0.65 is in absolute sense greater than the critical r-value of 0.138 at 0.05 level of significance with 198 degrees of freedom. This means that, there is a significant students inverse by relationship between and drug their abuse by

alcohol

consumption

academic

performance. That is, the more students are prone to drug abuse through consumption of alcohol the less their academic performance. Based on the result the null hypothesis is rejected.

50

Table 3 Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analysis of the relationship between intake of alcohol consumption and students’ academic performance (N = 200) Variables Σx Σx2 Σxy r-cal Σy Σy2 Alcohol consumption 1501 15331 (x) 106490 -0.65* Academic performance 15955 1373925 (y) *Significant at 0.05, df = 198, critical r = 0.138

51

Hypothesis three There is no significant relationship between drug abuse by students through cigarette smoking and their academic performance. Test statistics employed in analyzing data for this hypothesis was Pearson Product Moment Correlation

Coefficient analysis. The result of the analysis is presented in table 4. The results of the analysis in table 4 shows that the calculated r-value of -0.67 is in absolute terms greater than the critical r-value of 0.138 at 0.05 level of significance with 198 degrees of freedom. This means that, there is a significant inverse relationship between drug abuse by

students through cigarette smoking and their academic performance. That is, the more students are prone to drug abuse through cigarette smoking the less their academic performance. Based on the result the null hypothesis is rejected.

52

Table 4 Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analysis of the relationship between cigarette smoking and students’ academic performance (N = 200) Variables Cigarette smoking (x) Academic (y) *Significant at 0.05, df = 198, critical r = 0.138 performance 15955 1373925 Σx Σy 1304 Σx2 Σy2 11306 Σxy r-cal

92750 -0.67*

53

Hypothesis four There is no significant relationship between drug abuse by students through intake of narcotic and their academic performance. This hypothesis was tested using Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation test statistical technique. The results of the analyses are presented in table 5 Results of the analysis in table 5 shows that the calculated r-value of -0.60 is in absolute terms greater than the critical r-value of 0.138 at 0.05 level of significance with 198 degrees of freedom. This means that, there is a significant inverse relationship between drug abuse by

students through intake of narcotics and their academic performance. That is, the more students are prone to drug abuse through narcotics intake the less their academic performance. Based on the result the null hypothesis is rejected.

54

Table 5 Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analysis of the relationship between narcotics intake and students’ academic performance (N = 200) Variables Σx Σx2 Σxy r-cal Σy Σy2 Narcotics intake (x) 1243 6803 90465 -0.60* Academic performance 15955 1373925 (y) *Significant at 0.05, df = 198, critical r = 0.138

55

Hypothesis five There is no significant relationship between drug abuse by students through intake of stimulants and their academic performance. Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation coefficient

analysis test statistics was used in testing this hypothesis. The results of the analyses are presented in table 6 Results of the analysis in table 6 shows that the calculated r-value of -0.59 is in absolute terms greater than the critical r-value of 0.138 at 0.05 level of significance with 198 degrees of freedom. This means that, there is a significant inverse relationship between drug abuse by

students through intake of stimulants and their academic performance. That is, the more students are prone to drug abuse through intake of stimulants the less their academic performance. Based on the result the null hypothesis is rejected.

56

Table 6 Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analysis of the relationship between intake of stimulants and students’ academic performance (N = 200) Variables Σx Σx2 Σxy r-cal Σy Σy2 Stimulants intake (x) 1470 14452 105980 -0.59* Academic performance 15955 1373925 (y) *Significant at 0.05, df = 198, critical r = 0.138

57

4.3 Summary of results i) There is a significant inverse relationship between drug

abuse by students through intake of hallucinogen and their academic performance. ii) There is a significant inverse relationship between drug

abuse by students through alcohol consumption and their academic performance. iii) There is a significant inverse relationship between drug

abuse by students through cigarette smoking and their academic performance. iv) There is a significant inverse relationship between drug

abuse by students through intake of narcotics and their academic performance. v) There is a significant inverse relationship between drug

abuse by students through intake of stimulant and their academic performance.

58

4.4 Discussion of findings This section focuses on the discussion of findings that emerged from the study. The discussion is presented

according to the hypothesis of the study. The result of the first hypothesis revealed that there is a significant inverse relationship between drug abuse by

students through the intake of hallucinogens and their academic performance. The finding of this hypothesis is in line with Chutterji (2006) who concluded that, intake of

hallucinogens in high school is associated with lower level of educational attainment and further opined with an appropriate conjecture that public policies that are effective in reducing substance use during high school should have some impact on educational attainment. Adolescent drug use including

marijuana is related to many negative outcomes in both the short and long term. Even Hawkins et al (1992) reported that low academic achievers are more likely to be drug users.

