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GE Mark VI Manual - 1

GE Mark VI Manual - 1

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General Electric Mark VI Manual
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GE Energy

Mark VIe™ Control
System Guide, Volume I
GEH-6721D

T B

g

T B

T B

These instructions do not purport to cover all details or variations in equipment, nor to provide for every possible contingency to be met during installation, operation, and maintenance. The information is supplied for informational purposes only, and GE makes no warranty as to the accuracy of the information included herein. Changes, modifications and/or improvements to equipment and specifications are made periodically and these changes may or may not be reflected herein. It is understood that GE may make changes, modifications, or improvements to the equipment referenced herein or to the document itself at any time. This document is intended for trained personnel familiar with the GE products referenced herein. GE may have patents or pending patent applications covering subject matter in this document. The furnishing of this document does not provide any license whatsoever to any of these patents. This document contains proprietary information of General Electric Company, USA and is furnished to its customer solely to assist that customer in the installation, testing, operation, and/or maintenance of the equipment described. This document shall not be reproduced in whole or in part nor shall its contents be disclosed to any third party without the written approval of GE Energy. GE provides the following document and the information included therein as is and without warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, including but not limited to any implied statutory warranty of merchantability or fitness for particular purpose. If further assistance or technical information is desired, contact the nearest GE Sales or Service Office, or an authorized GE Sales Representative.

© 2004 - 2006 General Electric Company, USA. All rights reserved.

Belden is a registered trademark of Belden Electronic Wire and Cable of Cooper. Bussmann is a registered trademark of Cooper Bussmann, Inc. CIMPLICITY is a registered trademark of GE Fanuc Automation North America, Inc. CompactPCI is a registered trademark of PCI Industrial Computers Manufacturing Group. Ethernet is a registered trademark of Xerox Corporation. Geiger-Mueller is a registered trademark of Protectowire Company, Inc, USA. HART is a registered trademark of HART Communication Foundation. Honeywell is a registered trademark of Honeywell International Inc. IBM and PC are registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation. IEEE is a registered trademark of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Intel and Pentium are registered trademarks of Intel Corporation. Keyphasor is a registered trademark of Bently Nevada Corporation. Kollmorgen is a registered trademark of Danaher. Mark VIe and ToolboxST are trademarks of General Electric Company, USA. Mate-N-Lok is a registered trademark of Amp Incorporated. Modbus is a registered trademark of Schneider Automation. NEC is a registered trademark of the National Fire Protection Association. Positronic is a registered trademark of Positronic Industries, Inc. QNX and Neutrino are registered trademarks of QNX Software Systems, Ltd (QSS). Siecor is a registered trademark of Corning Cable Systems Brands, Inc. Tefzel is a registered trademark of E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. Windows and Windows NT are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. Woodward is a registered trademark of Woodward Governor Company.

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Indicates a procedure, condition, or statement that, if not strictly observed, could result in personal injury or death.

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This equipment contains a potential hazard of electric shock or burn. Only personnel who are adequately trained and thoroughly familiar with the equipment and the instructions should install, operate, or maintain this equipment. Isolation of test equipment from the equipment under test presents potential electrical hazards. If the test equipment cannot be grounded to the equipment under test, the test equipment’s case must be shielded to prevent contact by personnel. To minimize hazard of electrical shock or burn, approved grounding practices and procedures must be strictly followed.

To prevent personal injury or equipment damage caused by equipment malfunction, only adequately trained personnel should modify any programmable machine.

Contents
Chapter 1 Overview 1-1

Introduction ...............................................................................................................................................1-1 Applications ..............................................................................................................................................1-2 Controllers.................................................................................................................................................1-3 I/O Networks (IONet) ...............................................................................................................................1-3 I/O Modules...............................................................................................................................................1-4 Related Documents....................................................................................................................................1-5 How to Get Help .......................................................................................................................................1-5 Acronyms and Abbreviations ....................................................................................................................1-6

Chapter 2 System Architecture

2-1

Introduction ...............................................................................................................................................2-1 System Components ..................................................................................................................................2-1 Controller .......................................................................................................................................2-1 Controller Enclosure ......................................................................................................................2-3 Power Supply .................................................................................................................................2-3 I/O Pack .........................................................................................................................................2-4 Terminal Blocks .............................................................................................................................2-5 I/O Types .......................................................................................................................................2-7 Power Sources................................................................................................................................2-8 Communications......................................................................................................................................2-10 Unit Data Highway (UDH) ..........................................................................................................2-10 Plant Data Highway (PDH)..........................................................................................................2-10 IONet............................................................................................................................................2-11 Human-Machine Interface (HMI) ................................................................................................2-11 Servers..........................................................................................................................................2-12 Control Operator Interface (COI).................................................................................................2-12 Link to Distributed Control System (DCS) ..................................................................................2-13 EX2100 Exciter............................................................................................................................2-14 Generator Protection ....................................................................................................................2-14 LS2100 Static Starter ...................................................................................................................2-14 Control and Protection.............................................................................................................................2-15 Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF)..........................................................................................2-15 Mean Time Between Forced Outage (MTBFO) ..........................................................................2-15 Fault Detection .............................................................................................................................2-16 Online Repair ...............................................................................................................................2-17 Designated Controller ..................................................................................................................2-19 UDH Communicator ....................................................................................................................2-19 Output Processing ........................................................................................................................2-20 Input Processing ...........................................................................................................................2-22 State Exchange .............................................................................................................................2-27 Voting ..........................................................................................................................................2-27 Forcing .........................................................................................................................................2-28 Peer I/O ........................................................................................................................................2-28 Command Action .........................................................................................................................2-28 Rate of Response..........................................................................................................................2-29 Turbine Protection........................................................................................................................2-30

GEH-6721D Mark VIe Control System Guide Volume I

Contents • i

Redundancy Options ...............................................................................................................................2-31 Simplex Controller .......................................................................................................................2-32 Dual Controllers ...........................................................................................................................2-33 Triple Controllers (TMR).............................................................................................................2-36

Chapter 3 Networks

3-1

Introduction ...............................................................................................................................................3-1 Network Overview ....................................................................................................................................3-1 Network Layers ..............................................................................................................................3-2 Data Highways ..........................................................................................................................................3-4 Plant Data Highway (PDH)............................................................................................................3-4 Unit Data Highway (UDH) ............................................................................................................3-6 Data Highway Ethernet Switches...................................................................................................3-7 Selecting IP Addresses for UDH and PDH ....................................................................................3-8 IONet..............................................................................................................................................3-9 Addressing......................................................................................................................................3-9 Ethernet Global Data (EGD) ........................................................................................................3-11 Fiber-Optic Cables...................................................................................................................................3-13 Components..................................................................................................................................3-13 Single-mode Fiber-optic Cabling ............................................................................................................3-17 IONet Components.......................................................................................................................3-18 UDH/PDH Components ...............................................................................................................3-20 Example Topology .......................................................................................................................3-20 Component Sources......................................................................................................................3-21

Chapter 4 Codes, Standards, and Environment

4-1

Introduction ...............................................................................................................................................4-1 Safety Standards ........................................................................................................................................4-1 Electrical....................................................................................................................................................4-1 Printed Circuit Board Assemblies ..................................................................................................4-1 Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) ..........................................................................................4-1 Low Voltage Directive ...................................................................................................................4-2 ATEX Directive 94/9/EC ...............................................................................................................4-2 Supply Voltage...............................................................................................................................4-2 Environment ..............................................................................................................................................4-3 Temperature ...................................................................................................................................4-3 Shipping and Storage Temperature ................................................................................................4-5 Humidity ........................................................................................................................................4-5 Elevation ........................................................................................................................................4-6 Contaminants..................................................................................................................................4-6 Vibration ........................................................................................................................................4-6

ii • Contents

GEH-6721D Mark VIe Control System Guide Volume I

Chapter 5 Installation and Configuration

5-1

Introduction ...............................................................................................................................................5-1 Installation Support ...................................................................................................................................5-1 Early Planning................................................................................................................................5-1 GE Installation Documents ............................................................................................................5-2 Technical Advisory Options...........................................................................................................5-2 Equipment Receiving and Handling..........................................................................................................5-4 Storage ...........................................................................................................................................5-4 Operating Environment ..................................................................................................................5-5 Power Requirements..................................................................................................................................5-6 Installation Support Drawings...................................................................................................................5-8 Grounding................................................................................................................................................5-13 Equipment Grounding..................................................................................................................5-13 Building Grounding System.........................................................................................................5-14 Signal Reference Structure (SRS) ................................................................................................5-15 Cable Separation and Routing .................................................................................................................5-21 Signal and Power Level Definitions.............................................................................................5-21 Cableway Spacing Guidelines......................................................................................................5-23 Cable Routing Guidelines ............................................................................................................5-26 Cable Specifications ................................................................................................................................5-27 Wire Sizes ....................................................................................................................................5-27 General Specifications .................................................................................................................5-28 Low Voltage Shielded Cable........................................................................................................5-28 Connecting the System ............................................................................................................................5-31 I/O Wiring ....................................................................................................................................5-31 Terminal Block Features ..............................................................................................................5-32 Power System...............................................................................................................................5-33 Installing Ethernet ........................................................................................................................5-33 Startup Checks.........................................................................................................................................5-34 Wiring and Circuit Checks...........................................................................................................5-34

Chapter 6 Tools and System Interface

6-1

Introduction ...............................................................................................................................................6-1 ToolboxST.................................................................................................................................................6-1 Human-Machine Interface (HMI) .............................................................................................................6-2 Basic Description ...........................................................................................................................6-2 Product Features.............................................................................................................................6-2 Turbine Historian ......................................................................................................................................6-4 System Configuration.....................................................................................................................6-4 System Capability ..........................................................................................................................6-5 Data Flow.......................................................................................................................................6-5 Turbine Historian Tools .................................................................................................................6-6 uOSM ........................................................................................................................................................6-8 OPC Server................................................................................................................................................6-9 Modbus....................................................................................................................................................6-10 Ethernet Modbus Slave ................................................................................................................6-11 Serial Modbus ..............................................................................................................................6-12 Ethernet GSM..........................................................................................................................................6-15 Time Synchronization .............................................................................................................................6-16 Redundant Time Sources .............................................................................................................6-16 Selection of Time Sources ...........................................................................................................6-17

GEH-6721D Mark VIe Control System Guide Volume I

Contents • iii

Chapter 7 Maintenance and Diagnostics

7-1

Introduction ...............................................................................................................................................7-1 Maintenance ..............................................................................................................................................7-1 Ethernet Switches ......................................................................................................................................7-2 Alarm Overview ........................................................................................................................................7-3 Process Alarms ..........................................................................................................................................7-4 Process and Hold Alarm Data Flow ...............................................................................................7-4 Diagnostic Alarms .....................................................................................................................................7-5 Viewing Controller Diagnostics Using ToolboxST .......................................................................7-5 Voter Disagreement Diagnostics....................................................................................................7-6 Totalizers ...................................................................................................................................................7-7 LED Quick Reference ...............................................................................................................................7-8 I/O Pack Status ...............................................................................................................................7-9 IONet Status .................................................................................................................................7-10

Glossary of Terms Index

G-1 I-1

iv • Contents

GEH-6721D Mark VIe Control System Guide Volume I

CHAPTER 1

Chapter 1 Overview
Introduction
The Mark VIe control was designed to serve a wide variety of control and protection applications from steam and gas turbines to power generation balance of plant (BOP) equipment. The control provides more options for redundancy, better maintainability, and greater capability for locating I/O closer to the controlled equipment.

GEH-6721D Mark VIe Control System Guide Volume I

Chapter 1 Overview • 1-1

Applications
The control system consists of three primary components, the controllers, I/O networks, and I/O modules as shown in diagram.

UDH

UDH

R
UCCA Blank Face Plate Blank Face Plate Blank Face Plate

S
UCCA Blank Face Plate Blank Face Plate Blank Face Plate PS UCCA Blank Face Plate

T
Blank Face Plate Blank Face Plate PS

PS

PS

PS

PS

Controllers

Fan Tray

Fan Tray

Fan Tray

R IONet S IONet T IONet

I/O Networks

I/O Modules
T B T B T B

Mark VIe Control System

Note For non-redundant unit data highway (UDH) networks, there is only one UDH switch and all controllers are connected to it.

1-2 • Chapter 1 Overview

GEH-6721D Mark VIe Control System Guide Volume I

Controllers
The Mark VIe controller is a single board, which run the application code. The controller communicates with the I/O packs through onboard I/O network interfaces. ® ® The controller operating system (OS) is QNX Neutrino , a real time, multitasking OS designed for high-speed, high reliability industrial applications. Unlike traditional controllers where I/O is on a backplane, the Mark VIe controller does not normally host any application I/O. Also, all I/O networks are attached to each controller providing them with all redundant input data. This hardware architecture along with the software architecture guarantees that no single point of application input will be lost if a controller is powered down for maintenance or repair. The controllers are designated as R, S, and T in a TMR system, R and S in a dual system and R in a single system. Each controller owns one I/O network (IONet). The R controller sends outputs to an I/O module through the R IONet, the S controller sends outputs through the S IONet, and the T controller sends outputs through the T IONet. During normal operation each controller receives the inputs from the I/O modules on all networks, optionally votes the TMR inputs, computes the application algorithms including sensor selection if not voted, sends the outputs to the I/O modules on its own network, and finishes by sending data between the controllers for synchronization. This time line is known as a frame. Communication ports provide links to I/O, operator, and engineering interfaces as follows: • • • Ethernet connection for the UDH for communication with HMIs, and other control equipment Ethernet connection for the R, S, and T I/O network RS-232C connection for setup using the COM1 port
®

Note The I/O networks are private special purpose Ethernets that support only the I/O modules and the controllers.

I/O Networks (IONet)
The I/O networks are IEEE 802.3 100 Mbit full duplex Ethernet networks. In Mark VIe, these networks are referred to as IONet. All traffic on each IONet is deterministic UDP/IP packets. TCP/IP is not used. Each network (red, blue, black) is an independent IP subnet. The networks are fully switched full-duplex preventing collisions that can occur on non-switched Ethernet networks. The switches also provide data buffering and flow control during the critical input scan. The IEEE 1588 standard for precision clock synchronization protocol is used to synchronize frame and time, the controllers, and the I/O modules. This synchronization provides a high level of traffic flow control on the networks.

GEH-6721D Mark VIe Control System Guide Volume I

Chapter 1 Overview • 1-3

I/O Modules
The Mark VIe I/O modules contain three basic parts, the terminal board, the terminal block, and I/O pack. The terminal board mounts to the cabinet and comes in two basic types, S and T. The S-type board provides a single set of screws for each I/O point and allows a single I/O pack to condition and digitize the signal. This board is used for simplex, dual, and dedicated triple modular redundant (TMR) inputs by using one, two or three boards. The T-type TMR board typically fans the inputs to three separate I/O packs. Usually, the T-type board hardware votes the outputs from the three I/O packs.

Input Screws Pack
Connector

Output Screws

Simplex Terminal Board

Input Screws Fanned Inputs
Pack Connector

Output Screws

Pack Connector

Vote/ Select

Pack Connector

TMR Terminal Board

Both terminal board types provide the following features: • • • • • Terminal blocks for I/O wiring Mounting hardware Input isolation and protection I/O pack connectors Unique electronic ID

Note Some application specific TMR terminal boards do not fan inputs or vote the outputs.

1-4 • Chapter 1 Overview

GEH-6721D Mark VIe Control System Guide Volume I

Related Documents
For additional information, refer to the following documents:
GEH-6126, Vol. I GEH-6700 GEH-6422 GEH-6408 GEI-100189 GEI-100271 GEI-100680 GEI-100681 GEI-100682 GEI-100513 GEI-100534 HMI for Turbine Control - Operator’s Guide ToolboxST™ for Mark VIe Control Turbine Historian System Guide Control System Toolbox for Configuring the Trend Recorder System Database (SDB) Server User’s Guide System Database (SDB) Browser Mark VIe Turbine Block Library Mark VIe Legacy Block Library Mark VIe Standard Block Library HMI Time Synchronization for Turbine Control Control Operator Interface (COI) for Mark VI and EX2100 Systems GEH-6126, Vol. II HMI for Turbine Control - Application Guide GEH-6721, Vol. II Mark VIe Control - System Guide, Volume II

How to Get Help
If technical assistance is required beyond the instructions provided in the documentation, contact the nearest GE Sales or Service Office or an authorized GE Sales Representative.

GEH-6721D Mark VIe Control System Guide Volume I

Chapter 1 Overview • 1-5

Acronyms and Abbreviations
AWG BOP CT CPCI DCS DHCP EGD EMC EMI EU HMI HRSG KP MTBF MTBFO MTTR NEC NFPA NVRAM OPC PDH PT RFI RTD SIFT SOE SRS TMR UDH uOSM USB American Wire Gauge, standards for wire numbers and sizes Balance of Plant Current transformer, senses the current in a cable CompactPCI 6U high enclosure for Mark VIe controllers Distributed Control System, for the balance of plant and auxiliary equipment Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Ethernet Global Data, a control network and communication protocol Electromagnetic Compatibility Electromagnetic Interference Engineering Units Human-Machine Interface, usually a computer with CIMPLICITY software Heat Recovery Steam Generator, used with gas turbine plants KeyPhasor , a shaft position sensor for rotational position sensing Mean Time Between Failures, a measure of reliability Mean Time Between Forced Outage Mean Time To Repair, used with MTBF to calculate system availability National Electrical Code National Fire Protection Association Non-volatile Random Access Memory OLE process control server Plant Data Highway, links HMIs to servers and viewers Potential Transformer, senses the voltage in a cable Radio Frequency Interference Resistance Temperature Device, senses temperature in the process Software Implemented Fault Tolerance, uses "2 out of 3" voting Sequence of Events, a record of high-speed contact closures Signal reference structure Triple modular redundant, uses three sets of controllers and I/O Unit Data Highway, links the controllers to the HMI servers Universal Onsite Monitor Universal Serial Bus, connections for computers and peripherals
® ® ®

1-6 • Chapter 1 Overview

GEH-6721D Mark VIe Control System Guide Volume I

CHAPTER 2

Chapter 2 System Architecture
Introduction
This chapter defines the architecture of the Mark VIe control system, including system components, communication networks, and various levels of redundancy that are possible. It also discusses system reliability, availability, and third-party connectivity to plant distributed control systems.

System Components
The following sections define the main subsystems making up the Mark VIe control system. These include the controllers, I/O packs or modules, terminal boards, power distribution, cabinets, networks, operator interfaces, and the protection module.

Controller
The Mark VIe controller is a single board, which run the application code. The controller communicates with the I/O packs through onboard I/O network interfaces. ® ® The controller operating system (OS) is QNX Neutrino , a real time, multitasking OS designed for high-speed, high reliability industrial applications. Unlike traditional controllers where I/O is on a backplane, the Mark VIe controller does not normally host any application I/O. Also, all I/O networks are attached to each controller providing them with all redundant input data. This hardware architecture along with the software architecture guarantees that no single point of application input will be lost if a controller is powered down for maintenance or repair. The controllers are designated as R, S, and T in a TMR system, R and S in a dual system and R in a single system. Each controller owns one I/O network (IONet). The R controller sends outputs to an I/O module through the R IONet, the S controller sends outputs through the S IONet, and the T controller sends outputs through the T IONet. During normal operation each controller receives the inputs from the I/O modules on all networks, optionally votes the TMR inputs, computes the application algorithms including sensor selection if not voted, sends the outputs to the I/O modules on its own network, and finishes by sending data between the controllers for synchronization. This time line is known as a frame.

GEH-6721D Mark VIe Control System Guide Volume I

Chapter 2 System Architecture • 2-1

Communication ports provide links to I/O, operator, and engineering interfaces as follows: • • • Ethernet connection for the UDH for communication with HMIs, and other control equipment Ethernet connection for the R, S, and T I/O network RS-232C connection for setup using the COM1 port
®

Note The I/O networks are private special purpose Ethernets that support only the I/O modules and the controllers. The controller is loaded with software specific to its application, which includes but is not limited to steam, gas, land-marine (LM), or balance of plant (BOP) products. It can run rungs or blocks. The IEEE1588 protocol is used through the R, S, and T IONet to synchronize the clock of the I/O modules and controllers to within ± 100 ms. External data is transferred to and from the control system database in the controller over the R, S, and T IONet. In a simplex system, IONet data includes: • Process inputs/outputs to the I/O packs.

In a dual system, IONet data includes: • • • Process inputs/outputs to the I/O packs Internal state values and initialization information from the designated controller Status and synchronization information from both controllers

In a triple module redundant (TMR) system, IONet data includes: • • • Process inputs/outputs to the I/O packs Internal state values for voting and status and synchronization information from all three controllers Initialization information from the designated controller

Single Board
The UCCAM03 CPCI controller is a single board module. The baseboard contains a ® 650 MHz Celeron processor, 128 MB flash, 128 MB DRAM, two serial ports, and one 10/100 Mbit Ethernet interface. The baseboard Ethernet provides the UDH connection. The module also includes an EPMC PCI Mezzanine Card (PMC) attached to the baseboard. The EPMC contains 32 KB Flash Backed Non Volatile RAM (NVRAM), three 10/100 Mbit Ethernets for IONet connections, temperature sensors for fan loss detection, and Ethernet Physical Layer snoop hardware for precision time synchronization. The UCCAM03 uses the CPCI backplane for power only. A maximum of four UCCAs can be inserted into a CPCI rack but no backplane communication path is provided. Multiple controllers in one rack typically communicate through the UDH network.

2-2 • Chapter 2 System Architecture

GEH-6721D Mark VIe Control System Guide Volume I

Controller Enclosure
The Mark VIe controller is hosted in a CompactPCI (CPCI) enclosure. A typical CPCI enclosure consists of a 6U high rack, one or two 3U high power supplies, a 6U high single board, and a cooling fan. The CompactPCI (CPCI) control module rack provides an enclosure for the Mark VIe controller, the power supply(s), and a cooling fan. The rack backplane is CPCI compliant, but is used only to provide power from the power supply(s) to the controller and cooling fan. The CPCI power supply converts the bulk incoming power to ±12 V dc, 5 V dc, and 3.3 V dc. These voltages are distributed to the controller(s) and fan through the backplane.
®

Main processor board - QNX operating system - UDH Ethernet connections - IONet 100 MB Ethernet

Power supply on /off switch

Power supply

Cooling fan compartment

Mark VIe Controller CPCI Enclosure

Power Supply
The CPCI power supply takes the incoming bulk power from the CPCI backplane and creates ±12, 5, and 3.3 V dc. This power is provided to the backplane through ® one or two Mate-In-Lok connectors, for use by the power supply(s), controller(s) and cooling fan. The power supply is a CPCI hot swap compliant 3U power supply using the standard CPCI 47-pin connector. Two power supplies can be used to provide power supply redundancy in an optional rack.

GEH-6721D Mark VIe Control System Guide Volume I

Chapter 2 System Architecture • 2-3

I/O Pack
I/O packs in Mark VIe have a generic processor board and a data acquisition board that is unique to the type of connected device. I/O packs on each terminal board digitize the signal, perform algorithms, and communicate with Mark VIe controller. The I/O pack provides fault detection through a combination of special circuitry in the data acquisition board and software running in the CPU board. The fault status is transmitted to and used by the controllers. The I/O pack transmits inputs and receives outputs on both network interfaces if connected. For details on individual I/O packs, refer to GEH-6721 Volume II System Guide. Each I/O pack also sends an identification message (ID packet) to the main controller when requested. The packet contains, the hardware catalog number of the I/O board, the hardware revision, the board barcode serial number, the firmware catalog number, and the firmware version. The I/O pack’s processor board and data acquisition board are rated for -30°C to 65°C (-22 °F to 149 °F)operation with free convection cooling. The I/O packs have a temperature sensor that is accurate to within ±2°C (3.6 °F). Every I/O pack temperature is available in the database and can be used to generate an alarm.

I/O Pack

2-4 • Chapter 2 System Architecture

GEH-6721D Mark VIe Control System Guide Volume I

Terminal Blocks
Signal flow begins with a sensor connected to a terminal block on a board. There are two types of boards available. T-type terminal boards contain two, 24-point, barrier-type, removable, terminal blocks. Each point can accept two 3.0 mm (0.12 in) (#12AWG) wires with 300 V insulation per point with either spade or ring-type lugs. In addition, captive clamps are provided for terminating bare wires. Screw spacing is 9.53 mm (0.375 in) minimum and center-to-center. S-type boards support one I/O pack for simplex and dual redundant systems. They are half the size of T-type boards and are standard base mounted but can also be DIN-rail mounted. Two versions of the boards are available, one version has fixed Euro-style box type terminal blocks that are not removable, and the second has removable box type terminal blocks. S-type board terminal blocks accept one 2.05 mm (#12AWG) wire or two 1.63 mm (#14AWG) wires, each with 300 V insulation per point. Screw spacing is 5.08 mm (0.2 in) minimum and center-to-center. Wide and narrow boards are arranged in vertical columns of high and low-level wiring that can be accessed from top and/or bottom cable entrances. An example of a wide board is a board that contains magnetic relays with fused circuits for solenoid drivers. T-type boards are normally standard-base mounted, but can also be DIN-rail mounted. A shield strip is provided to the left of each terminal block. It can be connected to a metal base for immediate grounding or floated to allow individual ground wires from each board to be wired to a centralized, cabinet ground strip. Refer to GEH-6721 Mark VIe Control System Guide,Volume II for specific terminal board information.

