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Unit 1 Why music?
MUAS S4(7) 44213
Centre for Learning Innovation
Title: Why music?
This publication is copyright New South Wales Department of Education and Training (DET), however it may contain material from other sources which is not owned by DET. We would like to acknowledge the following people and organisations whose material has been used: Extracts from Music Syllabus Years 7-10 © Board of Studies, NSW 2003 pp iii-iv Photograph of Mt Bosavi, PNG courtesy T Mamu, © Seacology. (www.seacology.org) p5 Photograph of two women pounding rice courtesy Jim Henry, Northern Illinois University p5 Center for South East Asian Studies Photograph of “The Sink” www.mikropol.net/volume2/leak-g p 22 Photograph of a keyboard synthesizer www.musicalinstrumentgifts.com p 60 Photograph of two Senegalese children courtesy The Travel Clinic www.drwisetravel.com p 70 Photograph of Sundanese children © Cooperative Baptists Fellowship www.thefellowship.info p 71 Photograph of an erhu www.chinesecultureonline.com p 87 Photograph of a bombo © www.argentinaxplora.com p 87 Photograph of a tapan www.macedoniadirect.com p 87 Photograph of a rebab © Maxwell Museum of Anthropolgy p 87 Quote © James Horner www.backtotitanic.com/jameshorner.html p 103 Music score of theme from “Gift of a Thistle” © James Horner pp 104, 139
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CLI Project Team acknowledgement: Writer: Instructional designer: Editors: Illustrator: Music graphics: Desktop publishing: Audio recording: Margaret Bradley Margaret Benfield Peter de Vries, Wendy de Vries Jo Langley Wayne Richmond Margaret Benfield, Esta Tserpes Greg Parke, Rhys D. Webb (CD)
All reasonable efforts have been made to obtain copyright permissions. All claims will be settled in good faith. Published by Centre for Learning Innovation (CLI) 51 Wentworth Rd Strathfield NSW 2135 ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright of this material is reserved to the Crown in the right of the State of New South Wales. Reproduction or transmittal in whole, or in part, other than in accordance with provisions of the Copyright Act, is prohibited without the written authority of the Centre for Learning Innovation (CLI). © State of New South Wales, Department of Education and Training 2005.
Contents – Unit 1
Unit 1 overview .............................................................................. iii
Outcomes ............................................................................ iii Suggested time ................................................................... iv Resources and equipment ................................................... v Icons................................................................................... vii Glossary .............................................................................. ix
Responding to music............................................................1 Music and the environment ..................................................3 Documenting sounds ...........................................................9 Discover Composer Notes .................................................11
Kitchen sounds .............................................................................17
Music with everyday objects ..............................................17 Rhythm adds variety ..........................................................26 Putting musical ideas together ...........................................29
Wade in the water ........................................................................31
Melody................................................................................31 Finding your voice ..............................................................35 Singing a spiritual ..............................................................36 Singing in parts ..................................................................38
Making music .....................................................................43 Types of body percussion .................................................44 Body percussion rhythms ...................................................49 Pulse, tempo and meter .....................................................51
Unit 1 Why music? i
...89 Orchestral music ......................86 Classifying instruments ...63 Organising vocal sounds ...............................................................68 Vocal percussion .............................................82 Natural instruments .............92 Structure in music ................100 James Horner..................Vocal and body percussion ......................................................................................99 The role of music in ﬁlm ..........76 Music and emotions .................................................................................59 Vocal styles .....................................................................................................57 Let’s move!..........................................................................................................................................................................53 The voice and rhythm...........................................................................................................109 Exercises – Unit 1 ....................................................................................................................67 Vocal acrobatics ...................................63 Vocal mimics ...103 Ennio Morricone ...........................................................................................................................................................................74 Musical texture .........................................................53 Sound colour ............................ 117 ii Unit 1 Why music? ..........................................................................................................106 Suggested answers – Unit 1...........................................................................................95 Film music ....................................54 Improvising with your voice ......................................................79 Dealing with dynamics .............................................................................88 Sounds of the orchestra ........................................79 Express your feelings ..........................99 The strings .............................................................
you will have the opportunity to explore Composer Notes. You will also learn about the instruments of the orchestra.Unit 1 overview In this unit. you are working towards achieving the outcomes of the Music Years 7–10 syllabus as listed below.2 performs in a range of musical styles demonstrating an understanding of the musical concepts performs music using different forms of notation and different types of technology across a broad range of musical styles performs music demonstrating solo and/or ensemble awareness 4. Why music?. you will begin by exploring the sounds of the environment and the sound sources that exist around you. Throughout this unit you will have the opportunity to: • listen and respond to a diverse range of music • perform music composed by other people • compose and record your own music • use your own ideas to play music • explore activities on the Internet. A student: 4.1 4.3 Unit 1 Why music? iii . You will also have the chance to develop concepts and skills you have studied by jamming along with a recorded backing track. Outcomes By completing the activities and exercises in this unit. In each section. a computer resource about instruments and composing. You will use your voice and body to make music and consider how music is used to express emotions and its importance in ﬁlms.
terminology. improvising.au/syllabus_sc/index.12 Source: Suggested time This unit has been written to take approximately 16 hours.nsw. discriminating. discussing and recording musical ideas demonstrates an understanding of musical concepts through aural identiﬁcation and discussion of the features of a range of repertoire demonstrates musical literacy through the use of notation.9 4. tolerance and respect for the aesthetic value of music as an artform demonstrates a developing conﬁdence and willingness to engage in performing. June 2003 < http://www. arranging and composing notates compositions using traditional and/or nontraditional notation experiments with different forms of technology in the composition process demonstrates an understanding of the musical concepts through listening.10 4.4. 4.11 4. observing. analysing. iv Unit 1 Why music? .edu.6 4.html#music> © Board of Studies.boardofstudies. Music Years 7–10 syllabus.8 4. responding. Your teacher may suggest a different way to organise your time as you work through the unit.4 demonstrates an understanding of musical concepts through exploring. Each section within the unit should take about two hours. experimenting. appropriate to the musical context demonstrates an appreciation.7 4. organising.5 4. composing and listening experiences. and the reading and interpreting of scores used in the music selected for study identiﬁes the use of technology in the music selected for study.
If you are a NSW Distance Education student. If you do not have access to the resource. your teacher should be able to provide you with a copy of this resource.Resources and equipment To complete this unit you will need the following: • • • • Unit 1 Why Music? printed learning resource and two audio CDs the Composer Notes CD-ROM (Distance Education students) or suitable alternative resources (other students) access to the internet or other sources of information equipment (including microphone) to record audio. • • • About Composer Notes At times you will be asked to complete Composer Notes activities to support musical concepts and learning in this unit. Composer Notes is a resource about performing and composing. you will need: • • • • the Composer Notes CD the CD’s serial number (located on a sheet inside the case) administrator-level access to your computer a suitable computer on which to install the software. Installing Composer Notes To install Composer Notes. It is no longer available (although Sibelius distributes two similar products). read the installation notes below. Unit 1 Why music? v . such as – a portable digital recorder such as an MP3 recorder – a computer (with appropriate software and hardware) – an audio cassette or MiniDisc recorder a computer or CD player to play the Why Music? audio CDs a computer on which to install music-related software and which has access to the internet sound sources from the environment around you. If so. talk to your teacher about using other resources or completing different activities. as indicated in the activities.
net/> Audio CD Inquiries regarding the audio CD accompanying this unit should be directed to the Music Advisor.sourceforge. You might also have access to other audio programs. enter the appropriate user name and ‘unlock code’. To do this. New South Wales Distance Education students should use the user name and unlock code provided to DEC teachers by CLI. Windows and other operating systems. Recording audio on computer There are several ways you can make audio recordings (see the previous page for some ideas).education. 2000 64 MB of application RAM To install the software. Do not complete the Composer Notes registration unless instructed to do so by your teacher. The first time you open Composer Notes.nsw. CD track details are found at the end of the print unit. Audacity. Curriculum K–12 Directorate: <www.curriculumsupport. You can download the audio program. Audacity <http://audacity. Why music? CD 1 Tracks 1–8 Tracks 9–20 Soundscapes Kitchen sounds Why music? CD 2 Tracks 1–11 Vocal and body percussion Tracks 12–21 Vocal styles Tracks 22–25 Music and emotions Tracks 26–33 Film music Tracks 21–38 Wade in the water Tracks 39–47 Body percussion vi Unit 1 Why music? . follow the installation instructions on the sheet inside the case.Minimum system requirements Macintosh 350 MB of free disk space 300 MHz PowerPC processor + CD-ROM drive (for installation only) 1024 x 768 colour monitor System 8. for free from the internet. NT. One way is to use your computer.gov. It is available for Mac OS X.au/secondary/ creativearts/contact>. you need appropriate computer hardware and software. 98.1 or later 64 MB of application RAM Windows 350 MB of free disk space 300 MHz Intel Pentium processor CD-ROM drive (for installation only) 1024 x 768 colour monitor/16 bit colours Windows 95.
Access the Internet to complete a task or to look at suggested websites. Use a computer for this activity. Write a response or responses as part of an activity. Think about information or ideas. contact your teacher for advice. Listen to an audio ﬁle. You may need to make notes.Icons Here is an explanation of the icons used in this unit. An answer is provided so that you can check your progress. Record as an electronic sound ﬁle (for email or CD) or onto an audiotape. Perform a practical task by clapping or using other body percussion. Perform a practical task with sound sources around you. Compare your response for an activity with the one in the suggested answers section. If you do not have access to the Internet. Unit 1 Why music? vii . You need to pause and reﬂect.
Use the resource Composer Notes. viii Unit 1 Why music? . Notate sounds from recorded examples or from your imagination.Perform a practical task using your voice. Go to the exercises section and complete an exercise for return to your teacher. Compose your own music.
often by improvising succession of sounds (involving patterns of changing pitch and rhythm) the organisation of beats into a regular pattern of stressed and unstressed beats write music down beat chorus compound duple compound meter dynamics harmony improvising jam melody meter notate Unit 1 Why music? ix . sometimes also called ‘measure’ the regular pulse of music a repeated section or refrain within a song. They appear in bold the ﬁrst time they occur in the learning material. 3 or 4 beats) of a given duration. accent bar to stress or emphasise a note often by making the sound stronger a segment of time containing a speciﬁed number of beats (for example 2.Glossary The following words. a group of singers performing together meters with two beats per bar where each beat is divided into three pulses meters in which the beat is divided into three pulses the loudness or softness of sound two or more sounds occurring at the same time (refers to the vertical structure of music) creating music spontaneously as it is being performed the act of coming together with other musicians for the purpose of playing music. are found in the learning material in this unit. listed here with their meanings.
for example. the violin which is plucked or bowed. dark. for example. smooth. rough. cold (also see tone colour) a sign placed at the beginning of a piece of written music to indicate the meter of the piece the distinctive quality of a given sound which distinguishes it from other sounds of the same pitch. dynamics etc.ostinato pitch a musical pattern which is repeated over and over again the lowness or highness of a sound (as determined by the frequency or number of vibrations per second) meters in which the beat is divided into two pulses the sounds of the environment the ﬁve lines on which notes and other musical symbols are written the speed of the beat in a piece of music the quality of a musical tone. thick. warm. light. thin. sharp. dull. or the clarinet which is blown with a reed. each instrument has a unique tone colour which allows us to distinguish the sounds it makes from those made on other instruments (also see timbre) an unaccented beat (especially the last beat of a bar). unaccented beats which begin a musical phrase are also called an anacrusis music played at a fast beat simple meter soundscape staff tempo timbre time signature tone colour upbeat uptempo x Unit 1 Why music? .
You will: • write your feelings and ideas down in response to a variety of musical examples • listen to the sounds around you and to how other composers have recorded their environment • make an audio recording of your own soundscape • write your soundscape using your own graphic notation • discover the pulse or beat in music. In this section you will respond to music and consider the sounds of your environment as you learn about sound and music. There would be something missing from your life. What are some of your favourite pieces? You can list any type of music. Soundscapes 1 .Soundscapes Many composers have explored how to integrate everyday sounds around them in their compositions. Responding to music Why are we drawn to music? It usually makes us feel good or at least challenges us to hear something new or different. Imagine if the music you like didn’t exist. Our favourite music gives us a chance to feel good. Think about the music you like. Music which draws on the sounds of the environment is often called a soundscape.
Write down how the music makes you feel as you listen to each extract. Sometimes you’ll play a bright uptempo piece of music so that you feel energised. During this track you will hear extracts from ﬁve pieces that you will listen to later in this unit. Listen to the track as many times as you like.Music can make us feel a lot of different emotions depending on how it has been put together. you can listen to certain types of music to calm you down. Extract 1 Extract 2 Extract 3 Extract 4 Extract 5 2 Unit 1 Why music? . Listen to Track 1 from Why Music? CD 1. If you are angry.
you will ﬁnd it easier to listen to new styles of music. You should be able to back up your opinion with reasons as to why you hold that opinion. Activity 1 1 Listen to Track 2 and answer the following questions. The main thing to remember is to be open to listen to any style of music so that you can form your own opinion as to why you like or dislike certain music. it may be in hearing the soundtrack to a ﬁlm. b Where do you think these sounds were made? Soundscapes 3 . Each of us has our own way of hearing music and music affects each of us differently depending on our experience of that music. Many cultures have traditionally used music to accompany everyday activities. it may be as a listener to the radio or another type of media. a List the sounds you can hear. Music around us plays an important role as the accompaniment to our lives. You may surprise yourself. Music and the environment Most people experience music in some form or another throughout their lives. You will be able to enjoy a wide and diverse range of music and feel better for it. Their experience may be in listening to background music in a lift.Our response to music is personal. As you hear more music. While studying music you will hear many different types of music that you will respond to in different ways. it may be as a performer. it may be as an audience member at a concert.
2 Listen to Track 2 again and then list the sounds that are loud or soft in the appropriate column below. 4 Unit 1 Why music? . Loud sounds Soft sounds Check your response by going to the suggested answers section. b Where do you think these sounds were made? 4 Listen to Track 3 again and then list the sounds that are loud or soft in the appropriate column below. Loud sounds Soft sounds 3 Listen to Track 3 and answer the following questions. a List the sounds you can hear.
Today we hear recorded music on the telephone or in the supermarket. Track 3 was recorded by Jack Body on the island of Java in Indonesia as four women with rice pounding poles beat rhythms on a large wooden trough. The track is excerpted from a recording made by Stephen Feld in Bosavi in Papua New Guinea. He spent two months recording the sounds of the rainforest people and their environment. These days music accompanies many activities in our lives. Music is all around us in our daily lives. whether it be bird songs or television themes. Background music Most of us would have heard music played for special occasions such as weddings or parties.Track 2 of Why music? CD 1 is of Kaluli women and children making sago in the rainforest. even if we don’t realise it at the time. or listen to all sorts of melodies when we hear mobile phones. Soundscapes 5 . play computer games or surf the net. We will ﬁnd out more about these interlocking rhythms later.
Many people listen to music while doing something else. Some people like to hear music while walking to school or work or when catching public transport. 1 When do you usually listen to music?
List some of the sounds that accompany your daily life.
What can you hear as you are reading this? Write down the sounds you hear around you.
As we sit and listen, we might hear the cackling of birds or the hum of trafﬁc or the chatter of people talking. As you study music, you will start to hear sounds you have never heard before. You will be surprised how many more sounds you become aware of. Australian composers Sarah Hopkins and Alan Lamb have explored how to combine sounds of the environment with other sounds in their compositions. The notes on the cover of their Sky Song CD explain:
The unique soundscapes created by Sarah Hopkins and Alan Lamb are reﬂections of the vast Australian landscape.
Sky Song CD, Vox Australis
Listen to Sarah Hopkins and Alan Lamb’s The winds of heaven (Track 4) which uses telegraph wires and voice.
Unit 1 Why music?
Why do you think this composition is called The winds of heaven?
Check your response by going to the suggested answers section.
How much music is part of the soundscape of your life? Alicia lives in Sydney. She often hears lorikeets cackling in her suburb and planes taking off overhead. Alicia’s visitors from the country often complain about the sound of the planes because they rarely hear them where they live. Living in the inner suburbs of Sydney, Alicia must have got used to the sound of planes. The bird and plane sounds are part of the soundscape or ‘backing track’ of her life.
1 Listen to Alicia’s soundscape (Track 5) and list the sounds you can hear.
As you listen again to Track 5, describe the different types of sounds that you heard in Alicia’s soundscape. For example, are the sounds: a long or short, b high or low, c loud or soft, d rumbling, screeching, scraping, smooth?
Check your response by going to the suggested answers section. Read the following description of Alicia’s soundscape and then answer the question below.