59

The result of the second hypothesis indicates that there a significant inverse relationship between drug abuse by students through alcohol consumption and their academic performance. The finding of this hypothesis is in line with the conclusion of Idown (1992) who maintained that alcohol abuse exposes the students to avoidable trauma, unprovoked violence, road accidents involvement etc. when this happens such students will not be able to take his/her academic seriously and this has a negative effect on his/her academic performance. Presley and Meliman (1997) reported that about 25% of students faced academic problems caused by alcohol abuse such as earning lower grade, doing poorly in

examination and missing classes. There is no doubt that alcohol use has a damaging effect on academic performance. In fact, one national study showed that at four-year institutions and college student with an “A” average consume 3.3 drinks per week whereas students with a “D” or “F” average consumes 90 drink per week.

60

The result of the third hypothesis revealed that, there is a significant inverse relationship between drug abuse by students through cigarette smoking and their academic performance. The finding of this hypothesis is in agreement with the finding of WHO (1986) that concluded that, students who engaged in smoking often experience an early onset of cough and shortness of breath, and are susceptible to life threatening diseases such as cancer. In such a situation, the students academic achievement may be affected as the disease may lead to death or dropout of school. Conclusively, abuse of this drug (Cigarette smoking) can lead to sharp decline in academic performance, increase report of truancy and expulsion from school. It brings about the alteration in the chemistry of the brain of the abusers. The result of the forth hypothesis revealed that, there is a significant inverse relationship between drug abuse by students through intake of narcotics and their academic performance. The finding of this hypothesis is in line with the

61

findings of various researchers such as Frazer and Martins (1961), Wilson and Linken (1969), Edwin and David (1990). A student who takes cocaine before examination or class will not remember what to write or performed badly in the class because of the influence of cocaine.

The result of the fifth hypothesis revealed that, there is a significant inverse relationship between drug abuse by students through intake of stimulants and their academic performance. The finding of this hypothesis in disagreement with the findings of Goodman and Gilman (1975) who stated that caffeine is a powerful stimulant to the central nervous system and its main purpose, as desired by students is to produce clear, rapid thought, and above all keep fatigue at bay. Yet, according to Brown (1996), although caffeine is proven to increase the production of adrenaline and may speed up reaction time in simple arithmetic skills, it has been proven to worsen performance in longer, more complicated

62

word problem. (Brown 1996) also believe that caffeinated beverage are “think drink” and will ‘turn on’ their brains as it increased their arousal and alertness and delays the onset of sleep.

63

CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter is concerned with the summary and conclusion of the entire research work. The chapter is

therefore presented under the following sub-headings. (i) (ii) (iii) Summary of the study Conclusion Recommendations

(iv) Suggestions for further studies

5.1 Summary The main purpose of this study was to investigate Drug abuse and students’ academic performance in secondary schools in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. To achieve the aim of this study, the following

hypotheses were formulated to direct the study.

64
i)

There is no significant relationship between drug abuse by students through intake of hallucinogens and their academic performance.

ii)

There is no significant relationship between drug abuse and students through alcohol consumption and their academic performance.

iii)

There is no significant relationship between drug abuse by students through cigarette smoking and their academic performance

iv)

There is no significant relationship between drug abuse by students through intake of narcotics and their academic performance

v)

There is no significant relationship between drug abuse by students through intake of stimulants and their academic performance. Literatures related to the variables under study were

reviewed accordingly.

Survey research design was adopted

for the study. A total sample of two hundred and forty (240)

65

students were randomly selected for the study. The selection was done through the simple random sampling technique. This was to give every member of the population area equal and independent opportunity to be selected for the study. The questionnaire was the main instrument use for data collection. The instrument was subject to face and content The reliability estimate of the through split half reliability

validation by the supervisor. instrument method. was established

To test the hypothesis to ascertain whether to reject or return them, Pearson product moment correlation coefficient analysis was employed. This statistical analysis techniques

was used because of the nature of the variables involved in the hypotheses directing the study. The hypotheses were

tested at 0.05 level of significance. The results of the analysis revealed that:

66

i)

There is a significant inverse relationship between

drug abuse by student through intake of hallucinogens and their academic performance. ii) There is a significant inverse relationship between

drug abuse by students through alcohol consumption and their academic performance. iii) There is a significant inverse relationship between

drug abuse by students through cigarette smoking and their academic performance. iv) There is a significant inverse relationship between

drug abuse by students through intake of narcotics and their academic performance. v) There is a significant inverse relationship between

drug abuse by students through intake of stimulants and their academic performance. Based on the results and findings of the study recommendations and suggestions for further studies were made.