GEH-6721D Mark VIe Control System Guide Volume I

Chapter 2 System Architecture • 2-5

Mounting screw

Wiring segment

Mounting screws

Euro-style box terminal block

Mounting screw Barrier-style terminal block
Barrier and Euro-style Box Type Terminal Blocks with I/O Packs

2-6 • Chapter 2 System Architecture

GEH-6721D Mark VIe Control System Guide Volume I

I/O Types
There are two types of I/O available. General purpose I/O is used for both turbine applications and process control. Turbine specific I/O is used for direct interface to the unique sensors and actuators on turbines. This reduces or eliminates a substantial amount of interposing instrumentation. As a result, many potential single point failures are eliminated in the most critical area for improved running reliability and reduced long-term maintenance. Direct interface to the sensors and actuators also enables the diagnostics to directly interrogate the devices on the equipment for maximum effectiveness. This data is used to analyze device and system performance.
General Purpose I/O Board Redundancy Packs/Board

24 DI (125 V dc, group isolated) 24 DI (24 V dc, group isolated) 24 DI (48 V dc, group isolated) 24 DI (115/230 V ac, 125 V dc, point isolated) 1 ms SOE 24 DI (24 V dc, point isolated) 24 DI (24 V dc, group isolated) 12 form C mechanical relays w/6 solenoids, coil diagnostics 12 form C mechanical relays w/6 solenoids, voltage diagnostics, 125 V dc 12 form C mechanical relays w/6 solenoids, voltage diagnostics, 24 V dc 6 form A mechanical relays for solenoids, solenoid impedance diagnostics 12 form A solid-state relays/inputs 115 V ac 12 form A solid-state relays/inputs 24 V dc 12 form A solid-state relays/inputs 125 V dc 36 mechanical relays, 12 sets of 3 voted form A, WPDF option adds 12 fused circuits 36 mechanical relays, 12 sets of 3 voted form B, WPDF option adds 12 fused circuits 10 AI (V/I inputs) and 2 AO (4-20/0-200 mA) 10 AI (V/I inputs) and 2 AO (4-20/0-200 mA) 16 AO (4-20 mA outputs) 8 per I/O pack 8 AO (4-20 mA outputs) 12 thermocouples 24 thermocouples (12 per I/O pack) 12 thermocouples 16 RTDs 3 wires/RTD (8 per I/O pack) normal scan 16 RTDs 3 wires/RTD (8 per I/O pack) fast scan 8 RTDs 3 wires/RTD scan 6 serial ports for I/O drivers RS-232C, RS422, RS485 HART Communications 10/2 Analog I/O PROFIBUS-DP Master Communications
®

TBCIH1 TBCIH2 TBCIH3 TICIH1 TICIH2 STCIH1 TRLYH1B TRLYH1C TRLYH2C TRLYH1D TRLYH1E TRLYH2E TRLYH3E TRLYH1F TRLYH2F TBAIH1 STAI TBAOH1 STAO TBTCH1B TBTCH1C STTC TRTDH1D TRTDH2D SRTO PSCAH1 SHRAH1A SPIDH1A

1 or 2 or 3 1 or 2 or 3 1 or 2 or 3 1 or 2 or 3 1 or 2 or 3 1 1 or 3 1 or 3 1 or 3 1 or 3 1 or 3 1 or 3 3 3 1 or 3 1 2 1 1or 2 or 3 1 or 2 1 1 or 2 1 or 2 1 1 1 1

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Chapter 2 System Architecture • 2-7

Turbine Specific I/O

Board

Redundancy Packs/ Board

Mixed I/O: 4 speed inputs/ pack, synchronizing, shaft voltage Speed inputs, trip outputs Primary trip - Gas Primary trip - Large Steam Primary trip - Steam Backup trip - Gas Backup trip - Large Steam Backup trip - Steam Mixed I/O: 3 speed inputs, backup sync check, trip contacts 2 Servo channels: up to 3 coils, 4 LVDTs/ channel 8 vibration (prox/seismic/accel) 4 position 1 reference probe

TTURH1C TRPA TRPG TRPL TRPS TREG TREL TRES PPRO TSVCH1 TVBAH1

1 or 3 3 3 (through PTUR) 3 (through PTUR) 3 (through PTUR) 3 (through PPRO) 3 (through PPRO) 3 (through PPRO) 1 1 1 or 2

Refer to GEH-6721 Mark VIe Control System Guide,Volume II for a complete list of I/O types.

Power Sources
The Mark VIe control is designed to operate on a flexible, modular selection of power sources. The power distribution modules (PDM) support 115/230 V ac, 24 and 125 V dc power sources in many redundant combinations. The power applied is converted to 28 V dc for operation of the I/O packs. The controllers may operate from the 28 V dc power, direct ac, or direct 24 V dc battery power. The PDM system can be divided into two substantially different categories, the core distribution system, and the branch circuit elements. The core pieces share the feature of cabling into a PPDA I/O pack for system feedback. They serve as the primary power management for a cabinet or series of cabinets. The branch circuit elements take the core output and fan it into individual circuits for consumption in the cabinets. They are not part of the PPDA system feedback. Branch circuits provide their own feedback mechanisms. It is not expected that all of the core components and branch circuits that make up the PDM will be used on every system. For detailed information on the core and branch circuit components of the PDM, refer to GEH-6721 Mark VIe Control System Guide,Volume II.

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RST System Feedback PPDA JPDS or JPDM 28V Control Power
R S T Control Power

JPDP

JPDL

Power PS Supply

Power PS Supply

Power PS Supply

Pack RST

24 V Pwr Supply 24 V Pwr Supply 24 V Pwr Supply JPDD PS runs from one of 3 sources DC Power Distribution Boards JPDE 24VDC JPDD DC Power DC Power

AC Power Selector Board

JPDR Select 1 of 2

AC Input

Local AC Power Distribution Boards JPDA AC Power AC Power

AC Input

JPDB 115/230VAC x2

JPDA

125 V Battery

JPDF 125VDC

JPDD

DC Power DC Power

JPDD Core Circuits DACA DACA Branch Circuits

AC to DC Converter Modules

Mark VIe PDM Components

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Chapter 2 System Architecture • 2-9

Communications
Unit Data Highway (UDH)
The UDH connects to the Mark VIe controller and communicates with the HMI or HMI/Data Server. The network media is UTP or fiber-optic Ethernet. Redundant cable operation is optional and, if supplied, unit operation continues to function even if one cable is faulted. Dual cable networks still comprise one logical network. Similar to the plant data highway (PDH), the UDH can have redundant, separately powered network switches, and fiber-optic communication. UDH command data can be replicated to three controllers. The UDH communicator transmits UDH data (refer to the section, UDH Communicator). Note The UDH network supports the Ethernet Global Data (EGD) protocol for communication with other Mark VIe control, Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG), Excitation Control System, Static Starter, and Balance of Plant (BOP) control.

Plant Data Highway (PDH)
The optional PDH connects the CIMPLICITY HMI/data server with remote operator stations, printers, historians, and other customer computers. It does not connect directly to the Mark VIe control. The media is UTP or fiber-optic Ethernet running at 10/100 Mbps, using the TCP/IP protocol. Redundant cables are required by some systems, but these form part of one single logical network. The hardware consists of two redundant Ethernet switches with optional fiber-optic outputs for longer distances, such as to the central control room. On smaller systems, the PDH and the UDH may physically be the same network, as long as there is no peer-to-peer control on the UDH.

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IONet
Communication between the controller(s) and the I/O packs is through the internal IONet. This is a 100 MB Ethernet network available in single, dual, and triple configurations. EGD and other protocols are used for communication. The I/O packs multicast their inputs to the controllers. The controllers broadcast their outputs to the I/O packs each frame.
Plant Data Highway HMI Ethernet TCP/IP I/O Pack ToolboxST BPPB Supply Processor 2 Ethernet Data Acquisition Card
General Purpose I/O Discrete I/O Analog I/O Thermocouples & RTDs Pulse I/O Communications Turbine Specific I/O Speed & Overspeed Servo Control Vibration & Position Synchronizing Combustion Monitor PLU and EVA

Operator & Maintenance Station Unit Data Highway

100MB Ethernet GE Control Systems

Controller
P R

Controller

Controller

PS Opt.

O
C

Dual Option
PS

Triple Option

Terminal Board Terminal Block

Switch

IONet – 100MB Ethernet

I/O Pack

Terminal Block

Only industrial grade switches that meet the codes, standards, performance, and environmental criteria for industrial applications are used for the IONet. This also includes an operating temperature of -30°C to 65°C (-22 °F to 149 °F). Switches have provisions for redundant 10 to 30 V dc power sources (200/400 mA) and are DIN-rail mounted. LEDs indicate the status of the IONet link, speed, activity, and duplex.

Human-Machine Interface (HMI)
Typical HMIs are computers running the Windows operating system with ® communication drivers for the data highways, and CIMPLICITY operator display software. The operator initiates commands from the real-time graphic displays, and views real-time turbine data and alarms on the CIMPLICITY graphic displays. Detailed I/O diagnostics and system configuration are available using the ToolboxST software. An HMI can be configured as a server or viewer, containing tools and utility programs. An HMI can be linked to one data highway, or redundant network interface boards can be used to link the HMI to both data highways for greater reliability. The HMI can be cabinet, control console, or table-mounted.
®

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Chapter 2 System Architecture • 2-11

Servers
CIMPLICITY servers collect data on the UDH and use the PDH to communicate with viewers. Multiple servers can be used to provide redundancy. Note Redundant data servers are optional, and if supplied, communication with the viewers continues even if one server fails.

Control Operator Interface (COI)
The COI consists of a set of product and application specific operator displays running on a small panel computer (10.4 or 12.1 inch touch screen) hosting embedded Windows operating system. The COI is used where the full capability of a CIMPLICITY HMI is not required. The embedded Windows operating system uses only the components of the operating system required for a specific application. This results in all the power and development advantages of a Windows operating system in a much smaller footprint. Development, installation or modification of requisition ® content requires the ToolboxST . For details, refer to the appropriate toolbox documentation. The COI can be installed in many different configurations, depending on the product line and specific requisition requirements. The only cabling requirements are for power and for the Ethernet connection to the UDH. Network communication is through the integrated auto-sensing 10/100BaseT Ethernet connection. Expansion possibilities for the computer are limited, although it does support connection of external devices through floppy disk drives (FDD), intelligent drive electronics (IDE), and universal serial bus (USB) connections. The COI can be directly connected to the Mark VIe or Excitation Control System, or it can be connected through an EGD Ethernet switch. A redundant topology is available when the controller is ordered with a second Ethernet port.

Interface Features
EGD pages transmitted by the controller are used to drive numeric data displays. The refresh rate depends on the rate at which the controller transmits the pages, and the rate at which the COI refreshes the fields. Both are set at configuration time in the toolbox. The COI uses a touch screen, and no keyboard or mouse is provided. The color of pushbuttons is driven by state feedback conditions. To change the state or condition, press the button. The color of the button changes if the command is accepted and the change implemented by the controller. Touching an input numeric field on the COI touch screen displays a numeric keypad for entering the desired number. An Alarm Window is provided and an alarm is selected by touching it. Then Acknowledge, Silence, Lock, or Unlock the alarm by pressing the corresponding button. Multiple alarms can be selected by dragging through the alarm list. Pressing the button then applies to all selected alarms.

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Link to Distributed Control System (DCS)
External communication links are available to communicate with the plant distributed control system (DCS). This allows the DCS operator access to real time Mark VIe data, and provides for discrete and analog commands to be passed to the Mark VIe control. The Mark VIe control can be linked to the plant DCS in three different ways. • • • Serial Modbus Slave link from the HMI server RS-232C port or from optional dedicated gateway controller to the DCS A high speed 100 Mbaud Ethernet link using the Modbus Slave over TCP/IP protocol A high speed 100 Mbaud Ethernet link using the TCP/IP protocol with an application layer called GEDS Standard Messages (GSM)

GSM supports turbine control commands, Mark VIe data and alarms, the alarm silence function, logical events, and contact input sequence of events records with 1 ms resolution. Modbus is widely used to link to DCS, but Ethernet GSM has the advantage of tighter system integration.
To DCS
Serial Modbus

To DCS
Ethernet Modbus

To DCS
Ethernet GSM

CPCI Controller
x

PLANT DATA HIGHWAY

HMI Server Node
L A N

To Plant Data Highway (PDH) Ethernet
UCVE

Ethernet

x

Ethernet
UNIT DATA HIGHWAY

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Chapter 2 System Architecture • 2-13

EX2100 Exciter
The excitation control system supplies dc power to the field of the synchronous generator. The exciter controls the generator ac terminal voltage and/or the reactive volt-amperes by means of the field current. The exciter is supplied in NEMA 1 freestanding floor-mounted indoor type metal cabinets. The cabinet lineup consists of several cabinets bolted together. Cable entry can be through the top or bottom.

Generator Protection
The generator protection system is mounted in a single, indoor, freestanding cabinet. The enclosure is NEMA 1, and weighs 2500 lbs. The generator panel interfaces to the Mark VIe control with hard-wired I/O, and has an optional Modbus interface to the HMI.

LS2100 Static Starter
The LS2100 static starter system is used to start a gas turbine by running the generator as a starting motor. The LS2100 control, Mark VIe control, and EX2100 excitation control form an integrated static start system. The Mark VIe control supplies the run, torque, and speed setpoint signals to the LS2100 control, which operates in a closed loop control mode to supply variable frequency power to the generator stator. The EX2100 control is controlled by the LS2100 control to regulate the field current during startup. The control cabinet contains a CPCI enclosure containing the Mark VIe CPCI controller. The controller communicates to the UDH and the HMI through onboard I/O network interfaces and through communication ports for field control I/O and ® Modbus. The controller operating system (OS) is QNX Neutrino developed for high-speed, high reliability industrial applications. The field control I/O is used for temperature inputs and diagnostic variables. The LS2100 control cabinet is a ventilated NEMA 1 freestanding enclosure made of 12-gauge sheet steel on a rigid steel frame designed for indoor mounting.

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Control and Protection
Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF)
Mean time between failure (MTBF) is a basic measure of reliability for systems. It is the average failure free operating time, during a particular measurement period under stated conditions. A failure may or may not result in a problem with the overall system depending on any redundancy employed. MTBF is usually specified for each replaceable system component. MTBF roll up of the system components gives the equipment owner the knowledge needed to determine how long the equipment can be expected to operate without failure under given conditions. If it is essential that the equipment does not fail during operation, the owner can use this data to schedule maintenance/replacement of the equipment prior to failure. Alternately, redundant applications could be used preventing system problems when a failure occurs. MTBF data is also used to determine the weak links in a system. The system engineer provides contingency options for those weak links to obtain higher reliability.

Mean Time Between Forced Outage (MTBFO)
Mean time between forced outage (MTBFO) is a measure of system availability, which includes the effects of any fault tolerance that may exist. This average time between failures causes the loss of system functions. The engineer must be very aware of MTBF and MTBFO when designing a reliable continuous system. To maximize the MTBFO, Mark VIe control systems undergo evaluation of all system component MTBF values. The effects of failures and contingency operation are then analyzed to maximizing MTBFO. Continuing operation after a critical system component has failed, a control must have one or more backups in place (redundancy) to improve the MTBFO significantly above that of a simplex control. The simplest method is adding a second component that takes over the critical function when a fault is detected. The redundancy in the system can be either active or standby. The Mark VIe control uses active redundancy and has all components operating simultaneously. Standby redundancy activates backup systems after a failure is detected. Realizing the full benefits of redundancy, a system failure must be detectable for the control to bypass it. In a dual control, gross failures are readily detectable while subtle failures are more difficult to detect. TMR controls, using two out of three voting, are always able to select a valid value when presented with any single failure. Depending on the equipment, the time required to detect the fault and switch to the new component may be hours/minutes/seconds/milliseconds. In the case of fuel-flow control to a turbine, this is required to be done in milliseconds.

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Chapter 2 System Architecture • 2-15

When a redundant control bypasses a failure, it is required that the system annunciate the presence of the failure and that repairs be completed in a timely fashion. The term, mean time to repair (MTTR), refers to the time it takes to identify and repair a given failure. The Mark VIe control is designed to support a MTTR of four hours. This preserves the MTBFO benefits of redundancy resulting in unequaled system reliability. A control is used to run the system as well as detect system failures. In a dual control, configured for one out of two to run, it is often necessary to add dedicated tripping controls for each critical trip system. This is done to yield running reliability while maintaining required tripping reliability. A TMR control normally configures the control for two out of three selection. This yields high running and tripping reliability from the primary control. Additional dedicated tripping controls can be used to achieve even higher tripping reliability, but they must also be TMR in order to preserve running reliability.

Fault Detection
A system offering redundancy can be less reliable than a non-redundant system. The system must be able to detect and annunciate faults so it can be repaired before a forced outage occurs. Fault detection is needed to ensure a component or group of components are operating properly. Fault detection is achieved through one or more of the following methods. • • • • • • Operator inspection of the process Operator inspection of the equipment. Special hardware circuits to monitor operation Hardware and software watchdogs Software logic Software heartbeats

Complex control systems have many potential failure points. This can be very costly and time consuming in order to create foolproof fault detection. Failure to control the outputs of a system is the most damaging. Fault detection must be determined as close to the output as possible in order to achieve the highest level of reliability. The Mark VIe, using triple redundant controllers and I/O modules, a high level of detection and fault masking is provided by voting the outputs of all three controllers and monitoring discrepancies.

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All Mark VIe systems benefit from the fault detection design of the I/O packs. Every pack includes function-specific fault detection methods attempting to confirm correct operation. This is made possible by the powerful local processing that is present in each input and output pack. Some examples of this include: • Analog to digital (A/D) converters are compared to a reference standard each conversion cycle. If the converted calibration input signal falls outside of acceptable ranges, the pack declares bad health. Analog output 4-20 mA signals use a small current-sense resistor on the output terminal board. This signal is read back through a separate A/D converter and compared to the commanded value. A difference between the commanded and actual value exceeding an acceptable level results in the output signal being declared in bad health. Discrete input opto-isolators are periodically forced to an on condition, then forced off. This is done independently of the actual input signal and is fast enough not to interfere with the sequence of events (SOE) time capture. If any signal path is stuck and does not respond to the test command, the signal is declared in bad health.

Refer to the specific pack diagnostic information, in GEH-6721 Volume II, for further information.

Online Repair
When a component failure is detected and healed in the control system on a critical path, a potential failure has been avoided. Subsequent actions can include: Option 1- Continue running until the backup component fails. Option 2 - Continue running until the system is brought down in a controlled manner to replace the failed component. Option 3 - Replace the component online. Option 1 is not recommended. A redundant system, where the MTTR is infinite can have a lower total reliability than a simplex system. Option 2 is a valid procedure for some processes needing predictable mission times. Many controlled processes cannot be easily scheduled for a shut down. Note As MTTR increases from the expected four hours to infinite, the system reliability can decline from significantly greater down to less than a simplex system reliability. Repair should be accomplished as soon as possible.

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Chapter 2 System Architecture • 2-17

Option 3 is required to get the maximum benefit from redundant systems with long mission times. In dual or triple redundant Mark VIe controller applications, the controllers and redundant I/O packs can be replaced online. To ensure online repair capability, control systems must have their redundancy tested after installation and after any system modifications. Refer to the requisition specific system application documentation/control specification (if available) for redundancy testing procedures.
Probability of Failure

Simplex

TMR
X system component failure X online repair X X system online component repair failure

Time

Forced Outage Probability versus Time (Conventional TMR)

Probability of Failure

Simplex Mark VIe TMR
X system component failure X online repair X X system online component repair failure

Time

Forced Outage Probability versus Time (Mark VIe TMR)

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Designated Controller
Although three controllers, R, S, and T, contain identical hardware and software, some of the functions performed are unique. A single designated controller can perform the following functions: • • • Supply initialization data to the other two controllers at start-up Keep the master time clock Supply variable state information to the other controllers if one fails

For the purposes of deciding which controller is to be the designated controller, each controller nominates itself on a weighting algorithm. The nominating values are voted among the controllers and the majority value is used. If there is a tie, or no majority, the priority is R, then S, and then T. If a designated controller is powered down and later powered up, the designated controller will move and not come back if all controllers are equal. This ensures that a toggling designated controller is not automatically reselected. Designated controller selection is based on: • • • • Control state UDH connectivity IONet connectivity NVRAM health

UDH Communicator
Controller communications takes place across the UDH. A UDH communicator is a controller selected to provide the panel data to that network. This data includes both control signals (EGD) and alarms. Each controller has an independent, physical connection to the UDH. In the event that the UDH fractures and a controller becomes isolated from its companion controllers, it assumes the role of UDH communicator for that network fragment. For one panel there can be only one designated controller, while there could be multiple UDH communicators. The designated controller is always a UDH communicator. When a controller does not receive external EGD data from its UDH connection, it may request the data be forwarded across the IONet from another UDH communicator. One or more communicators supply the data and the requesting controller uses the last data set received. Only the external EGD data used in sequencing by the controllers is forwarded in this manner.

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Chapter 2 System Architecture • 2-19

Output Processing
The system outputs are the portion of the calculated data transferred to the external hardware interfaces and then to the various actuators controlling the process. TMR outputs are voted in the output voting hardware. Any system can output individual signals through simplex hardware. The three voting controllers calculate TMR system outputs independently. Each controller sends the output to its associated I/O hardware (for example, the R controller sends output to the R I/O). The three independent outputs are then combined into a single output by a voting mechanism. Different signal types require different methods of establishing the voted value. The signal outputs from the three controllers fall into three groups: • • • Outputs are driven as single ended non-redundant outputs from individual I/O networks Outputs exist on all three I/O networks and are merged into a single signal by the output hardware Outputs exist on all three I/O networks and are output separately to the controlled process. This process may contain external voting hardware.

For normal relay outputs, the three signals feed a voting relay driver, which operates a single relay per signal for critical protective signals. The three signals drive three independent relays, with the relay contacts connected in the typical six-contact voting configuration.
Terminal Board, Relay Outputs I/O Board Channel R I/O Board Channel S I/O Board Channel T Voted Relay Driver Coil
V

Relay Output

Terminal Board, High Reliability Relay Outputs I/O Board Channel R I/O Board Channel S I/O Board Channel T Relay KR Coil Driver Relay Driver Relay Driver KS Coil KT KR Coil KR KS

KS KT

Relay Output

KT

Relay Output Circuits for Protection

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For servo outputs, the three independent current signals drive a three-coil servo actuator, which adds them by magnetic flux summation., as shown in the following figure. Failure of a servo driver is sensed and a deactivating relay contact is closed to short the servo coil.
I/O Boards Channel R D/A Servo Driver Output Terminal Board Coils On Servo Valve

Servo Driver Channel S D/A

Channel T

Servo Driver D/A Hydraulic Servo Valve
TMR Circuit to Combine Three Analog Currents into a Single Output

The following figure shows 4-20 mA signals combined through a 2/3 current sharing circuit that allows the three signals to be voted to one. Failure of a 4-20 mA output is sensed and a deactivating relay contact is opened.
I/O Boards 4-20 mA Driver Channel R D/A Current Feedback

4-20 mA Driver Channel S D/A

Output Load

4-20 mA Driver Channel T D/A Output Terminal Board
TMR Circuits for Voted 4-20 mA Outputs

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Chapter 2 System Architecture • 2-21

Communication Loss
Each output pack monitors the IONet for valid commands from one or two controllers. In the event that a valid command is not received within an expected time the pack declares the communication as being lost. Upon loss of communication the pack action is configurable. The pack can continue to hold the last commanded value indefinitely or it can be commanded to go to a specified output state. The default action is to go to a power-down state, the same as if the power were removed from the pack. For critical loops, the default action is the only acceptable choice. The other options are provided for non-critical loops, where running liability may be enhanced by an alternate output. Refer to specific pack documentation in GEH-6721 Volume II for additional information.

Input Processing
All inputs are available to all three controllers, but there are several ways that the input data is handled. For input signals existing in only one I/O module, all three controllers use the same value as common input without voting, as shown in the table below. Signals that appear in all three I/O channels may be voted to create a single input value. The triple inputs may come from three independent sensors. They can also be created from a single sensor by hardware fanning at the terminal board.
I/O Topology TMR Dual Simplex

Simplex Dual

1 pack- 1 IONet* 1 pack- 2 IONet 2 pack- 1 IONet 3 pack- 1/1/2 IONet NA

TMR

Fanned – 3 packs, 1 IONet/pack Dedicated – 3 packs, IONet/pack

*The number of IONets in a system must equal the number of controllers.