A plane passes overhead and one bird repeats a constant pattern while sounds of squawking lorikeets and the hum of the trafﬁc is heard. The microphone is knocked and the sound of a car gets louder as it approaches and softer as it goes off into the distance. The microphone is knocked again. Birds continue to call out with various cries over a constant repeated pattern by one bird. Other birds squeak and chirp as another car passes. The birds chatter noisily as two more cars pass. Several bird calls come and go, some closer and others in the distance. The trafﬁc becomes quieter with cars heard softly in the distance. Another car passes and then another as the bird calls lessen and quieten. A plane is heard taking off in the distance as more cars pass. A door opens or closes and a car starts up then another car goes past. More bird sounds are heard and then one bird is heard in the distance.
How does the written description match what you heard?
Before you explore the sounds of your environment, take a look at one way that music can be notated (written down).
Unit 1 Why music?
A long continuous sound A sound rising in pitch Four short sounds Four loud sounds A high melodic phrase In the next activity. you listen to and describe a series of sounds.Documenting sounds There are several ways to document sound. Listen to the sounds recorded on Track 6 (Why music? CD 1). Compare each sound with its graphic symbol. You consider how you could show these sounds visually and then complete a graphic notation example. Soundscapes 9 . Below is an example of how the sounds could be shown using graphic notation. Here you are going to use graphic notation in which visual symbols represent the sound. This may include making an audio recording and written description of a soundscape. Another method is using music notation. You have probably seen traditional music notation where notes are written on a staff.
Now that you have been introduced to graphic notation as a way of notating music. look at the graphic notation below. 3 As you listen to the track again.Activity 4 1 Listen to Track 7 from Why music? CD 1. 10 Unit 1 Why music? . Draw your ideas in the space below. What sounds can you hear? List and describe all the sounds in the order that you hear them. Check your response by going to the suggested answers section. it is time to explore the sounds of your environment — your own soundscape. This is one example of how the sounds could be translated into symbols. 2 Listen to the track again and consider how you could describe the sounds visually. Complete the ﬁnal section. Go to the exercises section and complete Exercise 1.
Minimum system requirements Macintosh 350 mb of free disk space 300 MHz PowerPC processor or better CD-ROM drive (for installation only) 1024 x 768 color monitor/thousands of colors System 8. <http://www.Find out more about Soundscapes by visiting the following website.1 or later 64 Mb of application RAM Windows 350 mb of free disk space 300 MHz Intel Pentium processor CD-ROM drive (for installation only) 1024 x 768 color monitor/16 bit colors Windows 95. install Composer Notes if it is not already installed on your computer.lmpc. Discover Composer Notes Composer Notes is a computer resource you will use throughout this course to support the concepts and activities introduced. their sounds and ranges as well as activities for composing and reading notation. Before you begin the next activity.edu. 98. Activity 5 Composers and musicians use various sound sources to make their music. 2000 64 Mb of application RAM Soundscapes 11 . List some of the environmental sounds that composers have used. 4 a suitable computer on which to install the software. NT. Why music?. It includes information about instruments. Check your response by going to the suggested answers section. To do this you will need: 1 the Composer Notes CD 2 the CD’s serial number (located on a sheet inside the case) 3 Administrator level access to your computer.au/Music> Select ‘Mandatory’ and follow the links to resources for this unit.
Click on ‘Pulse. You begin exploring Composer Notes by looking at one of the Composition Modules. enter the following registered user name and unlock code. Making music relies on our awareness of these beats. Note: do not complete the Composer Notes registration instructions. ‘Pulse. If you have not used Composer Notes before.Follow the Composer Notes installation instructions on the sheet inside the case to install the software.Navigation and Printing . Return to the home page by clicking on the Home button. the ﬁrst item in the pop-up list that appears. Movement and Shape’ and select ‘Concept– What is Pulse?’. 2 3 4 Composer Notes is divided into two main parts: ‘Composition’ and ‘Instrumentation’. 2 12 Unit 1 Why music? . look at the Composer Notes ‘User Guide’ before you begin the activity. Find out how to take your pulse and listen to its constancy. Registered user name: CLI Unlock code: VT73CELHP6270613 Click on the User Guide button at the bottom of the home page to view the ‘User Guide’. 1 Open Composer Notes. Read about the function or purpose of each item on the page.Sound Playback. Activity 6 1 Go to Composer Notes Composition modules (click on ‘Composition’ from the home page). Getting the beat We all have a heartbeat and a pulse. Movement and Shape’. The next activity will help you to develop your awareness of the beat in music. Make sure you understand the purpose of the items shown under the headings: . If prompted. These beats provide a constant accompaniment to our lives.
You can also say other people’s names. Go to the activity. try playing and moving on beat 2. d Invite family members or friends to join you in this exercise. Perform the movement as you say your name on the ﬁrst beat (count 1 2 3 4 to yourself).3 Go to the activity ‘Finding the Beat’ by clicking the Forward button. Don’t worry about the directions for other class members — you will be a solo artist.’ 5 b c d e f g 6 Soundscapes For example. you could take some giant steps. When you have completed the activity. 4 Go to the activity ‘Name of the Game’ by clicking on the Forward button (twice). Perform the movement only (without saying your name) on the ﬁrst beat. then on beat 3 and on beat 4. You can alternate names and repeat them after each other. Repeat steps b–d performing on beat 3. b Say your own name. ‘Name Dance’ by clicking on the Forward button. a Complete step one of the activity: ‘Find a MOVEMENT that matches and reﬂects the rhythm of your name (something that looks visually strong or interesting). Alternate using sound and movement to add to your name. b Slap your thighs or stomp your feet to the beat. Repeat steps b–d performing on beat 4. d When you are comfortable playing and moving on beat 1. Make it rhythmic. c Play the backing again and move or make a sound on the ﬁrst beat of the repeated pattern (there are four beats in each pattern). 13 . or make ﬂowing movements with your arms. exit Composer Notes. Repeat steps b–d performing on beat 2. a Listen to the example ‘Em-i-ly’ by clicking anywhere on the example. a Click on the speaker button to play the recorded backing. or lots of little steps. Don’t worry about the directions for a group — you will be a solo artist. c Click on the speaker icon to play the musical backing and say your name along to the ﬁrst beat of each bar.
1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 2 3 As you play the jam session track again. you may be asked to choose a body or vocal percussion. when the music gets faster or slower. Shake your new shaker to the beat of Track 8. stand up and step to the beat as you shake your shaker. Remember the beat is the underlying pulse of the music. Usually this is done with other musicians but you can also achieve a similar feeling by playing along with recorded music. In each jam session. rice or small pebbles into a small container such as a drink bottle. Activity 7 1 Make a shaker by putting seeds. Like your heartbeat. When musicians jam. They play whatever they feel ﬁts with the music. The jam will give you the chance to build on the concepts and skills developed in your study. During each part of this course you will have a chance to jam along with a recorded backing track. Our jam has 4 beats per bar. a percussive sound from around the house or explore a vocal sound such as singing or rapping. Let’s jam! One of the most enjoyable things you can do as a musician is jam. For example. you will be given directions as to what sound source to use.The following activity will put what you learned in this section into practice. The crosses on the grid below show when you should make a sound. It only changes when the tempo changes. they play together. it is constant. 14 Unit 1 Why music? .
It occurs on the ﬁrst beat of each bar. you have explored the sounds of your environment and looked at how sounds describe where we are. The rhythm is written on the rhythm grid below. 1 X + x 2 X + x 3 X + x 4 X + x 1 X + x 2 X + x 3 X + x 4 X + x 5 Did you notice the section of the backing track (Track 8) where all the sounds stop except for one tapping sound? This section is called a break. Usually one person uses this time to perform a solo by making up their own music. Play along with the jam session several times.4 Play along with the jam again but shake twice to each beat. The break is four bars longs and each bar has four beats. Make up your own solo as you perform. Vary your rhythm pattern during the break. Have fun and enjoy making music! 6 During ’Soundscapes’. Soundscapes 15 . In ‘Kitchen sounds’ you will continue to explore environmental sounds. Use the tapping sound to help keep time during the break. You have been introduced to Composer Notes and looked at pulse or beat.
16 Unit 1 Why music? .
Activity 1 1 Where do you think the players are? 2 The sounds are not all the same. Think of the sounds of all the different instruments throughout the world. As we go about our daily lives. not to mention the sounds created by computers or nature. complete the following activity.Kitchen sounds These days musicians and composers choose from a wide palette of sounds from the whirr of a helicopter to the slap of a double bass. In this section you will explore the sound of everyday objects found in the kitchen as you learn more about sound and music. Kitchen sounds 17 . How are they different? Check your response by going to the suggested answers section. Music with everyday objects Much of the inspiration for making music comes from our surroundings. Why music? CD 1) in which Indonesian children create rhythmic music. scrape or slap can lead to making music from objects that lie around us. After listening. Listen to Ciblon (Track 9. You will: • listen to sounds and music inspired by the environment • explore the sounds around you • record your own composition using sounds from the kitchen • clap rhythms and play them using body percussion • read and write rhythms using graphic notation. a simple tap.
Use your beater to strike the vessels. Plunge your hands deep into the water or slap the surface of the water to create rhythms. In the following activity you explore how water can change sounds. When you change the water level. Play your own water music next time you go swimming or have a bath. Choose at least three vessels such as saucepans. How has the sound changed? 5 Return some of the water to the vessels and strike them again with your beater. Complete the activity in an area where it is safe to have water. 2 3 4 Change the water level by taking out half the water in each vessel. Remember not to waste water. bottles or buckets and ﬁll them with water. How does the sound change each time the water level is increased? 18 Unit 1 Why music? . You can use vessels such as buckets. saucepans and bowls ﬁlled with water. bottles. Water music for kitchen vessels You don’t need to be surrounded by water to make watery sounds. bowls. cups. Repeat this step until the water reaches its original level. Activity 2 1 Make your own beater by wrapping a tea towel around a stick and securing it in place. Listen to how the sound has changed. Describe the sounds that are made.The rhythm patterns heard in Ciblon could be played whilst bathing or swimming. glasses. save the water so that you can use it again. Hit the vessels again.
5 6 Kitchen sounds 19 . Listen again and slap your hands on your thighs to feel the beat. Play along with the beat recorded on Track 10. The rhythm is recorded on Track 11. The sound got lower as I hit the side of the bucket from the top to the bottom. How do the sounds change as you strike each vessel in different places? Write three sentences about what you notice. Now that you have explored your new sound sources a little. Record your sound composition based on the rhythm above. Clap the rhythm below.6 Explore the sounds you can make by hitting each vessel on different sides or near the top or bottom. Experiment with different sounds until you have decided which sounds you want to use. Activity 3 1 Hit your vessels in a steady beat to create a sequence of sounds. This will help you play evenly and more rhythmically. Decide how many times you will repeat the rhythm then practise until you feel conﬁdent playing your series of sounds. Check your response by going to the suggested answers section. You will hear four beats counted at the start to give you the tempo (speed of the beat). Practise until you are conﬁdent. 2 3 X 4 X 1 X 2 X 3 4 X 1 X 2 3 X 4 X 1 X 2 X 3 4 X 2 3 1 X 4 Play the rhythm again using a series of water sounds from your three vessels. Here is an example of what you might write. learn to perform a rhythm on them.
Self assessment 1 What did you like about the sounds you chose to use? 2 Did you keep a steady. • Scrape it with your ﬁngernails. Play a steady beat on the lid using at least two different ways you discovered of producing the sound. Play it using the sounds you discovered. The rhythm is written on the grid below. You can play rhythms on the coffee table or the back of a chair. 2 3 X X 4 X 1 XX 2 3 X X 4 X 1 XX 2 3 X X 4 X 1 XX 2 3 X X 4 X 3 4 1 XX 20 Unit 1 Why music? . Experiment with different ways you can produce sound. Very accurate Almost accurate Some mistakes Inaccurate Exploring kitchen sound sources Our homes are full of different sound sources. • Slap it gently with your ﬁngers or your palm. even beat? Rate your performance. There are many more sound sources to explore from around the kitchen. Very steady Mostly steady Somewhat uneven Very uneven 3 Did you play the rhythm accurately? Rate your performance. Listen to the rhythm on Track 12. Activity 4 1 2 Find a saucepan lid and tie a piece of string to the handle. • Hit it with a chopstick or another stick.
Notice how each lid has a different sound. the sounds may be higher or lower. and chopsticks or other utensils to use as a beater. you create a composition using kitchen objects as sound sources. Hit it once and then hit it several times continuously as you lower it into the water. Before beginning the exercise. 21 2 3 Kitchen sounds . You then graphically notate and record it. other lids. Think about how you would describe the different sounds. 1 Strike the saucepan lid (from Activity 4) as you lower it into and raise it out of the water in your bucket. Notice how the sound seems to bend when you do this. Are they high or low? Are they long or short? Are they loud or soft? Are they bright or dull? 4 Place some upturned wooden or plastic bowls in a container of water and hit them with your beater. Self assessment 1 What do you like most about the rhythm you made up? 2 How could you improve your performance of the rhythm? In the next exercise. 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 6 Play your rhythm on your saucepan lid. You will need your saucepan lid from the previous activity. try the following experiments. Remember to work in an area where it is safe to have water. a bucket of water and some wooden or plastic bowls. Use other lids to produce sounds in the same way.5 1 Make up your own rhythm and write it on the grid below. Notice how each bowl has a different pitch.
Musicians have spent much time exploring unusual ways or techniques of playing their instruments. Listen to what Australian composer and performer Graeme Leak has done in the kitchen. Sink music There are many different ways to play an instrument and explore sound. hitting a frypan. Listen to The Sink (Track 13).5 Now try varying the sound by using a beater such as a chopstick. Go to the exercises section and complete Exercise 2.html> 22 Unit 1 Why music? . water drums. Did you hear the following sounds: a container of rice. Graeme Leak’s ‘portable percussion unit’ <www. a running tap. hitting metal? The Sink. Notice how the sound changes depending on how you strike it and what material the beater is made from.mikropol.net/volume2/leak-g/leak-exhibit. List the sounds you think he has used.
• Choose several saucepans and turn them over. (See if you or one of your friends has a copy of Spoon Man by Savage Garden. Choose ﬁve of the sounds that you discovered and describe them below. • Hit the lids of several saucepans with your beater.) Experiment and discover your own techniques for playing a kitchen utensil. • Play a rhythm on the kitchen table. Hit each one and play a rhythm on them. Kitchen sounds 23 . This song features a solo played on the spoons. an eggwhisk or the beater you made earlier. • Get two spoons and put them inside each other. For each sound. Hit them against your knee and hand.Spend about 10 minutes exploring the sounds you can make with things in the kitchen. • Turn a saucepan upside down and hit it with a chopstick. • Listen to water boiling. • Open and close the rubbish bin. Here are some ideas. do the following: 1 name the sound source 2 explain how you made the sound on the sound source 3 describe the sound.
Record the rhythms when you are comfortable playing them. a Play each rhythm three times or until you are conﬁdent. 4 Self assessment What are the strengths of your rhythm performance? 24 Unit 1 Why music? . c Play the rhythms along with Track 15. b Play all rhythms one after another in the order they are written above. You can hear the rhythm performed on Track 14.Activity 5 1 Play the following rhythm using at least one of the sounds you discovered. 2 3 X 4 1 XX 2 3 X 4 1 XX 2 3 X 4 1 XX 2 3 X 4 1 XX 1 X 2 X 3 4 1 X 2 X 3 4 1 X 2 X 3 4 1 X 2 X 3 4 1 X 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 XX XX X XX X XX X 1 2 X 3 X 4 XX 1 2 X 3 X 4 XX 1 2 X 3 X 4 XX 1 2 X 3 X 4 XX 3 Play the four rhythms using a variety of your kitchen sounds. 2 3 4 X 1 XX 2 3 4 X 1 XX 2 3 4 X 1 XX 2 3 4 X 1 XX 2 Listen to the following rhythms played one after another (Track 15).
au/Music> Select ‘Mandatory’ and follow the links to resources for this unit. • When did you start to play music? • Have you ever formally studied music? • What instrument do you play? • Do you write your own material? • Have you ever been inspired to use environmental sound in your compositions? Record notes on your interview or research in the space below. Kitchen sounds 25 . You can ﬁnd useful links for this activity by visiting the following website. use other resources to research answers to the questions. the Internet or talk to people that you know. <http://www.Extension activity To complete this extension activity. you will need to use resources such as books.lmpc. Why music?. 1 List the names of some Australian musicians you know. If you are unable to speak with or contact a musician. 3 Check your response by going to the suggested answers section. Write up your report in electronic form or on a separate piece of paper.edu. 2 Interview a musician by email or in person. Below is a list of questions you can ask.