67

5.2 Conclusion Based on the results and findings of the study, the following conclusion were made: i) There is a significant inverse relationship between

drug abuse by student through intake of hallucinogens and their academic performance. ii) There is a significant inverse relationship between

drug abuse by students’ through alcohol consumption and their academic performance. iii) There is a significant inverse relationship between

drug abuse by students through cigarette smoking and their academic performance. iv) There is a significant inverse relationship between

drug abuse by students through intake of narcotics and their academic performance. v) There is a significant inverse relationship between

drug abuse by students through intake of stimulants and their academic performance.

68

5.3 Recommendations Based on the findings of the study and their implications for the future progress of Nsit Ibom and the country as a whole, the following recommendations were made:
i)

Federal Government, states and Local Government

should adopt an approach for preventing drug abuse in our secondary schools by improving the quality of academic life and help fulfill the academic mission of secondary schools. ii) Public and private school administrators should

target at the vulnerable segment of our society, such as the older children, adolescents and young adults. Such educational measures should be carefully presented through methods that avoid threats and dramatization. iii) Parents and schools authorities should educate

their pupils on the need to stay away from destructive effects of these drugs.

69

iv)

Government

should

have

a

well

defined

comprehensive and realistic policy on control of drugs. This policy should include establishing policy on control of drugs. This policy should include establishing a federal drug control centre, under the auspices of the ministries of health and internal affairs, which will collate

information on drug use and liaise with similar smaller units to be based in each state.

5.4 Suggestion for further studies Based on the limitations of the study, the following suggestions were made for further studies: i) Considering the significant contribution of the

study, to education industry and the society as a whole, a similar study should be conducted to cover both private and public secondary schools in Akwa Ibom state.

70

ii)

Similar studies should be carried out in the

universities in other parts of the country, Nigeria, in order to prove the consistency of the result in this study. iii) Substance abuse, violence, mental health and

students academic success could be studied.

71

REFERENCES

Achalu (2004). Drug education: Heath effects of commonly abused drugs. Lagos: Simarch Nigeria Limited. Aliyu, A. (1981). Contemporary drug abuse among children in Kaduna. Kaduna: Kawo publishers. Anokwu, C. C. (1979). Effect of drug. Alvana Health Journal. Department of Health Education. A. I. C. E. Owerri. Awake (April 8, 2003). Young People and Drugs Awake p. 3. Awake (October 2005). Alcohol Misuse: A social catastrophe Awake p. 3. Braun, S. (1996). Buzz. New York: Oxford University Press. Brook J. S., Adams, R. E. & Balka, E. B. (2002). Early adolescent marijuana use: Risks for the transition to young adulthood. Psychol Medicine. 32: 79 – 91. Brook, J. S., Balka, E. B., & Whiteman M. (1999). The risks for late adolescence of early adolescent Marijuana use. American Journal of Public Health. 89: 1549 – 1554. Brown, T. L., Flory, K. & Lynam, D. R. (2004). Comparing the developmental trajectories of marijuana use of African American and Caucasian adolescents: Patterns, antecedents, and consequences Center for Disease control (2004). Retrieved June 1, 2007. Retrieved from

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http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm533 7a2.htm. Chatterji, P. (2006). Illicit drug use and educational attainment. Health Economics. 15 (5), 489 – 511. Cloward E., & Ohlin L. E. (1960). Delinquency and opportunity: A theory of Delinquent Gangs. Glencoe, IL: Free press. Edwin, B. C. and David, S. J. (1990). “How cocaine destroy its users” Journal of Medicine. California. Eitzen, D. S. (1980) Social Problems. USA: Ally and Inc. Bacon

Ellickson, P. L., Hays, R. D. & Bell, R. M. (1992). Stepping through the drug use sequence: Longitudinal Scalogram analysis of initiation and regular use. Jab norm Psychol 101: 441 – 51. Frazer, F. and Martins, S. J. (1961). How cocaine affects body and mind. London: Longman group limited. Gormley, J. (1996). Non-organic coffee provides false hope if you want an energy boost. Better Nutrition. 58 (18) Hawkins, J. D., Catalano R. F., & Miller J. Y. (1992). Risk and Protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: Implications for substance abuse prevention. Psychol Bull 112: 64 - 105 Hawkins, J. D., Weis J. G. (1985). The social development model: An integrated approach to delinquent prevention. J :Prim Prev 6: 73 – 97.

