ANL/MCT/TM_- -I DE93 003191

FLOW-INDUCED

VIBRATION-

1992

(ANL Contract No. 31-109-ENG-38-85540)

Contents

P_agn
1 2 INTRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 2.1 Features 2.1.! 3 ......................................................................... TRANSFER of Short Course PROGRAM ......................................... Vibration ............... 2 2 4

on Flow-Induced

Benefits

to Participants

................................................

VIBRATION OF SENSING LINES AND RHR SYSTEM COMPONENTS ............................................................................ 3.1 3.2 3.3 Experimental Root Causes Data, Analytical Results, and Observations Vibration ........ ..........

5 5 7

of Sensing-Line

and RHR System

Course of Action to Remedy Sensing-Line and RHR System Vibration ............................................................................ VIBRATION .................................................................... ................................................................ Interaction of an Array .......... . ............................. ....................

8 9 9 9 10

4 5

VALVE

LITERATURE 5.1 5.2 Dynamic

SURVEY

Tube/Support Vibration

Flow-Induced

of Cylinders

6

_JNSTEADY-FLOW THEORY FOR FLUIDELASTIC INSTABILITY OF TUBE ARRAYS ....................................................................... 6.1 6.2 6.3 Motion-Dependent Experimental Test Procedure REMARKS Setup Fluid Forces .............................................

11 11 14 15 17 19 19

............................................................. Analysis .........................................

and Data

7

CLOSING

...................................................................

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS REFERENCES

........................................................................

.....................................................................................

iii

...... and Part II ............... 20 B: A Review of Dynamic Tube-Support Interaction in Heat Exchanger Tubes ................................................................................. C: Flow-Induced Vibration of an Array of Cylinders. Part 1 26 APPENDIX 37 iv ...............APPENDIX APPENDIX A: TPC Third NPS Units 1 & 2....... Valve Vibration ........................

.............................. 12 15 16 17 18 .......................................................................................................Figures 1 2 3 4 5 Tube Array Test Tube Channel in Crossflow ............. of an Active Tube ..................................................................................... .................. Analysis Instrumentation ..... Arrangement Schematic Flow Representation of Data Diagram .........................

1988. • Flow-induced vibration of tube arrays was reviewed and the needs of Taipower in the area of fluid/structure interaction were identified as were the procedures necessary for Taipower to accomplish its goals (Ref. During the first two years (July 1.1 INTRODUCTION In October 1984. ARRAY. A computer program. recommendation for design modifications. In a meeting of this committee in 1987. to June 30. attended by a representative of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). A joint program on FIV was established in July 1988 between Taiwan Power Company (Taipower or TPC) and ANL. This agreement also established a joint committee to encourage this cooperation. 4). and selected research studies. The seismic reanalysis a report was submitted Fluid/structure of Chin Shan to the Taiwan activities spent-fuel AEC. the following tasks were accomplished (Refs. 3). on FIV was completed and key Taipower to handle future problems in the subject • The modified component cooling water (CCW) heat exchangers were assessed and the basis for a license from the Taiwan Atomic Energy Council (AEC)was established (Ref. 1990). was established mass matrices for tube arrays (Ref. the subject of flow-induced vibration (FIV) problems in power plants was given high priority. to compute the added- • . 2). and assisted in the promotion of Taipower/INER (Institute of Nuclear Energy Research)/University cooperation. the American Institute in Taiwan and the Coordination Council for North American Affairs of Taiwan signed a comprehensive agreement on joint United States/Taiwan cooperation in civilian uses of nuclear energy and related technical and scientific fields. resolution of design issues. The main objectives of the program are to provide a technology transfer program on FIV for Taipower staff and to assist Taipower with various aspects of FIV including evaluation of reports and proposals. 1 and 2): • A technology transfer program staff members were prepared area. review of designs. were racks was assessed and • • interaction coordinated and provided a list of potential bidders for a fluid transient project and related publications and a recommendation for purchasing technical data on fluid coupling.