It is played four times. Follow either the rhythm grid or the music notation as you clap. The complete rhythm pattern is written below. Rhythm 1 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X Rhythm 2 1 X 2 3 X 4 Rhythm 3 1 X 2 3 4 X Clap Rhythm 3 again with the recording on Track 17. Begin by clapping three simple rhythms. Now you are going to look more closely at how to develop your musical ideas through rhythm. Count 1 2 3 4. 1 X 2 3 4 X 1 X 2 3 4 X 1 X 2 3 4 X 1 X 2 3 4 X 26 Unit 1 Why music? .Rhythm adds variety In previous activities you played rhythms using a selection of sound sources. Clap each rhythm recorded on Track 16 and then repeat the rhythm in the break.
The sounds shown by the large ‘X’ in the rhythm grid are emphasised more than the sounds shown by a small ‘x’. Activity 6 1 Write your own rhythm in the grid below. Choose a sound source that you explored in the kitchen. We can organise sound as we play our musical ideas or we can write them down ﬁrst. • Count ‘1 and 2 and 3 and 4 and’ as you clap. Practise playing your rhythm on your sound source. 3 4 When you are conﬁdent. play your rhythm with the backing track (Track 18). 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 2 Practise clapping the rhythm. In the next activity you will write your ideas down ﬁrst and then play them. • Follow the rhythm grid the ﬁrst time you perform and the music notation the second time. The next six rhythms include sounds which occur on the half beat. Then clap each of the other rhythms with the backing track. Rhythm 1 1 X + x 2 X + x 3 X + x 4 X + x Kitchen sounds 27 . Repeat the rhythm each time you play it. • Repeat each rhythm in the break.Clap Rhythm 3 along with the recorded backing on Track 18. Clap the rhythms twice with the recording on Track 19. Clap it four times keeping the beat steady.
28 Unit 1 Why music? . It is now time to create a more complex rhythm.Rhythm 2 1 X + 2 X + 3 X + 4 X + Rhythm 3 1 + x 2 + x 3 + x 4 + x Rhythm 4 1 X + x 2 X + 3 X + x 4 X + Rhythm 5 1 X + x 2 X + x 3 X + 4 X + Rhythm 6 1 X + x 2 + x 3 X + x 4 + x You have played a number of simple and more complex rhythms. Go to the exercises section and complete Exercise 3. and you have created and performed your own simple rhythm. You will also perform the rhythm using two kitchen sound sources.
phrase. sentence’. Go to the ﬁrst page of the ‘Motif. ‘Concept– Motif I’. Click on the music or the purple speaker icon to listen to examples in activities.) Work through the seven pages titled ‘Musical Forms – motif. Activity 7 1 Open Composer Notes and click on the Composition icon to go to the ‘Guide to Composition Modules’ page. in the pop-up menu. Phrase and Sentence’ module. phrases and sentences. Kitchen sounds 29 . c Listen to each musical example at least three times. you will ﬁnd out how you can put musical ideas together by using a musical motif. Phrase & Sentence’ and select item one. Click on the Forward and Back buttons to move through the pages. When you have completed step 3. a Read the information on each page. close Composer Notes. 2 3 4 Before you go on. I ® learnt that a motif is a group of notes with a distinctive rhythm or pitch pattern and listened to the famous opening motif from Beethoven’s Symphony No 5 played on the trumpet ® listened to a musical example and identiﬁed its motifs ® read a description of a musical phrase and listened to an example from Beethoven’s Symphony No 5 ® listened to a musical example and identiﬁed its phrases ® read about musical sentences and listened to an example of an 8 bar musical sentence from Beethoven’s Symphony No 5 ® listened to a musical example and identiﬁed its sentences. check that you covered all the material in this activity. b Complete all the tasks you are asked to do. In this activity in Composer Notes. (Click on the icon for ‘Motif.Putting musical ideas together In the following Composer Notes activity.
In ‘Kitchen sounds’ you explored sounds around the kitchen and different rhythms.lmpc. Let’s jam! Choose one of the sound sources you explored in ‘Kitchen sounds’ to play the following rhythm along with the jam session (Track 8). In ‘Wade in the water’ you will learn a song. Why music?.edu. 30 Unit 1 Why music? .Find more information about making music with household objects by visiting the following website. Play along with the track several times. The following activity will put everything you learned in this unit into practice. <http://www.au/Music> Select ‘Mandatory’ and follow the links to resources for this unit. Remember to improvise during the four bar solo.
As you discovered in ‘Kitchen sounds’. The page is headed ‘Concepts of Melody’. We can use our voices in many ways by singing. Wade in the water. speaking. The voice is the one instrument we all have that is uniquely our own. You can become quite inventive by discovering what is around you. (Click on the icon for Melody and select item one. You will learn about the singing voice and discover how to use your voice to sing. You will: • learn about melody and contour • listen to vocal music • explore your own voice • learn to sing the chorus of the spiritual Wade in the water • learn to sing in parts • develop your vocal ability • record your voice.Wade in the water You don’t need to buy an instrument to make music. ‘Concept– Melodic contour 1’. Go to the ﬁrst page of the ‘Melody’ module. take a look at melody in Composer Notes. imitating sounds or creating vocal percussion. in the pop-up menu. In this section you will learn about melody and learn the song. Melody Before you begin to explore the voice. we all have instruments at our ﬁngertips. Activity 1 1 Open Composer Notes and click on the Composition icon to go to the ‘Guide to Composition Modules’ page.) 2 Wade in the water 31 .
4 5 6 When you have completed step 5. Work through the next four pages headed. In this activity in Composer Notes. ‘Activities – Contour’. Go to the next page. draw the contours as requested. Op. Before you go on. 85.3 Read the information and click on the purple and green speaker icons to listen to the examples of melody. by clicking on the Forward button. 32 Unit 1 Why music? . What is a melody? a Read the information. I ® learnt that melody is essentially the tune in music and that pauses can be just as important as the notes ® listened to two melodic examples ® read about melodic contour and how one of its important feature is whether the shape moves in wide leaps or smaller steps ® listened to a melodic example that used wide leaps and one that moved by step ® learnt about musical gravity and how rises and falls in a melody can create tension and energy ® listened to an example of musical gravity played on electric guitar ® discovered how pitch and rhythm come together to create melody and listened to an example from the Adagio section of Elgar’s Cello Concerto. On a sheet of paper. Note: pages with large sound ﬁles may be slow to load. close Composer Notes. check that you covered all the material in this activity. Instead of printing the page. write out the phrases and draw the contours on a piece of paper. b Listen to each musical example at least three times and follow the notation.
1 Listen to the ﬁve musical extracts recorded on Track 21 (Why music? CD 1). Which instrument is common to all examples?
Listen to Track 21 again. Describe the quality of the voices in each extract. Are the voices high or low, smooth or harsh, male or female, strong or whispering, one or many? Does the melody have wide leaps or does it mainly move step by step? a Extract 1, Canto alla vita
b Extract 2, Nunc aperuit nobis
c Extract 3, Niña piensa en ti
d Extract 4, Akiwowo
e Extract 5, Wade in the water
Check your response by going to the suggested answers section.
Wade in the water
Read the information below about each of the previous examples. Listen to following tracks as you read about each piece. Close your eyes and listen until the end of the track before reading on. 1 Canto Alla Vita sung by Amici forever (Track 22) These young opera singers have recorded a selection of songs in both Italian and English. 2 Nunc aperuit nobis performed by Sequentia (Track 23) This tune was written by Hildegard von Bingen (1098–1179), a 12th century visionary, abbess, healer, composer, writer and saint — quite a woman of her time! Apart from composing music, she also compiled books about natural science and the healing arts. 3 Niña piensa en ti sung by Kiko (Track 24) This Spanish song features a high male voice with backing vocals, acoustic guitar, drumkit and synthesizer. 4 Akiwowo by Olatunji (Track 25) Babatunde Olatunji from Nigeria had international success with his group Drums of Passion. 5 Wade in the water sung by The Blind Boys of Alabama (Track 26) The Blind Boys of Alabama have sung gospel music for over 60 years. They have played in Australia at the East Coast Blues and Roots Festival, an annual music festival held in Byron Bay. Before you go on, listen again to The Blind Boys of Alabama singing Wade in the water (Track 26). You will learn the chorus of this song shortly. Find more information about some of these musicians by visiting the following website. <http://www.lmpc.edu.au/Music> Select ‘Mandatory’ and follow the links to resources for this unit, Why music?.
Unit 1 Why music?
Finding your voice
We all have voices and are able to sing. It’s just a matter of getting used to producing a good sound. We all have our own unique vocal quality. We need to concentrate on practising to produce a good sound. It’s like driving a car, you need to look after it so it runs well. Since we tend to hear our voices from inside our bodies, we need to listen and learn how to warm up our voices in order to project a good sound outside our bodies. Try the following vocal warm-up.
Vocal warm-up exercise
1 Lie down and close your eyes. Imagine you are in a place where you can relax (but not in bed or you may fall asleep). Imagine you are lying by a river, in a forest or by the beach. Perhaps you have a favourite spot somewhere. Concentrate on your breathing. Breathe in and out evenly. Now make a sound as you breathe. Listen to your breath and make it even as you breathe in and out. After a few breaths, make a long ‘aaah’ as you breathe out. Do this a few times. Notice where your breath comes from. Watch the rise and fall of the area around your abdomen. 5 Once you feel that you have a good sound, roll over to your right side and slowly stand up, rolling up the spine. Let your head relax forward and be the last part of your body to be aligned. As your head ﬁnally faces forward, let your jaw drop open and make the sound ‘aaah’ again. Remember to have the same relaxed feeling you had when you were lying down. 6 Roll down your spine and slowly come up again the same way. Do it a few times and notice how your sound improves.
Wade in the water
but as you get used to using your breath to support your voice. 1 Did your breathing become more even? 2 Do you think the sound of your voice improved after doing this exercise? 3 If it didn’t work. Wade in the water is a spiritual and in the following activity you will learn the chorus. this will pass. You will learn to sing this version of the song. Do this exercise before every music lesson and your voice will improve.The ﬁrst time you do this vocal warm-up exercise you may feel dizzy. Spirituals are songs that were sung by African slaves when they were feeling lonely and abandoned in America. Singing a spiritual We often sing songs to make us feel better. The lyrics of these songs even gave directions on how to escape to freedom. 36 Unit 1 Why music? . what do you think you could do to improve? Try the exercise again before you continue. Listen to a different arrangement of Wade in the water (Track 27). you’ll notice how your voice improves even more as you start taking care of it. Self assessment Answer the following questions. If you do the exercise every day or at least twice a week.
Stand up tall when you are singing. Wade in the water 37 . Allow yourself to do it. Remember when you sing you are using your natural instrument. 1 Listen to Track 27 again if you want to become more familiar with the song before you begin learning the chorus. sing the phrase alone. Open your mouth wide and your sound will come out with the melodies of Wade in the water. 2 3 Learn the second phrase and sing it with the ﬁrst phrase.M. a b c d Listen to the ﬁrst phrase twice (Track 28). When you’ve mastered the ﬁrst phrase. Close your eyes and continue listening if the track is still playing. b Sing the second phrases with the recorded example. e When you’ve mastered singing the ﬁrst two phrases.Listen again and follow the lyrics below. c Sing the ﬁrst and second phrases with the recorded example (Track 30). ‘wade in de wader’. When you feel conﬁdent. The ‘t’ sounds in ‘the’ and ‘water’ are sung with a softer ‘d’ so they ﬁt in with the rhythm and sound better. move on to the next step. Sing the ﬁrst phrase with the recorded example. Activity 3 Follow the steps below as you learn to sing the chorus of Wade in the water. Sing the ﬁrst phrase or line of the chorus. Barnwell © 1980 Notice the way the singer says the words. d When you feel conﬁdent. sing the two phrases alone. Wade in the water Wade in the water Wade in the water children Wade in the water God’s gonna trouble the water (Why don’t you) Traditional words and music arranged by Y. Relax. move on to the next step. There’s no need to worry. a Listen to the second phrase twice (Track 29).
You will learn to sing the lowest part. a Listen to the melody of the chorus sung once (Track 33). b Sing the fourth phrase with the recorded example. There are two other parts. move on to the next step. 6 7 Did you notice that the melody of phrase three is the same as the melody of phrase one in the chorus? Singing in parts You are going to add another singing part to the chorus of Wade in the water. sing the phrases alone. a Listen to the fourth phrase (Track 32). Hear the way the vocal melody moves. Sing the whole chorus. see if you can hear vocal parts other than the main melody. second and third phrases. sing the phrase alone. c When you feel conﬁdent. b Sing all four phrases with the recorded example. d When you’ve mastered the fourth phrase. c Try singing the chorus alone when you feel conﬁdent. The chorus is repeated several times. a Listen to the ﬁrst three phrases several times (Track 31). Listen to the solo melody part of Wade in the water (Track 34). Listen to Wade in the water (Track 27) again. 38 Unit 1 Why music? . d What do you notice about the third phrase? e Sing the ﬁrst. While you listen.4 Perform the ﬁrst. Sing along with the recording. we add harmony to our arrangement. second and third phrases three times before you move on to the next step. c When you feel conﬁdent. 5 Sing the fourth phrase. By adding other parts. b Sing the three phrases with the recorded example.
Now let’s explore your own voice. In the next activity. The words ‘Wade in the water’ are sung over and over again. your voice can be placed in the front of your mouth or the back of your throat. 5 Check your response by going to the suggested answers section. play the solo melody of Wade in the water (Track 34) and sing the low ostinato over and over underneath it. Clap the rhythm of the melody and join in singing yourself. Remember to stand up to complete these singing exercises. For example. Look at the rhythm of the ostinato part written using music notation. List the differences you can hear between this track and the version you have been singing. Longer sounds are shown by longer note values. The ostinato pattern is written on the grid below. The whole phrase is sung at the one pitch. 3 4 When you feel conﬁdent singing the low part. you learn a series of vocal exercises and explore different placements of your voice. 1 Wade + in 2 + the 3 wa + 4 -ter + 2 Play the track again. Be careful not to strain your voice. Wade in the water 39 .Activity 4 1 Listen to the low part of Wade in the water sung by itself (Track 35). Listen to The Blind Boys of Alabama singing their arrangement of Wade in the water (Track 26).
You can hear the ﬁve sounds performed on Track 37. you can feel it in your chest. This sound is placed at the front of our mouth. Be careful not to strain your voice. Place your hand on your chest to feel your breast plate resonating.Activity 5 1 Sing the seven vocal exercises recorded on Track 36. Use the vocal phrases shown in the table below. This sound is placed in the middle of your mouth. Your head is a resonating chamber so you should be able to hear your high sound well. Sometimes when you hear the sound of a bass at a rock concert or play loud music on your stereo. The sound starts to move back from the front of your mouth. 2 Make a deep low sound in your chest to the sound ‘aaaah’. 2 Perform the following siren vocal exercise. Step Phrase 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 maaaaaaa meeeeeeeee miiiiiiiiiiii mooooooo muuuuuu ma–e–i–o–u ma–e–i Instructions This sound often ends up in the back of your throat. The sound will move from your head via your throat to your chest. Make a siren sound again using all these sounds. Remember where to place each sound in your mouth. 4 5 Make an ‘aaah’ sound gently at the back of your throat. Imagine you have the rings of Saturn spinning around your head. Pronounced with a short ‘o’. Use this exercise to place all your sounds forward. 40 Unit 1 Why music? . Pronounced ‘may’. This will also open up the back of your throat. So bring it forward to the front. 3 Sing a high note to the back of the wall. 1 Make a sound like a siren from high to low. Combine all sounds. Pronounced ‘moo’.
your sound will improve. you will perform both the solo and the low ostinato from Wade in the water. In ‘Body percussion’ you will look at how you can use your body as percussion instruments. That’s what singers do. You will then choose one part to practise and record. Have fun while you sing. Remember to improvise during the solo section. Sing along using the chorus of Wade in the water as the basis for this jam session (Track 38). Let’s jam! Use your voice as the instrument for this jam session. Go to the exercise pages and complete Exercise 4. In this section you were introduced to the voice and you sang Wade in the water. Make sure you relax and enjoy singing. The following activity will put everything you learned in this section into practice. Wade in the water 41 . That’s why they like singing.Remember if you do these vocal exercises every day. In the next exercise.
42 Unit 1 Why music? .
we feel less lonely. Playing music improves our ability to think and concentrate. Body percussion 43 . In this section you will learn about using your body as your own rhythmic or percussion instrument. by making it or appreciating it. We can play rhythms using different parts of our bodies. the chanting of children playing or the soundtrack to the latest video game. It is part of our daily lives and forms the background to most of what we do. Sometimes when we listen to music. You will: • experiment with body percussion • listen to some body percussion • perform rhythms using body percussion • make up your own composition using body percussion. Making music Music is around us everywhere.Body percussion In order to make music we need to have an instrument or some other form of sound source. One of the best ways to enjoy music is through participating in it. Some people choose to work within the music industry whether as musicians or production crew. It may be in the song of a bird. This type of music making is called body percussion. One sound source available to us all is the body. Let’s make some music ﬁrst by accessing resources on the Internet. Music can excite us or help us relax. On many levels music plays a major role in our lives.