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For any of the above input configurations, multiple inputs can be used to provide application redundancy. For example, three Simplex inputs can be used and selected in application code to provide sensor redundancy. The Mark VIe control provides configuration capability for input selection and voting using a simple, highly reliable and efficient selection/voting/fault detection algorithm to reduce application configuration effort. This maximizes the reliability options for a given set of sensor inputs and provides output voting hardware compatibility. All applicable subsets of reliability options are available on a per terminal board basis for any given Mark VIe topology. For example, in a TMR controller, all simplex and dual option capabilities are also provided. While each IONet is associated with a specific controller that is responsible for transmitting outputs, all controllers see all IONets. The result is that for a simplex input the data is not only seen by the output owner of the IONet, it is seen in parallel by any other controllers. The benefit of this is that loss of a controller associated with a simplex input does NOT result in the loss of that data. The simplex data continues to arrive at other controllers in the system.
Terminal Board I/O pack IONet Controller

Simplex - 1 pack - 1 IONet

Terminal Board

I/O pack

IONet IONet

Controller Controller

Dual -1 pack- 2 IONet
Terminal Board I/O pack IONet IONet Controller Controller

I/O pack

Dual - 2 pack- 1 IONet
Terminal Board I/O pack I/O pack
I/O pack IONet

Controller Controller

Dual - 3 pack- 1/1/2 IONet

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Chapter 2 System Architecture • 2-23

Terminal Board

I/O pack I/O pack I/O pack

IONet IONet IONet

Controller Controller Controller

TMR - Fanned – 3 packs, 1 IONet/pack
Terminal Board Terminal Board Terminal Board I/O pack I/O pack I/O pack IONet IONet IONet Controller Controller Controller

TMR - Dedicated – 3 packs, IONet/pack

A single input can be brought to the three controllers without any voting as shown in the following figure. This is used for non-critical, generic I/O, such as monitoring 420 mA inputs, contacts, thermocouples, and resistance temperature devices (RTD).
Field Wiring Terminal Board Direct Input I/O Pack Signal Condition
Alarm Limit

IONet

Controller Control System Database

Sensor

Exchange

A

SC

R

S

T
Single Input to Three Controllers, Not Voted

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One sensor can be fanned to three I/O boards as above for medium-integrity applications. This is used for sensors with medium-to-high reliability. Three such circuits are needed for three sensors. Typical inputs are 4-20 mA inputs, contacts, thermocouples, and RTDs.
Field Wiring Terminal Board Fanned Input I/O Pack Signal Condition IONet Controller Control System Database

Sensor

Exchange

A

SC R SC S SC T

R Vote S Vote T Vote

Voted (A)

Voted (A)

Voted (A)

One Sensor with Fanned Input and Software Voting

Three independent sensors can be brought into the controllers without voting to provide the individual sensor values to the application. Median values can be selected in the controller if required. This configuration, shown in the following figure, is used for special applications only.
Field Wiring Terminal Board Common Input I/O Pack IONet Controller

Sensors

Signal Condi tion
Alarm Limit

Exchange

No Vote

Median Select Block
A B C A B C A B C

Control System Database Median (A,B,C)
A B C

A B

SC R SC S SC T

MS R MS S MS T

Median (A,B,C)
A B C

Median (A,B,C)
A B C

C

Three Independent Sensors with Common Input, Not Voted

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Chapter 2 System Architecture • 2-25

The following figure shows three sensors, each one fanned and then software implemented fault tolerance (SIFT) voted. This provides a high reliability system for current and contact inputs, and temperature sensors.
Field Wiring Terminal Board Fanned Input I/O Pack IONet Prevote Voter Controller

Sensors

Signal Condition Alarm Limit

Exchange

Control System Database Voted "A" Control Voted "B" Block Voted "C" Voted "A" Control Voted "B" Block Voted "C" Voted "A" Control Voted "B" Block Voted "C"

A B

SC R
Same

R Vote S Vote T Vote

SC S SC T

C

Same

Three Sensors, Each One Fanned and Voted, for Medium-to-High Reliability Applications

Highly reliable speed input applications are brought in as dedicated inputs and SIFT voted. The following figure shows this configuration. Inputs such as speed control and overspeed are not fanned so there is a complete separation of inputs with no hardware cross coupling which could propagate a failure. RTDs, thermocouples, contact inputs, and 4-20 mA signals can also be configured this way.
Field Wiring Terminal Board I/O Pack IONet Controller

Sensors

Dedicated Signal Input Condition
Alarm Limit

Exchange

Prevote Voter

Control System Database Voted (A,B,C)

A B

SC R SC S SC T

R Vote S Vote T Vote

Voted (A,B,C)

C

Voted (A,B,C)

Three Sensors with Dedicated Inputs, Software Voted for High Reliability Applications

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State Exchange
To keep multiple controllers in synchronization, the Mark VIe control efficiently exchanges the necessary state information through the IONet. State information includes calculated values such as timers, counters, integrators, and logic signals such as bi-stable relays, momentary logic with seal-in, and cross-linked relay circuits. State information is voted in TMR controllers and follows the designated controller in dual or faulted TMR systems.

Voting
Voting in the Mark VIe control is separated into analog and logic voting. Additionally, fault detection mechanisms directly choose owned inputs and designated states.

Median Value Analog Voting
The analog signals are converted to a floating-point format by the I/O pack. The voting operation occurs in each of the three controller modules (R, S, and T). Each controller receives a copy of the data from the other two channels. For each voted data point, the controller has three values including its own. The median value voter selects the middle value of the three as the voter output. This is the most likely of the three values to be closest to the true value.
Median Value Voting Examples Sensor Inputs Sensor Median Input Selected Value Value 981 Sensor Median Input Selected Value Value 910 Sensor Median Input Selected Value Value 1020

Sensor 1 Sensor 2 Sensor 3
Configured TMR Deviation = 30

985

981

985

978

985

985

978

978

978

No TMR Diagnostic

TMR Diagnostic on Input 1

TMR Diagnostic on Input 1

Median Value Voting Examples with Normal and Bad Inputs

Two Out of Three Logic Voter
Each of the controllers has three copies of the data for the logic voter. Voting is a simple logic process, inputting the three values and finding the two values that agree.

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Chapter 2 System Architecture • 2-27

Disagreement Detector
A disagreement detector continuously scans the input prevote input data sets and produces an alarm bit if a disagreement is detected between the three values. Any disagreement between the prevote logical signals generates an alarm. For analog signals, comparisons are made between the voted value and each of the three prevote values. The delta for each value is compared with a user programmable limit value. The limit can be set as required to avoid nuisance alarms, but give indication that one of the prevote values has moved out of normal range. Each controller is required to compare only its prevote value with the voted value; for example, R compares only the R prevote value with the voted value. Nominal, analog voting limits are set at a 5% adjustment range, but can be configured to any number for each analog input. Note Failure of one of the three voted input circuits has no effect on the controlled process since the fault is masked by SIFT. Without a disagreement detector, a failure could go unnoticed until second failure occurs

Forcing
The controller has a feature called forcing. This allows the maintenance technician using ToolboxST to set analog or logical variables to forced values. Variables remain at the forced value until unforced. Both compute and input processing respect forcing. Any applied forcing is preserved through power down or reboot of the controller.

Peer I/O
In addition to the data from the I/O modules, there is a class of data coming from other controllers in other cabinets connected through the UDH network. For integrated systems, this network provides a data path between multiple turbine controllers and possibly the controls for the generator, the exciter, or the HRSG/boiler. Selected signals from the controller database can be mapped into pages of peer outputs that are broadcast periodically on the UDH I/O to peer controllers. For TMR systems, the UDH communicator performs this action using the data from its internal database. In the event of a redundant UDH network failure, the controller will request data over the remaining network, the I/O Net.

Command Action
Using IONet connectivity, the controller copies command traffic from the UDH across all controllers. This provides fault tolerance for dual UDH networks.

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Rate of Response
Mark VIe control can run selected control programs at the rate of 100 times per second, (10 ms frame rate) for simplex, dual, and TMR systems. For example, bringing the data from the interface modules to the control module and voting takes 3 ms, running the control program takes 4 ms, and sending the data, back to the interface modules takes 3 ms.
Start of Frame (SOF) One Frame Time (10 ms)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SOF

Control Module CPU Control Module Voting Control Module Comm I/O Module Comm State Vote

Background

Compute Control Sequence & Blocks

Background

Vote
Fast R1 Fast R2
Prevote Compare

Fast R1

Fast R2

Out

State Xchg.

Input Input
Fast Fast Background
Receive

Gather Send Send
Scale Calc Set Output

Scatter Background
Scan Input Scale Calc Write
Data

I/O Module Board Read Data

Just in Time to Start

TMR System Timing Diagram for System with Remote I/O

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Chapter 2 System Architecture • 2-29

Turbine Protection
Turbine overspeed protection is available in three levels; control, primary, and emergency. Control protection comes through closed loop speed control using the fuel/steam valves. Primary overspeed protection is provided by the controller. The TTUR terminal board and PTUR I/O pack bring in a shaft speed signal to each controller where the median signal is selected. If the controller determines a trip condition, it sends the trip signal to the TRPG terminal board through the PTUR I/O board. The three PTUR outputs are 2/3 voted in three-relay voting circuit (one for each trip solenoid) and power is removed from the solenoids. The following figure shows the primary and emergency levels of protection.
Softw are Voting High Speed Shaft R Terminal Board Controller R & PTUR Controller S & PTUR Controller T & PTUR

TRPG Terminal Board Hardware Voting (Relays)
Primary Protection

High Speed Shaft

S

High Speed Shaft

T

Magnetic Speed Pickups (3 used)

Trip Solenoids (Up to three)

High Speed Shaft

R8

PPRO R8

TREG Terminal Board Hardware Voting (Relays)
Emergency Protection

SPRO High Speed Shaft
S8

PPRO S8

SPRO High Speed Shaft
T8

PPRO T8

SPRO Magnetic Speed Pickups (3 used) Trip Signal to Servo Terminal Board TSVC

Primary and Emergency Overspeed Protection

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Emergency overspeed protection is provided by the independent triple redundant PPRO protection system shown in the preceding figure. This uses three shaft speed signals from magnetic pickups, one for each protection module. These are brought into SPRO, a terminal board dedicated to the protection system. Each PPRO independently determines when to trip, and the signals are passed to the TREG terminal board. TREG operates in a similar way to TRPG, voting the three trip signals in relay circuits and removing power from the trip solenoids. This system contains no software voting, making the three PPRO modules completely independent. The only link between PPRO and the other parts of the control system is the IONet cable, which transmits status information. Additional protection for simplex systems is provided by the protection module through the Servo Terminal Board, TSVC. Plug J1 on TREG is wired to plug JD1 on TSVC, and if this is energized, relay K1 disconnects the servo output current and applies a bias to force the control valve closed.

Redundancy Options
The Mark VIe control provides scaleable levels of redundancy. The basic system is a single (simplex) controller with simplex I/O and one network. The dual system has two controllers, singular or fanned TMR I/O and dual networks, which provides added reliability and online repair options. The TMR system has three controllers, singular or fanned TMR I/O, three networks, and state voting between controllers providing the maximum fault detection and availability.

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Chapter 2 System Architecture • 2-31

Simplex Controller
The simplex control architecture contains one controller connected to an Ethernet interface through the Ethernet network (IONet). No redundancy is provided and no online repair of critical functions is available. Online replacement of non-critical I/O (that where the loss of the I/O does not stop the process) is possible. Each I/O pack delivers an input packet at the beginning of the frame on its primary network. The controller sees the inputs from all I/O packs, performs application code, and delivers a broadcast output packet(s) containing the outputs for all I/O modules. The following diagram shows typical simplex controller architecture.
UDH

R
Blank Face Plate Blank Face Plate Blank Face Plate CPC I

PS

PS

Controller

Fan Tray

R IONet

I/O Network

I/O Modules
T B T B T B

Simplex Mark VIe Control System

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Dual Controllers
The dual control architecture contains two controllers, two IONets, and singular or fanned TMR I/O modules. The following diagram shows a dual Mark VIe control system.
UDH UDH

R
CPC I Blank Face Plate Blank Face Plate Blank Face Plate PS

S
CPC I Blank Face Plate Blank Face Plate Blank Face Plate PS

PS

PS

Controllers

Fan Tray

Fan Tray

R IONet S IONet

I/O Networks

T B

T B

T B

T B

T B

T B

A

B

C

D

Dual Mark VIe Control System

Note For non-redundant UDH networks, there is only one UDH switch and both controllers are connected to it.

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Chapter 2 System Architecture • 2-33

T B

I/O Modules

The dual control Mark VIe architecture reliability can be significantly better than the single controller. All of the network and controller components are redundant and can be repaired online. The I/O reliability can be mixed and matched meeting reliability needs described in the I/O option sections below. In a dual Mark VIe control system both controllers receive inputs from the I/O modules on both networks and transmit outputs on their respective IONet continuously. When a controller or network component fails the system does not require fault detection nor fail over time to continue operating. The Mark VIe controller or pack listens for the data on both networks at power up. The channel that delivers the first valid packet becomes the preferred network. As long as the data arrives on that channel the pack/controller uses this data. When the preferred channel does not deliver the data in a frame, the other channel becomes the preferred channel as long as valid data is supplied. This prevents a given I/O pack/controller from bouncing back and forth between two sources of data. This does mean that different I/O packs/controllers may have separate preferred sources of data but this can also happen if any component fails. In a dual control system, the application software in each controller tries to produce the same results. After many iterations of the application software, it is possible for the internal data values to differ due to mathematical round off, and different past history (power-up). To converge this data, the internal data (state) variables are taken from the designated controller and transmitted to the non-designated controller for its use. This is known as state exchange. State variables are any internal variables not immediately derived from input or control constant. Any variable that is used prior to being re-calculated is an internal state variable. This principle can be shown in the following two equations: A = B+C C = 3*D Assume B and D are inputs and A and C are intermediate values. Since C is used prior to being calculated, the value of C during the previous scan retains some state information. Therefore, C is a state variable that must be updated in the nondesignated controller if both controllers are to remain synchronized. In the Mark VIe controller, Boolean state variables are updated on every control frame. The analog state variable updates are multiplexed. A subset of analog state variables is updated every control frame. The controller rolls through each subset until all state variables are transmitted.

Dual I/O Options
In a dual system, the level of I/O reliability can be varied to meet the application needs for specific I/O. Not all I/O has to be dual redundant.

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Single Pack Dual Network I/O Module (SPDN) I/O option A uses a single pack dual network I/O module. This configuration is typically used for non-critical single sensor I/O. A single sensor connects to a single set of acquisition electronics which is then connected to two networks. • • Single data acquisition Redundant network

The I/O pack delivers input data on both networks at the beginning of the frame and receives output data from both controllers at the end of the frame. Dual- Single Pack Single Network I/O Module (2SPSN) I/O option B uses two single pack, single network I/O modules. This configuration is typically used for inputs where there are multiple sensors monitoring the same process points. Two sensors are connected to two independent I/O modules. • • • • Redundant sensors Redundant data acquisition Redundant network Online repair

Each I/O pack delivers input data on a separate network at the beginning of the frame and receives output data from separate controllers at the end of the frame. Dual Pack Dual Network I/O Module (DPDN) I/O option C is a special case for inputs only, using a dual pack, dual network module. A fanned input terminal board can be populated with two packs providing redundant data acquisition for a set of inputs. • • • Redundant data acquisition Redundant network Online repair

Each I/O pack delivers input data on a separate network at the beginning of the frame. Triple Pack Dual Network I/O Module (TPDN) I/O option D is a special case mainly intended for outputs, but also applies to inputs. The special output voting/driving features of the TMR I/O modules can be utilized in a dual control system. The inputs from these modules are voted in the controller. • • • • Redundant data acquisition Output voting in hardware Redundant network Online repair

Two of the I/O packs are connected to separate networks delivering input data and receiving output data from separate controllers. The third I/O pack is connected to both networks. This pack delivers inputs on both networks and receives outputs from both controllers.

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Chapter 2 System Architecture • 2-35

Triple Controllers (TMR)
The TMR control architecture contains three controllers, three IONets, and singular or fanned TMR I/O Modules. The following diagram shows a TMR Mark VIe control system.

UDH

UDH

R
UCCA Blank Face Plate Blank Face Plate Blank Face Plate

S
UCCA Blank Face Plate Blank Face Plate Blank Face Plate PS UCCA Blank Face Plate

T
Blank Face Plate Blank Face Plate PS

PS

PS

PS

PS

Controllers

Fan Tray

Fan Tray

Fan Tray

R IONet S IONet T IONet

I/O Networks

I/O Modules
T B T B T B

TMR Mark VIe Control System

Note For non-redundant UDH networks, there is only one UDH switch connecting all three controllers.

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The TMR Mark VIe control architecture reliability/availability is much better than the dual controller due to increased fault detection capability. In addition to all of the dual redundant features, the TMR controller provides three independent outputs to all TMR I/O modules and the state variables between controllers are voted rather than jammed. In a TMR Mark VIe control system all three controllers receive inputs from the I/O modules on all networks and transmit outputs on their respective IONet continuously. If a controller or network component fails, the system does not require fault detection or fail over time to continue operating. All controllers transmit their copy of the state variables after the output packet has been transmitted. Each controller takes the three sets of state variables and votes the data to get the values for the next run cycle.

TMR I/O Options
In a TMR system, the level of I/O reliability can be varied meeting the application needs for specific I/O. Not all I/O has to be dual redundant. Single Pack Dual Network I/O Module (SPDN) See the section, Dual Controllers. Dual-Single Pack Single Network I/O Module (2SPSN) See the section, Dual Controllers. Dual Pack Dual Network I/O Module (DPDN) See the section, Dual Controllers. Triple Pack Dual Network I/O Module (TPDN) I/O option D is a typical TMR I/O module. The inputs are normally fanned from the screw inputs to three separate I/O packs. The outputs are usually voted in hardware. • • • • Controller state voting of input data Output voting from three independent controllers in hardware Redundant network Online repair

Each of the I/O packs is connected to a separate network. Each pack delivers input data and receives output data on this network.

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Chapter 2 System Architecture • 2-37

Notes

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CHAPTER 3

Chapter 3 Networks
Introduction
This chapter defines the various networks in the control system that communicate with the operator interfaces, servers, controllers, and I/O. This chapter also provides information on fiber-optic cables, including components and guidelines.

Network Overview
The Mark VIe control system is based on a hierarchy of networks used to interconnect the individual nodes. These networks separate the different communication traffic into layers according to their individual functions. This hierarchy extends from the I/O modules and controllers, which provide real-time control of the process, through the HMI, and up to facility wide monitoring. Each layer uses industry standard components and protocols to simplify integration between different platforms and improve overall reliability and maintenance. The layers are designated as the enterprise, supervisory, control, and I/O, and are described in the following sections. Note Ethernet is used for all Mark VIe data highways and the I/O network.

GEH-6721D Mark VIe Control System Guide Volume I

Chapter 3 Networks • 3-1

Network Layers
To Optional Customer Network

Enterprise Layer

HMI Viewer

HMI Viewer

Router Field Support
PLANT DATA H IGHWAY P LANT DATA H IGHWAY

Supervisory Layer

HMI Servers

Control Layer
U NIT Turbine Control TMR
Mark VIe T
Mark VIe

U NIT D ATA HIGHWAY D ATA H IGHWAY

Generator Protection
GPP S
Mark VIe

BOP
Mark VIe

Exciter
EX2100 Static Starter Mark VI

R
Terminal Board

IONet Layer
R IONET S IONET T IONET

Mark VIe Control as Part of Integrated Control System

The Enterprise layer serves as an interface from specific process control into a facility wide or group control layer. This higher layer is provided by the customer. The network technology used in this layer is generally determined by the customer and may include either local area network (LAN) or wide area network (WAN) technologies, depending on the size of the facility. The Enterprise layer is generally separated from other control layers through a router, which isolates the traffic on both sides of the interface. Where unit control equipment is required to communicate with a facility wide or DCS system, GE uses either a Modbus interface or a TCP/IP protocol known as GE Standard Messaging (GSM). The Supervisory layer provides operator interface capabilities such as coordination of the HMI viewer and server nodes, as well as other functions like data collection (Historian), remote monitoring, and vibration analysis. This layer may be used as a single or dual network configuration. A dual network provides redundant Ethernet switches and cables to prevent complete network failure if a single component fails. The network is known as the Plant Data Highway (PDH).

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GEH-6721D Mark VIe Control System Guide Volume I

The Control layer provides continuous operation of the process equipment. The controllers on this layer are highly coordinated to support continuous operation without interruption. The controllers operate at a fundamental rate called the frame rate, which can be between 6-100 Hz. These controllers use EGD to exchange data between nodes. Various levels of redundancy for the connected equipment are supported by the supervisory and control layers.
Printer Printer Type 1 Redundancy Non-critical nodes such as printers can be connected without using additional communication devices.
Network Switch B Network Switch A

Redundant Switch
Network Switch B Network Switch A

Type 2 Redundancy Nodes that are only available in Simplex configuration can be connected with a redundant switch. The switch automatically senses a failed network component and fails-over to a secondary link.

Controller

Controller

Network Switch B Network Switch A

Dual

<R>

<S>

<T>

Type 3 Redundancy Nodes such as dual or TMR controllers are tightly coupled so that each node can send the same information. By connecting each controller to alternate networks, data is still available if a controller or network fails.

Network Switch B Network Switch A

TMR

Network Switch B Network Switch A

Type 4 Redundancy This type provides redundant controllers and redundant network links for reliability. This is useful if the active controller network interface cannot sense a failed network condition.

Redundant Networks for Different Applications

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Chapter 3 Networks • 3-3

Data Highways
Plant Data Highway (PDH)
The PDH is the plant level supervisory network. The PDH connects the HMI server with remote viewers, printers, historians, and external interfaces. The PDH has no direct connection to the Mark VIe controllers, which communicate over the unit data highway (UDH). Using the Ethernet with the TCP/IP protocol over the PDH provides an open system for third-party interfaces. The following figure shows the equipment connections to the PDH.
GT #1 PEECC
220VAC UPS
EN ET 0 /1 ENET 0/0 CONSOLE AUX

GT #2 PEECC
SW1
PDH UDH ADH TRUNK

GT #3 PEECC
SW9
PDH

SW5
PDH UDH ADH TRUNK

UDH ADH TRUNK

CROSSOVER UTP

CROSSOVER UTP

CROSSOVER UTP

220VAC UPS SW2
PDH UDH ADH TRUNK

220VAC UPS SW6
PDH UDH ADH TRUNK

220VAC UPS SW10
PDH

21
A B A B A

UDH ADH TRUNK

NIC1 NIC2

NIC1

A B

A B

A B

A B

NIC1 NIC2

NIC1 NIC2

M

M
uOSM SEE NOTE 6 PEECC Rack - uOSM UPS BY GE

M

M

M

M

GT1_SVR PC Desk 18in. Desktop LCD(dual) Mouse

GT2_SVR PC Desk 18in. Desktop LCD(dual) Mouse

GT3_SVR PC Desk 18in. Desktop LCD(dual) Mouse

220VAC UPS

220VAC

220VAC UPS

220VAC UPS

Customer Control Room
SW14 SW13 220VAC UPS SW15
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

220VAC UPS

SW16

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

PDH

UDH

ADH

TRUNK

PDH

UDH

ADH

TRUNK

PDH

UDH

PDH

UDH

GSM 1

GSM 2 GSM 3
4
A B A B A B A B

GSM 2 GSM 3 GSM 1
A B A B

NIC1 NIC2

NIC1 NIC2

NIC1 NIC2

M

M

M

M

M

M

CRM1_SVR 18in. Desktop LCD(dual) Mouse

CRM2_SVR 18in. Desktop LCD(dual) Mouse

CRM3_SVR 18in. Desktop LCD(dual) Mouse

220VAC UPS

220VAC UPS

220VAC UPS

Typical Plant Data Highway Layout

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GEH-6721D Mark VIe Control System Guide Volume I

PDH Network Features

Feature
Type of Network Speed

Description
Ethernet CSMA/CD in a single or redundant star configuration 100 Mb/s, Full duplex

Media and Distance Ethernet 100BaseTX for switch to controller/device connections. The cable is 22 to 26 AWG with unshielded twisted pair, category 5e EIA/TIA 568 A/B. Distance is up to 100 meters. Ethernet 100BaseFX, with fiber-optic cable, for distances up to 2 km (1.24 miles)*. Number of Nodes Protocols Up to 1024 nodes supported Ethernet-compatible protocol, typically TCP/IP-based. Use GE Standard Messaging (GSM) or Modbus over Ethernet for external communications. 32-bit cyclic redundancy code (CRC) appended to each Ethernet packet plus additional checks in protocol used. Various third-party interfaces are available; GSM and Modbus are the most common.

Message Integrity External Interfaces

Note *Fiber-optic cable provides the best signal quality, completely free of electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio frequency interference (RFI). Large point-to-point distances are possible, and since the cable does not carry electrical charges, ground potential problems are eliminated.

