Portal frames are the most commonly used structural forms for single-storey single. industrial structures. They are constructed mainly using hot-rolled sections, supporting hotthe roofing and side cladding via cold-formed coldpurlins and sheeting rails. They may also be composed of tapered stanchions and rafters fabricated from plate elements. Portal frames of lattice members made of angles or tubes are also common, especially in the case of longer spans. Generally, the centre-to-centre distance centre-tobetween frames is 6 to 7.5m, with eaves height ranging from 6 -15 m. Normally, larger spacing of frames is used in the case of taller buildings, from the point of economy. MomentMoment-resisting connections are to be provided at the eaves and crown to resist lateral and gravity loadings.



‡churches. depending upon .rotational restraint provided by the foundation and the connection detail between the stanchion and foundations. Portal frames can be used in timber based commercial and industrial building construction with clear spans of 15 to 30 metres. 3 . ‡sporting venues ‡rural sheds. including: ‡ warehouses and factories. etc.PORTAL FRAME INTRODUCTION The stanchion bases may behave as either pinned or fixed.They provide large clear spans and good height clearance for use in a range of applications. ‡commercial buildings.

plumbing. etc. easily accommodate additional lighting. buildings housing chemical manufacturer and storage. Portal frames may be made from sawn timber. The overall . or potentially corrosive environments eg swimming pool enclosures. The connections carry significant moments and must have both strength and stiffness to be effective. Glulam. or with timber products such as plywood or weatherboards. brick veneer. as is common for warehouses and factories. LVL and plywood webbed beams.For other commercial applications. halls. concrete tilttilt-up or concrete block-work may be required blockfor fire isolation or compliance with local building regulations. tanneries.PORTAL FRAME INTRODUCTION Timber portal frames are cost effective. appearance is also aesthetically pleasing. cavity brick. or fibre cement cladding.Timber portal framed buildings may be clad with conventional metal. etc and can be erected quickly. Timber portal frames are particularly suitable for use in high visual impact applications eg churches. 4 .

cladding with cavity masonry work to the bottom 2m of the wall to provide security and impact resistance. This means that the . 5 . This makes portal frames a very efficient construction technique to use for wide span buildings. The lightweight cladding would be carried on sheeting rails spanning between the columns of the portal frames. size of the rafters can be reduced or the span can be increased for the same size rafters. open spaces are required at low cost and a pitched roof is acceptable. Portal frame construction is therefore typically warehouses.PORTAL FRAME INTRODUCTION Because of these very strong and rigid joints some of the bending moment in the rafters is transferred to the columns. seen in warehouses. barns and other places where large.

Portal Frames are generally used for single storey construction which require a large unobstructed floor space. as a result large open areas can easily be created within the structure. There are generally 3 types of portal frames ::. ‡Steel portal frame ‡Timber portal frame ‡Concrete portal frame They are usually made from steel.PORTAL FRAME TYPES OF PORTAL FRAME Portal frames are made in a variety of shapes and sizes. 6 . but can also be made from concrete or timber. The portal structure is designed in such a way that it has no intermediate columns.

PORTAL FRAME STEEL PORTAL FRAME The early use of the rigid portal frame coincided with the introduction of a wide range of a cold formed. with high strength friction grip. which . could be fixed at a low pitch and be weather tight. Long-span portal frames may have a pinLongpinjoint connection at the ridge to allow some flexure between the rafters of the frame which are pin-jointed to foundation bases to allow pinflexure of posts due to spread under load. For economy in the use of a standard section. ShortShort-span portal frames may be fabricated off site as one frame. Medium-span portal frames Mediumare generally fabricated in two halves for ease of transport and are assembled on site with bolted connections of the rafters at the ridge. short and medium-span steel portal frame s are mediumoftn fabricated from one mild-steel I-section for mildIboth rafters and posts. with the rafters welded to the posts without any increase in depth at the knee. profiled steel sheets for roofing. 7 .

