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Prateek Tewari R040207038 University Of Petroleum And Energy studies prateekt03@gmail.com

ABSTRACT: Reservoir-drive mechanisms include gasdrive (gas cap or solution gasdrive), waterdrive (bottomwater drive or edgewater drive), combination drive, and gravity drainage. Waterdrive is the most efficient drive mechanism, followed by gasdrive and gravity drainage. Reservoir-drive mechanisms are also called natural drives. Material Balance Equations(MBE) • • • • • • • • • Estimate Original Oil & Gas In Place Estimate the Drive Index Estimate Primary Drive Mechanisms Estimate Recovery Factor Estimate the Aquifer Strength History Matching & Future Performance Prediction Verification of Existence of Gas Cap Calculation of Recycling of Gas Injection into Gas Cap for pressure maintenance Calculation of Water injection for pressure maintenance

Introduce and give a detailed discussion of the various primary recovery mechanisms and their effects on the overall performance of oil reservoirs. fluid characteristics.2| Page INTRODUCTION: Reservoir-drive mechanisms include gasdrive (gas cap or solution gasdrive). Reservoir-drive mechanisms are also called natural drives. It has been observed that each drive mechanism has certain typical performance characteristics in terms of: • Ultimate recovery factor • Pressure decline rate • Gas-oil ratio • Water production The recovery of oil by any of the natural drive mechanisms is called primary recovery. waterdrive (bottomwater drive or edgewater drive). and primary drive mechanism. Although no two reservoirs are identical in all aspects. The two main objectives of this chapter are to: 1. they can be grouped according to the primary recovery mechanism by which they produce. and gravity drainage. combination drive. Waterdrive is the most efficient drive mechanism. The term refers to the production of hydrocarbons from a reservoir without the use of any process (such as fluid injection) to supplement the natural energy of the reservoir. 2. . Each reservoir is composed of a unique combination of geometric form. followed by gasdrive and gravity drainage. Provide the basic principles of the material balance equation and other governing relationships that can be used to predict the volumetric performance of oil reservoirs. geological rock properties.

e. the reservoir will experience a rapid pressure decline. The reservoir rock compressibility is the result of two factors: • Expansion of the individual rock grains • Formation compaction Both of the above two factors are the results of a decrease of fluid pressure within the pore spaces. available for moving the oil to the wellbore. and rock are the only materials present. the crude oil and water will be forced out of the pore space to the wellbore. . As the expansion of the fluids and reduction in the pore volume occur with decreasing reservoir pressure. Rock and Liquid Expansion When an oil reservoir initially exists at a pressure higher than its bubble. There are basically six driving mechanisms that provide the natural energy necessary for oil recovery: • Rock and liquid expansion drive • Depletion drive • Gas cap drive • Water drive • Gravity drainage drive • Combination drive These driving mechanisms are discussed as follows. and both tend to reduce the pore volume through the reduction of the porosity. crude oil. the reservoir is called an undersaturated oil reservoir. Because liquids and rocks are only slightly compressible. it is necessary to have knowledge of the driving mechanisms that control the behavior of fluids within reservoirs. i. The oil reservoir under this driving mechanism is characterized by a constant gas-oil ratio that is equal to the gas solubility at the bubblepoint pressure. At pressures above the bubble-point pressure..3| Page PRIMARY RECOVERY MECHANISMS For a proper understanding of reservoir behavior and predicting future performance. The overall performance of oil reservoirs is largely determined by the nature of the energy. the rock and fluids expand due to their individual compressibilities. connate water.point pressure. driving mechanism. As the reservoir pressure declines.

These bubbles expand and force the crude oil out of the pore space as shown conceptually in given figure (a) . gas bubbles are liberated within the microscopic pore spaces. As pressure falls below the bubble-point pressure.4| Page The Depletion Drive Mechanism This driving form may also be referred to by the following various terms: • Solution gas drive • Dissolved gas drive • Internal gas drive In this type of reservoir. the principal source of energy is a result of gas liberation from the crude oil and the subsequent expansion of the solution gas as the reservoir pressure is reduced.