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Chapter 3 Networks • 3-5

Unit Data Highway (UDH)
The UDH is an Ethernet-based network that provides direct or broadcast peer-to-peer communications between controllers and an operator/maintenance interface. It uses EGD, which is a message-based protocol for sharing information with multiple nodes based on UDP/IP. UDH network hardware is similar to the PDH hardware. The following figure shows redundant UDH networks with connections to the controllers and HMI servers.
GT #1 PEECC
Mark VI T S R
SW1
PDH

GT #1 - A192
EX2100 M1 M2
SW3
PDH UD H

GT #2 PEECC
Mark VI T S R B
SW5
PDH

GT #2 - A192
EX2100 M1 M2
SW7
PDH

GT #3 PEECC
Mark VI T S R B
SW9
PDH

GT #3 - A192
EX2100 M1 M2
SW11
PDH

LCI
TRANSCEIVER

LCI
TRANSCEIVER

LCI
TRANSCEIVER

A
220VAC UPS

A
220VAC UPS

A
220VAC UPS

B

UD H

UD H

UDH AD H AD H TRU NK TRU NK

UDH AD H AD H TRU NK TRU NK

UDH AD H AD H TRU NK TRU NK

CROSSOVER UTP

CROSSOVER UTP

CROSSOVER UTP

220VAC UPS SW2
PDH

220VAC UPS SW4
PDH U DH

220VAC UPS

220VAC UPS SW8
PDH

220VAC UPS

220VAC UPS SW12
PDH

SW6
PDH U DH

SW10
PDH

U DH

U DH

U DH ADH ADH TR UNK TRU NK

U DH

ADH

ADH

ADH T RUNK

ADH

TR UNK

TR UNK

TRU NK

A B

A B

A B

A B

A B

A B

NIC1 NIC2

NIC1 NIC2

NIC1 NIC2

M

M

M

M

M

M

GT1_SVR PC Desk 18in. Desktop LCD(dual) Mouse

GT2_SVR PC Desk 18in. Desktop LCD(dual) Mouse

GT3_SVR PC Desk 18in. Desktop LCD(dual) Mouse

220VAC UPS

220VAC UPS

220VAC UPS

Customer Control Room
SW14 220VAC UPS
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

220VAC UPS

SW16

SW13

SW15

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

PDH

UDH

A DH

TR UN K

PDH

U DH

AD H

TRUNK

PDH

UD H

PDH

UD H

A B

A B

A B

A B

A B

A B

NIC1 NIC2

NIC1 NIC2

NIC1 NIC2

M

M

M

M

M

M

UNIT DATA HIGHWAY (UDH)

CRM1_SVR 18in. Desktop LCD(dual) Mouse

CRM2_SVR 18in. Desktop LCD(dual) Mouse

CRM3_SVR 18in. Desktop LCD(dual) Mouse

220VAC UPS

220VAC UPS

220VAC UPS

Typical Unit Data Highway Layout

UDH Network Features

Feature
Type of Network Media and Distance

Description
Ethernet, full duplex, in a single or redundant star configuration Ethernet 100BaseTX for switch to controller/device connections. The cable is 22 to 26 AWG unshielded twisted pair; category 5e EIA/TIA 568 A/B. Distance is up to 100 meters. Ethernet 100BaseFX with fiber-optic cable optional for distances up to 2 km (1.24 miles). At least 25 nodes, given a 25 Hz data rate. For other configurations, contact the factory. Controllers, PLCs, operator interfaces, and engineering workstations EGD protocol based on the UDP/IP 32-bit CRC appended to each Ethernet packet plus integrity checks built into UDP and EGD Network time protocol (NTP), accuracy ±1 ms.

Number of Nodes Type of Nodes Supported Protocol Message Integrity Time Sync. Methods

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Data Highway Ethernet Switches
The UDH and PDH networks use Fast Ethernet switches. The system modules are cabled into the switches creating a star-type network architecture. Two switches used with an interconnecting cable provide redundancy. Redundant switches provide redundant, duplex communication links to controllers and HMIs. Primary and secondary designate the two redundant Ethernet links. If the primary link fails, the converter automatically switches the traffic on the main link over to the secondary link without interruption to network operation. At 10 Mb/s, using the minimum data packet size, the maximum data loss during fail-over transition is 2-3 packets. Note Switches are configured by GE for the control system. Therefore, preconfigured switches should be purchased from GE. Each switch is configured to accept UDH and PDH.

GE Part # 323A4747NZP31(A, B, or C)

Configuration
PDH UDH ADH Uplinks

A
1-8 9-16 17-19 20-26

B
Single VLAN can be used for UDH or PDH

C
1-18,23-26 None 19-21 22 to Router

Configuration 323A4747NZP31A is the standard configuration with 323A4747NZP31B being used for legacy systems with separate UDH and PDH networks. Part 323A4747NZP31C is obsolete and was used in special instances to provide connectivity between the PDH and the onsite monitor (OSM) system.

GE Part # 323A4747NZP37(A or B)

Configuration
PDH UDH ADH Uplinks

A
1-3 5-7 None 4,8,9-16

B
Single VLAN can be used for UDH or PDH

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Chapter 3 Networks • 3-7

Virtual LAN (VLAN) technology is used in the UDH and PDH infrastructure to provide separate and redundant network infrastructure using the same hardware. The multi-VLAN configuration (Configuration A) provides connectivity to both PDH and UDH networks. Supplying multiple switches at each location provides redundancy. The switch fabric provides separation of the data. Each uplink between switches carries VLAN data encapsulated per IEEE 802.1q. The UDH VLAN data is given priority over the other VLAN by increasing its 802.1p priority.

Selecting IP Addresses for UDH and PDH
Use the following table to select IP addresses on the UDH and PDH. The standard IP address is 192.168.ABC.XYZ.
Ethernet IP Address Rules

Network Type
UDH

A Type
1

BC Network Number
01-99

X Controller/Device Number
1 = gas turbine controllers 2 = steam turbine controllers

Y Unit Number
1 = Unit 1 2 = Unit 2 • • 9 = Unit 9

Z Type of Device
1 = R0 2 = S0 3 = T0 4 = HRSG A 5 = HRSG B 6 = EX2000 or EX2100 A 7 = EX2000 or EX2100 B 8 = EX2000 or EX2100 C 9 = Not assigned 0 = Static Starter

0 = All other devices on the UDH

02 - 15 = Servers 16 - 25 = Workstations 26 - 37 = Other stations (Viewers) 38 39 = Turbine Historian = OSM

40 - 99 = Aux Controllers, such as ISCs PDH 2 01 – 54 2 to 199 are reserved for customer supplied items 200 to 254 are reserved for GE supplied items such as viewers and printers

The following are examples of IP addresses: 192.168.104.133 would be UDH number 4, gas turbine unit number 3, T0 core. 192.168.102.215 would be UDH number 2, steam turbine unit number 1, HRSG B. 192.168.201.201 could be a CIMPLICITY Viewer supplied by GE, residing on PDH#1. 192.168.205.10 could be a customer-supplied printer residing on PDH#5. Note Each item on the network such as a controller, server, or viewer must have an IP address. The above addresses are recommended, but if this is a custom configuration, the requisition takes precedence.

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IONet
A Mark VIe control system can have a simplex, dual, or TMR input/output network. It is known as the IONet. Each network is an IEEE 802.3 100 BaseTX full duplex Ethernet network. IONet is limited to Mark VIe qualified control devices, IO devices, Ethernet switches, and cables. Network communication between the controller and IONet has tightly synchronized UDP/IP Ethernet packets. The synchronization is achieved using the IEEE 1588 standard for precision clock synchronization protocol and special hardware/software on the controller and I/O packs. The Ethernet switches have been qualified for minimum latency and maximum throughput. Unqualified Ethernet switches should not be used in IONets. Refer to the System Guide, Volume II for the qualified switches. IONets are class C networks. Each is an independent network with different subnet addresses. The IONet IP host addresses for the controllers are fixed. The IP addresses of the I/O packs are assigned by the ToolboxST and the controller automatically distributes the addresses to the I/O packs through a standard Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server in the controllers. Cable color-coding is used to reduce the chance for cross connecting. Use the following cables or RJ45 hoods: • • • Red for IONet 1 (R network) Black for IONet 2 (S network) Blue for IONet 3 (T network)

IONet is presently recommended to only pass through five switches in series when going from I/O pack to main controller (refer to the following figure). Any configured IONet port on a controller or I/O module is continuously sending data, providing immediate detection of faulty network cables, switches, or board components. When a fault occurs, a diagnostic alarm is generated in the controller or I/O module.

Addressing
IONet devices are assigned IP addresses through the DHCP servers in the controllers. The Host ID presented to the DHCP server is based on the board type and serial number information stored on a serial EEPROM located on the terminal board. Since the Host ID is part of the terminal board, the I/O module can be replaced without having to update the toolbox or controller communication IDs. Note When a terminal board is replaced the user must associate the new Host ID to the configured device. ToolboxST presents a list of unrecognized devices that have requested IP addresses to simplify this process.

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R

S

T

Mark VIe Controllers

Fiber Optic 100BaseFX Up to Two km (Outside or Different Grounds)

Panel 1

UTP 100BaseTX Up to 100m (Same Ground Inside Building)

Up to Five Switches MAXIMUM

UTP 100BaseTX

UTP 100BaseTX

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Ethernet Global Data (EGD)
EGD allows you to share information between controller components in a networked environment. Controller data configured for transmission over EGD is separated into groups called exchanges. Multiple exchanges make up pages. Pages can be configured either to a specific address (unicast), if supported, or to multiple consumers at the same time (broadcast or multicast), if supported. Each page is identified by the combination of a Producer ID and an Exchange ID. The consumer recognizes the data and knows where to store it. EGD allows one controller component, referred to as the producer of the data, to simultaneously send information at a fixed periodic rate to any number of peer controller components, known as the consumers. This network supports a large number of controller components capable of both producing and consuming information. The exchange contains a configuration signature, which shows the revision number of the exchange configuration. If the consumer receives data with an unknown configuration signature, it makes that data unhealthy. If a transmission is interrupted, the receiver waits three periods for the EGD message, after which it times out and the data is considered unhealthy. Data integrity is preserved by: • • • •
Feature
Type of Communication Message Type Redundancy Fault Tolerance Sizes

32-bit cyclic redundancy code (CRC) in the Ethernet packet Standard checksums in the UDP and IP headers Configuration signature Data size field
EGD Communications Features

Description
Supervisory data is transmitted periodically at either 480 or 960 ms. Control data is transmitted at frame rate. Broadcast - a message to all stations on a subnet Unicast - a directed message to one station Pages may be broadcast onto multiple Ethernet subnets or may be received from multiple Ethernet subnets, if the specified controller hardware supports multiple Ethernet ports. In TMR configurations, a controller can forward EGD data across the IONet to another controller that has been isolated from the Ethernet. An exchange can be a maximum of 1400 bytes. Pages can contain multiple exchanges. The number of exchanges within a page and the number of pages within an EGD node are limited by each EGD device type. The Mark VIe controller does not limit the number of, exchanges, or pages. Ethernet supports a 32-bit CRC appended to each Ethernet packet. Reception timeout is determined by EGD device type. The exchange times out after an exchange update had not occurred within four times the exchange period, using Sequence ID. Missing/out of order packet detection UDP and IP header checksums Configuration signature (data layout revision control) Exchange size validation EGD allows each controller to send a block of information to, or receive a block from, other controllers in the system. Integer, Floating Point, and Boolean data types are supported.

Message Integrity

Function Codes

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In a TMR configuration, each controller receives UDH/EGD data independently from a direct Ethernet connection. If the connection is broken, a controller can request the missing data from the second or third controller through the IONet. One controller in a TMR configuration is automatically selected to transmit the EGD data onto the UDH. If the UDH fractures, causing the controllers to be isolated from each other onto different physical network segments, multiple controllers are enabled for transmission. These provide data to each of the segments. These features add a level of Ethernet fault tolerance to the basic protocol.

R

EGD

Redundant Path for UDH EGD S I/O NET T I/O NET
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UNIT DATA HIGHWAY

Unit Data Highway EGD TMR Configuration

In a DUAL configuration, each controller receives UDH/EGD data independently from a direct Ethernet connection. If the connection is broken, a controller may request the missing data from the second through the IONet. One controller in a DUAL configuration is automatically selected to transmit the EGD data onto the UDH. If the UDH fractures causing the controllers to be isolated from each other onto different physical network segments, each controller is enabled for transmission, providing data to both segments.

R I/O NET

S EGD

T

EGD

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Fiber-Optic Cables
Fiber-optic cable is an effective substitute for copper cable, especially when longer distances are required, or electrical disturbances are a serious problem. The main advantages of fiber-optic transmission in the power plant environment are: • • Fiber segments can be longer than copper because the signal attenuation per foot is less. In high-lightning areas, copper cable can pick up currents, which can damage the communications electronics. Since the glass fiber does not conduct electricity, the use of fiber-optic segments avoids pickup and reduces lightningcaused outages. Grounding problems are avoided with optical cable. The ground potential can rise when there is a ground fault on transmission lines, caused by currents coming back to the generator neutral point, or lightning. Optical cable can be routed through a switchyard or other electrically noisy area and not pick up any interference. This can shorten the required runs and simplify the installation. Fiber-optic cable with proper jacket materials can be run direct buried in trays or in conduit. High-quality fiber-cable is light, tough, and easily pulled. With careful installation, it can last the life of the plant.

• •

Disadvantages of fiber optics include: • • The cost, especially for short runs, may be more for a fiber-optic link. Inexpensive fiber-optic cable can be broken during installation, and is more prone to mechanical and performance degradation over time. The highest quality cable avoids these problems.

Components
Basics
Each fiber link consists of two fibers, one outgoing and the other incoming, to form a duplex channel. A LED drives the outgoing fiber, and the incoming fiber illuminates a phototransistor, which generates the incoming electrical signal. Multimode fiber, with a graded index of refraction core and outer cladding, is recommended for the optical links. The fiber is protected with buffering that is the equivalent of insulation on metallic wires. Mechanical stress is bad for fibers so a ® strong sheath is used, sometimes with pre-tensioned Kevlar fibers to carry the stress of pulling and vertical runs. Connectors for a power plant should be fastened to a reasonably robust cable with its own buffering. The square connector (SC) type connector is recommended. This connector is widely used for LANs, and is readily available.

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Fiber-optic Cable
Multimode fibers are rated for use at 850 nm and 1300 nm wavelengths. Cable attenuation is between 3.0 and 3.3 db/km at 850 nm. The core of the fiber is normally 62.5 microns in diameter, with a gradation of index of refraction. The higher index of refraction is at the center, gradually shifting to a medium index at the circumference. The higher index slows the light, therefore, a light ray entering the fiber at an angle curves back toward the center, out toward the other side, and then back toward the center. This ray travels further but goes faster because it spends most of its time closer to the circumference where the index is less. The index is graded to keep the delays nearly equal, thus preserving the shape of the light pulse as it passes through the fiber. The inner core is protected with a low index of refraction cladding, which for the recommended cable is 125 microns in diameter. 62.5/125 optical cable is the most common type of cable and should be used.

Never look directly into a fiber. Although most fiber links use LEDs that cannot damage the eyes, some longer links use lasers, which can cause permanent damage to the eyes.

Guidelines on cables usage: • • • • Gel filled (or loose tube) cables should not be used because of difficulties making installations, terminations, and the potential for leakage in vertical runs. Use a high-quality breakout cable, which makes each fiber a sturdy cable, and helps prevent bends that are too sharp. Sub-cables are combined with more strength and filler members to build up the cable to resisting mechanical stress and the outside environment. Two types of cable are recommended, one with armor and one without. Rodent damage is a major cause of optical cable failure. If this is a problem in the plant, the armored cable should be used, although it is heavier, has a larger bend radius, is more expensive, attracts lightning currents, and has lower impact and crush resistance. Optical characteristics of the cable can be measured with an optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR). Some manufacturers will supply the OTDR printouts as proof of cable quality. A simpler instrument is used by the installer to measure attenuation, and they should supply this data to demonstrate the installation has a good power margin. Cables described here have four fibers, enough for two fiber-optic links. This can be used to bring redundant communications to a central control room. The extra fibers can be retained as spares for future plant enhancements. Cables with two fibers are available for indoor use.

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Fiber-Optic Converter
Fiber-optic connections are normally terminated at the 100BaseFX fiber port of the Ethernet switch. Occasionally, the Mark VIe communication system may require an Ethernet media converter to convert selected UDH and PDH electrical signals to fiber-optic signals. The typical media converter makes a two-way conversion of one or more Ethernet 100BaseTX signals to Ethernet 100Base FX signals.

100Base FX Port

100BaseTX Port Dimensions: Power: 120 V ac, 60 Hz Data : 100 Mbps, fiber optic

TX

RX

Pwr

Fiber

UTP/STP

Width: 3.0 (76 mm) Height: 1.0 (25 mm) Depth: 4.75 (119 mm)

Media Converter, Ethernet Electric to Ethernet Fiber-optic

Connectors
The 100Base FX fiber-optic cables for indoor use in Mark VIe control have SC type connectors. The connector, shown in the following figure, is a keyed, snap-in connector that automatically aligns the center strand of the fiber with the transmission or reception points of the network device. An integral spring helps to keep the SC connectors from being crushed together, avoiding damage to the fiber. The two plugs can be held together as shown, or they can be separate.
Locating Key Fiber

.

.
Solid Glass Center Snap-in connnectors
SC Connector for Fiber-optic Cables

The process of attaching the fiber connectors involves stripping the buffering from the fiber, inserting the end through the connector, and casting it with an epoxy or other plastic. This requires a special kit designed for that particular connector. After the epoxy has hardened, the end of the fiber is cut off, ground, and polished. An experienced person can complete the process in five minutes.

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System Considerations
The following considerations should be noted when designing a fiber-optic network. Redundancy should be considered for continuing central control room (CCR) access to the turbine controls. Redundant HMIs, fiber-optic links, Ethernet switches, and power supplies are recommended. Installation of the fiber can decrease its performance compared to factory-new cable. Installers may not make the connectors as well as experts can, resulting in more loss than planned. The LED light source can get dimmer over time, the connections can get dirty, the cable loss increases with aging, and the receiver can become less sensitive. For all these reasons, there must be a margin between the available power budget and the link loss budget, of a minimum of 3 dB. Having a 6 dB margin is more comfortable, helping assure a fiber link that will last the life of the plant.

Installation
Planning is important for a successful installation. This includes the layout for the required level of redundancy, cable routing distances, proper application of the distance rules, and procurement of excellent quality switches, UPS systems, and connectors. • Install the fiber-optic cable in accordance with all local safety codes. Polyurethane and PVC are two possible options for cable materials that might NOT meet the local safety codes. Select a cable strong enough for indoor and outdoor applications, including direct burial. Adhere to the manufacturer's recommendations on the minimum bend radius and maximum pulling force. Test the installed fiber to measure the losses. A substantial measured power margin is the best proof of a high-quality installation. Use trained people for the installation. If necessary, hire outside contractors with fiber LAN installation experience. The fiber switches and converters need reliable power, and should be placed in a location that minimizes the amount of movement they must endure, yet keep them accessible for maintenance.

• • • • •

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Single-mode Fiber-optic Cabling
Single-mode fiber-optic (SMF) cable is approved for use in the Mark VIe control system, including both IONet and UDH/PDH network applications. This extends the distance of the control system beyond the traditional multi-mode fiber-optic (MMF) cable limit of 2000 m (2187.2 yd) to 15000 m (16404.00 yd) The following figure shows the differences between the two cable types.
Dispersion

Input Pulse

Output Pulse

Light Transmission in Multi-mode Fiber-optic Cable

Cross section

125um

9um

Input Pulse

Output Pulse

Light Transmission in Single-mode Fiber-optic Cable

Cross section

Multi-mode and Single-mode Fiber-optic Cable Transmissions

The figure shows a typical 62.5/125 µm MMF segment. Light (typically from a LED) enters through an aperture at the left, 62.5 µm in diameter. This aperture is many times the dimension of the typical 1500 µm wavelength used for transmission. This difference between the aperture and the wavelengths allows waves to enter at multiple angles. Since the cladding material has a different index of refraction than the core, these waves will be reflected due to the large angle of incidence (Snells Law). Because of different angles, there are many paths the light can make through the fiber with each taking a different time to arrive at the detector. This difference between the minimum time and maximum time for light transmission through the fiber is known as dispersion. Dispersion is the main property that degrades the signal through multi-mode fiber and limits the useful limit to 2 km. In the SMF cable, the aperture is reduced to ~9 µm, comparable to the 1500 µm wavelength of transmission. In this small aperture, there is little difference in the angle of incidence of the light and as such, the light propagates with little dispersion. The attenuation is the main property that degrades the signal and as such, much greater distances are achievable. The main advantage of SMF cable over traditional MMF cable in the power plant environment is that fiber-optic segments can now be longer than 2000 m because the signal attenuation per foot is less. The main disadvantage of SMF cables is the cost of installation.

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62.5um

125um

IONet Components
For Mark VIe control IONet topologies, the following rules apply for deploying SMF systems: • • • Single-mode fiber-optic is validated for use on the Mark VIe Control IONet using the N-Tron 508FXE2-SC-15 switch. No more than five switches should be placed in series and be maintained. The topology should be kept as flat and balanced as possible (star topology). The N-Tron 508FXE2-SC-15 is the only switch validated and approved for this application. Use of any other switch in this application may cause miss operation and/or damage to the associated equipment. The N-Tron 508FXE2-SC-15 can be identified from the following label:

Side View of N-Tron 508FXE2-SC-15

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< R> Mark VIe Controllers

<S>

<T>

Control Panel

SW1

Local I/O Panel Single Mode Fiber

Special SMF 508FX2 Switch

Remote I/O Panel

Note that the system is only validated for a total of five hops including multi -mode Fiber , single-mode Fiber and copper.

Example Mark VIe Control IONet SMF Application

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UDH/PDH Components
For PDH/UDH topologies, apply the following rules for installing SMF systems: • SMF is validated on the UDH/PDH networks using the – – • • AT-8624T/2M (with AT-A45/SC-SM15 module ) AT-8724 ( with AT-A41/SC module )

SMF cable lengths can be zero to 15 km in length SMF cables MUST be terminated and/or spliced by a certified fiber-optic cable installer, not by installation engineers.

Example Topology
The following figure shows a typical SMF application. Each 8624 switch is connected to its local network by multi-mode fiber (could be copper 10/100BaseT/TX.) Each switch has a SMF interface that is used to connect to the single-mode fiber link. The distance between the two switches can then be up to 15 km. The topology would be identical if AT-8724 switches are used, except that ATA41/SC modules are used for the SMF interfaces.
Local PDH/UDH Network

Single-mode Fiber

Each switch consists of one : AT-8624 T-M AT-A45/SC AT -A/SC-SM15

Remote Location PDH/UDH Network

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Component Sources
The following are typical sources for fiber-optic cable, single mode fiber-optic, connectors, converters, and switches. Fiber-optic Cable: Optical Cable Corporation 5290 Concourse Drive Roanoke, VA 24019 Phone: (540)265-0690 Part Numbers (from OCC) Each of these cables are SMF 8.3/125um Core/Cladding diameter with a numeric aperture of 0.13. OC041214-01 4 Fiber Zero Halogen Riser Rated Cable. OC041214-02 4 Fiber Zero Halogen with CST Armor. OC041214-03 4 Fiber with Flame Retardant Polyurethane. OC041214-04 4 Fiber with Flame Retardant Polyurethane with CST Armor Siecor Corporation PO Box 489 Hickory, NC 28603-0489 Phone: (800)743-2673 Fiber-optic Connectors: 3M - Connectors and Installation kit Thomas & Betts - Connectors and Assembly polishing kit Amphenol – Connectors and Termination kit
®

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Notes

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CHAPTER 4

Chapter 4 Codes, Standards, and Environment
Introduction
This chapter describes the codes, standards, and environmental guidelines used for the design of all printed circuit boards, modules, core components, panels, and cabinet line-ups in the control system. Requirements for harsh environments, such as marine applications, are not covered here.

