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7342699-EMC-Introduction

7342699-EMC-Introduction

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Published by: Борис Спасов on Feb 22, 2011
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04/22/2011

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EMC

WARRINGTON - Monday 17 May - Alain CHAROY
AEMC
POWER CONVERTERS FOR PARTICLE ACCELERATORS - a.charoy@aemc.fr

Introduction Differential Mode Immunity Differential Mode Emissions Common Mode Emissions Electromagnetic Radiations

EMC terms and lab assessment conditions
Electromagnetic emission
Standardized test

Electromagnetic susceptibility
Standardized test

Given EM disturbance Defined Measuring equipment Standardized Measuring conditions

The best situation is to undertake EMC tests & to solve EMC problems before they appear in situ

Given EM disturbance Defined Disturbance source Standardized Measuring conditions

Emission-test level

Immunity-test level

Emission-test limit

Immunity-test limit

Single emitter
Deterministic situation

Single victim
Deterministic situation

EMC best controlling conditions
Electromagnetic emission
Standardized test

Electromagnetic susceptibility
Standardized test

In situ test

Given EM disturbance Defined Measuring equipment Standardized Measuring conditions

Given EM disturbance Defined Measuring equipment Defined Measuring conditions

Given EM disturbance

Given EM disturbance Defined Disturbance source Standardized Measuring conditions

An EMC Validation is desirable to plan in situ after system installation before problems appear

Defined Disturbance source Defined Measuring conditions

Emission-test level

Emission level

Immunity level

Immunity-test level

Emission-test limit

Emission limit

Immunity limit

Immunity-test limit

Single emitter
Deterministic situation

Single victim
Deterministic situation

EMC troubleshooting Electromagnetic emission Standardized test Electromagnetic susceptibility Standardized test In situ test Given EM disturbance Defined Measuring equipment Standardized Measuring conditions Given EM disturbance Defined Measuring equipment Defined Measuring conditions Given EM disturbance Defined Measuring equipment Adapted Measuring conditions Given EM disturbance Non-defined Disturbance sources Adapted Measuring conditions Given EM disturbance Defined Disturbance source Defined Measuring conditions Given EM disturbance Defined Disturbance source Standardized Measuring conditions Emission-test level Emission level Disturbance level Interference level Immunity level Immunity-test level Emission-test limit Emission limit Disturbance limit Interference limit Immunity limit Immunity-test limit Single emitter Deterministic situation Probability situation Superposition of disturbance Single victim Deterministic situation .

Common Mode & Differential Mode ICM 2 2 ICM Common Mode Path Equipment VCM Ground (chassis) IDM IDM VDM Equipment Differential Mode Path .

The 5 kinds of disturbances generated by a converter 5 INPUT 3 VDM ZC1 ZC2 VDM 4 OUTPUT Z Safety wire Chassis ground 1 1 2 3 4 5 Input-to-Chassis Common Mode Input-to-Output Common Mode Input Differential Mode Output Differential Mode Electromagnetic radiations (E & H) 2 .

IDM .How to measure CM & DM currents ? ICM 2 ICM 2 Current probe (Clamp) CM current measurement ICM IDM IDM DM current measurement 2.

Typical input current of a 5 kVA filtered converter RTCA DO160D Power lines category B DIFFERENTIAL MODE COMMON MODE Frequency .

How to measure a disturbing voltage ? 50 µH 250 µH EUT To Spectrum Analyzer or 50 load 220 nF 8 µF 1 µF 1k 5 Line Bleeder 100 k Ground CISPR 50 100 50 // (50 µH + 5 ) LISN LISN 50 µH LISN impedance LISN 5 µH 10 6 10 kHz 100 kHz 1 MHz 10 MHz 30 MHz .

so: Reduce parasitic capacitors Limit high V/ t trace lengths Choose low r materials (air !) Use lower V circuits in series Increasing severity V diode critical 1 kV P = 0 10 W P = 1 kW 100 V P P = 1 W = 10 W 10 V 10 0 10 1 = = Z = Z Z Z = 0. 1 1V 10 mA 100 mA 1A 10 A 100 A 1000 A Circuits in parallel Low impedance zone I H field dominates. so: Reduce ESR and ESL Limit high I/ t loop areas Choose “sandwich” geometries Use lower I circuits in parallel Any switching circuit should be positioned in this plane… .A concealed key point: the switching dynamic impedance V 100 kV k M k 10 0 10 1 k 10 kV P = 10 kW Circuits in series 1 W M Increasing severity High impedance zone 1 = = = Z Z Z Z P = 0 10 kW = P = E field dominates.

