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Set No. 1

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, February 2008 ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Examine the present trend for the future distribution system planning. 2. (a) Explain the following terms i. maximum demand ii. coincident demand and iii. non - coincident demand. (b) Explain following factors i. Contribution factor ii. load diversity iii. loss factor [3] [3] [2] [3] [2] [3] [16]

3. Give the various loading and voltage level factors that inﬂuence the design and operation of primary feeders. [4+4+4+4] 4. How do you analyse a substation service area with ‘n’ primary feeders. [16]

5. (a) Derive an approximate voltage-drop equation of primary feeder and give the condition for load power factor at which voltage drop is maximum. [6+4=10] (b) Consider a single-phase, 2-wire secondary distributor of length ‘l’ meters from ′ the distribution transformer. At a length of ‘l1 meters from source, a load of ′ ‘I1 amps with a p.f. of cos φ1 (lag) is tapped. At a length of ‘l2 meters from ﬁrst load, a second load of I2 amps with a power factor cos φ2 (lead) is taped. ′ ′ At a length of ‘l3 meters from second load, a third load of ‘I3 amps with a UPF is tapped. If resistance and reactance of each wire are r and x ohms/meter respectively, derive approximate voltage drop equation in the distributor. [6] 6. (a) Explain the principle of operation of line sectionalizer. (b) Explain the coordination procedure between fuse and circuit breaker. [6] [10]

7. A 3-phase transformer rated 7000KVA and has a over load capability of 125% of the rating. If the connected load is 1150KVA with a 0.8 pf (lag), determine the following : (a) The KVAR rating of shunt capacitor bank required to decrease the KVA load of the transformer to its capability level, (b) the p.f. of the corrected level,

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Code No: RR410207

Set No. 1

[8]

(c) the KVAR rating of the shunt capacitor bank required to correct the load p.f. to unity. [6+4+6] 8. (a) Why we need to control the voltage of power system? Explain in detail.

(b) Compare and explain the role of shunt and series capacitor in voltage control. [4+4] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR410207

Set No. 2

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, February 2008 ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Draw a block diagram in ﬂow chart form for a typical distribution system planning process and explain the techniques for distribution planning. [6+10] 2. (a) Explain the characteristics of diﬀerent types of Load models. [6]

(b) Assume that the annual peak load of a primary feeder is 2,000 kW, at which the power is 80kW per three phase. Assuming an annual loss factor of 0.15, determine i. the average annual power loss ii. the total annual energy loss due to the copper losses of the feeder. [5] [5]

3. (a) What are the various factors that inﬂuence the voltage levels in the design and operation of the distribution system? [5+5] (b) A 3 phase radial express feeder has a line to line voltage of 22.0 kv at the receiving end, a total impedance of 5.25 + j10.95Ω/phase, and a load of 5 MW with a lagging power factor of 0.90. Determine the following: i. The line to neutral and line to line voltages at the sending end. ii. The load angle. [2+2+2=6] 4. How do you analyse a substation service area with ‘n’ primary feeders. 5. Consider the singe phase radial distributor shown in the following ﬁgure 5 [16]

Figure 5 the magnitude of load currents, p.fs and distances are indicated in the ﬁgure. The resistance and reactance of each wire are 0.1 ohm and 0.2ohms per km respectively. It is required to maintain voltage at point B as 230 00 Volts, ﬁnd (a) voltage drop in the three sections (b) total voltage drop in the feeder (c) supply voltage, current and power factor 1 of 2

Code No: RR410207

Set No. 2

[4 × 4] [4+6]

(d) KVA output of supply The p.f. angles of individual loads are w.r.t. voltage at point B. 6. (a) What are the main objectives of distribution protection? Discuss.

(b) The per unit values of positive, negative and zero sequence reactances of a network at fault are 0.08, 0.07 and 0.05 respectively. Determine the fault current if the fault is double line to ground. [6] 7. (a) Write notes on how an over excited synchronous machine improves power factor? [8] (b) A feeder supplies an industrial consumer with a cumulative load of i. Induction Motors totaling 300HP which runs at an average eﬃciency of 89%and lagging average p.f. of 0.85 ii. Synchronous Motors totaling 100HP with an average eﬃciency of 86%and iii. a heating load of 100KW. The industrial consumer plans to use the synchronous motors to correct its overall p.f. Determine the required p.f. of the synchronous motors to correct the overall p.f. at peak load to A. unity B. 0.96 lagging. [4+4=8] 8. (a) Brieﬂy explain the line drop compensation on voltage control. [6]