Safety Standards
EN 61010-1 CAN/CSA 22.2 No. 1010.1-92 ANSI/ISA 82.02.01 1999 IEC 60529 Safety Requirements for Electrical Equipment for Measurement, Control, and Laboratory Use, Part 1: General Requirements Safety Requirements for Electrical Equipment for Measurement, Control, and Laboratory Use, Part 1: General Requirements Safety Standard for Electrical and Electronic Test, Measuring, Controlling, and Related Equipment – General Requirements Intrusion Protection Codes/NEMA 1/IP 20

Electrical
Printed Circuit Board Assemblies
ANSI IPC guidelines IPC-SM-840C Class 3 Solder Mask Performance Standard (Military/High Rel)

Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)
EN 50081-2 EN 61000-6-2 EN 61000-4-2 EN 61000-4-3 EN 61000-4-4 EN 61000-4-5 EN 61000-4-6 EN 61000-4-11 ANS/IEEE C37.90.1 General Emission Industrial Environment Generic Immunity Industrial Environment Electrostatic Discharge Susceptibility Radiated RF Immunity Electrical Fast Transient Susceptibility Surge Immunity Conducted RF immunity Voltage variation, dips, and interruptions Surge

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Low Voltage Directive
EN 61010-1 Safety Requirements for Electrical Equipment for Measurement, Control, and Laboratory Use, Part 1: General Requirements

ATEX Directive 94/9/EC
EN 50021 Electrical Apparatus for Potentially Explosive Atmospheres

Supply Voltage
Line Variations
Ac Supplies – Operating line variations of ±10 % IEEE STD 141-1993 defines the Equipment Terminal Voltage – Utilization voltage. The above meets IEC 60204-1 1999, and exceeds IEEE STD 141-1993, and ANSI C84.1-1989. Dc Supplies – Operating line variations of -30 %, +20 % or 145 V dc. This meets IEC 60204-1 1999.

Voltage Unbalance
Less than 2% of positive sequence component for negative sequence component Less than 2% of positive sequence component for zero sequence components This meets IEC 60204-1 1999 and IEEE STD 141-1993.

Harmonic Distortion
Voltage: Less than 10% of total rms voltages between live conductors for 2nd through 5th harmonic Additional 2% of total rms voltages between live conductors for sum of 6th – 30th harmonic This meets IEC 60204-1 1999. Current: The system specification is not per individual equipment Less than 15% of maximum demand load current for harmonics less than 11 Less than 7% of maximum demand load current for harmonics between 11 and 17 Less than 6% of maximum demand load current for harmonics between 17 and 23 Less than 2.5% of maximum demand load current for harmonics between 23 and 35 The above meets IEEE STD 519 1992.

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Frequency Variations
Frequency variation of ±5% when operating from ac supplies (20 Hz/sec slew rate) This exceeds IEC 60204-1 1999.

Surge
Withstand 2 kV common mode, 1 kV differential mode This meets IEC 61000-4-5 (ENV50142), and ANSI C62.41 (combination wave).

Clearances
NEMA Tables 7-1 and 7-2 from NEMA ICS1-2000 This meets IEC 61010-1:1993/A2: 1995, CSA C22.2 #14, and UL 508C.

Environment
Temperature
Mark VIe electronics are packaged in a variety of different configurations and are located in different environmental conditions. Active electronics with heat sensitive components need to be considered when packaging them in an enclosure. Active electronic assemblies include:
Environment Example Equipment Temperature Range

Control Room Cabinets

HMI CPCI Controllers, Power Supplies IONet Switches, I/O pack

0 to 40°C (32 °F to 104°F) 0 to 60°C (32 °F to 140°F) -30 to 65°C (22 °F to 149°F)

This is the operating temperature range of the equipment at the electronics. The allowable temperature change without condensation is ± 15°C (27 °F) per hour. It is recommended that the environment be maintained at levels less than the maximum rating of the equipment to maximize life expectancy. Mean-time-betweenfailure (MTBF) varies inversely with temperature. Therefore, system reliability is lower at 60°C (140 °F) than at 35°C (95 °F). The following graph shows sample relationships between failure rates and temperature for several different types of common components. It is derived from the temperature factor in MIL-217.

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Chapter 4 Codes, Standards, and Environment • 4-3

Effects of Temp on Failure Rates 4.0 Normalized Failure Rates 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 Temperature (deg C)

Effects of Temperature on Failure Rates

Packaging the equipment and selecting an appropriate enclosure to maintain the desired temperature is a function of the internal heat dissipation from the assemblies, the outside ambient temperature, and the cooling system, if any is used. It is recommended that enclosures not be placed in direct sunlight, and locations near heat generating equipment need to be evaluated. Since the internal temperature increases from the bottom to the top of the enclosure, limiting the temperature at the top is a key design objective.
Enclosure Electronics 85C Components Temp. at Electronics

Temperature Considerations in Packaging Electronics

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Temperature Rise

Outside Ambient

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The equipment is normally applied as a distributed system, with multiple enclosures mounted in remote locations, so temperature sensors and diagnostics are built into the equipment for continuous monitoring. Each I/O pack’s local processor board contains a temperature sensor. Detection of an excessive temperature generates a diagnostic alarm and the logic is available in the database (signal space) to facilitate additional control action or unique process alarm messages. In addition, the current temperature is continuously available in the database. Similarly, the power distribution system contains a PPDA power diagnostic pack. This has temperature diagnostics identical to the local processor board in the I/O packs. PPDA also has two axis acceleration sensors enabling detection of excessive equipment vibration The controller has a fan that is required to meet the 60°C (140 °F) max. rating, even though it is not required when operating at room temperature. Local temperature sensors and diagnostics monitor the temperature at the rack and determine whether the fan is running.
Controller and Switch Heat Dissipation

Device CompactPCI Rack Second CPU 8 port IONet Switch 16 port IONet Switch

ID Number 336A4940CT IC215UCCA 323A4747SWP## 323A4747SWP##

Typical Watts 35 23 9 14

Terminal boards and I/O packs should be arranged following normal wiring practices for separation of high and low levels, but in a few cases, heat should be considered. A few I/O packs and terminal boards dissipate more heat than others. If there is a significant temperature rise from the bottom of the enclosure to the top, then electronics with significant heat dissipation should be mounted lower in the enclosure. See GEH-6721 Volume II for board specific heat dissipation.

Shipping and Storage Temperature
Temperature range during equipment shipping and storage is -40°C to + 85°C (-40 °F to 185 °F) for I/O and controllers, and 0 to + 30°C (32 °F to 86 °F) for control room equipment.

Humidity
The ambient humidity range is 5% to 95% non-condensing. This exceeds EN50178.

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Elevation
Equipment elevation is related to the equivalent ambient air pressure. • • • Normal Operation - 0 to1000 m (3286.8 ft) (101.3 kPa - 89.8 kPa) Extended Operation - 1000 to 3050 m (3286.8 ft to 10,006.5 ft) (89.8 kPa - 69.7 kPa) Shipping - 4600 m (15,091.8 ft) maximum (57.2 kPa)

Note A guideline for system behavior as a function of altitude is that for altitudes above 1000 m (3286.8 ft), the maximum ambient rating of the equipment decreases linearly to a rating of 5°C (41°F) at 3050 m (10,006.5 ft). The extended operation and shipping specifications exceed EN50178.

Contaminants
Gas
The control equipment withstands the following concentrations of corrosive gases at 50% relative humidity and 40°C (104 °F):
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) Nitrous fumes (NO) Chlorine (Cl2) Hydrogen fluoride (HF) Ammonia (NH3) Ozone (O3) 30 ppb 10 ppb 30 ppb 10 ppb 10 ppb 500 ppb 5 ppb

The above meets EN50178 Section A.6.1.4 Table A.2 (m).

Vibration
Seismic
Universal Building Code (UBC) - Seismic Code section 2312 Zone 4

Operating / Installed at Site
Vibration of 1.0 G Horizontal, 0.5 G Vertical at 15 to 120 Hz See Seismic UBC for frequencies lower than 15 Hz.

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CHAPTER 5

Chapter 5 Installation and Configuration
Introduction
This chapter defines installation requirements for the Mark VIe control system. Specific topics include GE installation support, wiring practices, grounding, typical equipment weights and dimensions, power dissipation and heat loss, and environmental requirements.

Installation Support
GE’s system warranty provisions require both quality installation and that a qualified service engineer be present at the initial equipment startup. To assist the customer, GE offers both standard and optional installation support. Standard support consists of documents that define and detail installation requirements. Optional support is typically the advisory services that the customer may purchase.

Early Planning
To help ensure a fast and accurate exchange of data, a planning meeting with the customer is recommended early in the project. This meeting should include the customer’s project management and construction engineering representatives. It should accomplish the following: • • • • Familiarize the customer and construction engineers with the equipment Set up a direct communication path between GE and the party making the customer’s installation drawings Determine a drawing distribution schedule that meets construction and installation needs Establish working procedures and lines of communication for drawing distribution

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Chapter 5 Installation and Configuration • 5-1

GE Installation Documents
Installation documents consist of both general and requisition-specific information. The cycle time and the project size determine the quantity and level of documentation provided to the customer. General information, such as this document, provides product-specific guidelines for the equipment. They are intended as supplements to the requisition-specific information. Requisition documents, such as outline drawings and elementary diagrams provide data specific to a custom application. Therefore, they reflect the customer’s specific installation needs and should be used as the primary data source. As-Shipped drawings consist primarily of elementary diagrams revised to incorporate any revisions or changes made during manufacture and test. These are issued when the equipment is ready to ship. Revisions made after the equipment ships, but before start of installation, are sent as Field Changes, with the changes circled and dated.

Technical Advisory Options
To assist the customer, GE Energy offers the optional technical advisory services of field engineers for: • • Review of customer’s installation plan Installation support

These services are not normally included as installation support or in basic startup and commissioning services shown below. GE presents installation support options to the customer during the contract negotiation phase.
Installation Support Startup

Begin Installation

Complete Installation

Commissioning

Begin Formal Testing

Product Support - On going

System Acceptance
Startup and Commissioning Services Cycle

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Installation Plan and Support
It is recommended that a GE field representative review all installation/construction drawings and the cable and conduit schedule when completed. This optional review service ensures that the drawings meet installation requirements and are complete. Optional installation support is offered: planning, practices, equipment placement, and onsite interpretation of construction and equipment drawings. Engineering services are also offered to develop transition and implementation plans to install and commission new equipment in both new and existing (revamp) facilities.

Customer’s Conduit and Cable Schedule
The customer’s finished conduit and cable schedule should include: • • • Interconnection wire list (optional) Level definitions Shield terminations

The cable and conduit schedule should define signal levels and classes of wiring (refer to the section, Cable Separation and Routing). This information should be listed in a separate column to help prevent installation errors. The cable and conduit schedule should include the signal level definitions in the instructions. This provides all level restriction and practice information needed before installing cables. The conduit and cable schedule should indicate shield terminal practice for each shielded cable (refer to the section, Connecting the System).

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Chapter 5 Installation and Configuration • 5-3

Equipment Receiving and Handling
Note For information on storing equipment, refer to Chapter 4. GE inspects and packs all equipment before shipping it from the factory. A packing list, itemizing the contents of each package, is attached to the side of each case. Upon receipt, carefully examine the contents of each shipment and check them with the packing list. Immediately report any shortage, damage, or visual indication of rough handling to the carrier. Then notify both the transportation company and GE Energy. Be sure to include the serial number, part (model) number, GE requisition number, and case number when identifying the missing or damaged part. Immediately upon receiving the system, place it under adequate cover to protect it from adverse conditions. Packing cases are not suitable for outdoor or unprotected storage. Shock caused by rough handling can damage electrical equipment. To prevent such damage when moving the equipment, observe normal precautions along with all handling instructions printed on the case. If technical assistance is required beyond the instructions provided in the documentation, contact the nearest GE Sales or Service Office or an authorized GE Sales Representative.

Storage
If the system is not installed immediately upon receipt, it must be stored properly to prevent corrosion and deterioration. Since packing cases do not protect the equipment for outdoor storage, the customer must provide a clean, dry place, free of temperature variations, high humidity, and dust. Use the following guidelines when storing the equipment: • Place the equipment under adequate cover with the following requirements: – – • • Keep the equipment clean and dry, protected from precipitation and flooding. Use only breathable (canvas type) covering material – do not use plastic.

Unpack the equipment as described, and label it. Maintain the following environment in the storage enclosure: – – – – – Recommended ambient storage temperature limits from -40 to 85°C (40 °F to 185 °F). Surrounding air free of dust and corrosive elements, such as salt spray or chemical and electrically conductive contaminants Ambient relative humidity from 5 to 95% with provisions to prevent condensation No rodents, snakes, birds or insects No temperature variations that cause moisture condensation

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Moisture on certain internal parts can cause electrical failure.

Condensation occurs with temperature drops of 15°C (59 °F) at 50% humidity over a four-hour period, and with smaller temperature variations at higher humidity. If the storage room temperature varies in such a way, install a reliable heating system that keeps the equipment temperature slightly above that of the ambient air. This can include space heaters or cabinet space heaters (when supplied) inside each enclosure. A 100 W lamp can sometimes serve as a substitute source of heat.

To prevent fire hazard, remove all cartons and other such flammable materials packed inside units before energizing any heaters.

Operating Environment
The Mark VIe control cabinet is suited to most industrial environments. To ensure proper performance and normal operational life, the environment should be maintained as follows: Ambient temperature (acceptable): Control Module 0°C to 60°C (32 °F to 140 °F) I/O Module -30°C to 65°C (-22 °F to 149 °F) Ambient temperature (preferred): 20°C to 30°C (68 °F to 86 °F) Relative humidity: 5 to 95%, non-condensing. Note Higher ambient temperature decreases the life expectancy of any electronic component. Keeping ambient air in the preferred (cooler) range should extend component life. Environments that include excessive amounts of any of the following elements reduce cabinet performance and life: • • • • • • • Dust, dirt, or foreign matter Vibration or shock Moisture or vapors Rapid temperature changes Caustic fumes Power line fluctuations Electromagnetic interference or noise introduced by: – – Radio frequency signals, typically from nearby portable transmitters Stray high voltage or high frequency signals, typically produced by arc welders, unsuppressed relays, contactors, or brake coils operating near control circuits

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Chapter 5 Installation and Configuration • 5-5

The preferred location for the Mark VIe control system cabinet would be in an environmentally controlled room or in the control room itself. The cabinet should be mounted where the floor surface allows for attachment in one plane (a flat, level, and continuous surface). The customer provides the mounting hardware. Lifting lugs are provided and if used, the lifting cables must not exceed 45° from the vertical plane. Finally, the cabinet is equipped with a door handle, which can be locked for security. Interconnecting cables can be brought into the cabinet from the top or the bottom through removable access plates. Convection cooling of the cabinet requires that conduits be sealed to the access plates. In addition, air passing through the conduit must be within the acceptable temperature range as listed previously. This applies to both top and bottom access plates.

Power Requirements
The Mark VIe control cabinet can accept power from multiple power sources. Each power input source (such as the dc and two ac sources) should feed through its own external 30 A two-pole thermal magnetic circuit breaker before entering the Mark VIe enclosure. The breaker should be supplied in accordance with required site codes. Power sources can be any combination of 24 V dc, 125 V dc, and 120/240 V ac sources. The Mark VIe power distribution hardware is configured for the required sources, and not all inputs may be available in a configuration. Input power is converted to 28 V dc for operation of the control electronics. Other power is distributed as needed for use with I/O signals. Power requirements for a typical three-bay (five-door) 4200 mm cabinet containing controllers, I/O, and terminal boards are shown in the following table. The power shown is the heat generated in the cabinet, which must be dissipated. For the total current draw, add the current supplied to external solenoids as shown in the notes below the table. These external solenoids generate heat inside the cabinet. Heat Loss in a typical 4200 mm (165 in) TMR cabinet is 1500 W fully loaded. For a single control cabinet containing three controllers only (no I/O), the following table shows the nominal power requirements. This power generates heat inside the control cabinet. Heat Loss in a typical TMR controller cabinet is 300 W. The current draw number in the following table assumes a single voltage source, if two or three sources are used, they share the load. The actual current draw from each source cannot be predicted because of differences in the ac/dc converters. For further details on the cabinet power distribution system, refer to Volume II of this System Guide.

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Power Requirements for Cabinets

Cabinet
4200 mm Cabinet

Voltage
125 V dc 120 V ac 240 V ac 100 to 144 V dc (see Note 5) 108 to 132 V ac (see Note 6) 200 to 264 V ac 100 to 144 V dc (see Note 5) 108 to 132 V ac (see Note 6) 200 to 264 V ac

Frequency
N/A 50/60 Hz 50/60 Hz N/A 50/60 Hz 50/60 Hz N/A ± 3 Hz ± 3 Hz N/A ± 3 Hz ± 3 Hz

Current Draw
10.0 A dc (see Note 1) 17.3 A rms (see Notes 2 and 4) 8.8 A rms (see Notes 3 and 4) 1.7 A dc 3.8 A rms 1.9 A rms

Controller Cabinet 125 V dc 120 V ac 240 V ac

* These are external and do not create cabinet heat load. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Add 0.5 A dc continuous for each 125 V dc external solenoid powered. Add 6.0 A rms for a continuously powered ignition transformer (2 maximum). Add 3.5 A rms for a continuously powered ignition transformer (2 maximum). Add 2.0 A rms continuous for each 120 V ac external solenoid powered (inrush 10 A). Supply voltage ripple is not to exceed 10 V peak-to-peak. Supply voltage total harmonic distortion is not to exceed 5.0%.

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Chapter 5 Installation and Configuration • 5-7

Installation Support Drawings
This section describes GE installation support drawings. These drawings are usually ® B-size AutoCAD drawings covering all hardware aspects of the system. A few sample drawings include: • • • • System Topology Cabinet Layout Cabinet Layout Circuit Diagram

In addition to the installation drawings, site personnel will need the I/O Assignments (IO Report).

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GPS (ICS) Plant Data Highway (GE PS)

Plant SCADA 21 '' 21 '' 21'' 21'' Color inkjet (ICS) Laser Printer (ICS) Laser Printer (ICS) Local GT Server 21'' Historian Unit 1 (ICS) OSM 17 " 21 ''

ST Interface (ICS) 21'' EWS (ICS) 21'' 21 '' 21 ''

Local GT Server 17 "

21 '' HMI Server 1(GEPS) HMI Server 2(GEPS ) Supervisor Work Sta (ICS)

(ICS)

Operator Console
Printer Alarm printer Alarm printer

IEC608 70 -5-104

GEH-6721D Mark VIe Control System Guide Volume I
Engineering Office
CEMS Unit DataHighway Alarm Printer Alarm Printer

ST OP St a (ALSTOM)

* 350 logic and 150 analog points.

g g
HRSG1 HRSG2 MarkVI (ICS) MarkVI (ICS) H1 H2 BOP 1 MarkVI (ICS)

g

g

g
X1 EX2100 by GE PS

g

g

g

Centralog Centralog CVS CVS (ALSTOM) (ALSTOM) Printer S1 MarkVI (ICS) ST/BOP

C1 MarkVI (ICS)

Gas Turbine Mark VI TMR Unit #1

Gas Turbine Mark VI TMR Unit #2

Typical System Topology Showing Interfaces
Air Cooled Cond. GEC
Modbus Aux Boiler Gas Chromatograph #1 Data via Gas Reduction Sta PLC (ERM) Gas Chromatograph #2

PEECC #1

PEECC #2

Electrical Room
Modbus

Alstom P320 Steam Turbine Control Unit #3

Water Treatment (400 PTS) Serial

g

g
EX2100 LS2100

g

g
EX2100 LS2100

Chapter 5 Installation and Configuration • 5-9

GT #1 LEC

GT #2 LEC

Typical Cabinet Layout with Dimensions

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LEFT SIDE

RIGHT SIDE

1E1A

1E2A

JPDD1 1E3A

JPDD2

1E4A LLCTB1

1E5A HLCTB1 HLCTB2 LLCTB2

Lower Level

Cabinet Layout

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JAF1

JAF1

JZ2

JZ3

Typical Circuit Diagram

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Grounding
This section defines grounding and signal-referencing practices for the Mark VIe control system. This can be used to check for proper grounding and signal reference structure (SRS) after the equipment is installed. If checking the equipment after the power cable has been connected or after power has been applied to the cabling, be sure to follow all safety precautions for working around high voltages. To prevent electric shock, make sure that all power supplies to the equipment are turned off. Then discharge and ground the equipment before performing any act requiring physical contact with the electrical components or wiring. If test equipment cannot be grounded to the equipment under test, the test equipment's case must be shielded to prevent contact by personnel.

Equipment Grounding
Equipment grounding and signal referencing have two distinct purposes: • Equipment grounding protects personnel from risk of serious or fatal electrical shock, burn, fire, and/or other damage to equipment caused by ground faults or lightning. Signal referencing helps protect equipment from the effects of internal and external electrical noise, such as lightning or switching surges.

Installation practices must simultaneously comply with all codes in effect at the time and place of installation, and with all practices that improve the immunity of the installation. In addition to codes, guidance for IEEE Std 142-1991 IEEE Recommended Practice for Grounding of Industrial and Commercial Power Systems and IEEE Std 1100-1992 IEEE Recommended Practice for Powering and Grounding Sensitive Electronic Equipment are provided by the design and implementation of the system. Code requirements for safety of personnel and equipment must take precedence in the case of any conflict with noise control practices. The Mark VIe control system has no special or non-standard installation requirements, if installed in compliance with all of the following: • • • The NEC or local codes With SRS designed to meet IEEE Std 1100 Interconnected with signal/power-level separation as defined later
®

This section provides equipment grounding and bonding guidelines for control and I/O cabinets. These guidelines also apply to motors, transformers, brakes, and reactors. Each of these devices should have its own grounding conductor going directly to the building ground grid. • Ground each cabinet or cabinet lineup to the equipment ground at the source of power feeding it. – – See NEC Article 250 for sizing and other requirements for the equipment-grounding conductor. For dc circuits only, the NEC allows the equipment-grounding conductor to be run separate from the circuit conductors.

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With certain restrictions, the NEC allows the metallic raceways or cable trays containing the circuit conductors to serve as the equipment grounding conductor: – – This use requires that they form a continuous, low-impedance path capable of conducting anticipated fault current. This use requires bonding across loose-fitting joints and discontinuities. See NEC Article 250 for specific bonding requirements. This chapter includes recommendations for high frequency bonding methods. If metallic raceways or cable trays are not used as the primary equipment- grounding conductor, they should be used as a supplementary equipment grounding conductor. This enhances the safety of the installation and improves the performance of the SRS.

The equipment-grounding connection for the Mark VIe control cabinets is plated copper bus or stub bus. This connection is bonded to the cabinet enclosure using bolting that keeps the conducting path’s resistance at 1 ohm or less. There should be a bonding jumper across the ground bus or floor sill between all shipping splits. The jumper may be a plated metal plate. The non-current carrying metal parts of the equipment covered by this section should be bonded to the metallic support structure or building structure supporting this equipment. The equipment mounting method may satisfy this requirement. If supplementary bonding conductors are required, size them the same as equipment-grounding conductors.

• •

Building Grounding System
This section provides guidelines for the building grounding system requirements. For specific requirements, refer to NEC article 250 under the heading Grounding Electrode System. The guidelines below are for metal-framed buildings. For non-metal framed buildings, consult the GE factory. The ground electrode system should be composed of steel reinforcing bars in building column piers bonded to the major building columns. • A buried ground ring should encircle the building. This ring should be interconnected with the bonding conductor running between the steel reinforcing bars and the building columns. All underground, metal water piping should be bonded to the building system at the point where the piping crosses the ground ring. NEC Article 250 requires that separately derived systems (transformers) be grounded to the nearest effectively grounded metal building structural member. Braze or exothermically weld all electrical joints and connections to the building structure, where practical. This type of connection keeps the required good electrical and mechanical properties from deteriorating over time.

• • •

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Signal Reference Structure (SRS)
On modern equipment communicating at high bandwidths, signals are typically differential and/or isolated electrically or optically. The modern SRS system replaces the older single-point grounding system with a much more robust system. The SRS system is also easier to install and maintain. The goal of the SRS is to hold the electronics at or near case potential to prevent unwanted signals from disturbing operation. The following conditions must all be met by an SRS: • Bonding connections to the SRS must be less than 1/20 wavelength of the highest frequency to which the equipment is susceptible. This prevents standing waves. In modern equipment using high-frequency digital electronics, frequencies as high as 500 MHz should be considered. This translates to about 30 mm (1 in). SRS must be a good high frequency conductor. (Impedance at high frequencies consists primarily of distributed inductance and capacitance.) Surface area is more important than cross-sectional area because of skin effect. Conductivity is less important (steel with large surface area is better than copper with less surface area). SRS must consist of multiple paths. This lowers the impedance and the probability of wave reflections and resonance

In general, a good signal referencing system can be obtained with readily available components in an industrial site. All of the items listed below can be included in an SRS: • • • • • • • • • • Metal building structural members Galvanized steel floor decking under concrete floors Woven wire steel reinforcing mesh in concrete floors Steel floors in pulpits and power control rooms Bolted grid stringers for cellular raised floors Steel floor decking or grating on line-mounted equipment Galvanized steel culvert stock Ferrous metallic cable tray systems Raceway (cableway) and raceway support systems Embedded steel floor channels

Note The provisions covered in this document may not apply to all installations.

