Manuel Castells and the Rise of the Network Society: An Overview Brian Lake 100045086 brian.lake@acadiau.

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Manuel Castells three volume “Rise of the Network Society” is on initial examination an attempt by the author to address what he sees as the development of a new paradigm equal if not greater in impact to the industrial revolutions that have shaped the development of the modern age. This rather brief summation of such a large undertaking does not do the work justice, but it does serve to effectively highlight the recurring theme that permeates the three volume series. Castells has effectively avoided the trap of using hyperbole in his description of the “wonders” of the information society, but he questions the preconceived notions of what exactly is that we are dealing with. The information society as Castells sees it must be reconciled with the development of the people who utilize it, the technology as it has developed in a historical context and the method by which the introduction and utilization of technology in specific ways has defined the development of the information age. This overview of the argument put forth by Castells in his first volume is intended to provide a brief summation of the interpretive lens through which Castells views the development of the information society. “The Rise of the Network Society” is appropriately named as a first volume in the series. It is intended as an introduction the concept of technology and society, providing a historical review of the pre-internet era technologies and their contribution in preparing the existing social structure to accept the changes that would be forthcoming. The introduction of the information age is often seen as a sudden occurrence that propelled modern society into an advanced era of

technological development, but as is the case with previous technological driven social movements, the impact was much more gradual than the popular press would have us expect. This review then, attempts to act as a summation of the concepts put forth by Castells in his unique and novel interpretation of the information society, and explores in some detail the utility derived from prior theoretical works from which Castells draws inspiration. It also focuses primarily on the subject matter of greatest relevance to the research undertaken, that being the definition of information technology and its interaction with society. It is in this light that I have interpreted his work, and have thus avoided placing unnecessary emphasis on the development of work and employment, as explored by Castells. The primary benefits to the work of the thesis can be found in the net and the self, the information technology revolution, the network enterprise, and the culture of real virtuality. These pertinent sections will be approached in sequence. The Net and the Self In the prologue entitled The Net and the Self, Castells establishes the sociological stage on which the development of society has taken place and is poised to further develop. The change is quite recent, having coming to the fore in the years surrounding the collapse of Soviet statism and the retooling of capitalism into a less insular, nationally based concept into a more interdependent, globally focused market, taking government and society along in their wake. 1 The nature of this profound alternation in the method of operation of business throughout the world has been that of decentralization , and networking of firms within their own organization and in relations to other firms, the introduction and increasing of international trade blocs that are defined with the North
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Castells, p. 1.

Castells takes note of the technological and economic changes. leading to subsequent debates over the definition of the relationships between women. 2 . whether it be religious fundamentalism or national territoralism. The irony as seen by Castells is in the realization that as the world is becoming increasingly globalized and interdependent. and the concurrent changes in society. p. The first of these possibilities is that they are part of the larger information society as a whole. men and children. religious fundamentalist movements and 2 Ibid. The need to define oneself has contributed to the rise of ethnic cleavages and the propagation of religious and ethnic groups focused on a strict interpretation of primary identity. The presence of milita groups. as well as the use of this technology by all aspects of society. It is with this backdrop of constant change and the decline of various social moments such as Marxism. the expansion of the popular media or the interests of business.American. While this accelerated development is no doubt of great significance. the search for meaning has led to a retrenchment of sorts in the creation of insular pockets of social communication that are facing two possibilities. Castells does not limit himself to defining the impact of this change to industrial conglomerates and other large societal groupings. that people gravitate towards these more primary symbols of identity. Asian and European contexts. whatever form they may happen to take. 2 The use of computer networks as a communication medium are credited with much of the acceleration of the pace of this change. and the proliferation of transnational institutions that have expanded power and influence over the domestic and foreign affairs of the previously isolated nation-state. including the transformation of women’s condition following a successful challenge of patriarchalism in many countries. the nature of sexuality and the definition of the self. be it for the pursuit of criminal activity. or at least in part. Instead.

