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non-Separatist Puritans – Radical Calvinists against the Church of England; Separatists (Pilgrims) argued for a break from the Church of England, led the Mayflower, and established the settlement at Plymouth 2.Northwest Passage – believed to provide shortcut from Atlantic to Pacific, searched for by Giovanni de Verrazano for Francis I in the race to Asian wealth 3.Conversion Experience – required of members of the Puritan Church; took the place of baptism required by the Catholic Church 4.Social Reciprocity – society naturally punishes criminals indiscriminantly 5.Church of England – Protestant church led by the king of England, independent of Catholic Church; tended toward Catholicism during reign of Catholic royalty 6.Atlantic slave trade – often debtors sold to slave traders by African kings seeking riches; Columbian Exchange 7.Jamestown – first permanent English settlement in the Americas (1607), along James River 8.John Smith – introduced work ethic to Jamestown colony, sanitation, diplomat to local Native American tribes; had fought Spanish and Turks 9.Pocahontas – key to English-Native American relationship, died in England in 1617 10.Mayflower Compact – foundation for self-government laid out by the first Massachusetts settlers before arriving on land 11.John Winthrop – Calvinist, devised concept of “city on a hill” (“A Model of Christian Charity”); founded highly successful towns in Massachusetts Bay 12.“City on a Hill” – exemplary Christian community, rich to show charity, held to Calvinistic beliefs 13.Indentured servants – settlers to pay the expenses of a servant’s voyage and be granted land for each person they brought over;
headright system 14.Maryland Act of Religious Toleration (1649) – mandated the toleration of all Christian denominations in Maryland, even though Maryland was founded for Catholics (but majority was protestant) 15.James I, Charles I – reluctant to give colonists their own government, preferred to appoint royal governors 16.William Penn and the Quakers – settled in Pennsylvania, believed the “Inner Light” could speak through any person and ran religious services without ministers 17.Roger Williams – challenged New Englanders to completely separate Church from State, as the State would corrupt the church 18.Anne Hutchinson – challenged New England Calvinist ministers’ authority, as they taught the good works for salvation of Catholicism 19.The Half-Way Covenant – New Englanders who did not wish to relate their conversion experiences could become half-way saints so that their children would be able to have the opportunity to be saints 20.Bacon’s Rebellion – rebels felt the governor of Virginia failed to protect the frontier from the Native Americans Independence (1763-1789) 21.Navigation Acts – only English and American ships allowed to colonial ports; dissent began in 1763 22.Mercantilism – ensured trade with mother country, nationalism; too restrictive on colonial economy, not voted on by colonists 23.Charles II, James II – tried to rule as absolute monarchs without using Parliament, little to no sympathy for colonial legislatures 24.William and Mary – ended the Dominion of New England, gave power back to colonies 25.Dominion of New England – combined Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Plymouth (and later Jersey and New York) into one “supercolony” governed by Sir Edmond Andros, a “supergovernor”
James Oglethorpe – established colony of Georgia as a place for honest debtors 28. allowing them to experiment with and become accustomed to selfgovernment.French and Indian War – French threat at the borders was no longer present. Jefferson. toured the country and inspired many into Christianity • Jonathan Edwards – Puritan minister.Proclamation of 1763 – prohibited settlements west of Appalachian. Old Lights – New Lights brought new ideas. knowledge). restriction on colonial growth 34. logic.Albany Plan of Union – colonies proposed colonial confederation under lighter British rule (crown-appointed president. led revivals. “Grand Council”). gave women more active roles in religion.Salutary Neglect – Parliament took minor actions in the colonies. stressed immediate repentance • New Lights vs.26. more and more ministers sprouted up throughout the country. Paine • George Whitefield – powerful speaker. and science (acquired. rejected by Old Lights. never took effect 32. therefore the colonies didn’t need English protection.The Enlightenment – emphasis on human reason. allowed more power to the legislatures 27.The Great Awakening – began by Edwards to return to Puritanism. Franklin. increased overall religious involvement.Writs of Assistance – search warrants on shipping to reduce smuggling. opposed to unnecessary unfair taxation. mainly affected towns and cities • Deists – believed that God created the universe to act through natural laws. both sought out institutions independent of each other 31.The Glorious Revolution – William and Mary kicked James II out of England (exiled into France). international trade agreements 35.Benjamin Franklin – connected the colonies to Britain. more independent stand against Britain 33. strong influence on Albany Plan 30. challenged by James Otis . not nascent. increased followers of Christianity 29.