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Connection of the protective earth terminal to the installation ground system must first comply with code requirements and second provide a low-impedance path for high-frequency currents, including lightning surge currents. This grounding conductor must not provide, either intentionally or inadvertently, a path for load current. The system should be designed so that there is no way possible for the control system to be an attractive path for induced currents from any source. This is best accomplished by providing a ground plane that is large and low impedance, so that the entire system remains at the same potential. A metallic system (grid) will accomplish this much better than a system that relies upon earth for connection. At the same time all metallic structures in the system should be effectively bonded both to the grid and to each other, so that bonding conductors rather than control equipment become the path of choice for noise currents of all types. In the Mark VIe control cabinet, the base is insulated from the chassis and bonded at one point. The grounding recommendations, shown in the following figure, call for 2 the equipment grounding conductor to be 120 mm (4 AWG) gauge wire, connected to the building ground system. The Functional Earth (FE) is bonded at one point to 2 the Protective Earth (PE) ground using two 25 mm (4 AWG) green/yellow bonding jumpers.

Control & I/O Electronics Base Mark VIe Cabinet

Functional Earth (FE)

Two 25 mm sq. (4 AWG) Green/Yellow insulated bonding jumpers

Equipment grounding conductor, Identified 120 mm sq. (4/0 AWG), insulated wire, short a distance as possible

Protective Conductor Terminal Protective Earth (PE) PE

Building Ground System
Grounding Recommendations for Single Mark VIe Control Cabinet

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If acceptable by local codes, the bonding jumpers may be removed and a 4/0 AWG identified insulated wire run from FE to the nearest accessible point on the building ground system, or to another ground point as required by the local code. The distance between the two connections to building ground should be approximately 4.5 m (15 ft), but not less than 3.05 m (10 ft). The grounding method for a larger system is shown in next figure. Here the FE is still connected to the control electronics section, but the equipment-grounding conductor is connected to the center cabinet chassis. Individual control and I/O bases are connected with bolted plates. For armored cables, the armor is an additional current carrying braid that surrounds the internal conductors. This type cable can be used to carry control signals between buildings. The armor carries secondary lightning-induced earth currents, bypassing the control wiring, thus avoiding damage or disturbance to the control system. At the cable ends and at any strategic places between, the armor is grounded to the building ground through the structure of the building with a 360° mechanical and electrical fitting. The armor is normally terminated at the entry point to a metal building or machine. Attention to detail in installing armored cables can significantly reduce induced lightning surges in control wiring.

I/O Base Base Grounding Connection Plates

Control Electronics Base

I/O Base

Functional Earth (FE)

Two 25 mm sq. 4AWG Green/Yellow Bonding Jumper wires

Equipment grounding conductor, Identified 120 mm sq. (4/0 AWG), insulated wire, short a distance as possible

Protective Conductor Terminal (Chassis Safety Ground plate)

PE

Building Ground System
Grounding Recommendations for Mark VIe Control Cabinet Lineup

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Notes on Grounding
Bonding to building structure - The cable tray support system typically provides many bonding connections to building structural steel. If this is not the case, supplemental bonding connections must be made at frequent intervals from the cable tray system to building steel. Bottom connected equipment - Cable tray installations for bottom connected equipment should follow the same basic principles as those illustrated for top connected equipment, paying special attention to good high frequency bonding between the cable tray and the equipment. Cable spacing - Maintain cable spacing between signal levels in cable drops, as recommended in the section, Cable Separation and Routing. Conduit sleeves - Where conduit sleeves are used for bottom-entry cables, the sleeves should be bonded to the floor decking and equipment enclosure with short bonding jumpers. Embedded conduits - Bond all embedded conduits to the enclosure with multiple bonding jumper connections following the shortest possible path. Galvanized steel sheet floor decking - Floor decking can serve as a high frequency signal reference plane for equipment located on upper floors. With typical building construction, there will be a large number of structural connections between the floor decking and building steel. If this is not the case, then an electrical bonding connection must be added between the floor decking and building steel. The added connections need to be as short as possible and of sufficient surface area to be low impedance at high frequencies. High frequency bonding jumpers - Jumpers must be short, less than 500 mm (20 in) and good high frequency conductors. Thin, wide metal strips are best with length not more than three times width for best performance. Jumpers can be copper, aluminum, or steel. Steel has the advantage of not creating galvanic halfcells when bonded to other steel parts. Jumpers must make good electrical contact with both the enclosure and the signal reference structure. Welding is best. If a mechanical connection is used, each end should be fastened with two bolts or screws with star washers backed up by large diameter flat washers. Each enclosure must have two bonding jumpers of short, random lengths. Random lengths are used so that parallel bonding paths are of different quarter wavelength multiples. Do not fold bonding jumpers or make sharp bends. Metallic cable tray - System must be installed per NEC Article 318 with signal level spacing per the section, Cable Separation and Routing. This serves as a signal reference structure between remotely connected pieces of equipment. The large surface area of cable trays provides a low impedance path at high frequencies. Metal framing channel - Metal framing channel cable support systems also serve as parts of the SRS. Make certain that channels are well bonded to the equipment enclosure, cable tray, and each other, with large surface area connections to provide low impedance at high frequencies.

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Noise-sensitive cables - Try to run noise-sensitive cables tight against a vertical support to allow this support to serve as a reference plane. Cables that are extremely susceptible to noise should be run in a metallic conduit, preferably ferrous. Keep these cables tight against the inside walls of the metallic enclosure, and well away from higher-level cables. Power cables - Keep single-conductor power cables from the same circuit tightly bundled together to minimize interference with nearby signal cables. Keep 3-phase ac cables in a tight triangular configuration. Woven wire mesh - Woven wire mesh can serve as a high frequency signal reference grid for enclosures located on floors not accessible from below. Each adjoining section of mesh must be welded together at intervals not exceeding 500 mm (20 in) to create a continuous reference grid. The woven wire mesh must be bonded at frequent intervals to building structural members along the floor perimeter. Conduit terminal at cable trays - To provide the best shielding, conduits containing level L cables (see Leveling channels) should be terminated to the tray's side rails (steel solid bottom) with two locknuts and a bushing. Conduit should be terminated to ladder tray side rails with approved clamps. Where it is not possible to connect conduit directly to tray (such as with large conduit banks), conduit must be terminated with bonding bushings and bonded to tray with short bonding jumpers. Leveling channels - If the enclosure is mounted on leveling channels, bond the channels to the woven wire mesh with solid-steel wire jumpers of approximately the same gauge as the woven wire mesh. Bolt the enclosure to leveling channel, front and rear. Signal and power levels - See section, Cable Separation and Routing, for guidelines. Solid-bottom tray - Use steel solid bottom cable trays with steel covers for lowlevel signals most susceptible to noise.

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Level P

Level L Solid Bottom Tray

Enclosure

Bond leveling channels to the woven wire mesh with solid steel wire jumpers of approximately the same gage as the wire mesh. Jumpers must be short, less than 200 mm (8 in). Weld to mesh and leveling steel at random intervals of 300 - 500 mm (12-20 in). Bolt the enclosure to the leveling steel, front and rear. See site specific GE Equipment Outline dwgs. Refer to Section 6 for examples.

Bolt Leveling Channels Wire Mesh

Enclosure and Cable Tray Installation Guidelines

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Cable Separation and Routing
This section provides recommended cabling practices to reduce electrical noise. These practices include signal/power level separation and cable routing guidelines. Note Electrical noise from cabling of various voltage levels can interfere with microprocessor-based control systems, causing a malfunction. If a situation at the installation site is not covered in this document, or if these guidelines cannot be met, please contact GE before installing the cable. Early planning enables the customer’s representatives to design adequate separation of embedded conduit. On new installations, sufficient space should be allowed to efficiently arrange mechanical and electrical equipment. On revamps, level rules should be considered during the planning stages to help ensure correct application and a more trouble-free installation.

Signal and Power Level Definitions
Signal and power carrying cables are categorized into four defining levels; low, medium, high, and power. Each level can include classes.

Low-Level Signals (Level L)
Low-level signals are designated as level L. In general these consist of: • • • • Analog signals 0 through ±50 V dc, <60 mA Digital (logic-level) signals less than 28 V dc 4 – 20 mA current loops Ac signals less than 24 V ac

The following are specific examples of level L signals used in the Mark VIe control cabling: • • • • All analog and digital signals including LVDTs, Servos, RTDs, Analog Inputs and Outputs, and Pyrometer signals Thermocouples are in a special category (Level LS) because they generate millivolt signals with very low current. Network communication bus signals: Ethernet, IONet, UDH, PDH, RS-232C, and RS-422 Phone circuits

Note Signal input to analog and digital blocks or to programmable logic control (PLC)-related devices should be run as shielded twisted-pair (for example, input from RTDs).

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Medium-Level Signals (Level M)
Medium-level signals are designated as level M. Magnetic pickup signals are examples of level M signals used in the Mark VIe control. These signals consist of: • • • • Analog signals less than 50 V dc with less than 28 V ac ripple and less than 0.6 A current 28 V dc light and switching circuits 24 V dc switching circuits Analog pulse rate circuits

Note Level M and level L signals may be run together only inside the control cabinet.

High-Level Signals (Level H)
High-level signals are designated as level H. These signals consist of: • • • Dc switching signals greater than 28 V dc Analog signals greater than 50 V dc with greater than 28 V ac ripple Ac feeders less than 20 A, without motor loads

The following are specific examples of level H signals used in Mark VIe cabling: • • • • Contact inputs Relay outputs Solenoid outputs PT and CT circuits

Note Flame detector (GM) type signals, 335 V dc, and Ultraviolet detectors are a special category (Level HS). Special low capacitance twisted shielded pair wiring is required.

Power (Level P)
Power wiring is designated as level P. This consists of ac and dc buses 0 – 600 V with currents 20 A – 800 A. The following are specific examples of level P signals used in plant cabling: • • • • • • • • Motor armature loops Generator armature loops Ac power input and dc outputs Primary and secondary wiring of transformers above 5 kVA SCR field exciter ac power input and dc output Static exciters (regulated and unregulated) ac power and dc output 250 V shop bus Machine fields

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Class Codes
Certain conditions can require that specific wires within a level be grouped in the same cable. This is indicated by class codes, defined as follows: S Special handling of specified levels can require special spacing of conduit and trays. Check dimension chart for levels. These wires include: • • Signals from COMM field and line resistors Signals from line shunts to regulators

U High voltage potential unfused wires over 600 V dc PS Power greater than 600 V dc and/or greater than 800 A If there is no class code, there are no grouping restrictions within designated levels

Marking Cables to Identify Levels
Mark the cableway cables, conduit, and trays in a way that clearly identify their signal/power levels. This helps ensure correct level separation for proper installation. It can also be useful during equipment maintenance. Cables can be marked by any means that makes the level easy to recognize (for example, coding or numbering). Conduit and trays should be marked at junction points or at periodic intervals.

Cableway Spacing Guidelines
Spacing (or clearance) between cableways (trays and conduit) depends on the level of the wiring inside them. For correct level separation when installing cable, the customer should apply the general practices along with the specific spacing values for tray/tray, conduit/tray, conduit/conduit, cable/conduit, and cable/cable distances as discussed below.

General Practices
The following general practices should be used for all levels of cabling: • • • • • All cables of like signal levels and power levels must be grouped together in like cableways. In general, different levels must run in separate cableways, as defined in the different levels. Intermixing cannot be allowed, except as noted by exception. Interconnecting wire runs should carry a level designation. If wires are the same level and same type signal, group those wires from one cabinet to any one specific location together in multiconductor cables. When unlike signals must cross in trays or conduit, cross them in 90° angles at maximum spacing. Where it is not possible to maintain spacing, place a grounded steel barrier between unlike levels at the crossover point. When entering terminal equipment where it is difficult to maintain the specific spacing guidelines shown in the following tables, keep parallel runs to a minimum, not to exceed 1.5 m (5 ft) in the overall run.

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• •

Where the tables show tray or conduit spacing as 0, the levels can be run together. Spacing for other levels must be based on the worst condition. Trays for all levels should be solidly grounded with good ground continuity. Conduit should be provide shielding.

The following general practices should be used for specific levels of cabling: • When separate trays are impractical, levels L and M can be combined in a common tray if a grounded steel barrier separates levels. This practice is not as effective as tray separation, and may require some rerouting at system startup. If levels L and M are run side-by-side, a 50 mm (2-in) minimum spacing is recommended. Locate levels L and M trays and conduit closest to the control panels. Trays containing level L and level M wiring should have solid galvanized steel bottoms and sides and be covered to provide complete shielding. There must be positive and continuous cover contact to side rails to avoid high-reluctance air gaps, which impair shielding. Trays containing levels other than L and M wiring can have ventilation slots or louvers. Trays and conduit containing levels L, M, and H(S) should not be routed parallel to high power equipment enclosures of 100 kV and larger at a spacing of less than 1.5 m (5 ft) for trays, and 750 mm (2-1/2 ft) for conduit. Level H and H(S) can be combined in the same tray or conduit but cannot be combined in the same cable. Level H(S) is listed only for information since many customers want to isolate unfused high voltage potential wires. Do not run levels H and H(S) in the same conduit as level P. Where practical for level P and/or P(S) wiring, route the complete power circuit between equipment in the same tray or conduit. This minimizes the possibility of power and control circuits encircling each other.

• •

• •

• • • •

Tray and Conduit Spacing
The following tables show the recommended distances between metal trays and metal conduit carrying cables with various signal levels, and the cable-to cable distance of conduit and trays.

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Table 1. Spacing Between Metal Cable Trays, inches (mm) Level L M H H(S) P P(S) L 0 M 1(25) 0 H 6(150) 6(150) 0 H(S) 6(1 50) 6(150) 0 0 P 26(660) 18(457) 8(302) 8(302) 0 P(S) 26(660) 26(660) 12(305) 12(305) 0 0 Recommended minimum distances between trays from the top of one tray to the bottom of the tray above, or between the sides of adjacent trays. Table 1 also applies if the distance between trays and power equipment up to 100 kVA is less than 1.5 m (5 ft).

Table 2. Spacing Between Metal Trays and Conduit, inches (mm) Level L M H H(S) P P(S) L 0 M 1(25) 0 H 4(102) 4(102) 0 H(S) 4(102) 4(102) 0 0 P 18(457) 12(305) 4(102) 4(102) 0 P(S) 18(457) 18(457) 8(203) 8(203) 0 0 Recommended minimum distance between the outside surfaces of metal trays and conduit. Use Table 1 if the distance between trays or conduit and power equipment up to 100 kVA is less than 1.5 m (5 ft).

Table 3. Spacing Between Metal Conduit Runs, inches (mm) Level L M H H(S) P P(S) L 0 M 1(25) 0 H 3(76) 3(76) 0 H(S) 3(76) 3(76) 0 0 P 12(305) 9(229) 3(76) 3(76) 0 P(S) 12(305) 12(305) 6(150) 6(150) 0 0 Recommended minimum distance between the outside surfaces of metal conduit run in banks.

Table 4. Spacing Between Cable and Metal Conduit, inches (mm) Level L M H H(S) P P(S) L 0 M 2(51) 0 H 4(102) 4(102) 0 H(S) 4(102) 4(102) 0 0 P 20(508) 20(508) 12(305) 12(305) 0 P(S) 48(1219) 48(1219) 18(457) 18(457) 0 0 Recommended minimum distance between the outside surfaces of cables and metal conduit.

Table 5. Spacing Between Cable and Cable, inches (mm) Level L M H H(S) P P(S) L 0 M 2(51) 0 H 6(150) 6(150) 0 H(S) 6(150) 6(150) 0 0 P 28(711) 28(711) 20(508) 20(508) 0 P(S) 84(2134) 84(2134) 29(737) 29(737) 0 0 Recommended minimum distance between the outside surfaces of cables

Cable, Tray, and Conduit Spacing

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Cable Routing Guidelines
Pullboxes and Junction Boxes
Keep signal and power levels separate inside pullboxes and junction boxes. Use grounded steel barriers to maintain level spacing. Tray-to-conduit transition spacing and separation are a potential source of noise. Be sure to cross unlike levels at right angles and maintain required separation. Use level spacing. Protect transition areas according to the level spacing recommendations.

Transitional Areas
When entering or leaving conduit or trays, ensure cables of unlike levels are not mixed. If the installation needs parallel runs over 1.5 m (5 ft), grounded steel barriers may be needed for proper level separation.

Cabling for Retrofits
Reducing electrical noise on retrofits requires careful planning. Lower and higher levels should never encircle each other or run parallel for long distances. It is practical to use existing conduit or trays as long as the level spacing can be maintained for the full length of the run. Existing cables are generally of high voltage potential and noise producing. Therefore, route levels L and M in a path apart from existing cables when possible. Use barriers in existing pullboxes and junction boxes for level L wiring to minimize noise potential. Do not loop level L signals around high control or level P conduit or trays.

Conduit Around and Through Machinery Housing
Care should be taken to plan level spacing on both embedded and exposed conduit in and around machinery. Runs containing mixed levels should be minimized to 1.5 m (5 ft) or less overall. Conduit running through and attached to machinery housing should follow level spacing recommendations. This should be discussed with the contractor early in the project. Trunnions entering floor mounted operator station cabinets should be kept as short as possible when used as cableways. This helps minimize parallel runs of unlike levels to a maximum of 1.5 m (5 ft) before entering the equipment. Where different signal/power levels are running together for short distances, each level should be connected by cord ties, barriers, or some logical method to prevent intermixing.

RF Interference
To prevent radio frequency (RF) interference, take care when routing power cables near radio-controlled devices (for example, cranes) and audio/visual systems (public address and closed-circuit television systems).

Suppression
Unless specifically noted otherwise, suppression (for example, a snubber) is required on all inductive devices controlled by an output. This suppression minimizes noise and prevents damage caused by electrical surges. Standard Mark VIe relay and solenoid output boards have adequate suppression.

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Cable Specifications
Wire Sizes
The recommended current carrying capacity for flexible wires up to 1,000 V, PVC insulated, based on DIN VDE 0298 Part 4, is shown in following table. Cross section 2 references of mm versus AWG are based on EN 60204 Part 1, VDE 0113 Part 1. NFPA 70 (NEC) may require larger wire sizes based on the type of wire used.
Wire Area (mm2)
0.75 0.82 1 1.31 1.5 2.08 2.5 3.31 4 5.26 6 8.36 10 13.3 16 21.15 25 33.6 35 42.4 50 53.5 67.4 70 85 95 107 120 127 150 185 240 253 300 400

Wire Area (Circular mils)
1,480 1,618 1,974 2,585 2,960 4,105 4,934 6,532 7,894 10,381 11,841 16,499 19,735 26,248 31,576 41,740 49,338 66,310 69,073 83,677 98,676 105,584 133,016 138,147 167,750 187,485 211,167 236,823 250,000 296,029 365,102 473,646 500,000 592,058 789,410

Max Current (Approx Amp)
15 16 19 22 24 29 32 37 42 50 54 65 73 87 98 116 129 154 158 178 198 206 239 245 273 292 317 344 354 391 448 528 546 608 726

Wire Size AWG No.

18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 MCM

500 MCM

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General Specifications
• • • • • Maximum length (unless specified) 300 m (984.25 ft) Individual minimum stated wire size is for electrical needs Clamp-type terminals accept two 14 AWG wires or one 12 AWG wire Mark VIe terminal blocks accept two 12 AWG wires PTs and CTs use 10 AWG stranded wire
Ambient temperature .......................30oC (86 oF) Maximum temperature .................. 70oC (158 oF) Temperature rise ............................ 40oC (104 °F) Installation ........................Free in air, see sketch d d

Surface

Wire Insulator

It is standard practice to use shielded cable with control equipment. Shielding provides the following benefits: • • Generally, shielding protects a wire or combination of wires from its environment. Low-level signals may require shielding to prevent signal interference due to the capacitive coupling effect between two sources of potential energy.

Low Voltage Shielded Cable
This section defines the minimum requirements for low voltage shielded cable. These guidelines should be used along with the level practices and routing guidelines provided previously. Note The specifications listed are for sensitive computer-based controls. Cabling for less sensitive controls should be considered on an individual basis.

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Single-Conductor Shielded Cable, Rated 300 V
• • • • 18 AWG minimum, stranded single-conductor insulated with minimum 85% to 100% coverage shield Protective insulating cover for shield Wire rating: 300 V minimum Maximum capacitance between conductor and shield: 492 pF/m (150 pF/ft)

Multi-conductor Shielded Cable, Rated 300 V
• • • • • 18 AWG minimum, stranded conductors individually insulated per cable with minimum 85% to 100% coverage shield Protective insulating cover for shield Wire rating: 300 V minimum Mutual capacitance between conductors with shield grounded: 394 pF/m (120 pF/ft) maximum Capacitance between one conductor and all other conductors and grounded shield: 213 pF/m (65 pF/ft)

Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable, Rated 300 V
• • • • • Two 18 AWG minimum, stranded conductors individually insulated with minimum 85% to 100% coverage shield Protective insulating cover for shield Wire rating: 300 V minimum Mutual capacitance between conductors with shield grounded: 394 pF/m (120 pF/ft) maximum Capacitance between one conductor and the other conductor and grounded shield: 213 pF/m (65 pF/ft) maximum

Coaxial Cable RG-58/U (for IONet and UDH)
• • • • • • 20 AWG stranded tinned copper conductor with FEP insulation with a 95% coverage braid shield Protective Flamarrest

insulating jacket for shield

Normal attenuation per 30.48 m (100 ft): 4.2 dB at 100 MHz Nominal capacitance: 50.5 pF/m (25.4 pF/ft) Nominal impedance: 50 ohms Example supplier: Belden Coax Cable part no. 82907
®

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable (for Data Highways)
• • • • • High-quality, category 5 UTP cable, for 10BaseTX Ethernet Four pairs of twisted 22 AWG or 24 AWG wire Protective plastic jacket Impedance: 75 – 165 Ω Connector: RJ45 UTP connector for solid wire

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RS-232C Communications
• • Modbus communication from the HMI: for short distances use RS-232C cable; for distances over 15 m (50 feet) add a modem Modbus communication from the controller COM2 port: for use on small systems, RS-232C cable with Micro-D adapter cable (GE catalog No. 336A4929G1). For longer distances over 15 m (50 feet), add a modem.

Note For more information on Modbus and wiring, refer to Chapter 3, Networks.

Instrument Cable, 4 – 20 mA
• • With Tefzel insulation and jacket: Belden catalog no. 85231 or equivalent With plastic jacket: Belden catalog no. 9316 or equivalent
®

Fiber-optic Cable, Outdoor Use (Data Highways)
• • • • Multimode fiber, 62.5/125 micron core/cladding, 850 nm infra-red light Four sub-cables with elastomeric jackets and aramid strength members, and plastic outer jacket Cable construction: flame retardant pressure extruded polyurethane, Cable diameter: 8.0 mm, Cable weight: 65 kg/km Optical Cable Corporation part number: RK920929-A

Fiber-optic Cable, Heavy Duty Outdoor Use
• • • Multimode fiber, 62.5/125 micron core/cladding, 850 nm infra-red light Four sub-cables with elastomeric jackets and aramid strength members, and armored outer jacket Cable construction: flame retardant pressure extruded polyurethane. Armored with 0.155 mm (0.01 in) steel tape, wound with 2 mm (0.08 in) overlap, and covered with polyethylene outer jacket, 1 to 1.5 mm thick. Cable diameter: 13.0 mm (0.51 in), Cable weight: 174 kg/km Optical Cable Corporation part number: RK920929-A-CST

Fiber-optic Cable, Indoor Use (Data Highways)
• • • Multimode fiber, 62.5/125 micron core/cladding, 850 nm infra-red light Twin plastic jacketed cables (Zipcord) for indoor use Cable construction: tight-buffered fibers surrounded by aramid strength members with a flexible flame retardant jacket Cable dimensions: 2.9 mm (0.11 in) diameter x 5.8 mm (0.23 in) width, cable weight:15 kg/km Siecor Corporation part number: 002K58-31141

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Single-Mode Fiber-optic Cable (SMF), Indoor Use (UDH Only)
• • • Single-mode fiber-optic cable is validated for use on the Mark VI UDH network. SMF cable lengths can be zero to 15K in length. SMF cables MUST be terminated and/or spliced by a certified fiber-optic cable installer. SMF cable CANNOT be terminated and/or spliced by installations engineers. SMF cables are 8.3/125µm Core/Cladding diameter with a numeric aperture of 0.13. Optical Cable Corporation part numbers: OC041214-01, -02, -03, and -04.

• •

Connecting the System
The cabinets come complete with internal cabling. Power cables from the power distribution module to the control modules, interface modules, and terminal boards are secured by plastic cable cleats located behind the riser brackets. The mounting brackets and plates cover most of this cabling.