You can play rhythms using different parts of your body. each producing a different sounds. Let’s look more closely at different types of body percussion.Find links to resources for making music on the web by visiting the following website. Why music?. you can change the sounds you produce. Below are some of the body percussion sounds available to us. You can slap your left thigh with your left hand or click the ﬁngers of your right hand. Clapping Clicking our ﬁngers Slapping our chest Slapping our thighs Stamping our feet You can vary the body percussion sounds you produce by using different hands.edu. <http://www.au/Music> Select ‘Mandatory’ and follow the links to resources for this unit. One type that you have already used in this unit is clapping. Types of body percussion Your body is your very own rhythmic or percussion instrument. By changing the method of playing. You can even use both hands to slap your chest or slap your thighs. 44 Unit 1 Why music? .lmpc.
2 3 4 1 X 2 3 4 x 1 X 2 3 4 1 X 2 x 3 4 x 1 X xx xx x xx x xx xx x 2 Play the same rhythm again by slapping your thighs with both hands. 2 3 4 1 R 2 3 4 R 1 L 2 3 4 1 R 2 R 3 4 R 1 L LL LL L RR R LL LL L 7 Play the rhythm again. R = right hand on right thigh). starting with your right hand. Play the rhythm by slapping your thighs with alternate hands (left then right and so on). 2 3 4 1 R 2 3 4 R 1 L 2 3 4 1 R 2 L 3 4 R 4 5 1 L RL LR L LR L RL LR L 6 Experiment by playing each phrase of 4 counts using alternate hands. 2 3 4 1 X 2 3 4 x 1 X 2 3 4 1 X 2 x 3 4 x 1 X xx xx x xx x xx xx x 3 Play the rhythm again. The pattern is shown below. The grid would look like this. 2 3 4 1 L 2 LL 3 L 4 L 1 R 2 3 4 1 L 2 L 3 4 L 1 R RR RR R RR RR R Body percussion 45 . The pattern is shown below (L = left hand on left thigh. Play the rhythm by slapping your right hand on your right thigh. slapping your left hand only on your left thigh.Activity 1 1 Clap the following rhythm with the recording on Track 39 (Why music? CD 1). Play along with Track 40.
(Remember L and R will refer to your left and right feet when stamping. Make a record of the body percussion you wish to use in the bottom row.) Play the rhythms below using four types of body percussion: slapping thighs. 46 Unit 1 Why music? . stamping. Repeat the rhythms using each method of playing given in steps 2–7 on the previous page. Instead of slapping your thighs: a gently slap your chest with your hands b click your ﬁngers c sit on a chair and gently stamp your feet on the ﬂoor. clicking. You can listen to the rhythms performed on Track 41. 9 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 X 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 X 4 XX X XX X XX X XX X 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 X 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 X XX XX XX X XX XX X XX XX XX X XX XX X 1 X 2 X 3 4 1 X 2 3 4 1 2 X 3 X 4 1 2 X 3 4 XX X XX X XX X XX X 1 X 2 3 X 4 X 1 X 2 3 X 4 1 X 2 3 X 4 X 1 X 2 3 X 4 10 Play the rhythms again.8 Repeat steps 2 through 7 for each of the following body percussion. slapping chest. Organise your own sequence of body percussion to perform them. 11 Write your own rhythm on the grid below. 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 12 Practise your ideas and then record them.
Listen to the pattern performed on Track 42. Write your own body percussion pattern in the grid below. Use symbols to represent the body percussion you use. This is one example of the types of symbols which could be created. Activity 2 1 Perform the body percussion rhythm above. Use the type of body percussion shown by each symbol. You may like to make up your own symbols. 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Look back at the list of body percussion types to ﬁnd out what body percussion sound each symbol represents.Self assessment 1 How would you rate your performance? Excellent Very good Satisfactory Fair 2 What could you do to make it better? Notating body percussion The rhythm pattern written on the grid below uses symbols instead of ‘X’s to show where the sounds occur. You can make up your own symbols. Each symbol represents the type of body percussion to use. 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 2 1 Body percussion 47 .
Listen again to Claps 1 and answer the following questions. Activity 3 1 2 Listen to Claps 1 by Utungun Percussion (Track 43). a What sorts of body percussion can you hear? b What happens towards the end? Check your response by going to the suggested answers section. They combine a variety of drums and other percussion instruments with voice and movement.3 List the symbols you used in your pattern and the body percussion each one represents. In Claps 1. Symbol Body percussion 2 List any other body percussion sounds you can think of. Claps 1 by Utungun Percussion Utungun Percussion is a group of musicians who produce energetic and exciting rhythms. they use body percussion to create sounds. 48 Unit 1 Why music? .
Now let’s learn Utungun’s rhythm pattern. This is called compound duple time. Each rhythm is repeated once. Notice how the six pulses are grouped in two lots of threes. You can listen to the recorded examples on Track 44. 1 X 2 x 3 x 4 X 5 x 6 x 1 X 2 x 3 x 4 X 5 x 6 x 2 Slap thighs for the second example.Body percussion rhythms Our bodies provide us with one of the best sources of sound and movement. 1 Clap the ﬁrst example. you can build up your coordination skills and you will be able to perform more complex rhythms. 1 X 2 3 x 4 X 5 6 1 X 2 3 x 4 X 5 6 Did you notice that each of the rhythms above are counted in groups of six pulses? The rhythm that Utungun Percussion use also has six pulses in a bar. Body percussion 49 . Perform the following four rhythms. With practice. 1 X 2 3 4 X 5 6 1 X 2 3 4 X 5 6 3 Slap chest for the third rhythm. Listen to Track 45 which is an excerpt of the beginning of Claps 1. 1 X 2 3 x 4 X 5 6 x 1 X 2 3 x 4 X 5 6 x 4 Click ﬁngers to play this rhythm.
learn the following body percussion pattern in preparation. Notice how Utungun Percussion vary the rhythm by changing where they put the accents. They do this by changing the slaps to claps. Accent the pulses with the symbol ‘>’ above them. Clap then slap your thighs alternately with your right and left hands. Before you begin.Utungun’s rhythm pattern Play the rhythm shown in the pattern below. In the next exercise. You will need to clap the rhythm pattern 4 times. Listen again to Claps 1 (Track 43). > 1 2 + 3 > 4 5 + 6 R L R L R L R Perform the rhythm with the recorded excerpt (Track 45). you develop your own body percussion piece. It is performed on Track 46. 1 2 3 4 5 6 stamp stamp clap clap clap slap slap slap 1 2 3 4 5 6 stamp stamp clap clap clap click click click 50 Unit 1 Why music? .
Meter is the organisation of beats or pulses into larger groups. In the following Composer Notes activity you will ﬁnd out about tempo and meter. Practise until you feel comfortable performing. ‘Concepts–Pulse–Tempo–Meter–Intro’. such as three or four beats in a group (or bar). you learnt that pulse is the constant beat that underlies most music. Activity 5 1 Open Composer Notes and click on the Composition icon to go to the ‘Guide to Composition Modules’ page. read the information and listen several times to each musical example. (Click on the icon for Tempo & Meter and select item one. As you listen: a slap your thighs along with the beat b slap your thighs on the downbeat (the ﬁrst beat of the bar) c slap your thighs on the beat.) Work through pages 1–4.Say the body percussion words aloud as you listen to the recording (Track 46). 2 3 4 Body percussion 51 . You will also learn about the time signature. Go to the exercises section and complete Exercise 5. close Composer Notes. You will learn about simple meters and compound meters. When you have read the information and listened to the examples. stressing the downbeat. the symbol used at the start of music notation to indicate the meter. Pulse. in the pop-up menu. Go to the ﬁrst page of the ‘Tempo & Meter’ module. These pages are headed ‘Concepts of Pulse. Tempo and Meter’. Use the Forward and Back buttons to move through the pages. then substitute the sounds. tempo and meter Earlier in this unit. On each page.
using three beats to the bar. played on a double bass ® read about time signatures and learnt about the time signature 4/4 and also about the downbeat ® listened to a blues example in 4/4 played on electric guitars ® learnt about simple meters where each beat is divided into two equal groupings ® listened to three examples of simple meters ® learnt about compound meters where each beat is divided into three equal groupings ® listened to three examples of compound meters. in ‘Vocal and body percussion’. you look at another example of compound meter. In this section you looked at various forms of body percussion and rhythms. But now. tempo and meter ® listened to a waltz pattern. I ® read a deﬁnition of rhythm.Before going on. In this activity in Composer Notes. use the following jam session to put everything you learned in this section into practice. Let’s jam! Choose one of the compound duple rhythms that you learnt in this section. Remember to improvise during the solo section. check that you covered the activity material. 52 Unit 1 Why music? . you will explore this further by adding vocal percussion to the mix. In the next section. Perform this rhythm against the backing track (Track 47) for this jam session. Next. Compound duple rhythms have six pulses grouped in two equal parts (1 2 3 4 5 6).
Sound colour Before exploring vocal and body percussion. has its own unique sound colour or tone colour. This is because the guitar. Compare the sound. Activity 1 1 Open Composer Notes and click on the Instrumentation icon to go to the ‘Instrumentation Guide’. take a look at the guitar. 3 Click on ‘Guitar Types’ to begin. You will: • listen to an example using the voice and body percussion • learn a rhythmic vocal pattern and create your own ostinato • explore improvising with your voice • move to music. like every instrument. Read the information and compare the drawings of the most common types of guitars. This instrument is played in many different musical settings from classical to jazz styles.Vocal and body percussion Earlier in this unit. In ‘Vocal and body percussion’ you will consider different ways they can be combined to add variety to music. ‘Open string sounds’. Read the information and listen to the sound of the open strings played on ﬁve different types of guitars. 53 2 4 Vocal and body percussion . Click on the ‘Guitar’ option to go to the Guitar Main Menu. In this activity. you are going to work through two sections: ‘Guitar Types’ and ‘Guitar open strings & ranges’. you explored the voice and also body percussion. You may be able to recognise the sound of a guitar when you hear it played on a CD or the radio. Go to the next page.
Play the track again and follow the listening guide below. Voice and percussion are natural partners when playing music. As you listen to the examples.5 Go to the next page ‘Written range of the guitar’. The voice and rhythm In many cultures singers use their voices to make rhythmic sounds as well as sing melodies. Rappers or MCs express themselves through rhyming talk over beats created electronically or by real drumkits. consider how the sounds differ from low to high and from instrument to instrument. 54 Unit 1 Why music? . exit Composer Notes. sticks. Slap your thighs to the beat as you listen. voices make their own percussive sounds. listen carefully to the tone colour of the instruments you hear. Listening guide for Mouth music 1 ‘Mm mm ah ah ah mm ah ah’ repeated vocal pattern or ostinato Percussion: angklung (bamboo rattle). Why music? CD 2). log drum. shakers. Ostinato continues 8 times 3 Ostinato pattern once before voice sings low yeah and variations 4 Voice rises again using nonsense syllables and shaker is heard 5 Ascending and descending vocal patterns 6 Calling sounds from high to low 7 Many voices join in pattern in unison. You have listened to the unique tone colour or timbre of ﬁve types of guitars. In the next example. Listen to the different ways voice and percussion are used in Mouth music by Toni Nation (Track 1. sensing same pattern 8 Solo ostinato heard 4 times. jingles 2 Lead vocal enters and sings two phrases ascending and descending 4 times. b Listen to the pitch range of each type of guitar. During the following activities of this unit. The sounds are played from the lowest to highest pitch. 6 When you have completed the steps. Some musicians spontaneously call out in response to the music they’re making. a Read the information.
You begin by learning the start and end of the ostinato pattern. Use Track 2 as your accompaniment. it is called an ostinato. how many times is the ostinato pattern heard? Check your response by going to the suggested answers section. Emphasise the second ‘mm’.Performing an ostinato Mouth music begins with a low rhythmic vocal pattern which is repeated throughout. Clap the last two ‘aah aah’ sounds at the end of each ostinato pattern as you listen to the ostinato again. 1 Say ‘mm mm’ (the beginning of the ostinato pattern) along with the recorded ostinato. 55 2 3 Vocal and body percussion . 3 In Track 2. The ﬁrst part has been done for you. Listen to the beginning of Mouth music (Track 2). Play the track again and say the last two ‘aah aah’ sounds as you clap them. are the ‘mm’ sounds higher or lower than the ‘aah’ sounds? 2 Show the difference in pitch by drawing a line for each sound. 1 In the vocal ostinato. Learn to sing the ostinato from Mouth music by working through the following 8 steps. mm mm aah aah aah mm aah aah Activity 2 Answer the following questions about the ostinato pattern. The vocal sounds of the ostinato pattern are written below. When a melodic or rhythmic pattern is repeated like this.
4 and 5. + mm 1 mm + aah 2 + aah 3 + aah 4 mm + 5 aah + 6 aah 5 6 The ostinato begins on ‘and’ before the ﬁrst beat. Sing your part as you play the ostinato. In the next exercise you create. Before you begin. 1 2 3 Listen to the three vocal patterns recorded on Tracks 3. b Sing the ostinato conﬁdently by yourself. 56 Unit 1 Why music? . Learn to sing the whole ostinato pattern. Make the sounds percussive and rhythmic. c Sing the ostinato with the whole song (Track 1). Start at the end of the ﬁrst pattern and say ‘aah aah mm mm’ in rhythm. Remember that it uses two pitches: the sound ‘aah’ is higher than ‘mm’. Clap the rhythm of the ostinato pattern. Perform with a steady beat.4 Combine both elements that you have learnt. repeating it several times to create an ostinato. Go to the exercises section and complete Exercise 6. complete the following three steps as preparation. a Practise the whole ostinato with the excerpt (Track 2). It uses two pitches: ‘mm’ on the lower pitch and ‘aah’ on the higher one. Play each track again and repeat each pattern aloud. Accent the second ‘mm’ which occurs on beat one. 7 8 When you are conﬁdent with the rhythm. This is called an upbeat. clap it with Track 2. The pattern is written in the grid below and also as music notation. Perform each pattern. Perform along with the recorded ostinato. perform and record your own ostinato pattern.
You may recall listening to Alicia’s soundscape at the start of this unit. Listen to the name. Activity 3 1 Sing the following four syllables along with the recording on Track 6. did you notice how the main voice sings above the ostinato using a wide range of highs and lows? At times. a Say your name in an unusual way. Listen to the short improvised vocal phrase on Track 8. Begin by exploring the sounds you can make with your voice. Now do the same thing with your name. Repeat each one in the break. Aaa a a a a a liii liii liii liii cia cia cia cia cia cia cia 3 a b 4 Play the recording several times and join in as you listen. In the following activities. Each syllable in Alicia’s name is sounded separately. you will try improvising yourself. b Make up rhythm patterns for each syllable in your name. 57 5 Vocal and body percussion . Repeat the phrase aloud. performed on Track 7. a Make up a rhythm and say your syllable. Alicia. c Change the pitch so you move from high to low or low to high as you sing syllables from your name.Improvising with your voice In Mouth music. When musicians make up music as it is being performed it is called improvising. it sounds like the singer is spontaneously creating the vocal line as she performs. Perform the pattern by yourself. la la la la la la la tu tu tu tu tu tu brr brr brr brr brr brr ss ss ss ss ss 2 Choose your own syllable and then do the following. b Add pitch and sing your syllable to the rhythm.
an experienced vocalist such as Tony Allayialis from Toni Nation explores various patterns that she already knows. You can draw on the sounds and patterns you discovered when you improvise over an ostinato. Go to the exercises section and complete Exercise 7. Improvise your own vocal part above the ostinato from Mouth music (Track 2). • Experiment with new ideas. Do this several times. draw on the experience you have just gained in improvising. As you do so. As you do so. Remember. consider what makes some of your responses more pleasing or interesting than others.6 Play Track 8 and improvise your own response. you will improvise a vocal part over the ostinato pattern you recorded in Exercise 6. In the next exercise. • Explore patterns that you have tried earlier in this unit. • Explore short melodies with your voice. you explored vocal sounds you could make with your voice. the result is only limited by your imagination as to how you can use your voice. 58 Unit 1 Why music? . Improvising over an ostinato While improvising. In the previous activity. improvising a different response each time.