as a means of reducing alienation. which in turn leads to the alienation of these groups and the increased potential for conflict in whatever form it may take. this is a particular concern in the search for a European identity whilst maintain a national sense of self. The second possibility is that a lack of relevance to the information network that is defining our culture may lead to the exclusion of a particular group region or even country. 3 . The theory of the net and the self attributes the existence of this very disparity to the lack of communication between groups. This would imply that social disparity exists to begin with. as we are faced with the daunting task of establishing communication (even conflictual communication in the form of opposition) between social groups and individuals. ideologically opposed groups and that as the level of communication between groups decreases. or the “Net and the Self” 3 He argues that the social fragmentation is the result of this lack of communication between individualistic. as one would assume from an examination of the many differing ideologies surrounding them. These circumstances lead to what Castells defines as the collectivist net and the individualistic self. No proponent of a federal Europe would ever consider the possibility of no longer considering themselves “British” or “Irish” or “Greek”. and more likely to engange in conflict as a result.terriorist organizations in the information society is an example of this. These national identities are based on the “self” as Castells characterizes it – the 3 Castells p. social groups and individuals become more alienated from each other. In the European Integration context. This theory validates the importance of the use of ICT as a tool of social cohesion to begin with. as the object is to address the use of Information Communications Technology as a tool of social cohesion. This theory of the “Net and the Self” has great potential for the progression of the thesis work.

This search for identity in the midst of the information age begs the question of the extent of the impact of technology on society.perceived identity of self. adapted to this case in the form of a deepening of ties within the European Union. but to supplement it with the “Net”. but to allow them to share an appreciation for the perspective of their Greek counterpart by example. thus achieving a greater prosperity through the collectivist net while maintaining ones own primary identity. Castells argues that society cannot be understood without being interpreted in the context of its technological tools. The idea that the introduction of sufficiently advanced technology would address this disparity between the concepts of the “Net and the Self” cannot be so simple – otherwise one could argue that the simple solution to the lack of social cohesion was simply reliant on the introduction of sufficiently advanced technology on some future date. nor does society determine technology.4 They interact with each other certainly. The goal in opening lines of communication is not to deprive the Irish citizen of their individualistic self identity. Technology does not determine society. The goal is not to supplant that. it would be difficult to gain a clear understanding of human society if one were to ignore a simple technological tool such as the telephone for instance – this technology has been integrated into various societies to an extent that it must be examined in any comprehensive overview of the society in question. A telling example of the unintended social conquences of technology is the development of the Internet. Indeed. A 4 Castells p. Castells argues that by the same token the development of the early internet communications network must be used as a tool in order to understand the social development of this small segment of American society that was making use of it. but neither can be credited as being the driving force behind the other. 5 .

as well as the uses to which societies. and particularly technologies that are strategically decisive in each historical period. graduating from simple text communication to the transference of visual and auditory stimuli with an increasingly growing population. p. or else seek to inhibit its 5 6 Ibid.military decentralization initiative with no initial civilian purpose eventually came to have a profound impact in the manner in which communication was conducted worldwide. technology (or the lack of it) embodies the capacity of societies to transform themselves. while not being responsible for the change in society itself.” 6 The ability to use technology has historically presented two options as seen by Castells – either society will embrace technological change. is in the view of Castells. The ability or inability of societies to master technologies that can be strategically decisive at any particular point in history. decide to put their technological potential. embodies the capacity for change. 7. to the point that we could say that technology per se does not determine historical evolution and social change. always in a conflictive process.5 That is success or failure in the ability to develop technologically is a useful indicator of a societies ability to transform itself. . P. an important component in any evaluation of the capacity for a society to transform itself. growing exponentially in scope and function. Largely shapes their destiny. He summarizes it as such: …the ability or inability of societies to master technology. It is this correlation between the development of societies and the development of technology that Castells uses to emphasize the need to include technological development in any reasonable assessment of societal change. 7. He makes the point that technology.

The point Castells wishes to make in providing this example is that having had a state controlled process of technological innovation was of great benefit to China. simply allow. that exclusively dedicating resources to the state alone ignores the ability for autonomous development in a society. Castells characterizes the new society that is emerging from the information revolution as capitalist and informational. 11 . agriculture. P 9. disinterest of the state in pursuing technological advancements led to a stagnation of development. but when the state loses interest in this sort of development. or rather. fearing the potentially disruptive effects of technology on the social fabric. The information technology revolution is not immune to the force of history and society. but not uniform. but had abandoned a centuries long tradition of technological development. The outpacing of Chinese civilization by European society serves as an example of the utilization of technology and its capacity to provoke drastic change in society. 7 The inability. The overall tone of this argument is to further emphasize that between technology and society the role of the state must be considered. p. the statist model of innovation leads to a decline in development. textiles and military tools. Ibid. As long as interest was maintained in technological innovation.8 This is not to say that the state is a impediment to the successful application of technology in society. in either its ability to stall. As early as 1400 CE. Its does make the point however.development through the mechanism of the state. but at a price. in which China realized the extent of its decline. China had accrued considerable experience in iron casting. The different historical influences in 7 8 IIbid. the state thrives. and poses the risk of stagnation if the state loses interest. or actively promote technological innovation. which would not be driven home until the 1842 Opium War.