I/O Wiring
I/O connections are made to terminal blocks on the Mark VIe control terminal boards. For more information on various terminal boards and types of I/O devices used, refer to GEH-6721, Vol. II Mark VIe System Guide. Shielding connections to the shield bar located to the left of the terminal board are shown in the following figure below.
Grounded Shield Bar

Shield Terminal Block Shield

Terminal Board

Shield

Cable

I/O Wiring Shielding Connections to Ground Bar at Terminal Board

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The grounded shield bars provide an equipotential ground plane to which all cable shield drain wires should be connected, with as short a pigtail as practical. The length should not exceed 5 cm (2 in) to reduce the high-frequency impedance of the shield ground. Reducing the length of the pigtail should take precedence over reducing the length of exposed wire within the cabinet. Pigtails should not be connected except at the grounding bars provided, to avoid loops and maintain a radial grounding system. Shields should be insulated up to the pigtail. In most instances, shields should not be connected at the far end of the cable, to avoid circulating power-frequency currents induced by pickup. A small capacitor can be used to ground the far end of the shield, producing a hybrid ground system, improving noise immunity. Shields must continue across junction boxes between the control and the turbine, and should match up with the signal they are shielding. Avoid hard grounding the shield at the junction boxes, but small capacitors to ground at junction boxes may improve immunity.

Terminal Block Features
Barrier Terminal Blocks (Black)
Many of the terminal boards in the Mark VIe control use a 24-position pluggable barrier terminal block (179C9123BB). These terminal blocks have the following features: • • • • • • Made from a polyester resin material with 130°C (266 °F) rating. Black in color with white lettering Terminal rating is 300 V, 10 A, UL class C general industry, 0.375 in creepage, 0.250 in strike UL and CSA code approved Screws finished in zinc clear chromate and contacts in tin Each block screw is number labeled 1 through 24 or 25 through 48 in white Recommended screw tightening torque is 8 in lbs (0.90 nm).

Euro-style Box Terminal Blocks (Green)
Many of the terminal boards in the Mark VIe control use a 24-position Euro-style box-type terminal block. These terminal blocks have the following features: • • • • • • Made from a polyester resin material with 130°C (266 °F) rating. Green in color with black lettering on a white strip. Terminal rating is 300 V, 10 A, UL class C general industry, 0.375 in creepage, 0.250 in strike UL and CSA code approved Screws finished in zinc clear chromate and contacts in tin Each block screw is number labeled 1 through 24 or 25 through 48 Recommended screw tightening torque is 8 in lbs (0.90 nm).

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Power System
The 125 V dc supply must be installed and maintained so that it meets requirements of IEC 61010-1 cl. 6.3.1 to be considered Not Hazardous Live. The BJS berg jumper must be installed in the JPDF to provide the monitored ground reference for the 125 V dc. If there are multiple JPDFs connected to the dc mains, only one should have the Berg jumper installed. The dc mains must be floated (isolated from ground) if they are connected to a 125 V dc supply (battery). Note The IS220JPDF module must provide the single, monitored, ground reference point for the 125 V dc system. Refer to section, Wiring and Circuit Checks.

Installing Ethernet
The Mark VIe control modules communicate over several different Ethernet LANs (refer to Chapter 3, Networks). The data highways use a number of 100BaseTX segments and some fiber-optic segments. These guidelines comply with IEEE 802.3 standards for Ethernet. For details on installing individual Ethernet LAN components, refer to the instructions supplied by the manufacturer of that equipment. If the connection within a building and the sites share a common ground, it is acceptable to use 100BaseTX connections. If connecting between buildings, or there are differences in ground potential within a building, or distances exceed 100 m (328 ft), then 100BaseFX fiber is required. For applications beyond 2 km (1.24 miles), refer to Chapter 3, Networks.

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Startup Checks
All control system panels have cables pre-installed and factory-tested before shipment. However, final checks should be made after installation and before starting the equipment. This equipment contains a potential hazard of electrical shock or burn. Power is provided by the control system to various input and output devices. External sources of power may be present in the control system that are NOT switched by the control power circuit breaker(s). Before handling or connecting any conductors to the equipment, use proper safety precautions to ensure all power is turned off. Inspect the control cabinet components for any damage possibly occurring during shipping. Check for loose cables, wires, connections, or loose components, such as relays or retainer clips. Report all damage that occurred during shipping to GE Product Service. Refer to section, Grounding for equipment grounding instructions.

Deposits containing ionic contaminants such as salt are difficult to remove completely, and may combine with moisture to cause irreparable damage to the boards.

Wiring and Circuit Checks
This equipment contains a potential hazard of electric shock or burn. Only personnel who are adequately trained and thoroughly familiar with the equipment and the instructions should install, operate, or maintain this equipment. The following steps should be completed to check the cabinet wiring and circuits. To check the power wiring 1 2 3 4 5 Ensure that all incoming power wiring agrees with the electrical drawings, supplied with the panel, and is complete and correct. Ensure that the incoming power wiring conforms to approved wiring practices as described previously. Ensure that all electrical terminal connections are tight. Ensure that no wiring has been damaged or frayed during installation. Replace if necessary. Check that incoming power (125 V dc, 115 V ac, 230 V ac) is the correct voltage and frequency, and is clean and free of noise. Make sure the DACA converters, if used, are set to the correct voltage by selecting the JTX1 (115 V ac) or JTX2 (230 V ac) jumper positions on the top of the converter.

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6

If the installation includes more than one JPDF on an interconnected 125 V dc system, the BJS jumper must be installed in one and only one JPDF. This is because the parallel connection of more than one ground reference circuit will reduce the impedance to the point where the 125 V dc no longer meets the not hazardous live requirement.

Verifying that the 125 V dc is properly grounded. A qualified person using appropriate safety procedures and equipment should make tests. Measure the current from first the P125 V dc, and then the N125 V dc, using a 2000 Ω, 10 W resistor to the protective conductor terminal of the Mark VIe control in series with a dc ammeter. The measured current should be 1.7 to 2.0 mA, (the tolerance will depend on the test resistor and the JPDF tolerances). If the measured current exceeds 2.0 mA, the system must be cleared of the extra ground(s). A test current of about 65 mA, usually indicates one or more hard grounds on the system, while currents in multiples of 1 mA usually indicate more than one BJS jumper is installed. Note At this point the system is ready for initial application of power.

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Notes

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CHAPTER 6

Chapter 6 Tools and System Interface
Introduction
This chapter summarizes the tools used for configuring, loading, and operating the Mark VIe control system. These include the ToolboxST, CIMPLICITY HMI, and the Historian.

ToolboxST
ToolboxST is a Windows-based software for configuring and maintaining the Mark VIe control. The software must run on a Pentium 4, 1.6 GHz or better with 1GB RAM. Usually the engineering workstation is a CIMPLICITY HMI Server located on the UDH. Refer to GEH-6700, ToolboxST for Mark VIe Control. ToolboxST features include: • • • • • • System component layout Configure, edit, and view real-time Mark VIe control application code EGD editor Hardware diagnostic alarm viewer Password protection Trending

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Human-Machine Interface (HMI)
The Human-Machine Interface (HMI) is the main operator interface to the Mark VIe control system. HMI is a computer with a Windows operating system and CIMPLICITY graphics display system, communicating with the Mark VIe controllers over Ethernet. For details, refer to GFK-1180, CIMPLICITY HMI for Windows 2000 and WindowsNT User's Manual. For details on how to configure the graphic screens refer to GFK-1396 CIMPLICITY HMI for Windows NT and Windows 95 CimEdit Operation Manual.

Basic Description
The HMI for Mark VIe controls consists of two distinct elements: • • HMI Server Signal database

The HMI server is the hub of the system, channeling data between the UDH and the PDH, and providing data support and system management. The server also has the responsibility for device communication for both internal and external data interchanges. The Signal database establishes signal management and definition for the control system, provides a single repository for system alarm messages and definitions, and contains signal relationships and correlation between the controllers and I/O. It is used for system configuration, but not required for running.

Product Features
The HMI contains a number of product features important for plant control: • • • • • Dynamic graphics Alarm displays Process variable trending Point control display for changing setpoints HMI access security

The graphic system performs key HMI functions and provides the operator with real time process visualization and control using the following: CimEdit is an object-oriented program that creates and maintains the users graphic screen displays. Editing and animation tools, with the familiar Windows environment, provide an intuitive, easy to use interface. Features include: • • • • Standard shape library OLE Movement and rotation animation Filled object capabilities, and interior and border animation

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CimView is the HMI run-time portion, displaying the process information in graphical formats. In CimView the operator can view the system screens, and screens from other applications, using OLE automation, run scripts, and get descriptions of object actions. Screens have a one-second-refresh rate, and a typical graphical display that takes only one second to repaint. Alarm Viewer provides alarm management functions, such as sorting and filtering by priority, by unit, by time, or by source device. Also supported are configurable alarm field displays, and embedding dynamically updated objects into CimView screens. Trending, based on ActiveX technology, gives users data analysis capabilities. Trending uses data collected by the HMI, or data from other third-party software packages or interfaces. Trending includes multiple trending charts per graphic screen with unlimited pens per chart, and the operator can resize or move trend windows to convenient locations on the display. Point control cabinet provides a listing of points in the system, with real time values and alarm status. Operators can view and change local and remote set points by direct numeric entry. Note Third-party interfaces allow the HMI to exchange data with DCS systems, programmable logic controllers, I/O devices, and other computers.

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Turbine Historian
The Turbine Historian is a data archival system based on client-server technology. This provides data collection, storage, and display of power island and auxiliary process data. Depending on the requirements, the product can be configured for just turbine-related data, or for broader applications that include balance of plant process data. The Turbine Historian combines high-resolution digital event data from the turbine controller with process analog data creating a sophisticated tool for investigating cause-effect relationships. It provides a menu of predefined database query forms for typical analysis relating to the turbine operations. Flexible tools enable the operator to quickly generate custom trends and reports from the archived process data.

System Configuration
The Turbine Historian provides historical data archiving and retrieval functions. When required, the system architecture provides time synchronization to ensure time coherent data. The Turbine Historian accesses turbine controller data through the UDH as shown in the figure below. Additional Turbine Historian data acquisition is performed through Modbus and/or Ethernet-based interfaces. Data from third-party devices such as Bently Nevada monitors, or non-GE PLCs is usually obtained through Modbus, while Ethernet is the preferred communication channel for GE/Fanuc PLC products. The HMI and other operator interface devices communicate to the Turbine Historian through the PDH. Network technology provided by the Windows operating system allows interaction from network computers, including query and view capabilities, using the Turbine Historian Client Tool Set. The interface options include the ability to export data into spreadsheet applications.
Plant Data Highway

HMI Server # 1

HMI Server # 2

HMI Viewer

Historian DAT Tape

Unit Data Highway
Data Transmission to the Historian and HMI

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System Capability
The Turbine Historian provides an online historical database for collecting and storing data from the control system. Packages of 1,000, 5,000, or 10,000 point tags may be configured and collected from as many as eight turbine controls. A typical turbine control application uses less than 1,000 points of time tagged analog and discrete data per unit. The length of time that the data is stored on disk, before offline archiving is required, depends upon collection rate, dead-band configuration, process rate of change, and the disk size.

Data Flow
The Turbine Historian has three main functions: data collection, storage, and retrieval. Data collection is over the UDH and Modbus. Data is stored in the Exception database for SOE, events, and alarms, and in the archives for analog values. Retrieval is through a web browser or standard trend screens.
I/O
Control System

I/O

I/O Third Party Devices Modbus

PLC Ethernet

Ethernet

Turbine Control Exception Database (SOE)

Data Dictionary

Process Archives (Analog Values)

Server Side Client Side Web Browser Trend Generation Process Data (Trends) DataLink Excel for Reports & Analysis

Alarm & Event Report Cross Plot Event Scanner

Turbine Historian Functions and Data Flow

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Turbine Historian Tools
A selection of tools, screens, and reports are available to ensure that the operator can make efficient use of the collected data as follows: • Alarm and Event Report is a tabular display of the alarms, events, and SOE for all Mark VIe units connected to the Turbine Historian. This report presents the following information on a point’s status; time of pickup (or dropout), unit name, status, processor drop number, and descriptive text. This is a valuable tool to aid in the analysis of the system, especially after an upset. Historical Cross Plot references the chronological data of two signal points, plotted one against another, for example temperature against revolutions per minute (RPM). This function permits visual contrasting and correlation of operational data. Event Scanner function uses logic point information (start, trip, shutdown, or user-defined) stored in the historical database to search and identify specific situations in the unit control. Event/Trigger Query Results shows the user’s inputs and a tabular display of resulting event triggers. The data in the Time column represents the time tag of the specified Event Trigger. Process Data (Trends) is the graphical interface for the Turbine Historian and can trend any analog or digital point. It is fully configurable and can autorange the scales or set fixed indexes. For accurate read out, the trend cursor displays the exact value of all points trended at a given point in time. The Turbine Historian can be set up to mimic strip chart recorders, analyze the performance of particular parameters over time, or help troubleshoot root causes of a turbine upset. The trend display, shown in the following figure, is an example of a turbine startup.

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Typical Multi-Pen Process Trend Display

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Data Collection Details
Mark VIe control uses two methods to collect data. The first process uses EGD pages defined in the system database (SDB). The Turbine Historian uses this collection method for periodic storage of control data. It also receives exception messages from the Mark VIe controller for alarm and event state changes. When a state change occurs, it is sent to the Turbine Historian. Contact inputs or SOE changes are scanned, sent to the Turbine Historian, and stored in the Exception database with the alarms and event state changes. These points are time-tagged by the Mark VIe controller. Time synchronization and time coherency are extremely important when the operator or maintenance technician is trying to analyze and determine the root cause of a problem. To provide this, the data is time-tagged at the controller that offers system time-sync functions as an option to ensure that total integrated system data remain time-coherent. Data points configured for collection in the archives are sampled once per second from EGD. Analog data that exceeds an exception dead-band and digital data that changes state is sent to the archives. The Turbine Historian uses the swinging door compression method that filters on the slope of the value to determine when to save a value. This allows the Turbine Historian to keep orders of magnitude and more data online than in conventional scanned systems. The web browser interface provides access to the Alarm and Event Report, the Cross-Plot, the Event Scanner, and several Turbine Historian status displays. Configurable trend displays are the graphical interface to the history stored in the archives. They provide historical and real time trending of process data. The PI DataLink (optional) is used to extract data from the archives into spreadsheets, such as Excel for report generation and analysis.

uOSM
The Universal OnSite Monitor (uOSM) is a separate computer module that is the GE Energy Services portal to provide warranty and contractual service offerings. The uOSM has no operator interface and does not expose its data directly to the end user. The uOSM monitors turbine-operating data and periodically uploads the data to the GE Energy Services Operations Center for analysis. Fleet analysis data is collected to improve overall system availability, performance, and individual event information for root cause analysis.

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OPC Server
The CIMPLICITY HMI OLE process control (OPC) server provides a standardsbased interface to the CIMPLICITY run-time database. The OPC server conforms to the OLE for OPC 2.0 data access standards. OPC is a technology standard initially developed by a group of automation industry companies and now managed by the not-for-profit organization called the OPC Foundation. The standard was developed to provide a common de-coupling mechanism for automation system software components. OPC provides for simpler integration of automation software components from multiple vendors. Fundamentally, the OPC standard defines two software roles, OPC clients and OPC servers. In general, clients are consumers of automation information and servers are producers of the same information.

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Modbus
Modbus is an industry standard protocol for exchanging real time data and commands between various control systems. It communicates with the HMI using either serial or Ethernet connections. Information is gathered and translated to standard Modbus protocol in three different modes of communication, slave mode, master mode, and CIMPLICITY Modbus master mode. The most used is the slave mode for communication with other distributed control systems. For further information on Modbus communications, see GEI-100517, Modbus for HMI Applications.
HMI View Node

PLANT DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM (DCS)

Redundant Switch Ethernet or GSM Ethernet Modbus or

PLANT DATA HIGHWAY PLANT DATA HIGHWAY

HMI Server Node

HMI Server Node

Modbus Communication

From UDH

From UDH

Communication to DCS from HMI using Modbus or Ethernet Options

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Ethernet Modbus Slave
Modbus is widely used in control systems to establish communication between distributed control systems, PLCs, and HMIs. The Mark VIe controller supports Ethernet Modbus as a standard slave interface. Ethernet establishes high-speed communication between the various portions of the control system, and the Ethernet Modbus protocol is layered on top of the TCP/IP stream sockets. The primary purpose of this interface is to allow third-party Modbus master computers to read and write signals that exist in the controller, using a subset of the Modbus function codes. The Mark VIe controller will respond to Ethernet Modbus commands received from any of the Ethernet ports supported by its hardware configuration. Ethernet Modbus can be configured as an independent interface or share a register map with a serial Modbus interface.
Ethernet

Ethernet Modbus Mark VIe P o w er S u p ply
ENET1

Ethernet Modbus PLC

C o n t r o ll e r

C o n t r o ll e r

Com2

Simplex

RS-232C Serial Modbus

Typical Ethernet Modbus Topology Modbus Function Codes

Function Codes
01 Read Coil 02 Read Input 03 Read Registers 04 Read Input Registers 05 Force Coil 06 Preset Register 07 Read Exception Status 08 Loopback Test 15 Force Coils 16 Preset Registers

Description
Read the current status of a group of 1 to 2000 Boolean signals Read the current status of a group of 1 to 2000 Boolean signals Read the current binary value in 1 to 125 holding registers Read the current binary values in 1 to125 analog signal registers Force a single Boolean signal to a state of ON or OFF Set a specific binary value into holding registers Read the first 8 logic coils (coils 1-8) short message length permits rapid reading Loopback diagnostic to test communication system Force a series of 1 to 800 consecutive Boolean signals to a specific state Set binary values into a series of 1 to 100 consecutive holding registers

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S e ri a l 1

ENET1

CPU

Serial Modbus
Serial Modbus is used to communicate between the Mark VIe controller and other distributed control systems (DCS). The serial Modbus communication link allows an operator at a remote location to make an operator command by sending a logical command or an analog setpoint to the Mark VIe controller. Logical commands are used to initiate automatic sequences in the controller. Analog setpoints are used to set a target, such as turbine load, and initiate a ramp to the target value at a ramp rate predetermined by the application software. The HMI Server supports serial Modbus as a standard interface. The DCS sends a request for status information to the HMI, or the message can be a command to the Mark VIe controls. The HMI is always a slave responding to requests from the serial Modbus master, and there can only be one master.
Serial Communication Features

Serial Modbus Feature
Type of Communication Speed Media and Distance Mode

Description
Master/slave arrangement with the slave controller following the master; full duplex, asynchronous communication 19,200 baud is standard; 9,600 baud is optional Using an RS-232C cable without a modem, the distance is 15.24 m (50 feet); using an RS-485 converter, it is 1.93 km (1.2 miles). ASCII Mode - Each 8-bit byte in the message is sent as two ASCII characters – the hexadecimal representation of the byte. (Not available from the HMI Server) Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) Mode - Each 8-bit byte in the message is sent with no translation, which packs the data more efficiently than the ASCII mode, providing about twice the throughput at the same baud rate

Message Security

An optional parity check is done on each byte and a CRC16 check sum is appended to the message in the RTU mode; in the ASCII mode an LRC is appended to the message instead of the CRC.

Note This section discusses serial Modbus communication in general terms, refer to the Mark VIe controller and HMI documents for more details.

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Modbus Configuration
Systems are configured as single point-to-point RS-232C communication devices. A GE device on Serial Modbus is a slave supporting binary RTU full duplex messages with CRC. Both dedicated and broadcast messages are supported. A dedicated message is a message addressed to a specific slave device with a corresponding response from that slave. A broadcast message is addressed to all slaves without a corresponding return response. The binary RTU message mode uses an 8-bit binary character data for messages. RTU mode defines how information is packed into the message fields by the sender and decoded by the receiver. Each RTU message is transmitted in a continuous stream with a 2-byte CRC checksum, containing a slave address. A slave station’s address is a fixed unique value in the range of 1 to 255. The Serial Modbus communications system supports 9600 and 19,200 baud; none, even, or odd parity, and 7 or 8 data bits. Both the master and slave devices must be configured with the same baud rate, parity, and data bit count.

Hardware Configuration
The RS-232C standard specifies 25 signal lines: 20 lines for routine operation, two lines for modem testing, and three remaining lines are unassigned. Nine of the signal pins are used in a nominal RS-232C communication system. Cable references in this document refer to the 9-pin cable definition found in the following table. Terms describing the various signals used in sending or receiving data are expressed from the point of view of the data terminal device (DTE). For example the signal, transmit data (TD), represents the transmission of data coming from the DTE device going to the data communication device (DCE). Each RS-232C signal uses a single wire. The standard specifies the conventions used to send sequential data as a sequence of voltage changes signifying the state of each signal. Depending on the signal group, a negative voltage (less than -3 V) represents a binary one data bit, a signal mark, or a control off condition. A positive voltage (greater that +3 V) represents a binary zero data bit, a signal space, or a control on condition. An RS-232C cable cannot be longer than 50 feet because of voltage limitations. DTE is identified as a device transmitting serial data on pin 3 (TD) of a 9-pin RS232C cable (see pin definitions in the following table). A DCE is identified as a device transmitting serial data on pin 2 (RD) of a 9-pin RS-232C cable. Using this definition, the GE slave serial Modbus device is a data terminal equipment (DTE) device because it transmits serial data on pin 3 (TD) of the 9-pin RS-232C cable. If the master serial Modbus device is also a DTE device, connecting the master and slave devices together requires an RS-232C null modem cable.

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RS-232C Connector Pinout Definition

DB 9
1

DB 25
8

Description
Data Carrier Detect (DCD) Receive Data-(RD) Transmit Data (TD) Data Terminal Ready DTR Signal Ground (GND) Data Set Ready (DSR)

DTE Output

DTE Input
X

Signal Type
Control

Function
Signal comes from the other RS-232C device telling the DTE device that a circuit has been established. Receiving serial data Transmitting serial data DTE places positive voltage on this pin when powered up. Must be connected Signal from other RS-232C device telling the DTE that the other RS-232C device is powered up. DTE has data to send and places this pin high to request permission to transmit. DTE looks for positive voltage on this pin for permission to transmit data. A modem signal indicating a ringing signal on the telephone line.

2 3 4 5 6

3 2 20 7 6

X X X

Data Data Control Ground

X

Control

7 8 9

4 5 22

Request To Send (RTS) Clear To Send (CTS) Ring Indicator (RI)

X X X

Control Control Control

Nine of the 25 RS-232C pins are used in a common asynchronous application. All nine pins are necessary in a system configured for hardware handshaking. The Modbus system does not use hardware handshaking; therefore it requires just three wires, receiving data (RD), transmitting data (TD), and signal ground (GND) transmitting and receiving data. The nine RS-232C signals used in the asynchronous communication system can be broken down into four groups of signals: data, control, timing, and ground. Data Signal wires are used to send and receive serial data. Pin 2 (RD) and pin 3 (TD) are used for transmitting data signals. A positive voltage (> +3 V) on either of these two pins signifies a logic 0 data bit or space data signal. A negative voltage (< 3 V) on either of these two pins signifies a logic one data bit or mark signal. Control Signals coordinate and control the flow of data over the RS-232C cable. Pins 1 (DCD), 4 (DTR), 6 (DSR), 7 (RTS), and 8 (CTS) are used for control signals. A positive voltage (> +3 V) indicates a control on signal, while a negative voltage (< -3 V) signifies a control off signal. When a device is configured for hardware handshaking, these signals are used to control the communications. Timing signals are not used in an asynchronous 9-wire cable. These signals, commonly called clock signals, are used in synchronous communication systems to synchronize the data rate between transmitting and receiving devices. The logic signal definitions used for timing are identical to those used for control signals. Signal Ground on both ends of an RS-232C cable must be connected. Frame ground is sometimes used in 25-pin RS-232C cables as a protective ground.

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Serial Port Parameters
An RS-232C serial port is driven by a computer chip called a universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART). The UART sends an 8-bit byte of data out of a serial port preceded with a start bit, the eight data bits, an optional parity bit, and one or two stop bits. The device on the other end of the serial cable must be configured the same as the sender to understand the received data. The software configurable setup parameters for a serial port are baud rate, parity, stop and data bit counts. Device number is the physical RS-232C communication port. Baud rate is the serial data transmission rate of the Modbus device measured in bits per second. The GE Modbus slave device supports 9,600 and 19,200 baud (default). Stop bits are used to pad the number of bits that are transmitted for each byte of serial data. The GE Modbus slave device supports one or two stop bits. The default is one stop bit. Parity provides a mechanism to error check individual serial 8-bit data bytes. The GE Modbus slave device supports none, even, and odd parity. The default parity is none. Code (byte size) is the number of data bits in each serial character. The GE Modbus slave device supports 7 and 8-bit data bytes. The default byte size is eight bits.

Ethernet GSM
Some applications require transmitting alarm and event information to the DCS. This information includes high-resolution local time tags in the controller for alarms (25 Hz), system events (25 Hz), and SOEs for contact inputs (1ms). Traditional SOEs require multiple contacts for each trip contact with one contact wired to the turbine control to initiate a trip and the other contact to a separate SOE instrumentation rack for monitoring. The Mark VIe control uses dedicated processors in each contact input board to time stamp all contact inputs with a 1 ms time stamp, thus eliminating the initial cost and long term maintenance of a separate SOE system. An available Ethernet link, using TCP/IP, transmits data with the local time tags to the plant level control. The link supports all alarms, events, and SOEs in the Mark VIe control cabinet. GE supplies an application layer protocol called GSM, which supports four classes of application level messages. The HMI Server is the source of the Ethernet GSM communication. Note The HMI server has the turbine data to support GSM messages. Administration Messages are sent from the HMI to the DCS with a Support Unit message, describing the systems available for communication on that specific link, and general communication link availability. Event Driven Messages are sent from the HMI to the DCS spontaneously when a system alarm or system event occurs or clears, or a contact input (SOE) closes or opens. Each logic point transmits with an individual time tag.