F. included technology transfer. 1992. In addition to INER participation in the test program on chaos of fluid/structure systems. 1991. In addition. professors from various universities. through Taipower. N. Participants included Taipower's staff. Lai also participated in many technical discussions on various topics about fluid/structure interaction. FIV problems have been experienced in many fields. This provided him the opportunity to learn how to construct a test facility and instrumentation. The program was extended for several years (May 1. He participated in several programs: chaotic dynamics of loosely supported tubes in crossflow. to June 30. two engineers from INER. and offshore and undersea technology. When a FIV problem is . power gen:_ration and transmission. To develop their capabilities and to establish future cooperation. Fan and J. 1992. 1991. unsteady flow theory for fluidelastic instability of tube arrays. summarized in this report. J. and FIV of heat exchanger tubes. The source of the problems has usually been improper design. C. including the aerospace industry. also visited the Thermal and Mechanical Sciences Section of ANL for approximately two weeks in June 1991. and how to analyze and apply experimental data.1 Features of Short Course on Flow-Induced Vibration Flow-induced vibration is a subject of current interest and has received continuing attention. 2. a structural or mechanical component becomes a problem or causes other problems when undesired effects of a flow field have not been accounted for in the design. engineers from Taiwan AEC and industries. was at the Thermal and Mechanical Sciences Section of ANL for the month of June 1991. a series of technical discussions was held on future cooperation among Taipower/INER/ANL on FIV. assessment of sensingline and valve vibrations. These discussions have facilitated the establishment of future joint programs. civil engineering. Lai. His performance at ANL was excellent and contributed significantly to the success of the joint program between Taipower and ANL.Taipower expressed interest in extending the joint program so that ANL could provide continuing assistance. Y. how to develop a test plan and test procedure. In most cases. Work from May 1. A short course on FIV was given at Taipower on June 1 and 2. and engineers from several research institutes. 1994). Shyr. literature survey. through June 30. and tests on motion-dependent fluid forces acting on tube arrays in crossflow. 2 TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER PROGRAM A Taipower engineer.

Stiffness-controlled instability . and experimental techniques. analytical modeling. the engineer has various options to eliminate the detrimental vibration. to develop an ability to anticipate and eliminate problems at the design stage._.Coupled modes and response .Acoustic resonance .t course on FIV is to provide a general background for. available design guides.Added mass and fluid damping . experimental techniques.Divergence . the problems occur after the components are already in operation.Strouhal numbers .noted in the design stage.Examples resonance . modification is usually very costly. The emphasis is on understanding the phenomena. Upon completion of this seminar.Computer programs Vortex shedding . the participants should understand the fundamental concepts of FIV.Lock-in oscillations .Sloshing . however. Common features of classes of problems are presented and the concepts are illustrated with specific examples from a wide variety of applications. The objective of the sho. various phenomena. The information • presented is organized into the following in stationary fluid areas: Coupled fluid/structure vibration .re discussed. and an approach to solving FIV problems in different fields. The main purpose is to develop diagnostic skills and an ability to establish effective remedies for existing FIV problems. and the state of the art of the subject. In addition. and more importantly. analytical models. In many situations. future research needs .Examples • • Fluidelastic instability .Parametric resonance and combination .Damping-controlled instability .

(6) nonlinear response of tube rows in crossflow. nine vicleo tapes were shown to illustrate different vibration mechanisms: (1) sloshing of water in a storage tank.Wear . (8) chaotic vibration of simple mechanical systems.1. (7) tube/support interaction. (2) pipes conveying fluid. How to specify vibration tests for fluid/structure systems.Examples in heat exchangers considerations • Chaotic - vibration General description Tubes conveying fluid Tube arrays in crossflow Examples • Design guides .ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Codes .Techniques to eliminate excessive vibration • In addition._ractical examples . A simple experiment on the chaotic vibration of a two-degree-of-freedom system was demonstrated. Various mathematical models and vibration mechanisms. How to compute structural motion in response to flow. (5) instability of tube arrays in crossflow.Experimental data .Future development Discussion . 2. the participants should Upon understand • • • • • completing The fundamental concepts of FIV and instability.TEMA (Tubular Exchanger Manufacturer's Association) Standards -PVRC (Pressure Vessel Research Committee of Welding Research Council) guideline . .Mathematical models .1 Benefits to Participants the short course on FIV._:_:ructure interaction. (3) vortex-induced vibration of two tubes in tandem. (4) parametric resonance and lock-in oscillations.• Tube/support interaction .Prediction and design . Various phenomena of fluid/. and (9) weir instability.