(b) How an AVB can control voltage? With the aid of suitable diagram explain its function. [5+5=10] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR410207

Set No. 3

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, February 2008 ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Draw a block diagram in ﬂow chart form for a typical distribution system planning process and explain the techniques for distribution planning. [6+10] 2. (a) Explain the following terms i. maximum demand ii. coincident demand and iii. non - coincident demand. (b) Explain following factors i. Contribution factor ii. load diversity iii. loss factor 3. (a) Compare the Radial and Loop type primary feeders. (b) What are the various factors that inﬂuence the primary feeder loading. [3] [3] [2] [4+4] [8] [3] [2] [3]

4. (a) What are the various factors that are to be considered in selecting substation location. [6] (b) Compare the four and six feeders patterns. [5+5=10]

5. (a) Prove the power loss due to load currents in the conductors of the two-phase, three wire lateral with multi grounded neutral is approximately 1.64 times larger than the one in the equivalent three phase lateral. [6] (b) Consider the three phase, three wire 240V secondary system with balanced loads at A, B and C as shown in ﬁgure5. Determine i. ii. iii. iv. the total voltage drop in one phase of lateral the real power per phase for each load the reactive power per phase for each load and the KVA output and load p.f. of the distribution transformer.[2+2+2+2+2]

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Code No: RR410207

Set No. 3

Figure 5 6. (a) What are the types of common faults that occur in a distribution system? Explain them with proper line diagram. [4+4=8] (b) Considering a typical example, describe the procedure for fault current calculations in a distribution system, mentioning the assumptions to be made for the analysis. [5+3=8] 7. (a) Compare and explain the role of shunt and series capacitors in P.F. correction. [5+5=10] (b) A 400V, 50 cycles three phase line delivers 207KW at 0.8p.f. (lag). It is desired to bring the line p.f. to unity by installing shunt capacitors. Calculate the capacitance if they are i. star connected ii. delta connected. 8. (a) Write short notes on any two methods of voltage control? [3] [3] [3+3=6]

(b) “Voltage control and p.f. correction why are they necessary in power systems? What are the disadvantages of low voltage and low p.f. of the system? [5+3+2] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR410207

Set No. 4

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, February 2008 ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Discuss the objectives of distribution system planning. [16]

2. (a) At the end of a power distribution system, a certain feeder supplies three distribution transformer, each one supplying a group of customers whose connected loads are as under. Transformer Load Demand factor Diversity No.1 10kW 0.65 1.5 No.2 12kW 0.6 3.5 No.3 15kW 0.7 1.5 If the diversity factor among the transformer is 1.3, ﬁnd the maximum load on the feeder. [10] (b) Explain: Load factor and diversity factor. 3. Explain various types of radial primary feeders with diagrams. [3+3=6] [8+8]

4. (a) What are the various factors that are to be considered in selecting substation location. [6] (b) Compare the four and six feeders patterns. [5+5=10]

5. (a) Prove the power loss due to load currents in the conductors of the two-phase, three wire lateral with multi grounded neutral is approximately 1.64 times larger than the one in the equivalent three phase lateral. [6] (b) Consider the three phase, three wire 240V secondary system with balanced loads at A, B and C as shown in ﬁgure5. Determine i. ii. iii. iv. the total voltage drop in one phase of lateral the real power per phase for each load the reactive power per phase for each load and the KVA output and load p.f. of the distribution transformer.[2+2+2+2+2]

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Code No: RR410207

Set No. 4

Figure 5 6. (a) What are the main objectives of distribution protection? Discuss. [4+6]

(b) The per unit values of positive, negative and zero sequence reactances of a network at fault are 0.08, 0.07 and 0.05 respectively. Determine the fault current if the fault is double line to ground. [6] 7. (a) Explain the eﬀect of shunt compensation on distribution system. [6]

(b) A 3-phase substation transformer has a name plate rating of 7250KVA and a thermal capability of 120% of the name plate rating. If the connected load is 8816KVA with a 0.85pf lagging p.f., determine the following : i. The KVAR rating of the shunt capacitor bank required to decrease the KVA load of the transformer to its capability level. [6] ii. The power factor of the corrected level [4] 8. (a) How do the shunt capacitors and reactors control the voltage? List the disadvantages of using a shunt capacitor for voltage control. [3+3+4] (b) With the help of a phasor diagram, show how a series capacitor boosts the voltage? What are the drawbacks of this method? [4+2] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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