This reservoir pressure behavior is attributed to the fact that no extraneous fluids or gas caps are available to provide a replacement of the gas and oil withdrawals.5| Page Fig(a) . Solution gas drive reservoir • Reservoir pressure: The reservoir pressure declines rapidly and continuously. regardless of their structural position. gas evolves from solution throughout the reservoir. free gas begins to flow toward the wellbore and gas-oil ratio increases. Once the gas saturation exceeds the critical gas saturation. The gas will also begin a vertical movement due to the . After the reservoir pressure has been reduced below the bubble-point pressure. • Water production: The absence of a water drive means there will be little or no water production with the oil during the entire producing life of the reservoir. • Gas-oil ratio: A depletion-drive reservoir is characterized by a rapidly increasing gas-oil ratio from all wells.

As reservoir fluids enter the wellbore. changing pressure conditions cause the gas to break from solution to create a commingled flow of gas and liquid that aids production. • Ultimate Oil Recovery: Oil production by depletion drive is usually the least efficient recovery method.which may result in the formation of a secondary gas cap. Gas-cap-drive reservoirs can be identified by the presence of a gas cap with little or no water drive as shown in Figure (b). This is a direct result of the formation of gas saturation throughout the reservoir. The low recovery from this type of reservoirs suggests that large quantities of oil remain in the reservoir and. Solution Gas Drive A type of reservoir-drive mechanism in which the energy for the transport and production of reservoir fluids is provided by the gas dissolved in the liquid. depletion-drive reservoirs are considered the best candidates for secondary recovery applications.6| Page gravitational forces.Due to the ability of the gas cap to expand. Vertical permeability is an important factor in the formation of a secondary gas cap. temperature and fluid characteristics are conducive to free gas. The energy provided by the expansion of the gas cap provides the primary drive mechanism for oil recovery in such circumstances. The natural energy available to produce the crude oil comes from the following two sources: • Expansion of the gas-cap gas • Expansion of the solution gas as it is liberated . Ultimate oil recovery from depletion-drive reservoirs may vary from less than 5% to about 30%. Gas Cap Drive The gas that accumulates in the upper portions of a reservoir where the pressure. therefore. these reservoirs are characterized by a slow decline in the reservoir pressure.

. The aquifers may be so large compared to the reservoir they adjoin as to appear infinite for all practical purposes. and they may range down to those so small as to be negligible in their effects on the reservoir performance.7| Page Figure(b) Gas-cap-drive reservoir The Water-Drive Mechanism Many reservoirs are bounded on a portion or all of their peripheries by water bearing rocks called aquifers.

and water underlying oil. gas on top. The effects of gravitational forces can be simply illustrated by placing a quantity of crude oil and a quantity of water in a jar and agitating the contents. in most reservoirs. it is generally assumed that the reservoir fluids are in equilibrium. The relative positions of the reservoir fluids are shown in Figure(d). . the jar is placed at rest. the reservoir may be outcropped at one or more places where it may be replenished by surface water as shown schematically in Figure .It is common to speak of edge water or bottom water in discussing water influx into a reservoir. while the less dense fluid (normally oil) will rest on top of the denser fluid. Bottom water occurs directly beneath the oil and edge water occurs off the flanks of the structure at the edge of the oil The Gravity-Drainage-Drive Mechanism The mechanism of gravity drainage occurs in petroleum reservoirs as a result of differences in densities of the reservoir fluids. Although it is difficult to determine precisely the reservoir fluid contacts. Due to the long periods of time involved in the petroleum accumulation-and-migration process. After agitation.If the reservoir fluids are in equilibrium. The fluids have separated as a result of the gravitational forces acting on them. best available data indicate that. the fluid contacts actually are essentially horizontal. then the gas-oil and oilwater contacts should be essentially horizontal.e. oil underlying the gas. as evidenced by the relative positions of the fluids. and the more denser fluid (normally water) will settle to the bottom of the jar.On the other hand.8| Page The aquifer itself may be entirely bounded by impermeable rock so that the reservoir and aquifer together form a closed (volumetric) unit..The fluids in petroleum reservoirs have all been subjected to the forces of gravity. i.

