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Published by: TAMIL on Aug 21, 2008
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POLLUTION Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment, these contaminants cause disorders, harm to living organisms.

Pollution can take the form of chemical substances, or energy, such as noise, heat, or light energy. Pollutants,- the elements which cause pollution, can be foreign substances or energies. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution. AIR POLLUTION: Air pollution is the human introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the environment.[1] Air pollution causes deaths[2] and respiratory disease

Air pollutants produced by human activity include:
• • Sulfur oxides (SOx) especially sulfur dioxide are emitted from burning of coal and oil. Νιτρογεν οξιδεσ (NOx) especially nitrogen dioxide are emitted from high temperature combustion. Can be seen as the brown haze dome above or plume downwind of cities. Χαρβον µονοξιδε is colourless, odourless, non-irritating but very poisonous gas. Χαρβον διοξιδε (CO2), a greenhouse gas emitted from combustion. Toxic metals, such as lead, cadmium and copper. Χηλοροφλυοροχαρβονσ (CFCs), harmful to the ozone layer emitted from products currently banned from use. Αµµονια (NH3) emitted from agricultural processes. Οδορσ, such as from garbage, sewage, and industrial processes

• • • • • •

Health effects due to air pollution:
Direct causes of air pollution related deaths include aggravated asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, lung and heart diseases, and respiratory allergies..The health effects caused by air pollutants may be difficulty in breathing, wheezing, coughing and aggravation of existing respiratory and cardiac problems. WATER POLLUTION: Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and

groundwater caused by human activities, which can be harmful to organisms and plants which live in these water bodies. Water Contaminants: Contaminants may include organic and inorganic substances. Some organic water pollutants are: • • • • • • • Insecticides and herbicides, a huge range of organohalides and other chemicals Βαχτερια, often is from sewage or livestock operations Φοοδ προχεσσινγ waste, including pathogens Τρεε and brush debris from logging operations Petroleum Hydrocarbons including fuels (gasoline, diesel, jet fuels, and fuel oils) . ∆ετεργεντσ Various chemical compounds found in personal hygiene and cosmetic products .

Some inorganic water pollutants include: • • • Spill of oil over the seas is the biggest danger. Χηεµιχαλ ωαστε as industrial by products Φερτιλιζερσ, in from agriculture including nitrates and phosphates

EFFECTS OF WATER POLLUTION: Waterborne diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms which are directly transmitted when contaminated drinking water is consumed. Contaminated drinking water, used in the preparation of food, can be the source of foodborne disease through consumption of the same microorganisms. BACTERIAL INFECTIONS DUE TO WATER POLLUTION: • • Diarrheal disease due to E. coli. ∆ψσεντερψ - Shigella/Salmonella bacteria - gastro-intestinal food/water Cholera - Vibrio cholerae bacteria - gastro-intestinal often waterborne Typhoid - Salmonella typhi bacteria - gastro-intestinal water/food borne. Salmonellosis - due to many Salmonella species.

SOIL POLLUTION: Soil pollution is caused by the presence of man-made chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment.

This type of contamination typically arises from the rupture of underground storage tanks, application of pesticides, leaching of wastes from landfills or direct discharge of industrial wastes to the soil. The most common chemicals involved are petroleum hydrocarbons, solvents, pesticides, lead and other heavy metals.

Health effects due to soil pollution:
The major concern is that there are many sensitive land uses where people are in direct contact with soils such as residences, parks, schools and playgrounds. Lead is especially hazardous to young children, in which group there is a high risk of developmental damage to the brain,while to all populations kidney damage is a risk.

NOISE POLLUTION: Noise pollution (or environmental noise) is displeasing human or machine created sound that disturbs the activity of human or animal life. A common form of noise pollution is from transportation, principally motor vehicles. The word "noise" comes from the Latin word nausea meaning "seasickness", referring originally to nuisance noise.

Sources of noise:
The source of most noise worldwide is transportation systems, motor vehicle noise, but also including aircraft noise and train noise. Poor urban planning may give rise to noise pollution, since side-by-side industrial and residential buildings can result in noise pollution in the residential area.

Human health effects due to noise pollution:
Noise health effects . Elevated workplace or other noise can cause hearing impairment, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, sleep disturbance, and decreased school performance. Changes in the immune system and birth defects.

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