From my discussions with some of the participants. Available design guidelines. i. 4. The state of the art of the subject and current developments in different countries. where N = 1. Upon performing a series of tests to measure the responses of RHR pumps. and 5.. damage evaluation reports by INER. and that RHR pumps are the probable source. (GE).e. Taipower is in a good position to solve FIV problems in the future.• • • The significance of structural response. The dominant response frequencies fs of all sensing lines with one pump operating are --17 N.1 Experimental Data. how to translage vibration specifications to design decisions. The excitation of • . analytical results and experimental data obtained by General Electric Co. based on discussions with Taipower staff. and a series of other reports provided by Taipower. 2. The dominant frequencies changed dramatically when two pumps were used. The main objectives of this evaluation were to identify the potential root causes of vibration and to recommend a plan to alleviate vibration problems. 3. Comparison of typical frequency spectra of a sensing line obtained with one and two pumps shows that all sensing lines are excited by the same source. sensing line vibration amplitude for one pump operating with a valve opening of 7% is approximately six times that for two pumps operating with a valve opening of 15%. Analytical and information Results. The results show that valve F017 is the critical component and is the excitation source. valve F017. 3. based on the materials presented at the short course. experimental data obtained by Taipower staff. risers. the short course appears to have been well received. • used to identify In some cases. and Observations the excitation sources are Important data summarized below. sensing lines. I had discussed the problem with the project engineer at the Susquehanna Nuclear Power Plant and had met with the contractor who replaced valve F017 in February 1991. and fluid pressure. 3 VIBRATION OF SENSING LINES AND RHR SYSTEM COMPONEN'I_ A preliminary evaluation of Taipower sensing lines and residual heat removal (RHR) system components was performed. Taipower found that another nuclear power plant had experienced problems similar to theirs.

This is an indication F017 valve stem had been replaced that severe vibration of the valve is a potential cause of RHR piping vibration.4. Two observations can be made: . and sensing-line orifices. modified to control flow rate more The current shape of the valve is . For a seven-vane 210 Hz. Because of unsteady flow. One of the most likely mechanisms is fluidelastic instability of the valve with a small opening. This shows that the damage is most likely associated with the valve. that RHR pumps are one of the probable sources impeller. • According to Taipower staff. the pump excitation frequency fp is (1) of which shows excitation. • RHR piping supports were damaged. one with five vanes and the other with seven vanes..If riser vibration is indeed very small while extremely large. If sensing lines are not excited by riser oscillations. 6 all sensing lines can be transmitted by fluid or risers. vibration amplitudes of the risers are very small while the vibration amplitudes of sensing lines are extremely large. parametric resonance is a possible mechanism.3. which are operated at 1780 rpm (30 Hz). they are most likely excited by fluid pulsations. It is noted that fs =fp/N. are understood to have two stage impellers. • The shape accurately of valve at small F017 valve had.6. Flow pulsations may be associated with RHR pumps. that line of the sensing line is in response to riser • . the several times. valve F017. the damaged supports are located within =25 ft of valve F017. unsteady flow will induce valve vibration but its vibration amplitude is not very significant. N= 12. the mechanism may be forced vibration of the sensing lines due to riser vibration and unsteady flow. • RHR pumps. According to a Taipower engineer who was standing next to a riser during the testing of the RHR shutdown cooling mode. It is believed that the valve is subjected to fluidelastic instability with a small opening of 7%. been openings. Normally. resonance of the sensing excitation becomes questionable.If sensing lines are not excited by riser vibrations.