35 Vocal and body percussion 59 . Synthesizer with rising and descending electronic sounds continues. Second time heard with rhythm section featured.Let’s move! Voice and percussion are used together in the music of all cultures and often people will naturally move to the music.00 4 1. Choir features with rising solo voice at beginning. Solo synthesizer sound as coda (ending) 2 0. Rhythm section (electronic percussion and electric bass) joins in. Rising siren-like electronic sounds lead into female vocal entry. Accompanied by synthesizer and electronic sounds as in introduction.19 3 1.42 9 4.00 Begins with a soft and slow introduction with long notes played on the synthesizer. ‘The state of independence shall be’ heard twice as in Section 4.40 5 6 2. Rhythm section continues with synthesizer and keyboard sounds. Rhythm section continues with synthesizer. Verse sung by female voice. Chorus sung by female voice with backing vocals.20 8 3. ‘The state of independence shall be’ heard twice. Listen to Spiritual high (Track 9) sung by Chrissie Hynde. for example piano. Rhythm section continues with synthesizer and keyboard sounds. Backing vocals join in leading to chorus. Female voice enters singing verse. Listening guide to Spiritual high 1 0. using the music as an accompaniment for dancing. Voice of Martin Luther King making his famous ‘I have a dream’ speech above choir.00 2. Female voice sings verse. Rhythm section continues with synthesizer using other keyboard sounds.20 7 3. Follow the listening guide below. Female voice sings as organ rhythm enters. Synthesizer and electronic sounds continue.
do the following. 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 60 Unit 1 Why music? . b Step on the spot or walk around the room to the beat when the rhythm section joins in. Explore ways you can move to this section. though there are also guitar and wind synthesizers. 2 Play Track 10 again and do the following.This arrangement begins with a slow introduction using synthesizer. clap on the 1st and 3rd beats as you move. a Make a long free movement to accompany the slow beginning. a Explore other ways you can move to the slow beginning.com> In the following activity. you will move to Spiritual high.musicalinstrumentgifts. You’ll hear the the ﬁrst ﬁve sections. That means your feet will step at the same time as you feel the beat. Activity 4 1 Play the extract of Spiritual high on Track 10. b When the rhythm section joins in. As you listen. Step in time with the beat. Practise several times before you try with the music. The pattern is shown in the grid below. Synthesizers are often keyboards like the one below. Keyboard synthesizer <www.
b When the rhythm section joins in.3 Play Track 10 again and do the following. clap on the 2nd and 4th beats as you step to the beat. Let’s jam! Choose the voice and body percussion for this jam session. Perform the following rhythm along with Track 11. Work with either the full version of Spiritual high (Track 9) or with the abridged version (Track 10). Use vocal sounds and include at least one body percussion sound. The pattern is shown in the grid. listen for the words ‘solo break’ just before the break begins. you probably found clapping on beats 2 and 4 ﬁtted better with the music. If you like. The following activity will put everything you learned in this unit into practice. In this piece. To know when to start your solo. Since Spiritual high accents or emphasises the second and fourth beats. 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 4 Explore other ways you can move to the music. Practise several times before you try with the music. Improvise your own vocal solo during the break. a Explore new ways you can move to the slow beginning. move to the music as you jam. Consider how you may be able to move to different beats. 1 X 2 3 4 x 1 X 2 3 4 x 1 X 2 3 4 x 1 X 2 3 4 x xx X xx X xx X xx X Vocal and body percussion 61 . some instruments continue playing in the break. you could clap on beat one. For example.
62 Unit 1 Why music? . In ‘Vocal styles’ you will further explore how to use the voice as a percussion instrument. vocal and body percussion.In ‘Vocal and body percussion’ you explored guitar sounds.
we are able to experience various styles of music from around the world. In ‘Vocal styles’ you will consider various styles of vocal music which come from different places and times. Vocal styles 63 . Why music? CD 2). Check your response by going to the suggested answers section. Vocal mimics Earlier you listened to the Kaluli people who live in the Bosavi rainforest area of Papua New Guinea. Listen again to the sound of the Kaluli women and children making sago (Track 12. You will: • explore mimicry. Not only can we listen to the latest music. particularly of bird sounds • use rhythm to organise sounds • listen to different examples of how the voice can be used • explore vocal percussion • compose and notate vocal rhythmic patterns. Focus on how the voices mimic the sounds of the birds in the rainforest canopy. Activity 1 Write down some of the sounds you can hear in the Kaluli example (Track 12). thanks to globalisation and technology. but we can also listen to music from a long time ago. The power of music to transcend as well as mark time and place is remarkable. They blended their vocal sounds with the sounds of their environment.Vocal styles These days. You will also learn about using the voice as a percussion instrument. You may need to listen more than once.
Find links to information by visiting the following website. In this. 64 Unit 1 Why music? . <http://www. you considered how composers and musicians use various sources as inspiration for creating new sounds including the sound of birds. Why music?.edu. Explore mimicry and some artists who are involved in this form of music making.What bird sounds can you mimic? Can you make a chicken sound? In the table below list the birds you can mimic and describe or write down the sound of each one. he or she will listen to sounds and then work out how to write it down in notation. go online and do a search on his name using a search engine such as Google. The famous composer Messiaen used transcriptions of bird songs as the basis for many of his piano and orchestral works. Bird Sound When a composer transcribes.lmpc. Bird Sound List other bird sounds that you have heard and describe or write down the sound they make. Notation provides a method for sharing and documenting music. Earlier. they draw on the traditions of mimicry. If you are interested in ﬁnding out more about Messiaen.au/Music> Select ‘Mandatory’ and follow the links to resources for this unit.
Vocal styles 65 .lmpc. <http://www. 1 What is mimicry? 2 Which Australian community group has a very strong tradition of mimicry? 3 David Gulpilil is a well-known artist whose talents include mimicry. Why music?. a Where was David Gulpilil born? b List some of David Gulpilil’s ﬁlms. 4 Who thought that humans learnt to sing from birds? 5 Which bird may have inspired the call ‘cooee’? Find links to the musical examples in the remaining tasks of this activity by visiting the following website.Activity 2 Answer the following questions. Note: these musical examples on the Web are streamed and are therefore blocked via the Department of Educations’ network .au/Music> Select ‘Mandatory’ and follow the links to resources for this unit. Complete the rest of this activity if you are able to listen to streaming media over the Internet or can access the recordings from some other source.edu.
a ‘Kookaburra’ by David Gulpilil b ‘Crow Impression’ by Christine Johnson c ‘Clarinet and Turkey Duo’ by Leigh Hobba. using sounds you heard in the previous activity or sounds you can recall. Select four of the new bird-like sounds you created. Think about where you need to place your voice to make the sound work. Mimic the sounds using your voice. Practise until you are happy with the result. What environmental sounds can you hear? 8 Listen to Old linden tree. It was recorded near a pool in the bush. Four bird-like sounds 66 Unit 1 Why music? . Bird mimic Create your own bird-like sounds with your voice. 7 Listen to Katchikalli Dreaming.6 Listen to the following examples. Write the vocal sounds you used for each one below. Go back to Activity 5 in Wade in the water and work through the exercises regarding placement of your voice again. Does your voice come from your chest. What can you hear at the beginning of this instrumental excerpt? Check your response by going to the suggested answers section. your throat or your head? Experiment with the placement of your voice.
he or she will decide how to organise those sounds. One way to organise sound is by creating a rhythm pattern. Activity 3 Below is the same grid written using music notation. The pattern is played twice. 67 .Organising vocal sounds When a composer decides to incorporate different sounds into a composition. Imagine what they sound like. 1 How many beats are there in each bar? 2 Vocal styles Copy the notation onto the lines on the next page. The rhythm grid below shows three different bird sounds. each one has a different rhythm. 1 Aargh Boork Caw caw-caw boork caw 2 3 4 1 Aargh Boork Caw boork caw-caw caw caw 2 3 4 When you are familiar with the grid. listen to the recording on Track 13.
68 Unit 1 Why music? . Listen and respond to the following four examples which reﬂect a variety of singing styles. shake some leaves or make sounds like the wind. Also write it using music notation underneath the parts you copied at the top of the page. These different sounds can be found in musical styles across the world. Add your part below the rhythm grid on the previous page. Perhaps you could add another bird sound.Did you answer that there were four beats in each bar? Consider what other sounds you can add to this composition. Vocal acrobatics Most cultures have a characteristic way of using their voices. Many cultures use vocal cries and calls to communicate. Some nomadic people have developed piercing cries to warn others who may be passing that a certain area is already occupied. Perform your part with the recording (Track 13). Vocal sounds have grown out of a need for people to express themselves.
synthesizer chords. backing sing ‘We never know’. 1 2 3 4 X 1 2 3 4 X Vocal styles 69 . Listening Guide for Youssou N’Dour’s Undecided Bars 1–4 5–8 9–16 Description Hi-hat. 21–22 Youssou N’Dour sings the word ‘undecided’. 31–34 Opening bars return with echoing vocals. a Describe the voice at the beginning of this example. 23–29 Chorus: call from Youssou N’Dour and response from backing voices.Undecided Listen to Undecided sung by Youssou N’Dour (Track 14). 17–20 Tambourine rhythmic pattern increases and voice rises in pitch. b Which instruments can you hear? c What effects are created by the electric instruments? 2 Listen again to Undecided (Track 14). Clap on the fourth beat with the tambourine sound. echoing vocals. tambourine on 4th beat. electronic sounds at end. The rhythm is shown in the grid. synthesizer. Voice enters. electronic insect-like sounds added. 30 All sing the word ‘undecided’. Drums enter. ﬁrst 4-bar pattern continues. Activity 4 1 Answer the following questions about the listening example. synthesizer pattern of long notes rises.
3 Play Track 14 again and add a movement on the fourth beat. Bubuka Listen to the opening of Bubuka by Indonesian jazz fusion group Krakatau (Track 16). Stand up so you can move easily. 5 Check your response by going to the suggested answers section. Move to the beat and join in singing the word ‘undecided’ when you hear it. 70 Unit 1 Why music? . His hit song Seven seconds was sung with Neneh Cherry. Play Undecided (Track 14) again. Notice how the synthesizer plays long spacious sounds below the voice. You may choose to vary your clap and use another body percussion sound such as slapping your thighs. Remember. You’ll hear the word ‘undecided’ sung. It occurs twice during the song. 4 Listen to the extract recorded on Track 15. Youssou N’Dour comes from Senegal in Africa and is well known for his interesting mix of traditional Senegalese style and language with electronic back beats and English. the ﬁrst time after ‘yeah’. Sing the word aloud several times. it occurs twice. Sometimes other synthesizer sounds are also added.
Play Track 16 again and move with the vocal line. Vocal styles 71 . Krakatau use this style of singing to create new songs. 3 Check your response by going to the suggested answers section. Take note how the vocal line moves from low to high. The style of singing in Bubuka is called beluk and was traditionally sung by the Sundanese people of West Java in Indonesia. 2 Stand up and create a short movement that shows how the vocal line moves. This piece is often played as an opening number in their concerts. Draw the shape of the vocal line in the space below.Activity 5 1 Listen to the ﬁnal 20 seconds of the extract from Bubuka (start from about 1:55 seconds into Track 16).
At the beginning of this song you hear male voices singing Gregorian chant.gov/exhibits/vatican/music.50 1. Check your response by going to the suggested answers section.31 Solo high male voice enters followed by response from male chorus Electronic beats and rhythm section enters Male chorus joins in Electronic beats and rhythm section continues Synthesizer playing two bass sounds enters with belltree and electronic sounds Electronic beats and rhythm section continues Solo high male voice returns with synthesizer chord Electronic beats and rhythm section continues Response from male chorus Electronic beats and rhythm section continues 5 6 0.00 0.Sadness Listen three times to the extract from Sadness by Enigma (Track 17).loc. Slap your thighs to the beat each time you listen. Gregorian chant manuscript from the late ﬁfteenth century (www. Listening Guide to Sadness 1 2 3 4 0.09 0. a style of sacred music sung in the church. The performers of this song have created a new feel by adding electronic beats to an old style of singing.18 0.10 Activity 6 List some differences between this example and the ﬁrst two.html) 72 Unit 1 Why music? .
Find more information about some of these musicians by visiting the following website.lmpc.edu.au/Music> Select ‘Mandatory’ and follow the links to resources for this unit. Morganics accompanies Victor by beatboxing.I gotta style Listen three times to I gotta style by Victor Riley from Broken Hill in New South Wales and Morganics (Track 18). With the development of digital recording such as minidisc recording it has become possible to record your own music easily. Vocal styles 73 . <http://www. Write a few lines about your impression of this song. creating a backing track through using vocal percussion. Why music?.
While vocal percussion often imitates the sound of instruments such as drums. beatboxing. Activity 7 1 Listen to the following rhythms performed on Track 19. you use your voice to imitate the sounds of machines. Make the sounds rhythmic and percussive. vocal percussion is the art of making percussive-like sounds with your voice. You heard an example of one type of vocal percussion. in I gotta style. Say each two-bar rhythm after the example. In the following rhythm patterns.Vocal percussion As the name suggests. Rhythm 1 1 boom 2 ch ch 3 boom 4 ch ch 1 boom 2 ch ch 3 boom 4 ch ch Rhythm 2 1 sh sh 2 3 4 1 sh sh 2 3 4 Rhythm 3 1 2 tik tik 3 tik tik 4 tik tik 1 2 tik tik 3 tik tik 4 tik tik Rhythm 4 1 brrr 2 3 4 1 brrr 2 3 4 74 Unit 1 Why music? . it can involve mimicking any percussive sound (sounds made by hitting or striking two objects together).
Vocal styles 75 . You will need to play the track four times. 2 ch ch 3 boom 4 ch ch 1 boom sh sh tik tik tik tik tik tik brrr tik tik tik tik tik tik 2 ch ch 3 boom 4 ch ch 1 boom sh sh brrr 3 1 Listen to another example of machine rhythms (Track 21). Listen to the rhythm and sounds of your environment for ideas. Create movements to accompany each part as you perform it. Go to the exercises section and complete Exercise 8. In the next exercise. 2 3 4 1 vroom click clack ping boing pong boing boing click click clack clack ping pong boing 2 3 4 vroom click clack 4 Perform each part in the rhythm with the recording (Track 21). Play the track four times and perform each rhythm pattern in turn. They are written together on one grid below. Choose sounds that will work together well.2 Listen to the four rhythms performed together (Track 20). you will use your own ideas to create a vocal percussion rhythm chart.
Click on ‘Musical Texture’ and select ‘Concepts. a Read and think about the information on each page. c Make a connection between the musical examples and what you read. 2 3 Before you go on. ® read about the following types of musical texture • monophony • homophony • polyphony • canon • ostinato • drone (including a drone used as a rhythmic ostinato). b Listen more than once to each musical example and look at the music notation.Musical texture In the following Composer Notes activity you look at the concept called texture. ® listened several times to examples of each type of texture ® read about how dynamic contrasts relate to texture and add interest in music as well as how instrument colours complement and contrast with one another. check that you covered all the material. In this activity in Composer Notes. exit Composer Notes. I: ® learnt about the concept of texture in music including the idea of light or thin textures and dark or heavy textures. 4 When you reach the page headed ‘Adding Musical Texture to Pulse & Movement’. 76 Unit 1 Why music? . Work through the next nine pages. Musical texture refers to the layers which can be heard in a musical composition and how these layers relate to one another. Activity 8 1 Open Composer Notes and click on the Composition icon to go to the ‘Guide to Composition Modules’.Musical Texture I’ from the pop-up menu which appears.
Listen to the vocal examples you heard earlier in this section and consider how texture is used in these examples. creating your own vocal percussion patterns.Activity 9 Match the following musical textures with their meaning by drawing a connecting line. Vocal styles 77 . Let’s jam! Choose vocal percussion sounds for this jam session. 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 X 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 X 4 XX X XX X XX X XX X In ‘Vocal styles’ you explored mimicry and listened to a range of vocal styles. Next you will look at instrumental sounds. You also explore vocal percussion. particularly those of the orchestra. Think about how you would describe the texture. monophony several parts imitate the original line or phrase but entries are staggererd (as in a ‘round’) a single melodic line with other parts providing a supporting accompaniment a rhythm or melodic pattern which is repeated over and over a single line with everyone making the same movement at the same time homophony canon ostinato Check your response by going to the suggested answers section. The following activity will put everything you learnt in this unit into practice. Remember to improvise during the solo section. Perform the following rhythm or choose a rhythm from those you have learned to accompany the backing track (Track 11).