including those not allowed to vote 41. cooperation between colonies 46.Townshend Act (1767) – similar to Navigatio.36. not approved by colonists through their representatives • Stamp Act Congress – held in New York.Sugar Act – increased tariff on sugar (and other imports). limited colonists’ say 44.Declaratory Act – allowed Parliament to completely legislate over the colonies.Stamp Act– taxes on all legal documents to support British troops. two of nine soldiers (defended by John Adams) found guilty of manslaughter 45.Sons of Liberty – organized and controlled resistance against Parliamentary acts in less violent ways (strength of martyrdom).Committees of Correspondence – committees appointed from different colonies to communicate on matters.” introduced by Patrick Henry 39.Boston Tea Party – peaceful destruction of British tea in Boston Harbor by colonists disguised as Indians 48. raised money to pay colonial officials by American taxes. could sell directly to consumers rather than through wholesalers (lowered prices to compete with smuggled tea) 47. advocated nonimportation 43. asserted rights to selfgovernment.Boston Massacre – British soldiers shot into crowd of snowball fight.Virtual Representation – all English subjects are represented in Parliament. destabilized colonial economy 40.The Loyal Nine – group of Bostonians in opposition to the Stamp Act. sought to drive stamp distributors from the city 42. agreed to not import British goods until Stamp Act was repealed • Virginia Resolves – “no taxation without representation.Currency Act – prohibited colonies from issuing paper money.Tea Act (1773) – intended to save British East India Company from bankruptcy. attempted to harder enforce existing tariffs 38. led to Boston boycott of English luxuries 37.Quebec Acts – former French subjects in Canada allowed to keep .
appealed to American emotions 53.Tories (Loyalists) – fought for return to colonial rule. usually conservative (educated and wealthy) 56. murder in the name of royal authority would be tried in England or another colony 50.Olive Branch Petition – politely demanded from the king a ceasefire in Boston. refuse to pay taxes to Britain 51.Battle of Saratoga – American general Horatio Gates was victorious over British general Burgoyne 58.Catholicism.Treaty of Paris (1783) – full American independence.Whigs (Patriots) – most numerous in New England. revocation of Massachusetts charter (power to governor). surrender of Cornwallis. put down Whiskey Rebellion (enforced Whiskey Tax). large navy and professional army. end trade with Britain. national debt • Colonial strengths and weaknesses – fair amount of troops. set precedents for future presidents. strong leaders (Washington).Battle of Yorktown – last major battle. army motivated by von Steuben 59. closing of Boston Harbor.Valley Forge – scarce supplies (food and clothing). first president. territory west .Thomas Paine. managed first presidential cabinet. led King George III to officially make peace with the colonies 60. fought for independence 55.Suffolk Resolves – organize militia. short guerilla tactics. guarantee of American rights 52. carefully used power of executive to avoid monarchial style rule 54. exhausted resources (Hessians hired).British strengths and weaknesses – British citizenship outnumbered colonies’. nonprofessional army that could not handle long battles 57. Common Sense – stressed to the American people British maltreatment and emphasize a need for revolution. repeal of Coercive Acts.George Washington – American commander-in-chief.Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts) – in reaction to the Boston Tea Party. while American colonists expected to participate in the Church of England 49.
000). unable to regulate commerce or taxes 63. separation of powers. too much power to states. offered free choice of religion.Connecticut Compromise – advocated by Roger Sherman. fighting by any with experience. forced people to think about central government 68. equal and population-based representation. unanimous for amendments. loaned money. simple majority . African-Americans and Native Americans involved 62. new governments.Shays’s Rebellion – mistreated farmers. fishing rights off of Newfoundland 61. pushed creation of the National Bank (most controversial).Articles of Confederation – states joined for foreign affairs. one vote per state. leader of Federalist Party 66.Changes in the Constitution from the Articles – stronger union of states.Alexander Hamilton – pushed for Assumption (federal government to assume state debts). fear of mobocracy.James Madison – strong central government. forbade slavery in the new territories 65.American society during the Revolution – British-occ upied cities.Federalism – strong central government provided by power divided between state and national governments. checks and balances. loose interpretation of Constitution.Northwest Ordinance of 1787 – defined process for territories to become states (population reached 60. proposed two independently-voting senators per state and representation in the House based on population • Virginia Plan – bicameral congressional representation based on population • New Jersey Plan – equal representation in unicameral congress • Commerce Compromise – congress could tax imports but not exports 69.of Appalachian ceded to America.Virginia Statute on Religious Freedom (1786) – foundation for First Amendment. “extended republic” 67. loyalists to be compensated for seized property. Congress reigned supreme (lacked executive and judicial). not influenced by state 64. 2/3 vote for bills. amendable constitution 70.