P Decrease in Oil Volume Decrease in free gas volume Increase in water volume Decrease in Oil Vol. Decrease in Oil Vol. + Oil vol. at time t & Press. The most common type of drive encountered. MATERIAL BALANCE EQUATION Assuming that Gas from Gas cap is not produced The changes during production process form Initial oil in volume Oil volume at time t & Press. + Increase in water vol. therefore.Decrease in free gas vol. at time t and pressure P = Initial oil in vol. + Decrease in free gas vol. . gravity segregation can play an important role in any of the afore mentioned drives. . Then. = Initial oil in vol. of course.9| Page Figure(d) initial fluids distribution in an oil reservoir The Combination-Drive Mechanism The driving mechanism most commonly encountered is one in which both water and free gas are available in some degree to displace the oil toward the producing wells. (2) depletion drive with a small gas cap and a weak water drive. P This Yields: Oil Vol. = Increase in water vol. is a combination-drive mechanism as illustrated in Figure(d) Two combinations of driving forces can be present in combination drive reservoirs. These are (1) depletion drive and a weak water driveand.

Volumetric Changes due to water Influx/production Combination drive reservoir: System where Gas Cap and Water drive Exists. Following equation should be suitably modified . The input(%) or Efficiency: . Since the gas cap is present.i be replaced by b*. The size of the gas cap relation to oil zone must be known. the reservoir will be at bubble point conditions initially.( N – Np ) Rs] Bg This Yields: ( N – Np )Bo + [ N Rsi .10 | P a g e 1. b represents the bubble point conditions existing in the oil zone.Volumetric Changes .( N – Np ) Rs ] Bg = NBoi Where Gp = Rp Bg 2.for oil zone without gas cap is Pressure Volumes Reservoir Volumes Pi Oil N( dissolved gas N Rsi) N Boi P Oil( N – Np ) Remaining dissolved gas: ( N – Np ) Rs Free Gas N Rsi-Gp .( N – Np ) Rs ( N – Np )Bo [N Rsi-Gp .Gp .

e. Gas Cap Drive Mechanism F= N (Eo + mEg + Efw ) Ignoring Pore volume reduction (Efw) MBE becomes F= N (Eo + mEg ) Eg F = N +m Eo Eo History Matching & Performance Prediction  Material Balance Equation  Instantaneous GOR Equation REFERENCES: . m=0) Gas Cap Drive Mechanism (We=0. Material Balance Equation becomes F = N Eo i. a plot of F (withdrawl) vs. Wp =0. Wp=0) Water Drive Mechanism (m=0) Combination Drive Mechanism Depletion Drive Mechanism NpBo + Np(Rp-Rs)Bg = N(Bo-Boi) + N(Rsi-Rs)Bg +(1+m)N Boi ( Cw Swi +Cf) Δ P (1-Swi) F= N (Eo + Efw ) Ignoring the Pore Volume Reduction (Efw).11 | P a g e >>The volume of hydrocarbon produced at any pressure P is • N p B p in reservoir conditions • With Bp = Bo + ( Rp – Rs ) Bg 1)Water =(We – Wp ) / Np Bp 2) Gas Cap = Expansion of the gas cap Np Bp MBE for Different Drive Mechanism Depletion Drive Mechanism (we = 0. expansion Eo should be a straight line with slope N (Initial Oil in Reservoir).

Ahmad Tarek: Advanced Reservoir Engineering . L.P. Dake.12 | P a g e 1.: Fundamentals of Reservoir Engineering 2.

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