of Sensing-Line and RHR System Vibration • 3. The maximum amplitude for N2E is =0. However. This shows that large-amplitude vibration is a cause of tube breakage and that bending vibration in the out-of-plane direction is a critical mode. because in loop B. The mechanisms are believed to be forced vibration due to risers and possibly the parametric resonance associated with pulsating flow. 3. It is noted that the side effects and the effects on other components of operating two pumps such as heat exchangers should be considered should be assessed. The time history of sensing line N2E shows a dominant frequency of 17 Hz. The first crack initiation of sensing line N2E was at the 3 o'clock position. two pumps can be used to reduce vibration amplitudes for loop B. (1) RHR pumps are probable excitation sources. . however. the amplitudes of the sensing-line vibration appear to be about the same as those in loop B operating with two pumps. there are multiple frequency peaks at 17 N (N = 1. the following conclusions can be made. available information appears to be contradictory. The RHR pump is also a contributing factor. which will cause large and may amplify flow pulsations and excite loop vibration. followed by initiation at the 9 o'clock position.susceptible to fluidelastic instability. The original source of unsteady flow is due to RHR pumps. For loop A. Sensing lines are excited by forced vibration and possibly by unsteady flow caused by valve F017 because of fluidelastic instability of the valve. 5) Hz. This implies two possibilities. • vibration Crack initiation occurred on the OD of the pipe. the dominant excitation force is due to fluidelastic instability of valw_ F017. In GE tests with two pumps. In any case. a best condition of pump and valve opening in loop A should be set to avoid excessive vibration. (2) Because some U-bolt supports may not provide firm support (there is clearance between support and sensing line).2 Root Causes Based on the available data. chaotic vibration may exist due to nonlinear boundary conditions. However. the engineerr at the plant reported higher vibration with two pumps running. vibration amplitudes for operating with two pumps are much smaller than those with one pump. 4.5 in. 2. The vibration of RHR piping is believed to be excited by fluidelastic instability of the valve and unsteady flow. Crack growth occurred by cyclic stresses. It is emphasized that to avoid further damage to sensing lines.

the excitation sources are associated with valve F017 and partially with the RHR pumps. oscillations appear to be insignificant. Qf the Structural Damaged sensing lines. valve F017 components can be changed. cracked pipes. Based on the experience of the Susquehanna Nuclear Power Plant. who have performed analyses and tests. component is • Combination of fluid dynamic and structural dynamic attenuation. or a new valve that will not be subjected to fluidelastic instability at small openings should be used. It is recommended that Taipower consider the replacement of valve F017 with CCI Drag Valves. In the case at Taipower. Communication among different departments becomes very important. • Structural dynamic attenuation.el. . but alone.' 8 3. GE person_. or modified. Taipower appears to have a strong line management system.3 Course of Action Restoration to Remedy Sensing-Line Inteevity and RHR System Vibrations of all Affected Components Step 1. so that Fluid dynamic fluid excitation attenuation. The RHR pumps induce unsteady flow. This program involves engineers from several departments with different specialties. in which the flow field is modified forces are eliminated. and supports should be repaired to satisfy ASME Codes. who follows the matrix system. weakened. may be appointed to enhance coordination within Taipower and interaction with outside consulting firms. in which the structural modified so that it is less susceptible to vibration. a CCI Drag Valve appears to alleviate the problem. a project manager. Valve F017 is the most critical component. Therefore. in which both flow field and structure are modified to reduce the vibration to a tolerable level. Step 2: Three * Modification methods of Valve F017 are generally used to eliminate detrimental vibration. should be asked to verify that their results are applicable for operating with one or two pumps. In each project.