unanimous consent. and Madison.Strict vs. commentary on Constitution. set up the first National Bank 77. more power to experienced.Report on Manufactures (tariffs) – Hamilton praised efficient factories with few managers over many workers. Supreme Court had final jurisdiction.Judiciary Act of 1789 – established federal district courts that followed local procedures. bill of rights. Jay. Assumption highly controversial. based on loose interpretation of Constitution 76.Bank of the United States – Hamilton’s plan to solve Revolutionary debt. more power to less-rich and common people. pushed his plan through Congress.The Federalist Papers – written anonymously by Hamilton. assumption of state debts.Federalists vs. regulation of foreign and interstate commerce. employment opportunities. republicanism extended over large territory Post-Independence and Critical Period (1789-1800) 73. applications of technology 78. Anti-Federalists – Anti-Federalists wanted states’ rights. power to enact taxes. promote emigration. strict interpretation implied few powers to Congress 79.Whiskey Rebellion – Western Pennsylvanian farmers’ violent protest against whiskey excise tax.vote (with presidential veto). Federalists wanted strong central government.Report on Public Credit – proposed by Hamilton to repair war debts. federal courts. separation of church and state. Loose interpretation of the Constitution – loose interpretation allowed for implied powers of Congress (such as the National Bank).Bill of Rights – protected rights of individual from the power of the central government 75. execution by president. Washington sent large army to . compromise between nationalists and advocates for states’ rights 74. reference to religion. easier amendment process • Articles’ achievement – system for orderly settlement of West • Elastic Clause (“necessary and proper”) – gives Congress the power to pass laws it deems necessary to enforce the Constitution 71. stated that national government would protect individual rights 72. selling of securities and federal lands.
made Adams unpopular among the people 87. particularly of the Federalists 88. Augustine 81.XYZ Affair – French foreign minister (Talleyrand) demanded bribe in order to meet with American peace commission.Alien and Sedition Acts – meant to keep government unquestioned by critics. Republicans for stronger state governments 85.Impressment – British Navy would take American sailors and force them to work for Britain 82. established precedent of two-term presidency • Neutrality Proclamation of 1793 – response to French attempts for alliance with US 86.12th Amendment – required separate and distinct ballots for presidential and vice presidential candidates Citizen Genet – Edmond Genet contributed to polarization of the new nation by creating his American Foreign Legion in the south. called for unity of the country. which was directed to attack Spanish garrisons in New Orleans and St.put down revolt.Citizen Genet – Edmond Genet contributed to polarization of the new nation by creating his American Foreign Legion in the south.Washington’s Farewell Address – warned against permanent foreign alliances and political parties.Jay’s Treaty – provided for evacuation of English troops from posts in the Great Lakes 83.Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions – argued that states had the right to determine whether or not the laws passed by Congress were constitutiona 89. protests to be limited to non-violent 80.Nullification – states could refuse to enforce the federal laws they deemed unconstitutional 84. Federalists for stronger central government.Federalists and Republicans – the two political parties that formed following Washington’s presidency. which was directed to attack Spanish garrisons in New Orleans and St. Augustine .
g.Embargo Act (1807) – prohibited exports (and imports) based in American ports.John C. and Burr: Adams lost.Marbury v. tariff protection. Jefferson.Second Great Awakening – emphasis on personal salvation.Henry Clay and the American System – Henry Clay aimed to make the US economically independent from Europe (e. gave presidency to Tyler . elected president 1840. emotional response.Lewis and Clark expedition – Meriwether Lewis and William Clark sent by Jefferson to explore the Louisiana Territory on “Voyage of Discovery” 96. 2 – president has power to cease trade with any foreign country that violated American neutrality 98. and new national bank) 101.War hawks – Clay and Calhoun. most controversial Jefferson legislation 99.William Henry Harrison – military hero from War of 1812. Marshall among those appointed 94. avid Southern slave-owner (right to own property..Non-Intercourse Act – sought to encourage domestic American manufacturing 97. obtained fees from most European powers 93. died of pneumonia a month later. nationalism (Manifest Destiny) Jefferson’s Administration and Growth of Nationalism (1800-1820) 91.Midnight judges – judges appointed to Supreme Court by Adams in the last days of his presidency to force them upon Jefferson. and individual faith. support internal improvements. Calhoun – opposed Polk’s high-handedness. slaves as property) 102.Barbary Pirates – North African Muslim rulers solved budget problems through piracy and tributes in Mediterranean.Macon’s Bill No. Jefferson and Burr tied. Hamilton convinced other Federalists to vote for Jefferson to break the tie 92. women and blacks.90. eager for war with Britain (War of 1812) 100. Madison – John Marshall declared that the Supreme Court could declare federal laws unconstitutional 95.Election of 1800 – Adams.