78 Unit 1 Why music? .
Music and emotions In this section you will learn about sound and instruments. Music is well known for its expressive qualities. particularly orchestral instruments. a bright uptempo piece can make us feel energised. Express your feelings At the beginning of this unit you considered how music can make us feel different emotions. Music and emotions 79 . You will learn about some of the ways music can do this. it has become an important ingredient for ﬁlm-makers. You listened to some different musical examples and wrote down how the music made you feel. Because music is able to express and help us feel many different emotions. For example. It can help us feel many different emotions. Music is a form of expression by which musicians and composers communicate different feelings to their audiences. You will: • create your own composition to express a range of emotions • look at dynamics and listen to the sound of orchestral instruments at a range of different dynamic levels • develop your skills in recognising the sound qualities of a variety of instruments • discover the instruments of the orchestra • use the Internet to explore websites featuring orchestral instruments and sounds • explore how composers use music to express emotions • play rhythms with an orchestral listening example • identify different musical structures. You will discover how composers choose various sounds to express feelings.
Play the following example of ‘excited’ on your sound source by interpreting the graphic notation. Select a sound source you used earlier in this unit. 80 Unit 1 Why music? . In the following activity you will improvise sounds to express different emotions and then use graphic notation to record them. It might be body percussion.Circle the face which closely resembles how you feel today. your voice or a sound source from the kitchen.
2 b Describe the sounds when they are softer. create a composition which incorporates a sequence of emotions.Activity 1 1 Choose three emotions from the opposite page and express each one by making up your own music on your sound sources. 3 List the three emotions you chose for this activity and notate the sounds you created for each emotion using your own graphic notation. a Describe the sounds when they are louder. Go to the exercises section and complete Exercise 9. Ask them to guess which emotions you are expressing. why do you think they chose a different emotion? Check your response by going to the suggested answers section. Were they right? If they responded differently. Emotion Graphic notation 4 Perform your sounds for a family member or friend. Now that you have improvised emotions on your sound source. Music and emotions 81 . Vary the dynamics (the loudness and softness) of your sounds as you improvise.
Look at the music notation and observe the dynamic markings. viola. a powerful ingredient in ﬁlm music. c Work through the eleven (11) pages describing String dynamics. 2 82 Unit 1 Why music? . Composers use dynamics to create physical and emotional responses in their listeners. Listen to the violin. ‘Orchestral Stringed Instruments’. letters are used to mark the dynamic level at which it should be performed. then ‘Violin: pp-p’.Dealing with dynamics Dynamics refers to the loudness and softness of sound. Listen to the examples more than once and consider the dynamic level of the performance. b Click on ‘String Dynamics’ and from the pop-up menu. a Click on ‘Strings’ in the Instrumentation Guide to display the Strings main menu. When notating music. cello and double bass play a range of dynamic levels. woodwind and brass instruments playing at a range of dynamic levels. This activity will help you identify the dynamics used by different instruments to create various effects and sustain interest. Click on the Forward and Back buttons to move through the pages. Activity 2 1 Open Composer Notes and click on Instrumentation to go to the ‘Instrumentation guide’. select ‘Violin’. These dynamic markings include: pp p mp very soft soft moderately soft ff f mf very loud loud moderately loud In the following Composer Notes activity you will listen to string.
Notice how brass instruments are louder than the other instruments you have listened to. woodwind and brass instruments playing at a range of dynamic levels. 5 When you have listened to the string. From the pop-up menu select ‘Trumpet’ then ‘Trpt: p’. Music and emotions 83 . c Work through the pages describing Woodwind dynamics. exit Composer Notes. Select ‘Instrumentation’ and then ‘Woodwinds Main Menu’ from the pop-up menu. tenor sax and oboe play a range of dynamic levels. a Use the Navigation icon at the bottom of the page to go to the Woodwinds Main Menu. which is very very loud. Listen to the examples more than once and consider the dynamic level of the performance. The softest dynamic level shown is p and the loudest fff. b Work through the pages describing Brass dynamics. b Click on ‘Woodwind dynamics’ and from the pop-up menu select ‘Flute’ then ‘Flute: pp-p’. Look at the music notation and observe the dynamic markings. a Go to the Brass Main Menu and click on Brass Dynamics. click on the Navigation icon. trombone and horn play a range of dynamic levels. 4 Listen to the trumpet.3 Listen to the ﬂute. alto sax. Look at the music notation and observe the dynamic markings. To do this. Listen to the examples more than once and consider the dynamic level of the performance. clarinet.
The way we respond emotionally to music is personal and yet there are certain responses that are common.Before you go on. tenor sax and oboe play a range of dynamic levels ® listened to the trumpet. check that you covered all the material in this activity. viola. clarinet. trombone and horn play a range of dynamic levels ® learnt about dynamic markings in music notation (pp p mp mf f ff fff). In this activity in Composer Notes. I: ® listened to the violin. Instruments and dynamics Composers and musicians often consider how their listeners will respond emotionally to their music through their choice of instruments and dynamics. cello and double bass play a range of dynamic levels ® listened to the ﬂute. 84 Unit 1 Why music? . Film composers draw on these common responses such as when loud brassy sounds accompany a procession or soothing strings are heard during a love scene. Activity 3 1 List the emotions you think could be expressed with loud sounds. alto sax. 2 List the emotions you think could be expressed with soft sounds.
dynamics and tempo you would use.3 How could you express the following emotions in music? List the qualities the music would have. a anger b love c excitement d happiness e sadness f disappointment 4 Choose another emotion and describe how you would convey the emotion with music. Check your response by going to the suggested answers section. Music and emotions 85 . Describe the instruments. Consider instruments and dynamics.
You can drum on the table or the back or seat of a chair or you can make your own drum using a bottle with a lid or another vessel covered with a piece of rubber secured with a rubber band. You listened to examples online from people who had been inspired to recreate the sounds around them. Drum beats The most simple instrument made from wood and skin is the drum. you looked at how people make music from the sounds of their immediate environment. Encourage your brothers and sisters or friends to move to a favourite piece of music.Natural instruments Earlier in this unit. Many of these sound-making devices are similar from one culture to another. you will move and drum to music you listened to earlier in this unit. Moving to music is a great way to exercise. Rhythm underpins most music and a strong rhythm will generally make people want to dance or clap along to the music. In the following activity. Drums of all shapes and sizes are found throughout the world. 86 Unit 1 Why music? . Most people are fascinated by drummers and will join in and play with them at the ﬁrst opportunity. Music making has always been inﬂuenced by the sounds of the surrounding environment. They are attractive instruments to play as they are an extension of our own body percussion. Different instruments have been produced with their own unique sound qualities depending on the materials from which they have been made. Invite the adults in your family to do the same. Most cultures have developed musical instruments from the natural materials from their environment. They may simply join in drumming the beat or play more complicated rhythms. such as wood and skin.
You can drum with your hand or ﬁngers or experiment by using beaters such as chopsticks or two other sticks.Activity 4 1 Play the extract from Spiritual high (Track 10. Music and emotions 87 . Why music? CD 2) and move to the music. The bombo of South America or the tapan from Eastern Europe are two headed drums played with a soft headed beater and a stick. television or radio and discover the beat by playing along. The erhu of China or the rebab of Indonesia and the Middle East are two-stringed ﬁddles. Drum on the beat once the rhythm section joins in (approximately 1 minute from the start). 2 4 Instruments around the world Instruments have formed the basis of music making across the world since the earliest times when cavemen hit stones together to play rhythms and made ﬂutes from bones to play melodies. Listen again to Track 10. Move by stepping or dancing around the room as you listen to reinforce your feeling for the beat. 3 Choose another example of your own rhythmic music on CD.
Activity 5 1 Research the following ten instruments. Other instruments throughout the world are often classiﬁed according to how the sound is produced. membranophones. The four types are 1 aerophones — instruments which are blown 2 membranophones — instruments with a vibrating skin 3 chordophones — string instruments 4 idiophones — instruments which are struck or shaken. <http://www. The instruments of the orchestra are organised into four families: string. Consider how the sound is produced on each one. Classifying instruments Instruments are usually identiﬁed by what they are made from or how the sound is produced. Why music?. Unit 1 Why music? 88 . The guitar found its way to the island of Java via the Portuguese sailors who sailed through the Spice Islands of Indonesia. woodwind. If you are able to.edu. chordophones or idiophones. In the following activity you will research and then categorise a number of instruments according to whether they are aerophones. listen to the sounds of these instruments.au/Music> Select ‘Mandatory’ and follow the links to resources for this unit. brass and percussion.lmpc. agogo guiro 2 kena ocarina rebana tapan angklung vielle ceng ceng kopyak revop Categorise the instruments by writing each name in the appropriate column on the chart on the next page. Find links to information about the instruments listed in the activity by visiting the following website.Some instruments have travelled from one place to another with traders.
lmpc. <http://www. Is the sound high or low? Is the sound soft or loud? Is the sound smooth or short? Is the sound light or dark? In what other ways can I describe the sound? Write your description of the sound of the violin below. Sounds of the orchestra The instruments in the orchestra may be made from similar materials to the instruments you just discovered but they are grouped in a different way.au/Music> Select ‘Mandatory’ and follow the links to resources for this unit. Find links to web resources about the instruments of the orchestra for the following activity by visiting the following website.edu. If you do not have access to the Internet. Why music?. woodwind. They are grouped into four families: strings. Music and emotions 89 . Activity 6 1 Listen to several examples of the sound of a violin. brass and percussion.Aerophones (blown) Membranophones Chordophones (skin) (string) Idiophones (struck or shaken) Check your response by going to the suggested answers section. use other resources to complete the activity. Consider the distinctive qualities of this instrument’s sound.
Consider the distinctive sound qualities of each one. brass and percussion families. Test your ability to recognise the instruments of the orchestra. 3 Listen to examples of other instruments from the string. 4 Choose one instrument from each family and complete the table below. Family String Instrument name Description of sound Woodwind Brass Percussion Check your response by going to the suggested answers section. woodwind.lmpc. Find links to orchestral instrument games by visiting the following website. Describe the sound of the ﬂute. Why music?.edu. 90 Unit 1 Why music? . <http://www. Think about the questions listed above.au/Music> Select ‘Mandatory’ and follow the links to resources for this unit.2 Listen to examples of the sound of the ﬂute and observe what the instrument looks like.
. Imagine you have been asked to arrange a piece of music for up to six instruments.lmpc. Activity 7 1 Spend time exploring at least one online instrumentation or orchestration resource. 2 What does the word ‘instrumentation’ mean? Check your response by going to the suggested answers section. You will hear how a composer’s choice of instruments affects the way the music sounds. Experiment by assigning different instruments to play different parts. Find links to sites relevant to the ‘instrumentation’ activity below by visiting the following website.Listen to each instrument play each role by itself. Swap roles and listen again. In the following Internet activity you will have the opportunity to explore the impact of combining different sound colours and more. <http://www. Music and emotions 91 . Each instrument has its own unique sound colour or timbre and can be combined with others to create different sounds. Why music?.Compare the sound of each instrument in each role.Assign the instruments to different roles and listen to the combined effect. .edu.Exploring timbre Imagine the variety of sounds available to a composer of orchestral music. .au/Music> Select ‘Mandatory’ and follow the links to resources for this unit.
listen to a sample of orchestral music from different musical periods. b Listen again and write a sentence or two about what happens in the music. The instruments of the orchestra have always been associated with strong emotions from the gentle sounds of Prelude to the afternoon of a faun by Debussy (1862–1918) to the strident sounds of Ride of the Valkyries from The Valkyrie Act III by Wagner (1813–1883). An orchestra can number up to 100 musicians. 92 Unit 1 Why music? .Orchestral music In this section you will hear a variety of orchestral music and consider the range of sound colours available to composers for orchestra. But ﬁrst. Activity 8 Example 1 Prelude to the afternoon of a faun 1 Lie down with your eyes closed and listen at least three times to Prelude to the afternoon of a faun by Debussy (Track 22). a List the instruments you can hear. You will look at which instruments make up the orchestra. Imagine the variety of instruments this represents. a Are all the instruments playing together? b Is the music loud or soft? c Do they play high or low notes? c What emotions do you think the composer is expressing. Consider these questions.
b Write a sentence to describe how this music is different from the last example by Debussy. It is played by the Sydney Symphony Orchestra (Track 24). Check your response by going to the suggested answers section. Explain why you think this. Music and emotions 93 . which was written in the 16th century. a Does the music change the way you feel as you listen to this example? Write one word to describe your feelings. d Describe the occasion when this music might be played. Example 3 La mourisque 3 Listen to La mourisque. a Listen again and draw a picture in response to the music.Example 2 Ride of the Valkyries 2 Listen to Ride of the Valkyries from The Valkyrie Act III by Wagner (Track 23). How it is played? c List the types of instruments of the orchestra played. b Name the ﬁrst instrument you hear.
3 Strings echo and play theme A twice (Bars 11–18). 4 Woodwind and percussion play theme B twice (Bars 19–26).La mourisque The third example in the last activity is called La mourisque from Arrangements of Elizabethan dances by Alan Bonds. 7 Strings echo and play A theme twice (Bars 43–54). 8 Long sustained note with crescendo (gets louder) to end in Bar 54. Follow the listening guide below as you listen to La mourisque (Track 24). Listening guide for La mourisque 1 Snare drum roll (Bars 1–2). 6 Brass play theme A twice (Bars 35–42). 94 Unit 1 Why music? . 2 Brass play theme A twice (Bars 3–10). La mourisque was written in the Renaissance by the composer Tielman Susato (ca. 5 Strings echo theme B twice (Bars 27–34). Many dance works were written at this time because Queen Elizabeth I liked to dance. 1500–1563) and more recently scored for full orchestra by Alan Bonds.
a Read and think about the information on each page.Clap the rhythm below as you listen again to Track 24. 2 3 Music and emotions 95 . Perform the rhythm on a shaker as you play along again with La mourisque. Structure in music The previous listening example of La mourisque has a ternary structure. exit Composer Notes. Work through the next ﬁve pages. Let’s discover what that means by ﬁnding out more in Composer Notes. 4 When you reach the page headed ‘Composing and Musical Structure: Activity’. Click on the Structure icon and select ‘Structure Examples’in the pop-up menu and then ‘Concept– Binary Form’ in the next pop-up menu. Activity 9 1 Open Composer Notes and click on the Composition icon to go to the ‘Guide to composition modules’. Notice how the rhythm is different from the previous rhythm you played. Now play the rhythm below as you perform again with La mourisque. b Listen more than once to each musical example and look at the music notation.
I: ® learnt about three traditional forms in music: • binary form • ternary form • sonata form ® listened several times to examples of binary and ternary form ® read about the palindrome and other musical forms ® learnt about contrasts between sections as a musical structure. List three elements a composer might contrast from one section to another and give an example of each. In this activity in Composer Notes.Before you go on. sonata form made up of two balanced parts. Tempo: a fast section followed by a slow section. An example is given for you. check that you covered all the material in this activity. the pattern is often described as AB made of three parts. Activity 10 1 Match the following musical structures with their meaning by drawing a connecting line. development and recapitulation binary form ternary form 2 Contrasts between sections can be used as a musical structure or way of organising musical sounds. the ﬁrst and third parts consist of similar material and the second or middle part contrasts. 96 Unit 1 Why music? . the pattern is often described as ABA made up of three parts which are called exposition.
3 The eight numbers below represent the eight sections shown in the ‘Listening guide for La mourisque’ (page 94). (Hint: decide how many parts ternary form has. Remember to improvise during the solo section. Section 1 is an introduction and section 8 is a coda or ending. Perform the rhythm below along with the backing track (Track 25). a Draw boxes around the numbers representing sections 2–7 to show how the structure of La mourisque is ternary form. b Label each box to show the pattern of ternary form. then listen to La Mourisque and use the listening guide to help you decide which sections of La Mourisque belong in each part.) Intro 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Coda 8 Check your response by going to the suggested answers section. In ‘Film music’ you will explore music for ﬁlm and how composers use the emotional qualities of music to add to the visual component of a ﬁlm. Let’s jam! Use the shaker you used earlier or another sound source from around you for this jam session. Music and emotions 97 . It is the rhythm you used to accompany La Mourisque.
98 Unit 1 Why music? .
2 3 Film music 99 . The strings String instruments of the orchestra are often heard in ﬁlm music. You investigated string instruments in the last section when you explored the instruments of the orchestra. Activity 1 1 Open Composer Notes and click on Instrumentation to go to the ‘Instrumentation guide’. Click on ‘Strings’ icon . James Horner and Ennio Morricone. In the following Composer Notes activity you will familiarise yourself even more with the sound of the string family of the orchestra.Film music In this section you will learn about how composers use orchestral music for ﬁlm scores and why this music plays an important role in a ﬁlm’s success. then at the next screen click on ‘Comparison of Orchestral Strings’. You will: • explore the string instruments of the orchestra • listen to string instruments and how composers use these sounds • learn about the role of music in ﬁlm • explore how composers manipulate sound to create certain responses • listen to and explore the work of two ﬁlm composers. Read the information and listen to the musical examples contrasting the four string instruments of the orchestra.