Introduction Differential Mode Immunity Differential Mode Emissions Common Mode Emissions Electromagnetic Radiations .

The voltage tolerance boundary New Voltage-Tolerance Boundary New parameters (bullets) Old Voltage-Tolerance Boundary Duration of Disturbance in Cycles (c) and Seconds (s) Voltage-Tolerance Envelope 106 90 200 s 1 ms 3 ms 20 ms 0.5 s 10 s Steady State .

4 0.C L R Quality Factor : Q = L.t 4 5 6 7 .Transient Turn-on Overvoltage Self-pulsation : 0 1 = L.7 Q = 0.8 0.6 0.8 ( Vin = 1 ) 1.6 1.5 0. R 0 Vout C Vin Time response 1.2 1 0.4 1.2 0 0 1 2 3 2 Q = 10 Q=5 Q=2 Q=1 Q = 0.

Where to install a DM Voltage Transient Suppressor ? Overvoltage : kV Peak résidual voltage : kV Power line EMC Filter CONVERTER Without TVS : serious risk of destruction Peak résidual voltage Clipped overvoltage 500 V 800 V !… MOV (Ageing) EMC Filter CONVERTER Varistor on line input : a risk remains Overvoltage : kV Peak résidual voltage 500 V Power line EMC Filter CONVERTER & Filter inductance prevents TVS premature triggering OK Varistor at converter input : best results .

Where to add protection components ? Overvoltage protection Diode No impedance on the DC side to limit reverse overvoltage on rectifier bridge NTC L AC Line C Output « PFC Boost » No voltage output voltage doubling A Diode avoids doubling limitation no inrush current limitation ABut No inrush current limitationcurrent NTC thermistor limits inrush yet .

Reduce cable inductance (several pairs in //) .Add a large capacitor at DC / DC input .Destruction of DC / DC converter .No Start Up .Output voltage instability .1 Hz 1 Hz 10 Hz 100 Hz 1 kHz 10 kHz Risks : Solutions : .The problem of the negative impedance of a DC/DC converter Zout Output EMC filter Z cable R + jL Input EMC filter Z1 SOURCE Z2 Zin DC / DC Negative impedance positive Impedance Zin 65 0 Phase -180° 0.Reduce the converter regulation bandwidth .

Introduction Differential Mode Immunity Differential Mode Emissions Common Mode Emissions Electromagnetic Radiations .

For a high power network. For an electric network. Ineutral can exceed Iphase. . Odd harmonics of converters can be severe ( > 50 % @ H3 . Usually. the problem of harmonics is not the voltage distortion but the mastering of cabling protection scheme (cables & circuits breakers). even harmonics are low (because + and – half-waves look the same). the 3rd harmonics (150 Hz) is an “homopolar” current.Some problems of converters harmonics Harmonics are generated by non sinusoidal currents. Most of inverters and AC / DC converters without PFC exceed normalized levels. Anti-harmonic or active filters are useful for a low power source (electric generator). > 30 % @ H5 ). harmonics are a low frequency problem ( < 2 kHz and in Differential Mode only). For most single – phase converters without PFC on a 3 phase network. So.

so it does not disturb the load.Generally. V1 = f ( F ) ) V1 is not applied to the secondary.Differential Mode interferences IDM Power Line 1 V1 IDM Z1 I1 I2 2 Z2 V2 Z Load V1 2 V1 2 1 V1 Z1 . I2 ( If Z Load >> Z2 .Generally. 2 V2 Z2 . I1 ( If Z LISN >> Z1 . V2 = f ( t ) ) V2 may be disturbing ( typically if peak-to-peak V2 1 V ) .

35 r Switched current simplified spectrum 1 F2 I VDM F0 Fc 0. ESR VDM dBµV Rectifier bridge wideband noise (diode recovery for AC/DC converter) 1 F KHz Fd 0.ESL ESL.5 to 5 MHz log (F) Convolution Result Z dB 1 C Electrolytic capacitor impedance ESR Fd = 2 .Differential Mode Emission Spectrum Without Filtering Converter DM Equivalent Scheme Switching frequency = F0 Transition time = r I dBµA Z capacitor C ESR ESL LISN 100 1 F Fc = 0.5 to 5 MHz log (F) F0 Fc Fd log (F) .