5 5. N. . design considerations. The meeting participants included T. K. The engineers in Taipower's Nuclear Engineering Department. T. and monitoring and maintenance group working together with INER will be able to identify the excitation mechanisms and choose the most appropriate contractor to eliminate the excessive vibration permanently. The purpose was to have S. what is needed is a design guide to predict the useful life of tubes under specific design flow conditions. and effects of various system parameters. Chen reviews the dynamic tube/support interaction that occurs in heat exchanger tubes. Taipower has found that valve EF-HCV 127 must be replaced yearly. tube response in flow. Lai of Taipower. Specifically. and future research needs. To facilitate manufacture and allow for thermal expansion of the tubes. Chen of ANL. 5) conducted a survey and summarized the current state of the art of this subject and identified future research needs.1 LITERA_ Dynamic SURVEY TubeJSupport Interaction In Ref. however. tube/support gap dynamics. The dynamics of tube/support interaction in heat exchangers is fairly complicated. it is necessary to understand tube dynamics. Fan of INER. The following topics are of particular importance: applicable to fluid effects with Nonlinear effects of the fluid in Linear-flow theories are no longer relatively large oscillation amplitudes. 5. other types of supports have also been used. Third Station. During the June 4 meeting. Chen present a lecture on FIV and to discuss valve vibration. S. Valve vibration in the nuclear industry is an important topic. and a group of engineers visited TPC Third NPS units 1 and 2. and Taipower contractors. staff of TPC Third NPS. possible excitation mechanisms. diagnostic techniques. Lee. tube damage and wear. S. Head of the Mechanical Division of Taipower's Nuclear Engineering Department. He points out that the supports for heat exchanger tubes are usually plates with drilled holes. Y. From a practical point of view. small clearances are used between tubes and tube supports. S. impact and wear due to flow excitations. To achieve this goal.4 VALVE VIBRATION On June 4. wear rate. 1992. C. K. he discusses dynamics of loosely supported tubes. tube/support interaction characteristics. Chen (Ref. Lee and F. and design modifications were reported to the company (Appendix A).

6 and 7). as well as • .10 the tube/support clearance are not well understood. • Wear rates for different oscillations induced by different mechanisms including subcritical vibration and fluidelastic instability. and must be studied to resolve unsettled issues for developing prediction methods and design distributions in cylinder arrays. damping cylinder and stiffness as a pattern. interaction will be a subj_:¢. Many system components consisting of a group of cylinders still experience failure due to FIV and can result in significant repair costs. England • It is expected that dynamic tube/support continuing research for some years to come.:: of The review was presented au the Vibration in Brighton. axial and peripheral correlation of fluid pressure fluctuations. wear rate is a key parameter. Tubes with loose supports are intrinsically nonlinear. Very limited studies have been perform¢_ to understand the nonlinear behavior. chaotic vibration. Extensive studies are needed to quantify the wear rate as a function of different system parameters and excitation mechanisms. Vibration Flow-Induced of an Array of Cylinders Flow-induced vibration in cylinder arrays has been a subject of extensive studies during the last decade for several reasons. and effects of other system parameters on fluid excitation forces.2 B). design guides to prevent FIV are still being developed or are not well developed and the state of the art is such that many key pvrameters in the analysis are not well quantified (Refs. Motion-dependent fluid forces: Fluid function of reduced flow velocity and oscillation amplitude. To predict tube life. A systematic study. Their response includes periodic oscillations. An integrated analytical/experimental study of the nonlinear effects is needed. is needed. and random vibration. such as heat • Fluid excitation forces: Power spectral density of fluid excitation forces. International Conference on Flow-Induced (Appendix 5. Several topics are important of FIV and to provide the basis guides: • Flow field: Flow velocity transfer equipment. including analysis and experimentation. are not well qum_tified.