Missouri Compromise (1820) – Maine as free state.Battle of Tippecanoe – decisive victory in the War of 1812 by Harrison over Tecumseh. opposed War of 1812.Hartford Convention – December 1814. called for one-term presidency. affected West the most) 106. grain.Tariff of Abominations – under JQ Adams. end of Federalist Party • Essex case – Federalist cause leading up to Hartford Convention 105. depression rose throughout the country. boundary of Mexico defined 110. Missouri Compromise.Panic of 1819 – Bank tightened loan policies.James Monroe – provided country with a break from partisan politics.Monroe Doctrine – Europeans should not interfere with affairs in Western Hemisphere. northern states threatened to secede if their views were left unconsidered next to those of southern and western states. issued Monroe Doctrine 107. national unity behind Monroe. supported nullification.Rush-Bagot Treaty (1817) – agreement between US and Britain to remove armed fleets from the Great Lakes 109. and tobacco).103. made Jackson appear to advocate free trade 114.Era of Good Feelings – Monroe presidency. protectionist tariff. tightened credit.Election of 1824 – “corrupt bargain” and backroom deal for JQ Adams to win over Jackson 113. used in Harrison’s campaign for presidency 104. hurt western farmers greatly 112.” removal .Jackson’s Presidency – focused on the “Common Man. Depression of 1819 (cheap British imports. post-war boom (foreign demand for cotton. Americans to stay out of foreign affairs.Adams-Onis Treaty – remainder of Florida sold by Spain to US. slavery prohibited north of 36°30’ Tallmadge Amendment – no further introduction of slaves into Missouri. all children born to slaves to become free at 25 108. Missouri as slave state. South considered it the source of economic problems. supported Washington’s goal for US neutrality in Americas Age of Jackson (1820-1850) 111.
toll road network. stimulated Western expansion 116.Spoils System – “rotation in office. those who held power too long would become corrupt and political appointments made by new officials was essential for democracy • Kitchen Cabinet – Jackson used personal friends as unofficial advisors over his official cabinet 118. from Cumberland MD to Wheeling WVa. rise of NYC • Erie Canal – goods able to be transferred from New York to New Orleans by inland waterways • National Road – part of transportation revolution. Georgia – first attempt of Cherokees to gain complete sovereign rule over their nation • Worcester v. canals (esp. removal of federal deposits in BUS.Lowell mill/system – young women employed by Lowell’s textile company. roadbuilding. and Seminoles. forced out of their homelands by expansion • “Trail of Tears” – Cherokee tribe forced to move from southern Appalachians to reservations in current-day Oklahoma. Erie). Chickasaws.Nullification Controversy – southern states (especially South Carolina) believed that they had the right to judge federal laws unconstitutional and therefore not enforce them • South Carolina Exposition and Protest – written by Calhoun.of Indians.Bank of the United States – destroyed by Jackson on the grounds that it was unconstitutional and too much power for a federal institution • Pet banks – small state banks set up by Jackson to keep federal funds out of the National Bank. used until funds were . high death toll • Cherokee Nation v. “civilized” due to their intermarriage with whites. housed in dormitories 119. less need for slaves 120.Indian Removal Act – Jackson was allowed to relocate Indian tribes in the Louisiana Territory • Five Civilized Tribes – Cherokees. Choctaws.Cotton Gin – allowed for faster processing of cotton. annexation of territory. Georgia – Georgia cannot enforce American laws on Indian tribes 117. invented by Eli Whitney.Transportation Revolution – river traffic.” Jackson felt that one should spend a single term in office and return to private citizenship. Creeks. regarding tariff nullification 121. liberal use of veto 115.