1 2 1 L.Cx 0.3 0.2 .5 0.Insertion Loss of a Differential Mode EMC Filter L = L1 + L2 L1 Switched current I C ESR There wire EMC Filter Cx L2 Back wire LISN 100 V: V without filter V11 : Without filter With EMC filter V2:DM Impedance DM equivalent scheme of aaconverter with an EMCfilter DM equivalent scheme of converter without any filter +20 dB +10 0 -10 -20 V2 V1 Resonance before cut-off F0 = -30 -40 0.7 1 2 3 5 7 10 F F0 0.

Limit H field-to-loop coupling to avoid parasitic voltage pick-up.Choose (L1+L2) x Cx value so that Fresonance < lowest frequency to filter 3 . .Verify that no inductance saturates at max current (Max P & Min V) 4 .Add C’ as needed to reduce wideband recovery noise of rectifier bridge 7 .Safety margin necessary to compensate electrolytic caps ESR dispersion 6 .Limit H field coupling to leakage inductance (in air) of L1 & L2 5 .Traps of a Differential Mode EMI filter 4 3 L C’ H LISN 7 L1 Cx L2 Electrolytic capacitors Converter 1 2 6 5 1 .Choose the proper structure (to mismatch the impedances) 2 .

Take care of Differential Mode cabling… Those cabling inductances reduce filtering effectiveness NO ! .

Take care of Differential Mode cabling… NO ! Those areas radiate if they BETTER carry high I / t .

Take care of Differential Mode cabling… NO ! BETTER BEST ! .

but insufficient V V To move away Minimal length Correct Routings .How to reduce cabling parasitic impedances… ZG ZL ZG ZL V Serial Impedances V Parallel Capacitance Improper Routings Z < 10 Z>1K To reduce the cabling areas is necessary.

How to measure Output Ripple… C = 1 µF to measure HF ripple only C = 100 µF to measure 100 Hz ripple Input Converter R Nominal Current Output terminal Very short connection (Max length = 2 cm) Oscilloscope 50 Coaxial Cable 50 input .

DM conversion 0 t –60 mV HF « NOISE » ( @ > 3 MHz ) « RIPPLE » ( @ Switching F ) « RIPPLE + NOISE » 10 mV : Excellent — 100 mV : Average — 1 V : Excessive .to .How to analyse Output Ripple C = 1 µF to measure HF ripple only C = 100 µF to measure 100 Hz ripple Input Converter Output terminal R Nominal Current Very short connexion (Max length = 2 cm) Oscilloscope 50 Coaxial Cable 50 input Voltage 60 mV Usually CM .

Introduction Differential Mode Immunity Differential Mode Emissions Common Mode Emissions Electromagnetic Radiations .

so it is little disturbing. V / t (but possibly modified by ZCM) I2 can circulate through the load. Measured total CM current : ICM = I1 + I2 . V / t I1 doesn’t circulate through the load. so it may be very disturbing. 2 I2 C2 .Common Mode interferences ICM 2 C2 ZDM Load Power Line ICM 2 V C1 ZCM Safety wire ICM 1 I1 2 I2 1 I1 = C1 .

Common Mode Emission Spectrum Without Filtering Converter CM Equivalent Scheme Switching Frequency = F0 Transition Time = r V dBµV L cable inductance 1 F Fc = 0.35 r V C V 1 µH 30 pF to 3 nF LISN 25 Switched Voltage Simplified Spectrum 1 F2 VCM F0 Fc C : Parasitic cap between “hot conductors” & ground 1 to 10 MHz log (F) Convolution Result 1 Z dB Loop admittance -1 F Fr = 1 2 LC log (F) Fr 3 to 30 MHz F0 Fc Fr log (F) Resonance VCM dBµV 1 F flat Resonance 1 F 1 F3 .

5 0.CMC 0.3 0.1 2 1 M.Insertion Loss of an EMC Common Mode Filter CCM = Cp + C'p + 2 x Cy M 2 wires EMC Filter LISN 25 Switched Voltage “Hot Cap” V Cp C'p 2 x Cy Ground V1: : Without filter V1 V without With the filter V2:CM impedance CM equivalent scheme ofof an isolated converter with a a filter CM equivalent scheme an isolated converter without filter +20 dB +10 0 -10 -20 V2 V1 Resonance before cut-off F0 = -30 -40 0.7 1 2 3 5 7 10 F F0 0.2 .