1 Motion-Dependent Fluid Forces Consider a group of n tubes vibrating in a row as shown in Fig. In general. such as heat exchangers an_.11 • Cylinder response: Mathematical models that incorporate ali fluid effects. The fluid forces acting on the tubes result from the fluid flow. steady and fluctuating drag and lift forces are typical fluid excitation forces. The main objective of the study described below is to present the motion-dependent fluid forces acting on a tube array. simplified equations for different excitation mechanisms. they do not change tube characteristics. Ali fluid force components that are a function of tube motion are called motion-dependent fluid forces. it can be stated that fluid excitation forces appear in the right-hand side of the differential equations to describe a coupled fluid/tube system. and the fluid is flowing with a gap flow velocity U. 6 UNSTEADY-FLOW OF TUBE ARRAYS THEORY FOR FLUIDELASTIC INSTABILITY Many system components. The axes of the tubes are parallel to one another and perpendicular to the x-y plane. Each tube has the same radius R. consist of a group of tubes submerged in crossflow. while motion-dependent fluid forces appear on the left-hand side of the equation. Design guides: acceptance criteria Design guides for predicting cylinder and design modification techniques. For example. Fluid flow is a source of energy that can induce vibration and stability. Mathematically. These fluid forces are called fluid excitation forces. motion-dependent fluid forces can change the tube characteristics and may induce instability. response • Flow-induced vibration in an array of cylinders is a worthwhile topic for future research and an important subject in practical applications. If the tubes of a tube array oscillate in a flow. The fluid forces acting on the tubes will depend on tube motion. steam generators. Fluid forces will excite tube vibration and fluid excitation forces will cause forced vibration and resonance. When a tube array is rigid. Details of this review are published as feature articles of Shock and Vibration Digest (Appendix C). the excitation forces can be divided into two groups. and response as a function of system parameters. fluid damping. Typical examples are fluid added mass. In general. 1. . and fluid stiffness. On the other hand. It is expected to receive continuing attention for some time to come. 6. the motion will disturb the flow field. it disturbs the flow field.

. fj and gj are given as (Ref. 8) fj = . (2) . v /._[OCjkUk +tYjk k / j=1 and n / . _ co j: _jk +P U2 2..._..12 !!ii! iI ii! ¸ ii!ii_i_i i !i iil "" iilii_.. resl=ectively.. Tube Array in Crossflow The displacement components of tube j in the x and y directions are uj und vi.p uR2 k=l oc jk _t2 + ($jk Dt2 + . =- iii!!i! i i i !!!i! r _ ii!ii i!!!_ X 00000 Y ' _ ooooo 00000 ooooo ooooo Fig.. 1. respectively. The motion-dependent fluid-force components acting on tube j in the x and y directions are fj and gj. .

(_jk. and aik. _ik' (_jk' and l:jk are fired-stiffness coefficmnts. we can also write the fluid force component as fj = (P _R2co2_jk +P U2(_ik )v coscot. and unsteady-flow theory. _'-. ' _jk. quasi-steady-flow theory.efficients. (6) Comparing c" Eqs. Fluid-force coefficients can be determined by measuring the fluid forces acting on the tubes due to oscillations of a particular tube. The fluid force acting on tube j in the x direction can be written (4) +*jk)V.-. t is time. co is circular frequency of tube oscillations. _'. tube k is excited in the y direction.13 gj=-P _R2 _jk _t 2 _t 2 --_ l:jk c'_'+_ik _t ) where p is fluid density. Three flow theories have been used for fluid-force coefficients: quasi-staticflow theory. O_jk. O_jk. For example. 2 and 4. and _'. = 1 2 cos(cot (5) where Cjk is the fluid-force amplitude and _jk is the phase angle that the fluid force acting on tube j leads the displacement of tube k. its displacement in the y direction is given by vk = v cos cot.are fluidJK • _K JK damping coefficients. Using Eqs.T'_J k k' (7) and . In this study. t_e unsteady-flow theory is used. 5 and 6 yields 1 _3 Ur jk = 2Cjk COS(_J .pU2CikV sin cot. and l:jk are added mass co.