‡Subject to corrosion 8 . ‡Connected together in factories by welding and site connections should be bolted. ‡Site works such as drainage. Building can be quickly closed in and made water tight. roads etc can be carried out until framework is ready for erection. ‡Framework prefabricated in a workshop and not affected by weather.PORTAL FRAME STEEL PORTAL FRAME Advantages ‡Speed and ease of erection ‡. Disadvantages ‡Although steel is incombustible it has a poor resistance to fire as it bends easily when hot. ‡No weather hold up during erecting the framework.

factory. and other singlesinglestoreyed buildings. storage. considerable shortage of structural steel in this country and it was then that the reinforced concrete portal frames came into common use for agricultural. a limited range of standard. 9 . placing and compaction of concrete that is possible in factory conditions.PORTAL FRAME PREPRE-CAST REINFORCED CONCRETE FRAME For several years following the end of the second world war(1945) there was a . pre-cast prereinforced concrete portal frames was supplied for the economic benefit of repitetive casting in standard moulds and close control of mixing.

sheds and single-storey places of singleassembly. This the most structurally efficient and most commonly used type of concrete portal frame.PORTAL FRAME TYPES OF CONCRETE PORTAL FRAME Symmetrical pitch reinforced concrete portal frame construction . North light pre-cast reinforced preconcrete portal frame construction The most economical span for this profile of frame is up to about 9.0 to minimise the volume of roof space inside the frames and to avoid the large sections of frame that would be necessary with greater spans. The south-facing slope is southpitched at 22 degrees and the north-facing slope northat 60 degrees to the horizontal. barns. it has been used for factories. 10 .the slope of the rafters and spacing of purlins and sheeting rails is usually arranged to suit fibre cement or profiled steel sheeting. warehouses.

standard frames that could rapidly be transported. Disadvantages ‡ they have to be formed in standard size moulds. erected. ‡ cover of concrete to the steel reinforcement to inhibit rust and give protection during fires. ‡ it has a better resistance to collapse during fires than an unprotected steel frames. there is only a limited range of sizes. ‡ they require no maintainance during the useful life of the building. and finished at an economic cost.PORTAL FRAME PREPRE-CASTREINFORCED CONCRETE FRAME Advantages ‡There was a ready supply of a limited range of . 11 . ‡ economy of section area gained by the use of the plastic method of design in the design of steel frames is considerably less with reinforced concrete. for the sake of economy.

sports halls and other single-storey structures where singlethe timber portal frames are exposed for appearance sake. used in portal frames for medium-and mediumlonglong-span roofs for such buildings as churches.PORTAL FRAME TIMBER PORTAL FRAME Combinations of slender timber sections glued. 12 . assembly halls. or glued or nailed together. are .

PORTAL FRAME TYPES OF TIMBER PORTAL FRAME SymmetricalSymmetrical-pitch glued laminated timber portal . These portal frames are usually fabricated in two sections for ease of transport and are bolted together at the ridges. These comparatively expensive portal frames are spaced fairly widely apart to support timber or steel purlins which can be covered with any of the sheet materials. The portal frames are widely spaced to support metal decking on the roof and profiled sheeting on the walls. slates or tiles. Flat glued-and-nailed timber portal glued-andThe flat portal frame is designed for the most economic use of timber glued together with the top and bottom booms of glued laminate with web stiffners. 13 .

‡ insect attack can be prevented by impregnating timber with insecticide preservative. ‡ timber.PORTAL FRAME TIMBER PORATL FRAME Advantages ‡ Timber has a natural resistance to fungal . ‡ the surface of soft wood timber can be treated with flame retardants to achieve necessary rate of flame spread. is not easy to ignite in the sizes usual to buildings. decay. 14 . timber burns very slowly and forms a protective layer of charcoal on its surface which insulates the remainder from the worst effects of fire. ‡Once ignited. which is a combustible material.

15 .PORTAL FRAME INTERNAL OUTLINE OF THE PORTAL FRAME With single storey buildings natural lighting is gained by placing clear sheets in roof layout. clear unobstructed floor area available. These sheets will run from eaves to ridge at suitable intervals.

Aluminium develops its own protective film. dismantle and repair. Wall panels 16 . Profile sheets are quick to erect. Coated steel is lowest in cost but limited in life due to the durability of the finish. These composite sheets have approximately 50mm of insulation sandwiched between two thin metal sheets or aluminium sheets.PORTAL FRAME SHEETING A high percentage of roofs are covered with composite profile metal sheets with a coloured external skin.

17 .PORTAL FRAME BASE JOINT Legs of portal frame connected with the base of foundation.

PORTAL FRAME RIDGE JOINT ridge joint or apex joint. 18 . wedge shaped pieces called gusset pieces to strengthen and increase the bolt area.

PORTAL FRAME KNEE JOINT knee joint must be strong to support the roof loads and prevent bending. 19 .

PORTAL FRAME DIGONAL BRACING Diagonal bracing for strengthening 20 .


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