MANUAL FOR

COURTS-MARTIAL
UNITED STATES
(2008 EDITION)

MANUAL
FOR
COURTS-MARTIAL
UNITED STATES
(2008 EDITION)

The 2008 Edition of the MCM is a complete revision of the 2005 MCM incor-
porating all Executive Orders (EO) through 28 Sep 07 (EO 12473 promulgating
the 1984 MCM; EO 12484, 15 Nov 84; EO 12550, 19 Feb 86; EO 12586, 3
Mar 87; EO 12708, 23 Mar 90; EO 12767, 27 Jun 91; EO 12888, 23 Dec 93;
EO 12936, 10 Nov 94; EO 12960, 12 May 95; EO 13086, 27 May 98; EO
13140, 6 Oct 99; EO 13262, 11 Apr 02; EO 13365, 3 Dec 04; EO 13387, 14
Oct 05; EO 13430, 18 Apr 07; EO 13447, 28 Sep 07). Copies of each Executive
Order can be found in Appendix 25.

PREFACE

The Manual for Courts-Martial (MCM), United States (2008 Edition) updates the MCM, (2005 Edition). It
is a complete reprinting and incorporates the MCM (2005 Edition), the 2005 amendments to the MCM Rules
for Courts-Martial, Military Rules of Evidence, and Punitive Articles made by the President in Executive
Order (EO) 13387, 14 October 2005, the 2007 amendments contained in EO 13430, 18 April 2007, and the
further 2007 amendments contained in EO 13447, 28 September 2007. The EOs referenced above can be
found at Appendix 25 of this MCM. This edition also contains amendments to the UCMJ made by the
National Defense Authorization Acts for Fiscal Years 2006 and 2007. Some of the significant changes from
the MCM (2005 Edition) are summarized and listed below. This summary is for quick reference only and
should not be relied upon or cited by practitioners in lieu of the actual provisions of the MCM that have been
amended.

Rules for Courts-Martial (R.C.M.) in Part II of the MCM:

• R.C.M. 103(2) and R.C.M. 201(f)(1)(A)(iii)(b) changed the wording of rules requiring convening authorities
to act affirmatively to refer a capital punishment eligible offense for trial as a capital case.

• R.C.M. 201(e)(2)(B), (e)(2)(C), (e)(3) and (e)(4), in their amended form, preclude commanders of joint
organizations from trying service members not assigned to their joint command. The revision also clarified
that implementing regulations of the accused’s service apply when trial is conducted under a joint command,
and that members and counsel from different services may be detailed to a court-martial convened by a joint
commander.

• R.C.M. 501(a) expressly requires 12 members and a military judge in all capital cases unless 12 members
are not reasonably available because of military exigencies or physical conditions.

• R.C.M. 503(b)(3) and (c)(3) clarify that a military judge and/or counsel from any service may be detailed to
a court-martial convened by a joint or combatant commander.

• R.C.M. 504(b)(2)(A) and (b)(2)(B) clarify that a joint command or task force is ordinarily considered to be
separate or detached and that the general court-martial convening authority of a joint command determines
whether or not a unit is separate or detached.

• R.C.M. 703(b)(1) authorizes the presiding military judge in a court-martial to allow any witness to testify on
interlocutory questions by remote means (e.g. VTC) or similar technology if practical difficulties in producing

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the witness on balance outweigh the significance of the witness’ personal appearance. This authorization does
not apply to trial sessions on the merits of the case when either party objects to the remote testimony.

• R.C.M. 804 and 805 allow the military judge to hold Article 39(a) sessions via remote means, so long as the
accused has counsel physically present at his location. Service regulations are required to implement this
change.

• R.C.M. 804 was also amended to clarify the procedures and requirements for allowing the presiding military
judge to authorize the use of remote live testimony of a child. The change specifically applies to situations
where remote testimony is warranted to protect the child from the traumatic experience of testifying in person
at trial in front of the accused. It also clarifies the procedures and requirements for the limited circumstances
in which the presiding military judge may authorize the accused to be absent from the courtroom for the
limited purpose of a child’s testimony.