Woodward (charter cannot be altered without both parties’ consent) 127. Madison (judicial review).Maysville Road Veto – vetoed by Jackson on the count that government funds for the Maysville Road would only benefit one state 123. Gibbons v.Second Great Awakening – religious movements.William Lloyd Garrison – editor of The Liberator (strongly abolitionist newspaper calling for immediate abolition of slavery).” rise of Baptist and Methodist ministries. encouraged industrial development. “America’s Second Declaration of Independence” • Specie – paper money. prison/asylum reform with Dorothea Dix 129. Charles G. Peck (valid contract cannot be broken. Finney • Burned-Over District – heavily evangelized to the point there were no more people left to convert to other religions.Whig Party – believed in expanding federal power on economy. avid Southern slave owner 126. led by Henry Clay (anti-Jackson) 125.consolidated into a single treasury • Independent Treasury Bill – government would hold its revenues rather than deposit them in banks. thus keeping the funds away from private corporations. specie circular decreed that the government would not accept specie for government land 122. states cannot control government agencies). home to the beginning of Smith’s Mormonism movement 128.Liberty Party – supported abolition.Frederick Douglass – runaway slave. worked with Garrison and Wendell Phillips. Maryland (loose Constitutional interpretation. traveling “meetings. broke off of Anti-Slavery Society 124. well-known speaker on the condition of slavery. Fletcher v. could only gain power on the local level. abolitionist.John C. founder of The North Star . Ogden (interstate commerce controlled by Congress). constitutionality of National Bank. state law voided). upstate New York.fought for feminist movement (“Am I not a woman and a sister”picture of slave woman) 130. Calhoun – opposed Polk’s high-handedness. Dartmouth College v.Horace Mann – worked to reform the American education system. McChulloch v.Marshall Court (all cases) – Marbury v.
humanity.Hudson River School – American landscape painting rather than Classical subjects 135.Yeoman Farmers – family farmers who hired out slaves for the harvest season.Underground Railroad – network of safe houses of white abolitionists used to bring slaves to freedom Harriet Tubman – worked alongside Josiah Henson to make repeated trips to get slaves out of the South into freedom 139. and complex marriage • New Harmony – first Utopian society. New York. proved that man could provide for himself without materialistic wants Slavery and Sectionalism (1845-1860) 136. modeled requests after the Declaration of Independence • Elizabeth Cady Stanton – organized Seneca Falls Convention. worked alongside Mann 133. organized by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton.“Wage slaves” – northern factory workers who were discarded when too old to work (unlike the slaves who were still kept fed and . prompted non-slaveholding Virginians to consider emancipation 137. self-sufficient.131. by Robert Owen 134.Transcendentalism – founded by Emerson. lived in seclusion for two years writingWalden. perfectionism.Seneca Falls Convention of 1848 – for women’s rights.Nat Turner’s Rebellion – Nat Turner led a slave rebellion in Virginia. strong emphasis on spiritual unity (God. “Men and women are CREATED EQUAL!” 132. founded (with Anthony) National Women Suffrage Organization • Angelina and Sarah Grimké – fought for women’s rights and abolition. utopian society for communalism. attacked many whites. participated in local markets alongside slave owners 138. literature with strong references to nature • Ralph Waldo Emerson – in Brook Farm Community. literary nationalist. wrote “The American Scholar” • Henry David Thoreau(Wa l d e n and On Civil Disobedience)– in Brook Farm Community. and nature).Dorothea Dix – worked towards asylums for the mentally insane.John Humphrey Noyes/Oneida Community – John Noyes. transcendentalist (nascent ideas of God and freedom).
advocated by Polk 145. (4) federal assumption of Texas debt. Oregon Country). forced to settle for compromise south of 49° rather than 54°40’ 144.Compromise of 1850 – (1) California admitted as free state. lowered tariffs. created Independent Treasury 143. never fully passed Congress 146.Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo – acquired Mexican Cession (future California. and (6) new fugitive slave law. “Remember the Alamo” • Stephen Austin – American who settled in Texas.The Alamo – Mexicans held siege on the Alamo (in San Antonio). Uncle Tom’s Cabin– depicted the evils of . Arizona. especially against Irish Catholics 141.William Seward – Secretary of State under Lincoln and Johnson. acquired majority of the western US (Mexican Cession. one of the leaders for Texan independence from Mexico 142. purchase of Alaska “Seward’s Folly” 148. and New Mexico).James K. Texas Annexation. Polk – “dark horse” Democratic candidate. (2) territorial status and popular sovereignty of Utah and New Mexico. (3) resolution of Texas-New Mexico boundaries.Manifest Destiny – stated the United States was destined to span the breadth of the entire continent with as much land as possible.Harriet Beecher Stowe.clothed in their old age) 140.Nativism – anti-immigrant. advocated by Henry Clay and Stephen A.Oregon and “Fifty-four Forty or Fight!” – Oregon Territory owned jointly with Britain. (5) slave trade abolished in DC.California Gold Rush – gold discovery in Sutter’s Mill in 1848 resulted in huge mass of adventurers in 1849. Douglas • Fugitive Slave Act – runaway slaves could be caught in the North and be brought back to their masters (they were treated as property – running away was as good as stealing) 149. Texans lost great number of people. opened question of slavery in the West The Civil War (1850-1880) 147. Polk severed its tie to Britain. led to application for statehood. Mexico acknowledged American annexation of Texas Wilmot Proviso – slavery to be barred in all territory ceded from Mexico.