2 Experimental Setup amplitude. The velocity profile in the An array of tubes is assembled in the test area (see Fig.) wall thickness. All tubes except Tube 1 are clamped to a support plate with a nut attached to the smaller supporting tube. 7 can be calculated by the potential flow theory (Ref.54-cm (1-in. and a 38. For a given tube array.25-in. and flow velocity. The relatively rigid main bodies of the tubes are constructed from stainless steel tubing with a 2.75-in.) OD. The added-mass coefficient ajk in Eq. The flow passes through a series of screens and honeycombs and then into a rectangular flow channel. coefficients and D is tube diameter. oscilia_ion frequency. test area is measured with a turboprobe flowmeter. where A is vibration amplitude oscillations.635-cm (0. fluid-force reduced flow velocity only. In addition. Water is pumped into an input tank. is fastened to the upper end cap of each tube. with a 0.) length (Fig.) wall thickness. Other fuid-force coefficients can be obtained in the same mariner. oscillation amplitude. Fluid force coefficients depend on tube arrangement. (8) where U r is the reduced flow velocity (U r = _U/o)R). fluidforce coefficients are functions of oscillation amplitude (A/D) and reduced flow velocity (Ur). _jk 1 = 2cJ k sin_j k.071-cm (0.035-in. 7 and 8 when the force amplitude Cjk and phase angle Ojk are measured.028-in. but passes through a circular hole in the support plate and is connected to an electromagnetic shaker.14 .) length. relatively flexible tube. Thin brass caps are soldered to both ends of each tube and a smaller. which provides the support for Tube 1. 4). prescribed oscillations can be imported to Tube 1 in the x or y direction. Flow velocity is measured by a turbine flowmeter. Then t_ik and _ik can be calculated from Eqs.) OD. and a 12. a 0.07-cm (4. The water level is controlled by standpipes in the output tank and the flow is controlled by the running speed of the pump motor. and a 0. .1-cm (15-in. 8). tube pitch. 6. 2. For smallcan be considered a function of the The test channel is shown in Fig. 3) and one group of tubes is active while the others are dummy tubes.089-cm (0. Tube 1 is not attached to the support plate. Both the oscillation amplitude and frequency of the shaker can be controlled in the appropriate range.

. _'l i I " t .. the water surface is kept at such a level that the active length of the tubes is submerged in the flow.04 lb) of force acting on the middle of the active tubes..._:aller diameter. only a small portion of the supporting tube (less than 1. end • Dynamic method in air and in water: The tube is excited at a given frequency and amplitude in air or in water.. two sets of strain gauges are placed on the outer surface of the smaller tube where the outer surface of the tube has been machined to a s.. ... Flow ' Flowmeter Control Valve Supply fromPump . Therefore the strain gauges do not require waterproofing. _ .ii .. :During tests. / Flow Conditioners _i/ . Test Channel For the active tubes. Test rea A _ _ ' _ _.'" • . Normally.18 Newtons (0. 2. _ ToSump _ / Flow/ ___.'"' ! ' . • Static method in air: The active tube is held fixed at the supported and a given force is applied at the middle of the active length. .. . The two sets of strain gauges measure the force components in the two perpendicular directions with a sensitivity of =1 volt for 0.3 Test Procedure and Data Analysis (active tubes) are calibrated by two methodsmstatic The force transducers and dynamic. Then.15 Input Tank Flow Channel Output Tank / .__.ii ! "--¢"_ Tosump Fig._Turbine ".../ Inlet _i_ _J_ _[_= _ ] rX_.. 6. the inertia force due to the sinusoidal oscillations is used to determine the calibration constant..3 cm) is submerged in water.

O O O . Tube Arrangement In general.. Motion-dependent fluid forces are measured Tube 1 oscillating in the lift or drag direction.- Rectangular rray A !_ ___ 00000 00000 x ooooo CO000 OOOOO 00000 Y . and 3. with .--Y =. the calibration . method is used... Fig... fairly consistent constant from the dynamic results are obtained.• TubeRow 16 r o O x ¢_._ ooooo Triangular Array "_ 0 =- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 x 0 0 o o o o o o o o o o o o L_ y In application. for active Tubes 1. 2.... 3.