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Hirschi, T. & Berkeley, C. A. (1969) Causes of delinquency. CA: University of CA press. Idown, A. L. (1992). The problems of smoking and drug abuse in Nigeria: Implications for the family: A Paper presented at the 16th Annual Conference of the Counselling Association of Nigeria held at Bayero University Kano. Idowu, A. L. (1992). Prevalence of smoking and drug use among students in Illorin Metropolis: Implication for counselling. Journal of Education. Illarin. Indiana Prevention Resources Centre (IPRC) (2003). Gateway drugs Retrieved on July 29, 2003 from www.drugindiana.edu/publication/iprc/totline/gateway.h tml. Kornblum, W. & Julian, J. (2007). Social Problems (11th ed.) New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc. Masten, A. F., Faden, V., Zucker, R. & Spear (2008). “Underage drinking: A developmental framework. Pediatrics: Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics. National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (1992) Drug Abuse: Data Collection; Drug Demand and reduction Unit: Lagos. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (2005). Retrieved June 1, 2007 from http://pubs.niana.nih.gov/publications/arh280/toc203.htm.

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NIDA

Research Report Series. (2002) Marijuana abuse Rockville, M. D.: Substance abuse and Mental health services administration. NIH publication.

Nwana, O. G. (1981). Introduction of education research for students and teachers. Ibadan: Heinemann Education books. Odejide, O. A., Ohaeri, J. U., Adelekan, M. & Ikuesan, B. A. (1987). Drinking behaviour and Social change among youths in Nigeria: A Study of two cities. Drug and Alcohol Depence. Oetting, E. R., & Donnermeyer, J. F. (1998). Primary Socialization theory: The etiology of drug use and deviance. Substance use misuse 33: 995 -1026 [web of science] [medline] Omudude, O. E. (1992). “Smoking King” As aspect of drug addiction. The Educator (A sessional publication) by Students of Faculty of Education. University of Nigeria. Nsukka. Oviasu, U. (1976). The dilemma Ambassador College Press. of drugs. California:

Presrey, C. A. & Meilman, P. W. (1997) Alcohol and drugs on college Campuses. New York: Ronald Press Company. Presrey, C. A. Meilman, P. W., Cashin J. R. & Lyerla, R. (1996). Alcohol and drugs on American College Campuses: Use, Consequences, and perceptions of the campus Environment.

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Rimm, D. & Somervil, J. W. (1977) Abnormal Psychology. Boston: Little Brown and Company. Sonnerdrcker (1991). Values and attitudes of High School Drug Users. D. C. Journal of Drug Education: Washington DC. Stokwell (2001). Conduct Disorder among adolescent: Alcohol and Drug Abusers. Journal of Studies on Alcohol. London. Traufman, E. (1966). Drug Abuse and Suicide Attempt of an Adolescent Girl. New York: Ronald press company. Treece & Treece (1977). Elements of research in Nursing. Chicago: Saints Louis Ltd. Troyer, R. & Marlke, G. (1984). Coffee Drinking: A emerging social problem. Wechsler, H. & Binge (1995) Drinking on American College campuses: A New look at an old problem. Boston: Harvard School of Public Health. World Health organization (1980) Technical Report Marijuana and Amphetamine. Geneva: Chronicle. on

World Health Organization (1986). Technical Report series Geneva: Chronicles.

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APPENDIX I STUDENTS’ DRUG ABUSE QUESTIONNAIRE (SDAQ) Dear respondent, I am a final year student in Educational Foundations, Guidance and Counselling Department, University of Calabar, Calabar. I am carrying out a research titled “Drug Abuse and Students Academic performance in Secondary Schools in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State”. Please read the questionnaire carefully and respond to them honestly and sincerely, the information you provided will be treated confidentially

SECTION A Please put a tick (√) in the appropriate column. (1) Sex: Male [ ] Female [ ]

77

(2)

Age: 11-13 years [

], 14 – 16 years [ ].