supported by Buchanan. North Carolina .Popular Sovereignty – the principle that a state should decide for itself whether or not to allow slavery 152. Nebraska free). Pottawatomie Massacre • Lecompton Constitution – proslavery constitution in Kansas. banned in the South. increased participation in abolitionist movement.slavery (splitting of families and physical abuse). Missouri Compromise unconstitutional. freesoilers against it (victorious). John C Fremont first presidential candidate 153.Harpers Ferry (1859) – Brown aimed to create an armed slave rebellion and establish black free state. Sandford – slaves could not sue in federal courts (blacks no longer considered citizens). Lincoln stated the country could not remain split over the issue of slavery • Freeport Doctrine – Douglas was able to reconcile the Dred Scott Decision with popular sovereignty.Dred Scott v. Brown executed and became martyr in the North 154.Fort Sumter – first shots are fired at Charleston. voters would be able to exclude slavery by not allowing laws that treated slaves as property 156.Know-Nothing (American) Party – opposed to all immigration. extreme abolitionist who believed he was doing God’s work • Pottawatomie Creek (May 1856) – John Brown and his sons slaughtered five men as a response to the election fraud in Lawrence and the caning of Sumner in Congress • Republican Party – formed in response to Kansas-Nebraska Act. slaves could not be taken from masters except by the law. proposed by Stephen A. strongly anti-Catholic 151. Douglas • “Bleeding Kansas” – border ruffians in election on issue of slavery incited controversy. Kansas. proslavery group attacked Lawrence. condemned by South 150. Congress not able to prohibit slavery in a state 155. denied statehood until after secession • John Brown – led Pottawatomie Massacre.Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858) – over Senate seat for Illinois (Douglas victor). popular sovereignty (Kansas slave.Kansas-Nebraska Act – territory split into Kansas and Nebraska.
control the Mississippi and Atlantic/Gulf of Mexico 159.Thomas J. Sherman – pushed through northern Georgia. stalemate. Shiloh. declared slaves in the Confederacy free (did not include border states).157. states to guarantee full suffrage for blacks. South doomed to never invade North again. Confederate Pickett’s Charge (disastrous). bloodiest day of the war.New York City draft riots (1863) – drafting extremely hated by Northerners. “rich man’s war but a poor man’s fight” 158.Military Reconstruction Act (1867) – South divided into 5 military districts. captured Atlanta.Battle of Antietam – Lee’s attack on Maryland in hopes that he could take it from the Union. many buildings burned 166. Lee – opposed to slavery and secession.Ulysses S.Anaconda plan – the Union planned a blockade that would not allow supplies of any sort into the Confederacy. 500 lives lost. McClellan replaced by Burnside. Fort Henry.20-Negro Law – exempted those who owned or oversaw twenty or more slaves from service in the Confederate Army. “march to the sea” (total war and destruction).Battle of Gettysburg – Lee invaded Pennsylvania. made Union commanding general 160. and Fort Donelson). sparked by Irish-Americans against the black population. ratify 14th amendment . despite offer for command of Union Army 162. proceeded to South Carolina 161. bloodiest battle of the war. symbolic gesture to support Union’s moral cause in the war 164. South would never be so close to victory again • Emancipation Proclamation – issued by Lincoln following Antietam (close enough to a victory to empower the proclamation). but stayed loyal to Virginia. “Stonewall” Jackson – Lee’s chief lieutenant and premier cavalry officer 163. Grant – won battles in the West and raised northern morale (esp. Lee forced to retreat (not pursued by Meade).Robert E. stalemate.William T. Gettysburg Address given by Lincoln (nation over union) 165.