Castells seeks to clarify exactly how he interprets the concept of informationalism. informationalism. historically shaped by the restructuring of the capitalist mode of production towards the end of the 20th century”10 The entire idea of the modes of production then. 9 10 p. 14 p. The introduction of the terms informationalism. as described by Castells is that society is organized in class relationships that are socially complex. He asserts that the rise of information technology should be considered no differently than historical equivalents. Before exploring these modes however. Castells seeks to define how information technology has influenced our present post-industrial society. industrialism.various countries have helped define how a country reacts to the information technology and how they utilize it. capitalism and statism form the foundation for what Castells sees as the “modes of development” versus the “modes of production”. should be considered. 14 .9 The point of making these sociological distinctions for Castells are more than just to inform the reader of the more arcane distinctions of sociological development. while the former are modes of development. with the interaction amongst ourselves. Rather his overlying goal is to herald the rise of “a new mode of development. in that the influence of the dominant form of social organization . Castells references the work of Daniel Bell and Alain Touraine in explaining his separation of the concepts of informationalism and industrialism from capitalism and statism. capitalism and statism. The importance of the historical development of technological implementation thus considered. industrialism. The latter are seen as modes of production. It includes both labour and the organizers of production.capitalism.

15 p. These examples attempt to provide a historical line of reasoning to the definition of the mode of development in the information age. The new mode of development tied to the mode of production (capitalism) is in the technology of knowledge generation. according to Castells. Castells calls this mode of development informational.12 This is unique not in the application of knowledge in the process of production. has embraced a new mode of development unlike any previously considered. with the improvement of technology capable of communicating symbolic information. The informational age. but in the idea of knowledge becoming the commodity itself.consumption of that which is produced. or the ratio of the value of each unit of output to each unit of input determines technological relationships of production to development. 17 . increases in labour and land provided the stimulus for growth. In the agrarian example provided. the mode of development increases the efficiency of the production and the nature and quantity of the product available.11 This leaves the concept of modes of development. improved energy sources and more efficient utilization of them increased productivity. information processing and symbol communication. but still interacts with it. The productive capacity of a mode or production. or the mode of development. The cycle is self-perpuating. In the industrial context. which previously existed in the industrial age. 11 12 p. experience gained through production. which are an extension of the modes of production. analyzing information and generating new information leading to a increase in the rate of communication. In short. and power gained through the control of production coming together to create cultures and collective identities. which is distinct from the mode of production.

Castells seems to tacitly acknowledge this. as 13 p. It would be accurate to say that accepting this term. or social. a short answer is available – this book is about informationalism. military. This informationalism as defined as Castells is based on the technology of knowledge and has the potential to impact across several level of society. The more knowledge it generates. with a sense of continuity established from the agrarian age to the industrial age to the present post-industrial. be they economic. The use of ICT as a tool promotion of social cohesion in the European Union. or “information age”. It is the nature of this impact that forms the foundation of Castells work. subject to a complex definition of the underlying methods of production and development.constituted by what he sees as a new standard in information technology. the more new material it has with which to improve upon itself. As a result the technology of knowledge that defines the information age and the mode of development applied to the mode of production will have a deep societal impact. Informationalism is the new paradigm promoted by Castells. Castells further makes the point that technological production is present in all forms of society. his overall purpose is “to propose some elements of an exploratory. crosscultural theory of economy and society in the information age as it specifically refers to the emergence of a new societal structure”. with an understanding of how established concepts such as capitalism and statism fit in. As Castells states himself. informational development could be described as a perpetual motion machine of sorts. The question that arises in the consideration of this work is how it relates to the thesis topic to which this review is intended to contribute. thereby increasing its capacity to generate new knowledge. 27 .13 If one seeks a simpler explanation of what this series of books is about. noting that it is the pursuit of knowledge that characterizes informationalism.