], 17 –

19 years [

] 20 and above [

Tick (√) as appropriate using the following key: SA = Strongly agree, A = Agree, D = Disagree, SD Strongly Disagree S/N STATEMENTS INTAKE OF HALLUCINOGENS 1. 2. 3. 4. Each time I smoke marijuana I receive strength I smoke marijuana all the time to make me feel belonging. I have taken part in supplying drugs to my friends before. If I don’t take drugs, I find it difficult to reason fast. INTAKE OF ALCOHOL 5. 6. 7. 8. I do my work better each time I take alcohol drinks. Each time I drink beer I fell happy and normal. I prefer drinking beer to soft drink Each time I drink beer or spirit I become SA A D SD

78

very bold, CIGARETTES SMOKING 9. 10. 11. 12. I like smoking cigarettes every day Each time I smoke cigarettes I think very fast. I cannot stay for half an hour without smoking cigarettes Smoking is part and parcel of me INTAKE OF NARCOTICS (Drugs that make me drowsy) Intake of cocaine makes me feel very relevant. Each time I feel very depress, I take cocaine. Each time I take cocaine I do not remember my problems again Intake of cocaine makes me feel happy during parties. INTAKE OF STIMULANTS Each time I take a cup of coffee I can stay awake for a long time. Stimulant intake makes me alert I take drinks that contain caffeine to enable me get charged Each time I take stimulants, I will have more strength to enjoy my partner.

13. 14. 15. 16.

17. 18. 19. 20.

79

APPENDIX II ACHIEVEMENT TEST ENGLISH LANGUAGE (1) (A) Instead of alleviating his comfort, the drug seemed to ……. It Incite (B) Aggravate (C) Animate (D) Impel

(2) (A)

The Government has recruitment of staff Order (B) Embargo Annulment

placed

an

…...

on (D)

further

(C) Injunction

(3)

How the HIV virus transferred from Monkey to man is more …. (A) Experiment (B) Detail (C) Discovery (D) Speculation

(4)

Corruption is one social evil that must be form our society (A) Eradicated (B) Removed (C) withdrawn (D) Condemned

(5) (A)

When he lost his father, we all …. With him Consoled (B) Mourned Comforted (C) Regretted (D)

80

(6)
(A)

The airport had a big tarmac and a wide ….. Runway (B) airstrip Expressway (C) Stretch (D)

(7)

That (A) Thin

(B) Bathe (C) fat

(D) thing

MATHEMATICS
(1)

Let U = {1,2,3,4}, P ={2,3} and Q = {2,4} what is {p∩Q}1

(A)

{1, 2, 3} (B) {1,3,4}

(C) {2,3} (D){1,3}

(2)

Convert 77 to a number in base two (A) 10011012 (B) 1110012 (C) 1001102 (D) 10110012

(3)

Simplify (16/18) ¼ (D) 2/3

(A) 8/2,

(B) 1/3

(C)

4/9

(4)

Express 60500 in standard (A) 6.05 x 10-4(B) 6.05 x 104 (C) 605 x 103 (D) 6.05 x 105

81

The table below shows the frequency distribution of marls scored by a group of students in a class test use the information to answer questions 5 to 7 Marks 2 3 4 4 5 5 3 6 1

Frequency 2

(5)

How many students took the test? (c) 15 (d) 18

(a) 13

(b)

14

(6)

What is the modal score?

(a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 4 (b) 3 (c) 2 (d) 1

(d) 5

(7)

Find the mean score (a) 3.8

BIOLOGY
1.

Which of the following organs is specially adopted for gaseous exchange in aquatic organisms? (a) lungs (b) trachea (c) alveoli (d) gills

2.

The maintenance of a constant internal environment by organisms known as (a) dialyses (b) dieresis (c) osmosis (d) homeostasis

82

3.

Which of the following is not a micro-element? (a) calcium (b) iron (c)nitrogen (d)Magnesium

4.

Enzymes can be inactivated by certain chemical in the body called? (a) catalyst (b) inhibitors (c) substrates (d) activators Major characteristics of vertebrates is the presence of (a) backbone (b) diaphragm (c) heterodont dentition (d) homodont

5.

6.

During photosynthesis, energy from the sun is converted to …. energy (a) chemical (b) electrical (c) heat (d) kinetic

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