These pages tell about how string players use the bow. exit Composer Notes. audiences watched silent movies? Imagine how ﬁlms were screened early last century without sound! They were called silent movies. 5 6 Before you go on. not so long ago. These pages tell about the range and open string sounds of each of these instruments. check that you covered all the material in this activity. The role of music in ﬁlm Is there a ﬁlm you remember because of its music? Did the music make a big impression on you as you watched the ﬁlm? Did you ﬁnd yourself humming the theme music as you left the cinema? Sometimes you are hardly aware of the music in a ﬁlm because it is so closely related to the plot. when. In this activity in Composer Notes.4 Work through the next four pages. Work through the next three pages. viola. I: ® learnt about the four orchestral string instruments — the violin. cello and double bass — including how they are similar and how they differ ® listened to a musical extract performed on each string instrument as well as to the sound of the open strings and the pitch range of each instrument ® read about how the bow is used by string players and the way the forward and backward movement of the bow is shown in written music ® learnt how the slur indicates the notes to be played in a single bow ® listened to one melody bowed in three different ways and considered how the direction of the bow effects the sound produced ® investigated the Bowing chart and listened to the different durations of bowed notes. Have you ever thought why music is such an essential ingredient to a ﬁlm’s success these days. When you have completed the page ‘Bowing Chart’. 100 Unit 1 Why music? . Other times the music stands out as it helps to emphasise what is happening on the screen.
musicians were no longer needed at the screening. Often a pianist or organist would play to keep the audience awake and interested. Small orchestras used to travel with the ﬁlm before someone discovered how to put the sound and the ﬁlm onto the same tape.Musicians would perform live music to keep the audience from dozing off. Once that was achieved. Film music 101 . Instead the ﬁlm composer and sound designer would work closely together with the director to develop suitable music and sound to add to the visual component. so did the number of musicians performing. As the audiences grew.
The song. Many symphony orchestras include excerpts from ﬁlm scores in their public performances.A ﬁlm soundtrack is the sound that accompanies a ﬁlm. Why music?). Orchestral music is often used for ﬁlm scores because of its ability to stir emotions. try one or more of the following suggestions . 2 List the names of ﬁlm composers you know. c Visit <http://www. Howard Shore wrote the music for The Lord of the Rings for a full orchestra. b Search the Internet for ‘ﬁlm composer’. Film music has become an important ingredient for a ﬁlm’s success and a theme song or score is often successful in its own right. 102 Unit 1 Why music? . Titanic won two Oscars for Best Original Score and Best Original Song and was known for being the most successful motion picture soundtrack in history. ‘My heart will go on’ from the ﬁlm Titanic became a hit on the charts and sold 10 million copies in the United States and 28 million worldwide. a Ask your family or friends. Check your response by going to the suggested answers section. Activity 2 1 Why is music an important ingredient for ﬁlm? Give reasons. It is now performed at concerts without the ﬁlm being shown.edu.au/Music> for links to speciﬁc sites relevant to ﬁlm music (select ‘Mandatory’ and follow the links to resources for this unit.lmpc. If you are having difﬁculty naming any ﬁlm composers. It usually includes the ﬁlm score (music especially written for the ﬁlm) and sound effects that echo the action. Music is recorded in a studio using session musicians and often includes a large orchestra.
You will become familiar with the work of each composer by studying a composition they wrote for ﬁlm. Horner often combines traditional harmonies of the orchestra with ethnic instruments and electronic sounds. James Horner One of the best known composers for ﬁlm is James Horner. You will now ﬁnd out about two well-known ﬁlm composers: James Horner and Ennio Morricone. The atmosphere. A motif from the melody ﬁrst heard on the ﬂute is developed by the bagpipes. follow the listening guide below. 3 The bagpipes enter accompanied by the strings with bowed notes on the low strings and plucked notes on the high strings. check the credits for the name of the composer.Next time you watch a ﬁlm. How the Grinch stole Christmas and The four feathers. I make a charcoal sketch.’ <www. 2 Once the melody has descended. Listening guide for ‘A gift of a thistle’ 1 Opens with a descending melody of long notes bowed on the strings followed by an ascending solo ﬂute melody. The second time you listen. Why music? CD 2).backtotitanic. the overall mood dictates the kind of orchestra I will use. You may notice that certain names keep coming up as composers tend to specialise in this area. A beautiful mind. He remarked. ‘Films speak to me right away. Aliens. Listen twice to ‘A gift of a thistle’ (Track 26.com/jameshorner. Watching a ﬁlm the ﬁrst few times. Film music 103 .html> James Horner also wrote the ﬁlm score for Braveheart. Horner wrote this piece for the ﬁlm Braveheart. the historic ﬁlm set in Scotland starring Mel Gibson. a chord is heard plucked on a string instrument. later I put the colours in. He has scored over 100 ﬁlms including Titanic. 4 The strings play the second part of the ﬂute melody before the solo ﬂute melody echoes the ﬁnal phrase played earlier by the bagpipes.
104 Unit 1 Why music? . some notes may be lengthened and others shortened. Check your response by going to the suggested answers section. As you do so. 1 Which instrument does James Horner use to let us know that the ﬁlm Braveheart is located in Scotland? 2 What styles of string playing does Horner use? Think back to the Composer Notes exercise about string instruments you completed earlier. think about how music supports a ﬁlm.Activity 3 Answer the following questions. The music returns to a strict tempo at the marking ‘a tempo’. Listen for the entry of the instruments marked above the notation and check that you are at the correct place. The term ‘rubato’ means that the tempo of the melody is ﬂexible. Listen again to ‘A gift of a thistle’ (Track 26). Follow the melody written on the staff below.
Activity 4 In each of the three tracks listed below you will hear the melody of ‘A gift of a thistle’ performed on a ﬂute. Now that you have practised reading music notation as you listen to a musical example. Why music?. However the melody will stop before the end. complete the following exercise. When the ﬂute stops playing.lmpc. 1 2 3 Track 27 Track 28 Track 29 bar 17. It indicates that the ﬂute stops on the ﬁrst note in bar 17. note 1 __________________ __________________ Check your response by going to the suggested answers section. write down the number of the bar and note at which it stopped.au/Music> Select ‘Mandatory’ and follow the links to resources for this unit. The ﬁrst one has been answered for you. try the next activity. Find more information about the ﬁlm music of James Horner by visiting the following website.When you are conﬁdent that you can follow the notation accurately. <http://www. What ﬁlms have you seen that James Horner scored? Film music 105 .edu. Make sure you listen until the end of the track. Go to the exercises section and complete Exercise 10. Follow the melody written on the opposite page as you listen to each track.
You will need to repeat the rhythm 8 times. 5 The strings repeat the melody to build up in pitch and dynamics with brass Activity 5 1 Slap your thighs to play the following rhythm. Practise the rhythm with the excerpt provided (Track 33). Listening guide to The Mission 1 Choir sings sounds of long duration. Morricone also describes the location of this ﬁlm by using the sound of ﬂutes and bongos to show that the story takes place in South America. Notice how he uses strings to build up the sound. This section builds to a crescendo (gradually getting louder). 4 The ﬂute melody returns. 3 Build up as rhythmic bowed strings and bongos enter with the choir. follow the listening guide below. He began scoring movies in the sixties and won two awards — a Golden Globe and a BAFTA — for Best Original Score for The Mission in 1986. 106 Unit 1 Why music? . His son Andrea is also a composer. The following example of Morricone’s music. from the ﬁlm The Mission. Listen twice to an excerpt from The Mission by Ennio Morricone (Track 32).Ennio Morricone Another famous ﬁlm composer with 400 ﬁlm soundtracks to his credit is Ennio Morricone. 2 A ﬂute melody using long notes with sparse percussive sounds and plucked strings. It is the rhythm that the strings play (section 3 of the listening guide). The melody is bowed in a detached manner. demonstrates how varying the dynamics can create a sense of urgency and tension in music. The second time you listen.
Go to the exercises section and complete Exercise 11. draw on the knowledge and skills you have developed throughout this unit. particularly of our Indigenous people. Film music 107 . ‘Music of our place’. The rhythm is written again below. you imagine that you are a young ﬁlm composer who has been asked to compose a short soundtrack.2 Below is music notation showing the pitch of the repeated melody. The next unit. Remember to improvise during the solo section. In the ﬁnal exercise for this unit. This completes the ﬁrst unit ‘Why music?’. Sing the melody using a short vocal sound such as ‘ah’. 3 When you feel conﬁdent. Let’s jam! Use the rhythm that you just performed from The Mission to accompany the backing track (Track 25) in this jam session. As you complete this composition task. Play Track 33 as accompaniment. perform with Track 32. looks at the music of Australia.
108 Unit 1 Why music? .
but rather different supportable opinions. These may be more detailed than yours. They sound far away. Soundscapes Activity 1 1 a b 2 birds. voices. Other sounds echo like they are in a vast. whistling in a rainforest Loud sounds Soft sounds voices singing pounding whistling laughter 3 a b 4 hum of insects wind in the trees most of the bird calls pounding or drumming. Moving or bumping the audio recorder. water in a village Loud sounds Soft sounds pounding on wood (drumming) voices water Activity 2 The sounds are like the wind.Suggested answers – Unit 1 Check your responses against these suggested answers. sounds of cars in the distance and the hum of trafﬁc in the background. 109 Suggested answers . hum of insects. Cars going past on the road. voices (children and adults). Activity 3 1 Lots of different bird sounds including lorikeets. Two aeroplanes rumble overhead. Also some answers will vary because often there is not one correct answer. sound of digging. The high voice sounds like it is ﬂoating in space. laughter. wind in the trees. peaceful. Door thumping. empty place. and car starting. pounding. singing.
Compare your ﬁnal section of the graphic notation to the one below. Some sounds are short and some are long. chirp and cackle. Some suggested words: dull. There is no one correct answer to this task.2 The car sounds are low and long. The birds squawk. 4 110 Unit 1 Why music? . many more. They are often repeated patterns. The door opens or closes with a clatter. some are high and some are low. The sounds of plates clattering. Sydney Harbour Bridge. Activity 4 1 The sound of scissors opening and closing quickly and rhythmically seven times. In the distance they hum. Kitchen sounds Activity 1 1 2 The players are in a river. boat horns. It is higher. long. ringing. The planes create a rumbling sound and are long and low. The sound of pouring water is then heard three times. the grater sound pattern is repeated. some are louder and heavier and others softer and lighter. Their sounds are short and high. bright. clunking. When they pass closeby they get louder and then fade away as they woosh by. this sound pattern is repeated. deep. The sound of a grater being tapped twice and then scraped. bird calls. The pot is stirred and hit again. Activity 2 3 The sounds will be unique and depend on the vessel and how you strike it. short. The sound of a metal utensil scraping the inside of a metal pot then the sound of it hitting the side. 3 Activity 5 Telegraph wires. The sound of the car starting is a very short quick repeated sound. Some are loud. low. grain silos and many. high.
It is strong. The melody moves step by step. They sing different parts which harmonise. Graeme Leak or Nigel Westlake. They have instrumental accompaniment. One man sings high solo phrases between the chorus. Alan Lamb. echoing. Paulini. his voice is not low. The melody moves step by step Example 2 Nunc aperuit nobis High and low female choir.5 6 The sound gets lower each time the water level is increased. Example 4 Akiwowo A chorus of several male and female voices sing in harmony. You may also have included other Australian musicians such as Sarah Hopkins. The melody moves step by step. Example 1 Canto alla vita A man with a rich but gentle voice sings in another language (Italian) . They sing in an operatic style (like opera singers). The chorus is sung by deep male voices. The melody is a combination of step by step and wide leaps. The main voice is sweet but also a bit rasping. Example 5 Wade in the water Several voices. a woman with a smooth high voice joins in singing softly in harmony. Long vocal sounds (drone) are heard beneath shorter vocal sounds (melisma). Silverchair. Activity 4 5 The Blind Boys of Alabama sing verses as well as the chorus. They are strong. The sounds are smooth and gentle. Extension activity 1 Paul Kelly. Wade in the water Activity 2 1 2 The voice is the instrument which is common to all musical examples. mostly low male voices but also some higher male voices are heard. Suggested answers 111 . Example 3 Nina piensa en ti A high young male voice sings in another language (Spanish). resonant. smooth but also at times rough and wailing. A lower male voice quietly harmonises. The melody moves step by step. sustained notes. An example of what you might write appears on the page. Savage Garden. smooth and strong.
2 a b The body percussion sounds include: clapping, stamping, slapping thighs and chests, clicking and vocal percussion. They get faster.
Vocal and body percussion
1 2 lower
The pattern is repeated eight (8) times.
birds, sound of digging or pounding, voices, hum of insects, wind in the trees, singing, whistling
1 2 3 Mimicry refers to the imitation or the representation of sounds heard in nature. Aboriginal community a b 4 5 7 8 Maningrida in the Northern Territory Walkabout, The tracker, Last wave, Crocodile Dundee, Rabbit proof fence
the Ancient Greeks the Whipbird birds, water bird sound
1 four beats in each bar
Unit 1 Why music?
1 a b c an unusual call like yodelling voice, tambourine, drums, synthesizer/keyboard, electronics bass, keyboard and extra insectlike sounds
Except for the solo at the start, a male chorus sings the melody. The vocal melody is smoother, more ﬂowing than in the other pieces. The singers in the other examples included unusual calls like yodelling.
monophony homophony canon ostinato several parts imitate the original line or phrase but entries are staggered (as in a ‘round’) a single melodic line with other parts providing a supporting accompaniment a phrase, rhythm which is repeated over and over a single line with everyone making the same movement at the same time
Music and emotions
2 a b The sounds are clearer when they are louder. It makes you pay attention to the sound. The sound are more gentle and further away when they are softer.
1 2 angry, excited, happy sad, disappointed, romantic
anger: loud, many instruments playing together, short, sharp, low sounds played quickly, dark or heavy texture; fast tempo, gradually getting faster love: smooth, sweet sounds, gentle music, soft, ﬂute, violins; slow tempo excitement: loud, brass and many other sounds, a strong melody, rich texture; fast tempo, gradually getting faster happiness: rhythmical, percussion, woodwind and trumpet. warm sounds, rich texture; moderate tempo sadness: soft low sounds, thin texture; slow tempo disappointment: soft, short sounds, falling melody contour; slow tempo
b c d e f
Aerophones (blown) kena ocarina Membranophones (skin) rebana tapan Chordophones (string) revop vielle Idiophones (struck or beaten) agogo ceng ceng kopyak guiro angklung
1 Suggested description: The sound of the violin is high, bright and sweet. It can play loudly and strongly as well as softly and gently. When played with the bow, the sounds are often long and smooth. When the strings are plucked the sound is soft and light. Suggested description: The sound of the ﬂute is high, clear and smooth.
2 the art of arranging a piece of music for a particular combination of instruments (deciding who plays what parts on which instruments)
1 a b ﬂute, oboe, harp, horn, violin and other strings, brass Suggested ideas: The ﬂute plays alone then other instruments join in. The music gently rises and falls; it begins softly and gradually builds up. The sounds are light and high. Midway the sounds become more urgent, suggesting danger. Then the music builds up and ﬁnally becomes gentle again at the end.
Unit 1 Why music?
romantic. It helps to keep the audience interested in the movie. made of three parts. percussion. The pattern is often described as ABA. sleepy. The brass instruments feature and they are loud and strong. contented. happy The music is more exciting. The ﬁrst and third parts consist of similar material and the second or middle part contrasts. made up of three parts which are called exposition.c 2 b Suggested: serene or calm. wistful. development and recapitulation. It sounds like a fanfare. Activity 3 1 2 Suggested answers bagpipes bowed and plucked. then on the cello 3 Intro 1 2 A 3 4 B 5 6 A 7 Coda 8 Film music Activity 2 1 It helps to emphasise what is happening on screen and stir emotions in the audience. The pattern is often described as AB. 3 a b c d Activity 10 1 sonata form binary form made up of two balanced parts. ternary form 2 dynamics: a loud section followed by a soft section. The drum and brass instruments make it sound like a march. excited roll on the snare drum brass. varying dynamics 115 . it swirls. then loud again pitch: one section features violins then next section features cellos tone colour: the melody played on ﬂute. Other instruments play fast repeated notes. woodwind and strings The music could be played for a royal procession or celebration.
note 4 116 Unit 1 Why music? .Activity 4 1 2 3 Track 27 Track 28 Track 29 bar 17. note 1 bar 15. note 2 bar 18.