Informationalism makes the case that the technology of knowledge communication is integrated into and defining society actively. both in increasing transparency in governmental institutions and creating a common European identity that allows citizens to interrelate within the expanding boundaries of the Union. namely that the use of electronic governance is vital to the continued democratic accountability of the European Union as a supranational structure of governance. cannot be undertaken as a purely statist endeavour. thus putting the emphasis on how the technology is utilized. retrieved. and reinforces the need for a community based approach supplemented by measured governmental intervention. The argument put forth by Castells is succinctly put – ignore the information age at your peril. lest they be left behind. stored. Castells work supports this assertion. with the underlying goal of accounting for the development of information technology and describing how the development of the new technological paradigm organized around information technology came to be. The information technology revolution. The argument put forth by the thesis is similar. and processed and . Defining the technology of communication through informationalism likewise establishes information communication technology as more than an external tool that must be approached hesitantly by European governments. Having established the methodological definitions of the subject matter that he intends to use. The current role of technology expends exponentially in the view of Castells in that technology provides an interface between the various fields of technology in which language is generated. Castells proceeds on to the information technology revolution.established in the initial methodology of the thesis development.

They are not simply an external force effecting the balance of society. as we have witnessed in his description in the mode of development. 30 p. An important point made in this argument by Castells is that the effects of technological revolutions such as the industrial revolution is that they are characterized by their pervasiveness. but as pervasive and with as great an impact as the previous industrial revolutions.15 There does exist a distinction which distinguished this revolution form the one that have occurred prior to this one however. The global proliferation of this technology is also worthy of note.transmitted. While Castells’ approach to the overall character of the information age is particularly useful in establishing a context in which to evaluate the impact of technology on social structures. the near worldwide spread of information technologies between the 1970s and the end of the 1990. 14 15 p. Information technology is not simply an invention but an energy source. they form part of the fabric of society and are inexorably woven into it. Castells makes the argument that like all other technological revolutions. rather.14 The underlying goal is to convince the reader that the information technology revolution is not simply subject to hyperbole and distortion of its effects. By contrast. often taking on the form of colonialism. this one is processoriented. given the staggered worldwide export of the technologies of the industrial revolution. is in the view of Castells. characteristic of the information revolution –the technologies it develops are immediately applicable to its own development The specific field of communications is of greater interest to the development of the thesis than just the broader approach to the development age as a whole. 31 . on par with the tools used to generate energy in previous revolutions.

making it a unique occurrence in contrast to previous revolutions. Although technology does not determine the shape of society.16 An example of this may be presented in the invention of the telephone. as previously mentioned. experimentation of used and reconfiguration of applications. Castells acknowledges this progression.the practical application of technology as it has been applied must be considered as well. which was continually improved upon by those who used it. 61 . not just information to act on technology”18 The second feature is the pervasiveness of the effects of these new technologies. It is the fuel with which new information is generated. That information is the raw material is the first of these. adding the users of the technology to the list of those able to improve it and the eventual reconfiguration of communications technologies to accept new forms of communication such as fax. 46 18 p. has specific characteristics that can effectively summarize the material foundation of the information society. The self-perpetrating nature of the development of the information age is illustrated through the use of a practical example in the development of communications technology.17 The information technology paradigm. the networking logic of any system or set of relationships using 16 17 p. The use of telecommunications devices have gone through a process of automation of tasks. providing a historical overview of the development of modern computer meditated communications technology. citing the development of computer communication protocols as an extension of existing telephone switching networks. “these are technologies to act on information. As Castells summarizes it. Thirdly. it does define how we approach it. as approached by Castells. 32 p. telex and the now common computer processing signals. thus influencing our development.

providing a networking structure that was previously too cumbersome to implement. as the network through which technological developments occur would dictate that the experience gained in one field would almost inevitably overflow into a closely related field. The idea of networking logic is central to the development of the thesis topic. the material basis of the organization can be reprogrammed and retooled. although he does not specify how such an event would take place. 62 . The creative power and complex interactions amongst such large groups is now possible through the use of communications technology. The creative power of technological interaction and communication . Indeed. 19 The fifth characteristic of the information technology paradigm is the convergence of specific technologies into an integrated system. It is this flexibility that is the fourth characteristic of the new information technology paradigm advanced by Castells. Castells sums up nicely the 19 p. This technological convergence is not particularly surprising in this instance. The information age has a great deal of flexibility available to it in that organization and institutions can be modified. in order to increase efficiency. telecommunications has integrated other forms of information such as microprocessor and optoelectronic data transmission. as it is the proposal of my thesis that increasing social cohesion is dependent on these technological dependent networks that provide structure while at the same time remaining sufficiently flexibly for innovation to be considered possible. as in the opinion of Castells. This idea of networking logic lends insight to the title of the work: The Network Society” and takes inspiration from the properties of networking logic in an analysis of the information society. Telecommunications has experienced a shift from being the only form of information processing to becoming one of many.technologies is a defining characteristic of the information technology revolution.