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Periodic Data Messages are groups of data points, defined by the DCS and transmitted with a group time tag. All of the 5,000 data points in the Mark VIe control are available for transmission to the DCS at periodic rates down to 1-second. One or multiple data lists can be defined by the DCS using controller names and point names. Common Request Messages, including turbine control commands and alarm queue commands, are sent from the DCS to the HMI. Turbine control commands include momentary logical commands such as raise and lower, start and stop, and analog setpoint target commands. Alarm queue commands consist of silence, plant alarm horn, and reset commands as well as alarm dump requests causing the entire alarm queue to be transmitted from the Mark VIe control to the DCS.

Time Synchronization
The time synchronization option synchronizes all turbine controls, generator controls, and HMIs on the UDH to the network time master. For more information, refer to GEI-100505 NTP and GEI-100507 NTP Server A time/frequency processor board is placed in the HMI. This board acquires time from the master time source with a high degree of accuracy. When the HMI receives the time signal, it makes the time information available to the turbine and generator controls on the network by way of network time protocol (NTP). The HMI server provides time-to-time slaves either by broadcasting time, or by responding to NTP time queries, or both methods. Supplying a time/frequency processor board in another HMI server as a backup can provide redundant time synchronization. Normally, the primary HMI server on the UDH is the time master for the UDH, and other computers without the time/frequency board are time slaves. The time slave computes the difference between the returned time and the recorded time of request and adjusts its internal time. Each time slave can be configured to respond to a time master through unicast mode or broadcast mode. Local time is used for display of real time data by adding a local time correction to UTC. A node’s internal time clock is normally UTC rather than local. This is done because UTC time steadily increases at a constant rate while corrections are allowed to local time. Historical data is stored with global time to minimize discontinuities.

Redundant Time Sources
If the master time source becomes inoperative, the backup is to switch the time board to flywheel mode with a drift of ±2 ms/hour. In most cases, this allows sufficient time to repair the master time source without severe disruption of the plant’s system time. If the time master becomes inoperative, then each of the time slaves picks the backup time master. This means that all nodes on the UDH lock onto the identical reference for their own time even if the primary and secondary time masters have different time bases for their reference. If multiple time masters exist, each time slave selects the current time master based on whether or not the time master is tracking the master time source, which time master has the best quality signal, and which master is listed first in the configuration file.

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Selection of Time Sources
The time synchronization software does not support all time sources supported by the time board. A list of time sources supported by both the time board and the time synchronization software includes: • Modulated IRIG-A, IRIG-B, 2137, or NASA-36 timecode signals – – • Modulation ratio 3:1 to 6:1 Amplitude 0.5 to 5 volts peak to peak

Dc level shifted modulated IRIG-A, IRIG-B, 2137, or NASA-36 timecode signals – TTL / CMOS compatible voltage levels 1PPS (one pulse per second) using the External 1PPS input signal of the BC620AT board – TTL / CMOS compatible voltage levels, positive edge on time Flywheel mode using no signal, using the low drift clock on the BC620AT board – Flywheel mode as the sole time source for the plant

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Notes

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CHAPTER 7

Chapter 7 Maintenance and Diagnostics
Introduction
This chapter describes system maintenance, process and diagnostic alarms, and LED status of the controller, I/O pack, power supply, and IONet. For replacement procedures for a pack/board, CPCI component, and DACA power conversion module(s) refer to GEH-6721 Mark VIe Control System Guide, Volume II .

Maintenance
This equipment contains a potential hazard of electric shock or burn. Only personnel who are adequately trained and thoroughly familiar with the equipment and the instructions should install, operate, or maintain this equipment.

The control system should be inspected every 30,000 hours (3.4 years) to ensure the components are functioning properly. This inspection should include, but is not limited to terminal boards and cables. To clean terminal boards 1 2 3 4 5 Remove the dirt and dust from the boards using a grounded, natural bristle drapery brush or paint brush. Wash the board in water with a mild dishwashing detergent. Rinse the board in deionized water. Rinse in alcohol to remove any remaining traces of the water. Allow the board to air dry. DO NOT use compressed air to clean the boards. The compressed air may contain moisture that could combine with dirt and dust and damage the boards. If the compressed air pressure is too strong, components could be blown off the boards or delicate solder runs could be damaged. To clean cables Remove dirt and dust with a damp, lint free cotton cloth.

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Ethernet Switches
The UDH, PDH, and IONet use Fast Ethernet switches preconfigured specifically for the turbine controls application. Any replacement switch must also be configured with the appropriate configuration for the turbine controls application. Redundant switches provide multiple communications links to the controllers and HMI systems. Some basic troubleshooting techniques are useful in the diagnosis and repair of these systems as follows: In the event of a network link failure, check the status LEDs at both ends of the link. Unlit LEDs indicate a failure in that specific link. Troubleshoot the switch, cable, HMI, or controller by substituting known working Ethernet components until the link status LEDs show health. On large systems, there may be many switches. It will be necessary to pursue a halfinterval (binary search) technique when troubleshooting the network system. This half-interval approach involves isolating different local areas of the network by removing the cables between different areas. These individual areas can then be diagnosed using the method described above. Once all of the individual areas are functioning, they can be connected one at a time until the complete network is restored.

Ethernet Switches

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Alarm Overview
Three types of alarms are generated by the Mark VIe control system: Process alarms are caused by machinery and process problems. They alert the operator through messages on the HMI screen. The alarms are created in the controller using alarm bits generated in the I/O boards or in sequencing. The user configures the desired analog alarm settings in sequencing using the ToolboxST application. As well as generating operator alarms, the alarm bits in the controller can be used as interlocks in the application program. Hold list alarms are similar to process alarms; additionally the scanner drives a specified signal, True, whenever any hold list signal is in the alarm state (hold present). This signal is used to disable automatic turbine startup logic at various stages in the sequencing. Operators may override a hold list signal so that the sequencing can proceed even if the hold condition has not cleared. Diagnostic alarms are caused by Mark VIe control equipment problems and have configurable settings in the boards. Diagnostic alarms identify the failed module helping the service engineer quickly repair the system.

HMI

Alarm Display

HMI

ToolboxST

Diagnostic Display

UDH

<R>
Controller

Process and Hold List Alarms

<S>
Controller

<T>
Controller

Diagnostic Alarms

I/O

I/O

I/O

Three Types of Alarms Generated by Mark VIe Controls

Diagnostic Alarm Bits

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Process Alarms
Process alarms are generated by the transition of Boolean signals configured by the ToolboxST with the alarm attribute. The signals are driven by sequencing or tied to input points to map values directly from I/O boards. Process alarm signals are scanned during each frame after the sequencing is run. In TMR systems, process signals are voted and the resulting composite is present in each controller.

Process and Hold Alarm Data Flow
Process and hold alarms are time stamped and stored in a local queue in the controller. Changes representing alarms are time stamped and sent to the alarm queue. Reports containing alarm information are assembled and sent over the UDH to the HMIs. Here the alarms are again queued and prepared for operator display by the alarm viewer. Note The operator or the controller can take action based on process alarms. Operator commands from the HMI, such as alarm Acknowledge, Reset, Lock, and Unlock, are sent back over the UDH to the alarm queue where they change the status of the appropriate alarms. An alarm entry is removed from the controller queue when it has returned to normal and has been acknowledged by an operator. Hold alarms are managed in the same way, but are stored on a separate queue. Additionally, hold alarms cannot be locked but can be overridden.
Mark VIe Controller

UDH

HMI

Input

Signal

. . .
Input

. . .
Signal
Alarm Logic variable Alarm ID

Alarm Scanner

Alarm Report

Alarm Receiver

Alarm Viewer

Alarm Comm

Alarm Queue Operator Commands - Ack - Reset - Lock - Unlock - Override for hold lists

Alarm Queue including Time

Generating Process Alarms

To configure the alarm scanner on the controller, refer to GEH-6700 ToolboxST for Mark VIe Control. To configure the controller to send alarms to all HMIs, use the UDH broadcast address in the alarm IP address area.

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Diagnostic Alarms
The controller and I/O packs generate diagnostic alarms. Alarm bits are created in the I/O pack by hardware limit checking. Raw input checking takes place at the frame rate, and resulting alarms are queued. • Each type of I/O pack has hardware limit checking based on high and low levels set near the ends of the operating range. When the limit is exceeded, a logic signal is set. (ATTN_xxxx). In TMR systems, a limit alarm called TMR Diff Limt is created if any of the three inputs differ from the voted value by more than a preset amount. This limit value is configured by the user creating a voting alarm indicating a problem exists with a specific input. If any one of the hardware limits is set, a pack composite diagnostic alarm, L3DIAG_xxxx, where xxxx is created in the board name. This signal can be used to trigger a process alarm. The diagnostic signals can be individually latched, and then reset with the RESET_DIA signal from the HMI. Generally, diagnostic alarms require two occurrences before coming true while process alarms only require one occurrence.

• •

In addition to inputs, each board has its own diagnostics. The I/O boards have a processor stall timer, which generates the signal, SYSFAIL. This signal lights the red LED on the front panel. The watchdog timers are set at 150 ms. If an I/O board times out, the outputs go to a fail-safe condition which is zero (or open contacts) and the input data is put in the default condition, which is zero. The default condition on contact inputs is subject to the inversion mask. The controller has extensive self-diagnostics, most of which are available in the ToolboxST application. Each terminal board has its own ID device, which is interrogated by the I/O pack. The board ID is coded into a read-only chip containing the terminal board serial number, board type, revision number, and the J type connector location.

Viewing Controller Diagnostics Using ToolboxST
The controller diagnostics window displays diagnostic messages for a Mark VIe controller. Diagnostic messages are errors or warnings that occur in the hardware device and could be indications of an improperly functioning device. Retrieving diagnostic messages should be the first step in diagnosing any problems with hardware or communications. To open the Controller Diagnostics window ♦ From ToolboxST, open a Mark VIe Component Editor. From the View menu, select Controller Diagnostics.

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Manually retrieves the latest diagnostic messages.

Permanently removes inactive faults from the list.

If checked, inactive faults are temporarily hidden.

Select the desired redundant controller in a dual or TMR configuration.

Timestamp when the message occurred.

Fault code from the controller.

1 - active 0 - inactive

Description of the fault that occurred.

Voter Disagreement Diagnostics
Each I/O pack produces diagnostic alarms when it is configured as TMR and any of its inputs disagree with the voted value of that input by more than a configured amount. This feature allows the user to find and fix potential problems that would otherwise be masked by the redundancy of the control system. The user can view these diagnostics the same way one views other diagnostic alarms. The designated controller triggers these diagnostic alarms when an individual input disagrees with the voted value for a number of consecutive frames. The diagnostic clears when the disagreement clears for a number of frames. The user configures voter disagreement diagnostics for each signal. Boolean signals are all enabled or disabled by setting the DiagVoteEnab signal to enable under the configuration section for each input. Analog signals are configured using the TMR_DiffLimit signal under configuration for each point. This difference limit is defined in one of two ways. It is implemented as a fixed engineering units (EU) value for certain inputs and as a percent of configured span for other signals. For example, if a point is configured as a 4-20 mA input scaled as 0-40 EU, its TMR_DiffLimit is defined as a percent of (40-0). The type of limit checking used is spelled out in the dialog box for the TMR_DiffLimit signal for each board type and summarized in the following table.

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Type of TMR Limit Checking

I/O Processor Board
PAIC PGEN PPRO

Type of I/O

Delta Method
% of Configured Span

Analogs PT,PT CTCT Pulse rates Thermocouples Analogs PT,PT CTCT

% of Configured Span Engineering Units Engineering Units Engineering Units % of Configured Span Engineering Units % of Configured Span Engineering Units Engineering Units Engineering Units % of Configured Span Engineering Units Engineering Units Engineering Units Engineering Units Engineering Units Engineering Units

PPYR PSVO

mA Gap Pulse rates POS MA

PTCC PTUR

-------Pulse rates PT Flame Shaft monitor

PVIB

Vibration signals

For TMR input configuration, refer to GEH-6721 Volume II. All unused signals will have the voter disagreement checking disabled to prevent nuisance diagnostics.

Totalizers
Totalizers are timers and counters that store critical data such as number of trips, number of starts, and number of fired hours. The Mark VIe control provides a special block, Totalizer, which maintains up to 64 values in a protected section of nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM). The Totalizer block should be placed in a protected macro to prevent the logic driving its counters from being modified. Users with sufficient privilege may set and clear Totalizer counter values from the ToolboxST dialogue box. An unprivileged user cannot modify the data. The standard block library help file provides more details on using the Totalizer block.

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LED Quick Reference
For further information, see GEH-6721, Mark VIe Control System Guide, Volume II.
x

M E Z Z A N I N E C A R D

STAT LED (Reserved)

IONet 3 ETHERNET T IONet 2 ETHERNET S IONet 1 ETHERNET R OT LED (Reserved) Diag LED Solid Red = Diagnostic available UDH Ethernet Status LEDs Active (Blinking = Active) Speed (Yellow = 10BaseT) (Green = 100BaseTX) COM1 RS232C port for initial controller setup

M E Z Z A N I N E C A R D L A N C O M 1:2

STAT ONL

3

ONL LED Green = Controller online and controlling IONet Ethernet LEDs Green = 100 BaseTX and full duplex Blinking = Activity

O T DIAG DC

1

1

2

2

3

DC LED Green = Designated controller UDH ETHERNET (UDH) Primary Ethernet port for Unit Data Highway communication (toolbox) COM2 RS-232C port reserved

RST S

Status LEDs System: When off, CPU is ready IDE: Flash disk activity Power: Lights when power is applied Reset: Lights during reset condition

x

Controller Status

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I/O Pack Status
PWR ATTN

ENET1

LINK TxRx

LINK TxRx ENET2

IR PORT

IS220PTCCH1A

A green LED labeled PWR shows the presence of control power. A red LED labeled ATTN shows pack status. This LED indicates five different conditions as follows: • • LED out, there are no detectable problems with the pack. LED solid on, a critical fault is present that prevents the pack from operating. Critical faults include detected hardware failures on the processor or acquisition boards, or no application code loaded. LED flashing quickly (¼ second cycle), an alarm condition is present in the pack such as putting the wrong pack on the terminal board, or errors loading the application code. LED flashing at medium speed (¾ second cycle), the pack is not online yet. LED flashing slowly (2 second cycle), the pack has received a request to flash the LED to draw attention to it. This is used during factory testing or as an aid to confirm physical location against ToolboxST settings.

• •

A green LINK LED is provided for each Ethernet port to indicate that a valid Ethernet connection is present. A yellow TxRx LED is provided for each Ethernet port to indicate when the pack is transmitting or receiving data over the port.

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IONet Status
Each Ethernet port has its own LEDs as follows: • • • Link/Speed LED is green if the link is 100 Mbit or yellow is the link is 10 Mbit. Act/Duplex LED is green if the link is full duplex or yellow if the link is half duplex. The LED flashes when traffic is present. Power LED is green when power is applied to the module.

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Glossary of Terms
application code
Software that controls the machines or processes, specific to the application.

Balance of Plant (BOP)
Plant equipment other than the turbine that needs to be controlled.

baud
A unit of data transmission. Baud rate is the number of bits per second transmitted.

bit
Binary Digit. The smallest unit of memory used to store only one piece of information with two states, such as One/Zero or On/Off. Data requiring more than two states, such as numerical values 000 to 999, requires multiple bits (see Word).

block
Instruction blocks contain basic control functions, which are connected together during configuration to form the required machine or process control. Blocks can perform math computations, sequencing, or continuous control. The toolbox receives a description of the blocks from the block libraries.

board
Printed wiring board.

Boolean
Digital statement that expresses a condition that is either True or False. In the toolbox, it is a data type for logical signals.

Bus
An electrical path for transmitting and receiving data.

byte
A group of binary digits (bits); a measure of data flow when bytes per second.

CIMPLICITY
Operator interface software configurable for a wide variety of control applications.

configure
To select specific options, either by setting the location of hardware jumpers or loading software parameters into memory.

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Glossary of Terms • G-1

Current Transformer (CT)
Measures current in an ac power cable.

Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC)
Detects errors in Ethernet and other transmissions.

data server
A computer that gathers control data from input networks and makes the data available to computers on output networks.

device
A configurable component of a process control system.

Ethernet
LAN with a 10/100 M baud collision avoidance/collision detection system used to link one or more computers together. Basis for TCP/IP and I/O services layers that conform to the IEEE 802.3 standard, developed by Xerox, Digital, and Intel.

Ethernet Global Data (EGD)
Control network and protocol for the controller. Devices share data through EGD exchanges (pages). A property of Status_S signals that causes a task to execute when the value of the signal changes.

fanned input
An input to the terminal board that is connected to all three TMR I/O boards.

fault code
A message from the controller to the HMI indicating a controller warning or failure.

Finder
A subsystem of the toolbox for searching and determining the usage of a particular item in a configuration.

firmware
The set of executable software that is stored in memory chips that hold their content without electrical power, such as EEPROM.

flash
A non-volatile programmable memory device.

forcing
Setting a live signal to a particular value, regardless of the value blockware or I/O is writing to that signal.

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frame rate
Basic scheduling period of the controller encompassing one complete inputcompute-output cycle for the controller. It is the system-dependent scan rate.

gateway
A device that connects two dissimilar LANs or connects a LAN to a wide-area network (WAN), computer, or a mainframe. A gateway can perform protocol and bandwidth conversion.

I/O device
Input/output hardware device that allows the flow of data

I/O drivers
Interface the controller with input/output devices, such as sensors, solenoid valves, and drives, using a choice of communication networks.

initialize
To set values (addresses, counters, registers, and such) to a beginning value prior to the rest of processing.

IONet
The Mark VIe I/O Ethernet communication network

item
A line of hierarchy of the outline view of the ToolboxST application, which can be inserted, configured, and edited (such as Function or System Data).

logical
A statement of a true sense, such as a Boolean.

macro
A group of instruction blocks (and other macros) used to perform part of an application program. Macros can be saved and reused.

Modbus
A serial communication protocol developed by Modicon for use between PLCs and other computers.

module
A collection of tasks that have a defined scheduling period in the controller.

non-volatile
The memory specially designed to store information even when the power is off.

GEH-6721D Mark VIe Control System Guide Volume I

Glossary of Terms • 7-3

online
Online mode provides full CPU communications, allowing data to be both read and written. It is the state of the toolbox when it is communicating with the system for which it holds the configuration. Online is also, a download mode where the device is not stopped and then restarted.

pcode
A binary set of records created by the toolbox, which contain the controller application configuration code for a device. Pcode is stored in RAM and Flash memory.

period
The time between execution scans for a Module or Task. Also a property of a Module that is the base period of all of the Tasks in the Module.

pin
Block, macro, or module parameter that creates a signal used to make interconnections.

Plant Data Highway (PDH)
Ethernet communication network between the HMI Servers and the HMI Viewers and workstations

product code (runtime)
Software stored in the controller’s Flash memory that converts application code (pcode) to executable code.

QNX
A real time operating system used in the controller.

runtime
See product code.

runtime errors
Controller problems indicated on the front cabinet by coded flashing LEDS, and also in the Log View of the toolbox.

Sequence of Events (SOE)
A high-speed record of contact transitions taken during a plant upset to allow detailed analysis of the event.

Serial Loader
Connects the controller to the toolbox computer using the RS-232C COM ports. The Serial Loader initializes the controller flash file system and sets its TCP/IP address to allow it to communicate with the toolbox over the Ethernet.

G-4 • Glossary of Terms

GEH-6721D Mark VIe Control System Guide Volume I

server
A computer that gathers data over the Ethernet from plant devices, and makes the data available to computer-based operator interfaces known as viewers.

signal
The basic unit for variable information in the controller.

simplex
Operation that requires only one set of control and I/O, and generally uses only one channel. The entire Mark VIe control system can operate in simplex mode.

simulation
Running a system without all of the configured I/O devices by modeling the behavior of the machine and the devices in software.

Software Implemented Fault Tolerance (SIFT)
A technique for voting the three incoming I/O data sets to find and inhibit errors. Note that Mark VIe control also uses output hardware voting.

stall detection
Detection of stall condition in a gas turbine compressor.

static starter
This runs the generator as a motor to bring a gas turbine up to starting speed.

task
A group of blocks and macros scheduled for execution by the user.

TCP/IP
Communication protocols developed to inter-network dissimilar systems. It is a de facto UNIX standard, but is supported on almost all systems. TCP controls data transfer and IP provides the routing for functions, such as file transfer and e-mail.

ToolboxST
A Windows-based software package used to configure the control systems, exciters, and drives.

trend
A time-based plot to show the history of values, similar to a recorder, available in the Turbine Historian and the toolbox.

Triple Module Redundancy (TMR)
An operation that uses three identical sets of control and I/O (channels R, S, and T) and votes the results.

GEH-6721D Mark VIe Control System Guide Volume I

Glossary of Terms • 7-5

Unit Data Highway (UDH)
Connects the Mark VIe controllers, static starter control system, excitation control system, PLCs, and other GE provided equipment to the HMI Servers.

G-6 • Glossary of Terms

GEH-6721D Mark VIe Control System Guide Volume I

Index
A
Acronyms and Abbreviations 1-6 Applications 1-2 ATEX directive 4-2 Directives ATEX 4-2 low voltage 4-2, 5-27 Disagreement detector 2-28 Dual controllers 2-33

B
Board assemblies 4-1

E
EGD 3-12 Electrical 4-1 ATEX directive 4-2 Board assemblies 4-1 Electromagnetic compatibility 4-1 Low voltage directive 4-2 supply voltage 4-2 Electromagnetic compatibility 4-1 Enterprise layer 3-2 Environment 4-3 Ethernet switches 3-8, 3-10, 7-2

C
Codes 4-1 Command Action 2-28 communication ports 1-3 Communications COI 2-12 DCS 2-13 Exciter 2-14 Generator protection 2-14 HMI 2-11, 6-2 IONet 1-3, 2-11, 3-10 LS2100 Static Starter 2-14 Plant data highway 2-10, 3-5 Unit data highway 2-10, 2-11, 3-7 Component sources 3-22 Configuration 5-1 Control layer 3-2 Controller communication ports 1-3 definition 1-3 designated 2-19 dual 2-33 enclosure 2-3 Signal outputs 2-20 simplex 2-33 TMR 2-36 CPCI 2-1 CT 7-7

F
Fault detection 2-16 Fiber optic cables 3-14, 3-15 basics 3-14 connectors 3-16 considerations 3-17 installation 3-17 single mode 3-18 usage 3-15 Forcing 2-28 Frequency variations 4-2

H
Harmonic distortion 4-2 How to get help 1-5

I
I/O modules 1-4 I/O pack 2-4 I/O types 2-7 Installation 5-1 IONet 1-3, 2-11, 3-10 IONet Components 3-19

D
Data highways 3-5 EGD 3-12 Ethernet switches 3-8, 3-10, 7-2 IONet 1-3, 2-11, 3-10 Plant data 3-5 Unit data 3-7 Designated controller 2-19

GEH-6721D Mark VIe Control System Guide Volume I

Index • I-1

L
Line variations 4-2 Low voltage directive 4-2

Supply voltage Frequency variations 4-2 Harmonic distortion 4-2 Line variations 4-2 Voltage unbalance 4-2

T M
Mark VIe branch circuit 2-8 Components 2-1, 3-14 core 2-8 Median value analog 2-27 MTBF 2-15 MTBFO 2-15 Terminal blocks 2-5 TMR 2-36 TMR controllers 2-36 Turbine protection 2-30 Two out of three logic 2-27

V
Voltage unbalance 4-2 Voting Median value analog 2-27 Two out of three logic 2-27

N
Network Control layer 3-2 Enterprise layer 3-2 overview 1-3 Supervisory layer 3-2

O
Online repair 2-17 Output processing 2-20 Overspeed protection 2-30

P
Peer I/O 2-28 Power sources 2-8 Power supply 2-3 Processing input 2-22 output 2-20

Q
QNX 1-3

R
Rate of response 2-29 Redundancy options 2-31 Related documents 1-5

S
Safety Standards 4-1 Signal outputs 2-20 Simplex controller 2-32 Single mode fiber optic cabling 3-18 Standards 4-1 State exchange 2-27 Supervisory layer 3-2

I-2 • Index

GEH-6721D Mark VIe Control System Guide Volume I

GE Energy 1501 Roanoke Blvd. Salem, VA 24153-6492 USA 1 540 387 7000 www.geenergy.com

GEH-6721D Revised 060713 Issued 040120

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