instrumentation.0 Hz.1 to 2. in a good position to handle future FIV problems more effectively. Taipower has accomplished the following: • Completed another technology transfer program on FIV. and data analysis systems are ready for a tests. as well as engineers from industry. the The This task is also being sponsored water channel. r 38. Fig. 4. to be very useful. and research institutes. The first tube array is a row of tubes with a pitch-to-diameter ratio Tests of the tube row are in progress. Upon completion of the third year of the program. . and experimental data obtained are expected 7 CLOSING REMARKS The joint program between Taipower and ANL has been very beneficial.1 cm _L -I_ 11. and the phase between the motion-dependent fluid force and tube displacement. The experimental data will be in the near future. and has key staff members. instrumentation. are provided by ANL.35.1 cm SupportPlate . the magnitude of the forces acting on the active tubes. These signals are analyzed to obtain the oscillation displacement of the tube. Displacement and force signals are filtered by band-pass filters to eliminate low. universities. including analyzer. by ANL. It provides an opportunity for Taipower staff to learn the state of the art of FIV and resolution of some FIV problems. The series of of 1. reported test facility.and high-frequency noises and then are digitized and stored in the fast fourier transform analyzer. The exciter provides sinusoidal displacement at a frequency varying from =0. the test facility.' 17 Strain Gauges I L. 5. Schematic Representation of an Active Tube A flow diagram of the instrumentation and exciter is shown in Fig.

_:_:_:_:_:_:_:_:_:_:_:_:_:_:i:i:_ =:i_i_:_: Electronics __:_:_:_:_:_:_:_:_:_t ". 5.:i:_:_:_:_:_:_:_:_:_.I Transducer Strain__ G Strain Gage Amplifier _ Bandpass Filter ------_ BandFilter pass Strain Gage Amplifier _ Bandpass Filter ------ Outputs: Displacement Force Phase Angle _ Analyzer Fig. * Completed reviews of FIV of an array of cylinders in crossflow and dynamic tube/support interaction. Flow Diagram • Completed and valves of Data Analysis Instrumentation of sensing lines preliminary assessments and recommended future of the vibration courses of action.. 18 DisplacementTransducer ElectromagneticExciter I Displacement li:i::. Taipower and ANL in this subject area is • Continuing cooperation between expected to be very fruitful. Completed the setup of a test facility to measure motion-dependent fluid forces. . This facility is expected to be very useful to Taipower and the FIV community. and identified future research needs to achieve Taipower's goals.

Published by Mechanical Engineering Limited. The 7. and Chen. 3-9 (1991). Flow-Induced Vibration of an Array of Cylinders. K.. Flow-Induced Vibration-1990.. ASME Publication. . S. Lai. 1990). 204. pp.. S.. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Flow Induced Vibrations. Flow-Induced Vibration. Y. FED-Vol. 102/PVP-Vol. H. A Review of Dynamic Tube-Support Interaction Sxchanger Tubes. pp.. 111-120 (1991). pp. 1-6 (Nov.. Unsteady Fluid Forces and Fluidelastic Vibration of a Group of Circular Cylinders.. S.1990. ANL/MCT-89/4 (Nov. S. and H. 24. S. Power are P. S. S. 6. No.. 3-11 (1992). of Circular Cylindrical in Heat Engineers. Shock and Vibration Digest. Flow-Induced Vibration Hemisphere Publishing Corp. S. T. H. S. Publishers 5. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 19 This work was sponsored by Taiwan Power Company under an agreement with the U. The 8. Chen. Lee. C. P. S. Lee. 1989). Chen. 1990). S. _CF_ 1. S. Vol. 153-163 (1990). Flow-Induced Water Heat Exchangers. i Argonne National Laboratory 3. S. Vibration PVP-Vol. ASME Publication. Many engineers in the Nuclear Engineering Department of Taiwan Company have contributed to various aspects of the program. S. Chen. Y. Report ANL/MCT-90/2 (Sept. 1. Shock and Vibration Digest. F.S. Chen. among them C. Cheng. S. Vol. Chen. Argonne National Laboratory Report 2 Chen. Part H. Part I. Forum on Unsteady Flow . Y. pp. (1987).. Yeh. 4. Chen. Structures. Chen. No. of Component Cooling 189. Department of Energy under Contract Agreement 31-109-Eng-3885540. 12. S. pp. S.. Flow-Induced Vibration of an Array of Cylinders. 23. Kao.

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