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Rr411804 Semi Conductors and Magnetic Materials

Rr411804 Semi Conductors and Magnetic Materials

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Code No: RR411804

Set No. 1

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, February 2008 SEMI-CONDUCTORS AND MAGNETIC MATERIALS (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Explain with suitable diagrams the conduction band, valence band and the forbidden band and explain the behavior of conductor, semi-conductor and insulator. Explain the contribution of electrons and holes to electrical conduction. [16] 2. (a) Explain the experimental setup for measuring Hall voltage. (b) What are semi-condctors? How do they differ from conductors? Discuss. Explain about p-type semi-conductors. [8+8] 3. (a) Differentiate between drift and diffusion currents in semi-conductors. Explain which is more often present in semi-conductor devices. (b) Define and explain diffusion constant for electrons. Also give its dimensions. (c) Explain mean life time of carriers. [7+6+3] 4. Distinguish between intrinsic and impurity semi-conductors with suitable examples. Discuss the theory of intrinsic conductivity of a semi-conductor. [10+6] 5. (a) What is energy gap? Give a rough estimate of band gap in superconductors. (b) At what temperature the band gap disappears and why? Explain. (c) What is coherence length? Explain coherance length for electrons in superconductors. [6+5+5] 6. (a) Does a large magnetic moment per atom mean a high curie temperature? Explain. (b) Distinguish fully among Ferromagnetism, paramagnetism and diamagnetism. Also give examples for each of these materials. [6+10] 7. (a) Distinguish between ferromagnetic, and antiferromagnetic materials. Give examples for each class of materials. (b) Discuss weiss theory of ferromagnetism bringing out its merits and demerits. [9+7] 8. (a) Explain why in soft magnetic materials hysteresis loses must be kept down to a minimum value. (b) Soft magnetic materials find wide applications requiring frequent reversals of direction of magnetization? Explain why? (c) Explain the key factors in the design of soft magnets. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1 of 1 [6+6+4]

Code No: RR411804

Set No. 2

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, February 2008 SEMI-CONDUCTORS AND MAGNETIC MATERIALS (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Explain with suitable diagrams the conduction band, valence band and the forbidden band and explain the behavior of conductor, semi-conductor and insulator. Explain the contribution of electrons and holes to electrical conduction. [16] 2. (a) Explain the experimental setup for measuring Hall voltage. (b) What are semi-condctors? How do they differ from conductors? Discuss. Explain about p-type semi-conductors. [8+8] 3. (a) Write down as many as you can the ways in which n-type and p-type semiconductors differ from an intrinsic semi-conductor? Also explain it fully (b) What do you mean by donor exhaustion? Discuss the donor exhaustion graphically in an impurity semi-conductor. [9+7] 4. (a) Explain how electrons and holes both conduct in a pure silicon crystal. How is conductivity influenced by mobility of electrons and holes? (b) What do you mean by ionic conductivity? How it differs from electronic conductivity? Explain the ionic conductivity in solids. [9+7] 5. (a) What is super conductivity? Outline the experimental facts about this phenomenon. (b) Explain about Meissner effect. (c) Explain the important property changes that occur in materials when they change from normal to superconducting state. [7+4+5] 6. (a) Explain why the ferromagnetic domains subdivide until they reach a certain minimum size. (b) What form of domain reorientation dissipate the most energy? What part of the magnetization curve is produced by this effect? Explain. [10+6] 7. (a) Explain the Neel’s theory of antiferromagnetism. (b) Draw the B-H curve for a ferromagnetic material and explain it. Identify the retentivity and the coercive field on the curve. Explain the energy loss per cycle. [5+11] 8. (a) Distinguish clearly between soft and hard magnetic materials. Discuss their important properties and applications. (b) What magnetic characteristics are required for a soft magnet. What structural features optimize these behaviors. Discuss. [8+8] 1 of 2