The 3 cases of Primary-to-Secondary Common Mode Metallic chassis Grounded output Filter Converter Electronics 1 No disturbance outside of the chassis No CM noise in electronic circuits EMC filter easy to optimize IMC Not filtered output Filter Converter Electronics 2 No disturbance outside of the chassis CM Noise through electronic circuits EMC filter more difficult to optimize IMC C 3 Filter Converter EM radiations outside of the chassis Input filter impossible to optimize IMC IMC Not Filtered output The output cable must be shielded or filtered Load .

that’s the question… CM inductance can saturate Primary circuits Connexion to ground I+ I– Ig M Ground Ig I+ I– I+ Primary circuits M C 100 nF I– I+ = I– A (nearly) universal solution .To float or not to float the output.

M. current ? Nominal V Converter Nominal I R Time measurement 50 mV/mA sensitivity 100 MHz bandwidth 1 mA peak-peak = Excellent 10 mA peak-peak = Average Oscilloscope Coaxial cable 50 100 mA peak-peak = Excessive Nominal V Converter Nominal I R Frequency measurement 9 or 10 kHz RBW.to .How to measure Primary .Secondary C.1 to 50 MHz (100 MHz) 10 dBµA = Excellent 30 dBµA = Average 50 dBµA = Excessive Short wire Current clamp Spectrum Analyser . Peak detection Span : 0.

N turns N turns To analyzer Differential Mode Output 50 Line 2 Common Mode Output Ferrite tore with µr 5000 & AL > 2000 nH/turn2 e. N = 7 50 . Diam.This simple “ CM / DM SEPARATOR ” reduces by 10 + the time and difficulty to optimize a single-phase EMC filter From LISN Line 1 2. Philips 3E25 (orange). = 14 mm.g.

Practical realisation of a “ CM / DM SEPARATOR ” Line 1 input AND Line 2 input DM output OR CM output .

CM / DM separator adaptation on a commercial LISN Added BNC on the non-measured output (internal 50 suppressed) 2 coaxial cables with same length .

Introduction Differential Mode Immunity Differential Mode Emissions Common Mode Emissions Electromagnetic Radiations .

Sources of Electromagnetic Radiations 1 H I1 E I2 IMC 2 1 Sources of H field : Leakage fields of windings Secondary loop areas Primary loop area 2 Sources of E field : High V/ t conductive parts (Heat sink. ferrite core…) HF insufficiently filtered cables (e. output cable) .g.

HF solutions must be installed close to the sources Noisy converter Ni .Zn Ferrite tube Load Noisy converter Output 2 x 1 nF Chassis metal sheet High µr bead “BLM” Ferrite bead Clock C R 22 C 47 pF R 10 to 100 MOS R HF Diode Even small converters (few W) can be very noisy (I/O CM & radiation) .

cable Apparatus #2 GROUND LOOP Z nearest ground conductor / structure I Ground loop cannot be avoided ! 1 Common impedance coupling Earth impedance does not matter 2 Field .to .Loop coupling .Ground Loop : Definition & Effects Apparatus #1 Interconnect.

Star Grounding : Principle & Reality 3 2 4 1 Voltage reference 5 The real world ! The Theory… .

Ground Grid : Definition & Effects Apparatus #1 Apparatus #2 ground conductor / structure GROUND GRID Other ground wire or structure How to improve immunity ? .

Ground Grid : Definition & Effects Reduction of Ground Loop = Apparatus #1 Better immunity against radiated fields Apparatus #2 Improvement of Ground Grid = Better immunity against conducted disturbances Adding a Ground Strap = Further reduction of the Ground Loop Area A GROUND GRID is highly recommended ! .

without pigtail. to chassis ground… Low voltage signal cable. to chassis ground… Any cable inside an equipment : At both ends. in a noisy environment. to chassis ground… High impedance source (> 10 k ): At both ends. with a low impedance source. Digital link (except coaxial Ethernet): At both ends.Where to connect the shielded cables braid ? Any power cable : At both ends. High frequency coax : At both ends. with low frequencies to transmit. to chassis ground. without balanced transmission (bad CMRR): At one end only … But then good immunity will be hard to achieve ! Avoid aluminium foil with a drain wire (without braid). to chassis ground. . without pigtail. to chassis ground… Any outer shield (not signal return): At both ends.

only simple equipments are sufficient It’s good to be experienced (& confident enough) It’s important to understand how system works It’s useful to methodically analyse what happens It’s efficient to foresee and simplify EMC problems It’s necessary to know the orders of magnitudes It’s politically effective to be persuasive (& smiling) It’s essential never to become discouraged !… .Please. let us remember… EMC is not black magic (Just simple physics…) Some measurement equipments are required Usually.

Questions ? .

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