Soundscapes Exercise 1: Soundscapes c Exercise sheet including information about your soundscape. graphic notation and self assessment c Recording of your kitchen sounds composition Exercise 3: Kitchen rhythms c Exercise sheet including your rhythm grid and self assessment c Two recordings: your rhythm and your improvisation Wade in the water Exercise 4: Wade in the water c Exercise sheet including your self assessment c Vocal recording Body percussion Exercise 5: Body percussion c Exercise sheet including your body percussion rhythm and self assessment c Recording of your body percussion composition Exercises 117 . your graphic notation as well as your self assessment c Recording of your soundscape Kitchen Sounds Exercise 2: Kitchen sounds c Exercise sheet including your graphic symbols.Exercises – Unit 1 Below is a list of the items which need to be returned to your teacher for each exercise in this unit. Check that you have completed and returned all the required work at the end of each section.
Vocal and body percussion Exercise 6: Vocal ostinato c Exercise sheet including your rhythm grids and self assessment c Recording of your vocal ostinato Exercise 7: Vocal improvisation c Exercise sheet including your self assessment c Recording of your vocal improvisation Vocal styles Exercise 8: Vocal styles c Exercise sheet including your vocal percussion chart and self assessment c Recording of your vocal percussion rhythm Music and emotions Exercise 9: Music and emotions c Exercise sheet including your graphic notation and self assessment c Audio recording of your composition Film music Exercise 10: Listening and reading music notation c Exercise sheet including your answers Exercise 11: Film music c Exercise sheet including your notated composition and self assessment c Recording of your soundtrack c The visual material which your soundtrack accompanies 118 Unit 1 Why music? .
These sounds are part of your soundscape. List your sounds in the table below. using a cassette player or your computer). As you record.Name ______________________ Year __________ Class ______ Exercise 1: Soundscapes 1 Make a 20–30 second audio recording of your environment (for example. What other adjectives could you use to describe the sounds of your soundscape? Exercises 119 . Natural sounds Man-made sounds 3 4 Write a description of your soundscape. list the sounds you hear. 2 Listen to the recording of your soundscape and add any sounds you hear that you have not already listed above. Organise your sounds into two groups: ‘natural’ and ‘man-made’. loud or soft. high or low. Are the sounds long or short.
a Create symbols to represent the sounds you heard. c Add a key to show the meaning of the symbols.5 Document your soundscape using graphic notation. Self assessment 1 What did you discover about your environment when you listened to your recorded soundscape? 2 Is there anything you would change in your graphic notation if you were to do it again? Why or why not? 120 Unit 1 Why music? . Return the audio recording you made of your soundscape when you return your soundscape graphic notation to your teacher. b Notate your soundscape in the space on the opposite page using the symbols you have chosen.
Notate your soundscape and add the symbol key here. Exercises 121 .
122 Unit 1 Why music? .
Draw each symbol and then describe the sound it represents in the table below. Symbol Sound (description) 2 2 Decide how you will organise your sounds (which sound will follow another). Is the sound long or short? Is it loud or soft? Is it high or low? Is it repeated? Is it continuous? Exercises 123 .Name ______________________ Year __________ Class ______ Exercise 2: Kitchen sounds 1 Decide which kitchen sounds you want to use in your composition. Create graphic symbols to represent the kitchen sounds that you will include in your composition. Consider the following questions as you decide. Decide which sound sources you will use and the sounds that you will make on them. You may want to look back at the section on graphic notation in ‘Soundscapes’.
Self assessment 1 Describe one of your sound sources and why you used it. 2 Would you change the sounds and/or their organisation in your composition. if you were to revise it? Why or why not? 124 Unit 1 Why music? . 5 Record your composition when you have practised performing it.4 Notate your composition in graphic notation. using the symbols from your list.
The sounds should be different in pitch. Include at least one sound that occurs on the half beat (+). You may want to spend some time trying different ideas before moving on to the next step. Keep the beat steady throughout. 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 2 Practise clapping your rhythm. Repeat the rhythm four times without stopping to make a longer rhythm of 16 beats. a Decide when you want sounds to occur. 3 Choose two sound sources that you experimented with in ‘Kitchen sounds’. b Write your rhythm in the grid below. Record your performance when you are conﬁdent. Experiment by swapping the sound source used for particular notes in the rhythm. one sound source should sound higher than the other. Choose one way of playing your rhythm that you think produces an interesting musical result. You will perform your rhythms on these sound sources. Practise playing your rhythm composition four times without stopping (to create a rhythm of 16 beats). Listen to how you can change the sound of the rhythm by using the two pitches in different ways. 4 Play rhythms from ‘Kitchen Sounds’ on the sound sources you have chosen. 5 Experiment with different ways of playing your own rhythm on your sound sources.Name ______________________ Year __________ Class ______ Exercise 3: Kitchen rhythms 1 Create a rhythm which is four beats in length. 6 7 8 Exercises 125 . Listen to the effect of incorporating two pitches.
10 Record yourself improvising to the backing track. Very even Mostly even Somewhat uneven Very uneven 2 What was interesting about the way you chose to play your rhythm on your two sound sources? 3 What were two positive features of the rhythms you improvised? 126 Unit 1 Why music? .9 Improvise (make up) your own rhythms using your sound sources. did you keep a steady. even beat? Rate your performance. Play along with the backing track (Track 20). Self assessment 1 When performing your rhythm.
Record your performance. Sing the melody as you listen to the low ostinato of Wade in the water (Track 33). 2 3 4 Self assessment 1 How would you rate your performance? Excellent Very good Satisfactory Fair 2 What could you do to make it better? Exercises 127 .Name ______________________ Year __________ Class ______ Exercise 4: Wade in the water 1 Sing the low ostinato part as you listen to the solo melody from Wade in the water (Track 32). Choose the part you prefer and practise until you are comfortable with your performance.
128 Unit 1 Why music? .
1 2 3 4 5 6 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 Exercises 129 . Experiment to ﬁnd new ones. You may want to listen again to Claps 1 (Track 41) for ideas on how you can use body percussion in your own composition. Create a body percussion rhythm.Name ______________________ Year __________ Class ______ Exercise 5: Body percussion 1 Explore once more the sounds you can make using body percussion. Your composition should: a consist of two groups of six pulses and use at least three different body percussion sounds b be able to be performed by one person (you). Use symbols to write it in the grid below.
7 8 Self assessment 1 How would you rate your performance? Excellent Very good Satisfactory Fair 2 What could you do to make it better? 130 Unit 1 Why music? . Symbol Explanation 4 Practise performing your composition as an ostinato. You may like to make a long siren-like sound or you may wish to sing a short vocal ostinato or melody while playing your body percussion. repeating it over and over again. Create a vocal part to accompany your body percussion. 5 6 Write your vocal part on the grid on the previous page (if you’ve used all rows.3 Make a list of the symbols you used and their meaning in the chart on the next page. write the vocal part underneath). Practise your composition. Record your performance.
b You may add some body percussion sounds if you think this enhances your vocal ostinato. record your ostinato (repeated 8 times). Write your rhythm in the grid below. Write your rhythm again to show the vocal sounds you have decided to use. (You can show sounds of different pitch by writing them higher or lower in the box. 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 2 Experiment with using different vocal sounds to perform your rhythm pattern.Name ______________________ Year __________ Class ______ Exercise 6: Vocal ostinato 1 Make up your own 4 beat rhythm to use as the basis for a vocal ostinato pattern. a Repeat it eight (8) times to create an ostinato. 5 When you are comfortable with your performance. Self assessment 1 How would you rate your performance? Excellent Very good Satisfactory Fair 2 What could you do to make it better? Exercises 131 .) 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 3 4 Practise performing your rhythm.
132 Unit 1 Why music? .
You may use ideas you have explored earlier. Listen to your recordings and select the improvisation which you think is most effective for return to your teacher. record your performance. Self assessment 1 Which recording did you select to return to your teacher? Why did you think this improvisation was the most effective? 2 What do you think are the less positive aspects of your improvisation? 3 What do you think are the most positive aspects of your improvisation? Exercises 133 .Name ______________________ Year __________ Class ______ Exercise 7: Vocal improvisation Improvise a vocal part above the ostinato you recorded in Exercise 6. Each time. Improvise above the ostinato at least four more times.
134 Unit 1 Why music? .
• Perform the sounds percussively and rhythmically. • Perform each part separately. • Ask friends or family members to help you perform all parts simultaneously. Repeat it several times to form an ostinato pattern. Listen to the rhythms and sounds of your environment and draw on ideas you have already used in this unit.Name ______________________ Year __________ Class ______ Exercise 8: Vocal styles 1 Create a vocal percussion rhythm and write it in the grid below. 3 When you feel comfortable with the performance. 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 2 Practise performing your vocal percussion rhythm. Self assessment 1 How would you rate your performance? Excellent Very good Satisfactory Fair 2 What pleased you most about your vocal percussion rhythm? 3 What could you do to make it better? Exercises 135 . Choose sounds that will work well together. Write each part on a separate line of the grid. make an audio recording.
136 Unit 1 Why music? .
love.Name ______________________ Year __________ Class ______ Exercise 9: Music and emotions 1 Create a composition which includes a sequence of at least three different emotions. 2 Practise performing your composition and then make an audio recording of your performance. d Organise the sequence of emotions in your composition. a Use the emotions and sounds you improvised in Activity 1 as a starting point. For example. Include a chart which explains your symbols. anger and happiness. b You may include other emotions as well or instead of these emotions. c You may express the same emotion more than once in your composition. Write your composition using graphic notation on the back of this page. 3 Self assessment 1 How did you organise the sequence of emotions and why? 2 Which emotion do you think you expressed best and why? 3 How could you improve the performance of your composition? Exercises 137 . for example. you may want to: i tell a story ii gradually build excitement or drama iii contrast emotions.
Notate your composition here.
Unit 1 Why music?
Name ______________________ Year __________ Class ______
Exercise 10: Listening and reading music notation
Listen to ‘A gift of a thistle’ played on the following tracks and follow the music notation below. Write down the number of the note and bar where it stops. Make sure you listen until the end of the track. 1 2 Track 30 ______________________________________________ Track 31 ______________________________________________
Unit 1 Why music?
images change in the notated mus Complete the task as instructed by the ﬁlm director. ort ﬁlm. The ﬁlm director has asked you to submit a sample of your work and given you the following instructions.edu.Name ______________________ Year __________ Class ______ Exercise 11: Film music Imagine that you are a young ﬁlm composer just beginning your career. cartoon 1 Create a composition to accomp slideshow. cartoon. A well-respected movie director is considering you for the job of composing the soundtrack for a new ﬁlm.lmpc. 1 2 3 In creating your composition. ing of your soundtrack 4 You must submit both a record s.au/Music> Select ‘Mandatory’ and follow the links to resources for this unit. You should submit the ges. Find resources and ideas for visual material by visiting the following website. note when the 6 If you are composing to still ima ic. <http://www. and the visual material it accompanie ition using graphic 5 You should notate your compos n or a combination notation or traditional music notatio notation. of the two. Exercises 141 . Instructions: any a short ﬁlm. You may ask other people to help record your composition. Notate your composition on the other side of this sheet. If there is not enough room. Why music?. story 3 Choose any visual material (sh k is suitable and sequence or slideshow) that you thin gives you ideas for composing. draw on the concepts and skills you have developed in this unit. use a separate sheet. or other story sequence or photo ween 30 seconds to 2 Your composition should be bet ress more than one 1 minute in length and should exp emotion.
142 Unit 1 Why music? . 3 Tell about your soundtrack and the knowledge and skills from the unit that you applied to your composition.Notate your composition here. Self assessment 1 How would you rate the success of your soundtrack? Excellent Very good Satisfactory Fair 2 Explain why you chose your answer in question 1.
Licensed from Sony Music Entertainment Australia Ltd Decca CD1 1 CD1 1 Mouth music La mourisque Sydney Symphony CD1 2 CD1 3 Making sago Interlude: Kotekan CD1 4 Winds of heaven Alicia’s soundscape Activity 7 – four sounds Kitchen sounds Jam 1 & 2 Interlude: Ciblon CD1 5 CD1 6 CD1 7 CD1 8 CD1 9 Sarah Hopkins and Alan Lamb CLI CLI CLI CLI Jack Body Sarah Hopkins and Alan Lamb Universal Lore 2003 Sydney Symphony Education Program Voices of the Rainforest Suara: Environment Music from Java Sky Song RYKODISC Ode Vox Australis Suara: Environment Music from Java Ode CD1 10 CD1 11. 14 CD1 15 CD1 16 CD1 17 CD1 18 CD1 19 CD1 20 The beat 3 rhythm patterns Four rhythms Three rhythms Rhythm 3 Backing track Six rhythms Backing track exercise 2 CLI CLI CLI CLI CLI CLI CLI CLI Unit 1 Why music? . 13 CD1 1 Track title The sink Prelude to the afternoon of a faun Undecided Composer Graeme Leak Debussy Performer Graeme Leak Montreal Symphony Orchestra Youssou N’Dour Album title Musical Environments 2003 Sydney Symphony Education Program One World Record company Decca CD1 1 N’Dour/ Rykiel/Faye BSDA (Sengal) Toni Nation Tielman Susato/ Alan Bonds Stephen Feld Jack Body Sony Music Inc. We would like to acknowledge the following people and organisations whose material has been used: CD & track number CD1 1. 44215 Track List for CD 1 and CD 2 The accompanying CD sound recording is copyright New South Wales Department of Education and Training (DET). however it also contains tracks which are made available under an agreement between DET NSW and AMCOS/ARIA. 12.Why Music? 44214.
23 CD1 21.CD & track number CD1 21. 22 CD1 21. 24 CD1 21. 25 CD1 21. Under licence from BMG Australia Ltd Unit 1 Why music? . 10 Toni Nation CLI CLI CLI CLI CLI CLI Hood/ Showbiz Jon & Vangelis/ Martin Luther King Moodswings Universal Lore One World BMG Eurodisc Ltd. Lyrics: Cheope Hildegard von Bingen David Jimenez Pintena Babatunde Olatunji Performer The Opera Band Sequentia Kiko Album title Amici Forever Record company RCA Victor Nunc aperuit nobis Nina piensa en ti Akiwowo (a capella) Wade in the water Wade in the water Canticles of Ecstasy Alhambra Drums of Passion: the beat Higher Ground Singing in the African American Tradition Deutsche Harmonia Mundi Sattva Music RYKODISC Blind Boys of Alabama Ysaye Barnwell RealWorld Records Homespun Tapes CD1 36 CD1 37 CD1 38 Vocal exercises Siren vocal exercises Wade in the water backing track Four rhythm patterns Claps 1 Four rhythms Claps 1 Body percussion pattern Backing track for jam Mouth Music Vocal pattern 1 Vocal pattern 2 Vocal pattern 3 Four syllables Alicia Vocal improvisation Spiritual high CLI CLI Ysaye Barnwell Singing in the African American Tradition Homespun Tapes CD1 39–42 CD1 43 CD1 44 CD1 45 CD1 46 CLI Greg Sheehan Utungun Percussion Utungun Percussion Zing Utungun Percussion Utungun Percussion Greg Sheehan CLI Zing CD1 47 CLI CD2 1. 2 CD2 3 CD2 4 CD2 5 CD2 6 CD2 7 CD2 8 CD2 9. 26 CD1 27–35 Track title Canto alla vito Composer Music: Galbiati and Dettori.
Licensed courtesy of EMI Music Australia Pty Ltd Unit 1 Why music? . Licensed courtesy of EMI Music Australia Pty Ltd MOR03 Montreal Symphony Orchestra Melbourne Symphony Orchestra Sydney Symphony CD2 23 Wagner CD2 24 La mourisque Tielman Susato/ Alan Bonds CLI James Horner 2003 Sydney Symphony Education Program 2003 Sydney Symphony Education Program 2003 Sydney Symphony Education Program One World Decca MSO Decca CD2 25 CD2 26 Jam 7 & 8 A gift of a thistle James Horner B. 15 Track title Jam 5 & 6 Making sago Bird rhythm Undecided Composer CLI Stephen Feld CLI N’Dour/ Rykie/Faye Performer Album title Record company RYKODISC Voices of the rainforest Youssou N’Dour One World CD2 16 CD2 17 Bubuka Sadness Krakatua Curly MC/David Fairstein/ F.H.CD & track number CD2 11 CD2 12 CD2 13 CD2 14.V. Gregorian Enigma Mystical mist One World CD2 18 CD2 19 CD2 20 CD2 21 CD2 22 I gotta style Machine 1 (14) Machine 1 (all) Machine 2 (all) Prelude to the afternoon of a faun Ride of the Valkyries Victor Riley and Morganics CLI CLI CLI Debussy Evolve/All U Mob 2 Sony Music Inc. Licensed from Sony Music Entertainment Australia Ltd Aquarius Virgin Schallplatten GmbH. Licensed from Universal Music Australia Pty Ltd CD2 27–31 CD2 32–33 Thistle excerpt The mission James Horner Ennio Morricone Margaret Bradley Ennio Morricone One World Virgin Records Ltd. Finance C.
Centre for Learning Innovation NSW Department of Education and Training .
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