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1) [10 marks] RS-232 is physical layer standard. Describe RC-232 in terms of mechanical, electrical, functional, and procedural characteristics. RS-232 (EIA-232) defines the mechanical, electrical, functional characteristics of the interface between a DTE (e.g. computer) and DCE (e.g. MODEM). Mechanical specification: (1) a 25-wire cable with a male and female DB-25 pin connector attached to either end. (2) the pins and tubes are arranged in two rows, with 13 on the top and 12 on the bottom. (3) 9-pin connector also available. (3) maximum length of cable is 15 meters. Electrical specification: (1) NRX-L encoding, with 1 defined as a negative voltage and 0 defined as a positive voltage. (2) the amplitude of a signal must fall between 3 and 15 volts or between -3 and -15 volts. (3) maximum bit rate is 20 Kbps. Functional specification: functions of pins are defined as follows:
Procedural specification: Take full-duplex transmission as an example (Fig. 6.12). (1) after MODEM is connected to computer and is turned on, it is necessary to make sure all for devices are ready for transmission. The sending DTE activates pin 20 and sends a DTE ready message to its DCE. The DCE answers back by activating pin 6 and returning a DCE ready message.
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It is also possible to break one N-level PDU into multiple (N-1)-level PDUs (segmentation) or to group multiple N-level PDUs into one (N-1)-level PDU (blocking). 2) [10 marks] In the following figure. the received line signal detector. When the receiving modem detects the carrier signal.doc Page 2 of 5 . (3) then data transmission through pin 2 and pin 3. (4) close the connection after finishing transmission. the sending DCE activates pin 5. it activates pin 8. exactly one protocol data unit (PDU) in layer N is encapsulated in a PDU at layer (N-1). sending its DTE a clear-to-send message. The sending DTE activates pin 4 and sends its DCE a request-to-send message. After transmitting the carrier signal. The remote computer and modem perform the same step. (2) the next step is to set up the physical connection between the sending and receiving modems.The same sequence is performed by the remote computer and modem. The DCE transmits a carrier signal to the idle receiving modem. telling its computer that a transmission is about to begin. E:\data\zhao\2011w\seg3155\solutions_assignment1_seg3155_2011w.
Three 2nd-layer packets are needed. each of which contains 24 bits of packet header and up to 776 bits of higher-layer headers and/or data. for the same reason given in (a). A satellite is at geosynchronous orbit. No. This data is delivered in a sequence of packets (2nd layer). Each N-level PDU must retain its own header.863 km. This is then transmitted through two networks.doc Page 3 of 5 . 3) [10 marks] A TCP segment consisting of 1500 bits of data and 160 bits of header is sent to the IP layer. b). which appends another 160 bits of header. So marking will consider this. Total bits delivered between the 2nd layer peers = 1820 + 3 × 24 = 1892 bits. this question (from book) is not so clear. However. It breaks that PDU into fragments and reassembles them in the proper order. each of which uses a 24-bits packet header. This is an encapsulation and de-capsulation problem. 4) [10 marks] A telephone line normally has bandwidth of 3000 Hz (300 Hz to 3300 Hz). The destination network has a maximum packet size of 800 bits.a) In the case of segmentation. or can the data be consolidated into a single N-level PDU with a single N-level header? a). How many bits. are delivered to the network layer protocol at the destination? Data plus transport header plus internet header equals 1820 bits. The (N – 1) entity does not know about the internal format of the N-level PDU. The signal-tonoise ratio is usually 3162 (35 dB). the N-level PDU is simply data. 5) [10 marks] Given that the speed of light is 3×108 m/s. However. Calculate the theoretical highest bit rate (capacity) of this regular telephone line. This would violate the principle of separation of layers. To layer (N – 1). is it necessary that each N-level PDU retain its own header. including headers. the total number of bits delivered to the network layer from the 2nd layer is 1820 bit. is it necessary that each (N-1)-level segment contain a copy of the N-level header? b) In the case of blocking. How long would it take for a signal to go from the earth station to the satellite (minimum time)? Assume that the height of the satellite is 35. E:\data\zhao\2011w\seg3155\solutions_assignment1_seg3155_2011w.
a.5 × 106 log2 (1 + 103. Find the source data rate R (bps).5 × 106 × 11. where each pixel can take one of 32 intensity values.2 × 106 pixels/s × 5 bits/pixel = 36 Mbps b.5 MHz bandwidth and 35 dB signal-to-noise ratio. b) Assume that the TV picture is to be transmitted over a channel with 4.(35863*1000)/(3*10^8)=0. 8) [20 marks] A microwave transmitter has an output of 0.86) = 25. and SNRdB = 35 = 10 log10 (SNR).86 = = 2 = c2 c2 c (3 × 108 ) 2 GdB = 10 log10 (351.186 W c) use the equation on page 130 pt (4πd ) 2 = pr Gr Gt λ2 E:\data\zhao\2011w\seg3155\solutions_assignment1_seg3155_2011w. Find the capacity of the channel (bps).63) = 52.doc Page 4 of 5 .2 m in diameters.335 × 106 bps 7) [10 marks] Determine the height of an antenna for a TV station that must be able to reach customer up to 80 km away.56 A 7 Af 2 7 × π × (0. (30 pictures/s)(480 × 500 pixels/picture) = 7.2 × 106 pixels/s Each pixel can take on one of 32 values and can therefore be represented by 5 bits: R = 7.5) = 4.12 second 6) [20 marks] a) Suppose that a digitized TV picture is to be transmitted from a source that uses a matrix of 480x500 picture elements (pixels).5 × 106 × log2 (3163) C = (4.46dB b) 0. Assume that 30 pictures are sent per second. We use the formula: C = B log2 (1 + SNR) B = 4.6) 2 × (2 × 109 ) 2 = 351. Assume that this transmitter is used in a microwave communication system where the transmitting and receiving antennas are parabolas.5. hence SNR = 1035/10 = 103. and therefore C = 4.1 W at 2 GHz. each 1. a) What is the gain of each antenna in decibels? b) Taking into account antenna again. find the available signal power out of the receiving antenna in dBm units.5 × 106 MHz = bandwidth.86=35. what is the effective radiated power of the transmitted signal? c) If the receiving antenna is located 24 km from the transmitting antenna over free space path. a) G = 4πf 2 Ae 4πf 2 × 0.1*351.
92 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 6 = 20 log10 (2.15=-55.92 = 126.92 = 20 × 6.46 − 25.3033 − 50.15 The transmitted power in dBm is (page 101) PowerdB = 10 log10 PowermW = 10 log10 (100) = 20 1mW The received signal power is 20-75.92 = 75.LdB = 10 log10 ( ⎛ (4πd ) 2 ⎞ ⎛ 4πd pt ) = 10 log10 ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ G G λ2 ⎟ = 20 log10 ⎜ λ ⎟ pr ⎝ ⎝ r t ⎠ ⎞ ⎟ − 10 log10 (Gr ) − 10 log10 (Gt ) ⎟ ⎠ ⎛ 4π × 24000 ⎞ ⎟ − 25. E:\data\zhao\2011w\seg3155\solutions_assignment1_seg3155_2011w.07 − 50.9 ⎞ = 20 log10 ⎜ ⎜ 3 × 108 /( 2 × 109 ) ⎟ − 50.0106 × 10 ) − 50.15 dBm.doc Page 5 of 5 .46 = 20 log10 ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ c/ f ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 301592.