For the first time the written. In his interpretation of what he called the culture of real virtuality. and the Rise of Interactive Networks. As he asserts. As Castells puts it. 328 . The character of communication. which is comprehensive. the potential integration of text. the price paid for the establishment of the foundation of human communication through the written discourse was to relegate the world of sounds and images to a position behind the written word as a means of communication. which up until that point had incorporated visual as well as auditory stimuli. a truncation of the process of communication.20 The Culture of Real Virtuality: The Integration of Electronic Communication. in the opinion of Castells. becomes the subject of this particular chapter.information technology paradigm as a multi-edged network. as we do not see reality 20 21 p. rather than the means through which it is transmitted.21 Castells invokes the works of Neil Postman as an illustration noting that the nature of communication does have an impact on culture. oral and visual modes of communication have been integrated into a single communications structure. does fundamentally change the nature of communication. Castells again seeks to illustrate through historical interpretation the development of information culture. images and sounds in the same system interacting from multiple points along a global network in conditions of open or affordable access. the End of the Mass Audience. and complex. represents a change in this two thousand year old pattern. The initial creation of written language seemed. 65 p. The introduction of communication into a interactive network however.

changes our conceptions of society. but depends on the interaction between the sender and receiver in the interpretation of the message. The advent of television is presented as the foremost example of this. using such measures as the creation of speciality stations and talk-radio. Personalized audio devices.as it is. It represented the end of the system of communication dominated by the typographical mind. the actual process of communication is not. Newspapers began publishing local or regional editions in an effort to appear more relevant to their audience. Altering the means of how that language is communicated. The key issue for Castells is that while mass-media is a one-way communication system. in that they gained the ability to 22 23 p.22 The issue of the method of communication that has dominated the transfer of information in society up until this point. Of importance to the main topic however. The rise of the mass media is approached as an initial example of the move away from the written word towards a more visually based process of communication. is what Castells refers to as “the new media and the diversification of mass audience24. walkmans. but rather through the lens of language. The popular adoption of VCRs after a lengthy hiatus also changed the viewing habits of the population. 328 p. 337 . 331 24 p. This process began in the 1980s with a personalization of technology attempting to compensate for the unidirectional nature of traditional mass media communication to that point. is one which Castells seeks to address. particularly in the change that has been forced upon it by the introduction of new technologies. created a challenge for radio broadcasters to diversify their content to appeal to a dwindling listening base.23 This system of communication is predominantly unidirectional however.

The UNESCO mid-1990s estimate of 1 billion televisions worldwide.26 The message it receives is no longer uniform within the confines of a particular state or region. drives home the point for Castells that the mass audience. is no longer a homogenous body. The rise of independent cable television networks challenged the dominance of established governmental broadcasters. but sees as more important the introduction of advanced communications networks which allowed for the creation of diversified cable networks. Instead specific content is available dependent on viewing preference and personal taste. The design of broadcasting intented to appeal to an audience seeking global news is likely to be undertaken in a method different from that required for the presentation of music videos. with a predicted annual five percent annual growth rate. signifying a significant diversification in the content being offered by sheer size and competition for the pre-existing audience if nothing else. The preferences of the audience now have some say in determining the nature of the content. 338 p. There exists a greater desire on the part of the broadcaster to appeal to the ideologies. The segmentation of the audience into specific fields of interest shapes the development of the communications medium as well. in the European Union itself the number of cable television stations rose from 40 in 1980 to 150 by the mid-1990s. 25 Castells sees the improvement of visual recording technology as important in encouraging diversification in the diversification of the audience. although still as much a mass as ever before. tastes and values of the viewing 25 26 p.selectively reinforce their watching habits. 339 . allowing them greater participation through the ability to participate in broadcasting at the local level. rather that simply appeal to the lowest common dominator of “what was on”. As Castells notes.