American Federation of Labor – craft unions that left the Knights (1886). cornered world petroleum market 170. convict labor.Rockefeller). Powderly – Knights of Labor leader.United States vs. horizontal.Vertical and horizontal integration – beginnings of trusts (destruction of competition). end to child/convict labor. opposed monopolies. women left out of recruitment efforts • Samuel Gompers – focused on skilled workers (harder to replace than unskilled). excluded corrupt and welloff. vertical.Standard Oil Trust – small oil companies sold stock and authority to Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company (consolidation). eliminate middlemen . excluded blacks 175. coordinated crafts unions. Rockefeller – Standard Oil Company. equal female pay. supported 8- . EC Knight Company – decision under Sherman Anti-Trust Act shot down by Supreme Court – sugar refining was manufacturing rather than trade/commerce 174. opposed strikes. producer-consumer cooperation. ineffective due to lack of enforcement mechanism (waited for Clayton Anti-Trust Act) 173. banking reform. better conditions) • Terence V. used partnership of steel tycoons (Henry Clay Frick as a manager/partner). North wins Hayes as president Business and Labor: The Gilded Age (1865-1900) & Progressivism and Populism (1900-1920) 168. welcomed blacks and women (allowing segregation) 176.John D.Andrew Carnegie – achieved an abnormal rise in class system (steel industry). “bread and butter” unionism (higher wages.Sherman Anti-Trust Act – forbade restraint of trade and did not distinguish good from bad trusts.Compromise of 1877 – South to gain removal of last troops from Reconstruction. pioneered vertical integration (controlled Mesabie Range to ship ore to Pittsburgh). women. employer-employee relations.167.controlling every aspect of production (control quality. led by Gompers.National Labor Union – founded by William Sylvis(1866). immigration restrictions to increase wages.Knights of Labor – founded by Uriah Stephens (1869). shorter hours. temperance. supported 8-hour workday. proportional income tax. ruthless business tactics (survival of the fittest) 171. Bessemer steel process 169. federal department of labor.consolidating with competitors to monopolize a market (highly detrimental) 172.
Das Kapital – working class exploited for profit. Looking Backwards – state-run economy to provide conflict-free society 185. led by preachers Walter Raushenbusch and Washington Gladen.Social Darwinism – natural selection applied to human competition. advocated by Herbert Spencer. often used to end strikes 179. Supreme Court (decision in re Debs) legalized use of injunction (court order) against unions and strikes 182. moving pictures 187. mimeograph. first legislation to regulate corporations. “Yellow dog contracts” – fearing the rise of labor unions. phonograph . short/long haul). especially in Chicago 188.Henry George.Thomas Edison – electric light . arrested. Dictaphone.Haymarket Bombing – bomb thrown at protest rally.Pinkertons – detectives hired by employers as private police force.hour workday and injury liability 177. corporations forced new employees to sign and promise not to be part of a union 178.Eugene V.Social Gospel movement – stressed role of church and religion to improve city life. William Graham Sumner 183. influenced settlement house movement and Salvation Army .Interstate Commerce Act – created Interstate Commerce Commission to require railroads to publish rates (less discrimination.Edward Bellamy. proletariat (workers) to revolt and inherit all society 186. police shot protestors. Progress and Poverty – single tax on speculated land to ameliorate industrialization misery 184.Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) – 10-year moratorium on Chinese immigration to reduce competition for jobs (Chinese willing to work for cheap salaries) 180. ineffective ICC 189.Louis Sullivan – led architectural movement to create building designs that reflected buildings’ functions. caused great animosity in employers for workers’ unions 181.Karl Marx. Debs – led railroad workers in Pullman Strike.
“supported” immigrants and poor people of the city.Young Men’s and Young Women’s Christian Association (YMCA & YWCA) – provided housing and recreation to city youth. imposing Protestant morals. uniformed volunteers provided food.New immigrants vs.William Marcy Tweed – leader of Tammany Hall. and employment to families.Regionalist and naturalist writers – writing took a more realistic approach on the world. publisher refused works breaking with Victorian ideals 200. The Financier – attacked industrial elite. prosecuted by Samuel Tilden and sent to jail 198.Cult of domesticity – Victorian standards confined women to the home to create an artistic environment as a statement of cultural aspirations 197.Declining death rate – sewer systems and purification of water 195. Sister Carrie. called for business regulation. naturalist writers focused on economy and psychology (Stephen Crane) 201.Bland-Allison Act (1878) – government compromised to buy and coin $2-4 million/month.Hull House – Jane Addams’s pioneer settlement house (center for women’s activism and social reform) in Chicago 193.Theodore Dreiser. attracted poor with lively preaching and marching bands in order to instill middle-class virtues 194.Jane Addams – helped lead settlement house movement. unable to reach out to all youth 191. regionalist writers focused on local life (Sarah Orne Jewett). cofounded NAACP.Tammany Hall – Democratic political machine in NYC.Salvation Army – established by “General” William Booth. old immigrants – old immigrants from northern and western Europe came seeking better life. government stuck to minimum and . shelter. condemned war and poverty 192. who were needed for Democratic election victories 199. gained large sums of money through the political machine.190. new immigrants came from southern and eastern Europe searching for opportunity to escape worse living conditions back home and often did not stay in the US 196.