Code No: RR411804 ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

Set No. 2

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Code No: RR411804

Set No. 3

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, February 2008 SEMI-CONDUCTORS AND MAGNETIC MATERIALS (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Explain with suitable diagrams the conduction band, valence band and the forbidden band and explain the behavior of conductor, semi-conductor and insulator. Explain the contribution of electrons and holes to electrical conduction. [16] 2. (a) Explain the experimental setup for measuring Hall voltage. (b) What are semi-condctors? How do they differ from conductors? Discuss. Explain about p-type semi-conductors. [8+8] 3. (a) Write down as many as you can the ways in which n-type and p-type semiconductors differ from an intrinsic semi-conductor? Also explain it fully (b) What do you mean by donor exhaustion? Discuss the donor exhaustion graphically in an impurity semi-conductor. [9+7] 4. (a) At a given temperature the product of electron density and hole density is the same for intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors? Is the statement true or false? Explain your answer with suitable examples. (b) Discuss how the resistance of an intrinsic semiconductor varies with temperature. Explain further how such a study could be used to measure the energy gap of the semi-conductor. [8+8] 5. (a) What is super conductivity? Outline the experimental facts about this phenomenon. (b) Explain about Meissner effect. (c) Explain the important property changes that occur in materials when they change from normal to superconducting state. [7+4+5] 6. (a) Explain the origin of diamagnetism in a free atom. (b) Give a few examples and the uses of high permeability materials. (c) Define and explain the term. i. Coercive force ii. Susceptibility. 7. (a) Explain the Neel’s theory of antiferromagnetism. (b) Draw the B-H curve for a ferromagnetic material and explain it. Identify the retentivity and the coercive field on the curve. Explain the energy loss per cycle. [5+11] 1 of 2 [8+4+4]

Code No: RR411804

Set No. 3

8. (a) Define a soft magnetic material and a hard magnetic material.. (b) What is hysteresis loop? Explain the significance of hysteresis loop. Discuss what type of hysteresis loop does a soft magnetic material have and why? [6+10] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR411804

Set No. 4

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, February 2008 SEMI-CONDUCTORS AND MAGNETIC MATERIALS (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Explain with suitable diagrams the conduction band, valence band and the forbidden band and explain the behavior of conductor, semi-conductor and insulator. Explain the contribution of electrons and holes to electrical conduction. [16] 2. (a) Explain the terms i. Mobility of charge carriers and ii. Hall effect. (b) Explain how Hall effect is used to determine the mobility of charge carriers. (c) Give the principle of Hall effect multiplier. [6+6+4]

3. (a) What are energy states? What are density of energy states? Explain density of energy states in semi-conductors. (b) What is an intrinsic semi-conductor. explain it in detail with the help of suitable examples. [8+8] 4. (a) Discuss the method of identifying an unknown piece as n-type or p-type semiconductor. (b) Intrinsic semiconductors are not suitable for applications in electronic devices - why? Show that the fermi level for a pure germanium lies in the middle of forbidden gap. [7+9] 5. (a) What is energy gap? Give a rough estimate of band gap in superconductors. (b) At what temperature the band gap disappears and why? Explain. (c) What is coherence length? Explain coherance length for electrons in superconductors. [6+5+5] 6. (a) Explain how a high initial permeability in Fe-Ni alloys help to reduce the area under hysteresis loop. (b) Perfect diamagnetism of a material is due to a certain electronic arrangement. Do you think that this electronic arrangement is compatible with zero resistance of super conductors? Explain. Why are not all diamagnetic materials have zero resistance property? Discuss. [8+8] 7. Obtain an expression for paramagnetic susceptibility of free electrons on the basis of the classical laws. Give an account of the quantum theory of paramagnetism in detail. [16] 1 of 2

Code No: RR411804

Set No. 4

8. (a) Why are strain hardened steels also harder magnetically and why are annealed ones softer. (b) What are ceramic magnets. Explain their working principle. Explain examples for ceramic magnets. (c) Mention some of the soft magnetic materials. Give their important applications. [6+5+5] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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