but he is quite correct in asserting that the only method for controlling this network is not to be in it. The rise of computer mediated communication is examined in some detail by Castells. The underlying reason for this difficulty is in the nature or diital communication.28 Although Castells does not explain why the technology of this network is difficult to censor or control. with an overview of the French and American networks established and the idea of a closed network versus an open network and the technology behind it.audience. 341 p. but in customized cottages globally produced and locally distributed. Castells makes an interesting play on the concept of the global village with this in mind. that is by no means a guarantee that it will actually be delivered. but Castells uses this initial example of the effects of personal preference on the content of the medium. but this does not determine the content.”27 The communications network might well be global with the ability to reach the whole of the population. which takes the form of binary code – a collection of 0’s (signifying an electronic gate as 27 28 p. Even if the medium is capable of delivering a certain message. Of greater relevance however are his conclusions on the nature of this communication. This emphasis on the importance of media development might bed the question of its relevance to the development of the information society and the practical application of this information. He asserts that. “…we are not living in a global village. 352 . The basis of all communication languages is that of machine language. He uses this to establish a link with the advent of computer mediated communication. He makes an excellent point on the universality of the digital language and the networking logic of the communication leading to a global. horizontal communications system.

Any measure can be circumvented if the proper knowledge is available. University campuses have provided much of the effort in the creation of what has become known as the Internet. and others on a national or international scale. many confined to university campus. The development of this network technology was spurred by the contribution of private citizens modifying the existing networking protocols to spread this communication technologies. those with the technological know how would use their knowledge to create a horizontal network expanding on the original project. as was the case when two students not included in the US defence project created the Xmodem protocol. which means that no matter what measure is undertaken. No microprocessor based technology (which now encompasses almost all aspects of modern communications) can escape this fact. some on a local scale. As a convincing validation of this argument.being open) and 1’s (signifying an electronic gate as being closed). thousands of independent networks exist around the world. 29 This illustrates a argument that Castells attempts to make throughout his discussion of the rise of interactive networks – namely that once the technological means became available. It is this open nature of this network which leads him to conclude that a commercial Internet would arise alongside the current 29 p. Castells notes that the initial digital communication network (ARPANET). it is not possible to ensure absolute control over such a network. spared the creation of independent networks designed to tailor themselves to the needs of the community using them. 353 . that allowed the use of standard phone lines for communication while bypassing the expensive communications systems developed by the US government and restricted to a privileges few universities. and Castells credits them with providing the open characterization of the network.

The overall social and cultural pattern of this communications network is subject to four characteristics. There exists widespread social and cultural differentiation across this network.internet. which contributes to the second characteristic o of social stratification. His invention of many of the terms used in the discussion of the nature of the communications network.30 While an interesting theory. Castells seems to ignore his previous statement that the only way to control the communications network is to remain outside of it. Any technology seeking to form a separate communications network would be subject to the same basic principles that the current network is. these diverse messages are all within the same communications medium. Thirdly. in the view of Castells. seems somewhat awkard. allowing the secure transmission of commercial communication. And finally. Castells effectively establishes a historical context to the symbolic communication of concepts through communications mediums and ties that in to the modern context in an effective manner. both audibly and visually. 357h p. 372 . the most important feature of this network for Castells is that it included all cultural expressions in all their diversity. This has been tacitly acknowledged in the rise of e-commerce on the internet and the more reasonable goal of remaining ahead of the wave of those who would infiltrate the communication network through the use of encryption and the law as a means of deterring such action. but is built on a solid methodological base with emphasis on the works of Daniel Bell and Mark 30 31 p. in a way that no previous media could.31 This overview of the work of Manual Castells has the primary benefit of providing an insight into the nature of communication and the networks upon which it is established.

. examining local and national efforts to create a common series of preferences that are reinforced through the use of this communications and social network. which suggests that a further examination of Castells influences is necessary to effectively understand his work. My thesis work will have to account for this. The novel interpretation of the development of the information age as a force segmenting society does not contribute in a positive way towards my goal of establishing the use of Information communications technology as a tool of social cohesion in the European context. but the universality of the network itself redeems the basis of my argument. as Castells notes that the segmentation is based on a series of personal preferences. rather than an external force.Postman.

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