under Pres.Convict-lease system – blacks who went to prison taken out and used for labor in slave-like conditions.Farmers’ Alliance movement – Southern and Midwestern farmers expressing discontent. denounced Eastern Establishment that suppressed the working classes. supported free silver and subtreasury plan (cash advance on future crop – farmers had little cash flow during the year).inflation did not occur (lower prices).Coxey’s Army – Coxey and unemployed followers marched on Washington for support in unemployment relief by inflationary . Ferguson – Supreme Court legalized the “separate but equal” philosophy 209.Civil Rights Cases – Civil Rights Act of 1875 declared unconstitutional by Supreme Court. benefits for workers and farmers. as the fourteenth amendment protected people from governmental infringement of rights and had no effect on acts of private citizens 208. Mary E Lease. predominantly in South 211. against railroads 210.James G. criticized national banks • Greenback Party – supported expanded money supply. Jerry Simpson 206. Garfield 205. Blaine – Republican candidate for president in 1884.Jim Crow laws – educational and residential segregation. Ignatius Donnelly (utopian author). Illinois – private property subject to government regulation when property is devoted to public interest. highly disgusted the mugwumps (many Republicans turned to Democrat Cleveland) 204. inferior facilities allotted to African-Americans. granger(farmer)-supported • Populist Party – emerged from Farmers’ Alliance movement (when subtreasury plan was defeated in Congress). health/safety regulations.Munn v. economy grew 202.Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890) – government to buy silver to back money in addition to gold 203.Pendleton Civil Service Act – effectively ended spoils system and established civil service exams for all government positions.Plessy v. enforced southern racial hierarchy 207. quintessence of spoils system.
– law meant to evolve as society evolves.Industrial Workers of the World – supported Socialists.John Dewey – social ideals to be encouraged in public school (stress on social interaction). workers and engineers as better leaders of society 219. proponent of silver-backing (16:1 platform). founded New Republicmagazine 220. decrease of gold reserves led to Cleveland’s repeal of Sherman Silver Purchase Act 213. Alexander Hamilton). cross of gold speech against gold standard. Washington – proponent of gradual gain of equal rights .public works program 212. opposed conservative majority 222. overbuilding of railroads. ideas too radical for socialist cause • “Big Bill” Haywood – leader of IWW. Principles of Scientific Management– increase working output by standardizing procedures and rewarding those who worked fast. The Promise of American Life – activist government to serve all citizens (cf.000 businesses collapsed (including railroads). all died. efficiency 217. Jr. contributed to Roosevelt’s natural conservation efforts 216.Oliver Wendell Holmes.Booker T.Gifford Pinchot – head of federal Division of Forestry. due to stock market crash. Taylor.Triangle Shirtwaist fire – workers unable to escape (locked into factory). economic disruption by labor efforts. heavy farmer loans. The Theory of the Leisure Class – satirized wealthy captains of industry. further encouraged reform movements for working conditions 215.Herbert Croly. Democratic candidate (1896) • Free silver – Populists campaigned for silver-backed money rather than gold-backed. believed to be able to relieve working conditions and exploitation of labor 214. advocated strikes and sabotaging politics. aimed for an umbrella union similar to Knights of Labor. agricultural depression.Thorstein Veblen. from Western Federation of Miners 218.William Jennings Bryan – repeat candidate for president.Panic of 1893 – 8. militant unionists and socialists.Frederick W. learning by doing 221.
heavily criticized by Theodore Roosevelt.Robert La Follette – created the Wisconsin Idea (as governor of Wisconsin) – regulated railroad. refused bribes to stop criticism 226. formed Niagara Movement to support his ideas 224. reference library for lawmakers . Souls of Black Folk – opposed BTW’s accommodation policies. adopted goals of Niagara Movement. David Graham Phillips (Senate). increased corporate taxes.National Association for the Advancement of Colored People– formed by white progressives.Muckrakers – uncovered the “dirt” on corruption and harsh quality of city/working life. Ida Tarabell (oil companies). mass magazinesMc C l u re’s and Collier’s • Upton Sinclair.for African-Americans • “Atlanta Compromise” speech – given by BTW to ease whites’ fears of integration. Aschen School (child labor – photography). assuring them that separate but equal was acceptable. in response to Springfield Race Riots 225. ideas challenged by DuBois 223.WEB DuBois. called for immediate equality. The Jungle – revealed unsanitary nature of meat-packing industry. inspired Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act (1906) • Thomas Nast – political muckraking cartoonist. direct-primary system.