• R.C.M. 912(f)(4) states that when a challenge for cause against a member has been denied, the successful
use of a peremptory challenge against that same member by either party precludes further consideration of
that excused member upon appellate or other review.

• R.C.M. 916 conforms to the Article 120, UCMJ, amendments regarding the defense of mistake of fact as to
age in the prosecution of sexual offenses with a child and mistake of fact as to consent applicable to the
offenses of rape, aggravated sexual assault, aggravated sexual contact and abusive sexual contact.

• R.C.M. 920 references the applicability of the R.C.M. 916 changes to the issue of mistake of fact as to
consent and age.

• R.C.M. 1004, regarding capital cases, was amended to add as an aggravating factor that murder was
committed while the accused was engaged in the commission or attempted commission of rape or other
specified sex offenses under the amended Article 120, UCMJ.

• R.C.M. 1004(b) now requires the convening authority to include a special instruction in the referral block of
the charge sheet if a case is to be tried as a capital case.

• R.C.M. 1103A contains new rules and procedures for sealed exhibits.

• R.C.M. 1204 sets forth the process by which courts-martial cases with sentences requiring the approval of
the President (capital cases) are transmitted by The Judge Advocate General of the Military Department
through the Secretary concerned, and then through the Secretary of Defense before being transmitted to the
President. The amendment requires the Secretary of Defense to make a recommendation.

Military Rules of Evidence (MRE) in Part III of the MCM:

• MRE 412, “Sex offense cases; relevance of alleged victim’s sexual behavior or sexual predisposition,” was
amended to define and include “sexual offenses” covered by the protections of the rule and amends the
procedures to be used in determining admissibility.

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• MRE 503 regarding the privilege attached to communications to clergy, was amended to define persons who
qualify as covered “clergyman’s assistants.”

• MRE 504, regarding the husband-wife privilege, was amended to define the term “child of either,” for
which the privilege would not apply when one spouse is charged with an offense against such child. The new
definition also includes a child who is under the permanent or temporary physical custody of one of the
spouses, regardless of a legal parent-child relationship, and defines the term “temporary physical custody.”

Punitive articles contained in Part IV of the MCM:

• Paragraph 14, Article 90, Assaulting or Willfully Disobeying Superior Commissioned Officer. A new
definition subparagraph was added clarifying that the lawfulness of an order is a question of law to be
determined by a military judge.

• Paragraph 43, Article 118, Murder, was amended to add offenses from the new Article 120 to the list of
offenses which, if committed and during which the victim is killed, constitute murder.

• Paragraph 44a, Article 119a, Death or Injury to an Unborn Child. The change provided guidance to further
implement the offense of causing the death or injury to an unborn child, as established by the Unborn Victims
of Violence Act of 2004 (Public Law 108-212).

• Paragraph 45, Article 120, was amended and consolidated numerous paragraphs throughout the Punitive
Articles into a single paragraph (Article) addressing sexual offenses, titled: “Rape, Sexual Assault, and other
Sexual Misconduct.” New offenses constituting degrees of sexual assault offenses were added. Text, explana-
tion, elements of offenses, lesser offenses, maximum punishments, and sample specifications were provided
for each enumerated sexual offense under paragraph 45, Article 120.

• Paragraph 45a, Article 120a, Stalking. The change added and implemented a new offense for stalking, with
a maximum punishment for each offense consisting of a dishonorable discharge, forfeiture of all pay and
allowances, and confinement for 3 years.

• Paragraph 50, Article 124, Maiming, was amended to increase the maximum punishment to confinement
from 7 years to 20 years.

• Paragraph 54, Article 128, Assault, was amended to differentiate aggravated assault offenses committed
against a child under the age of 16 and increase the maximum punishment in these cases.

• Paragraph 63, Article 134, Assault-Indecent. This offense was removed as it was subsumed into the new
Article 120 provision.

• Paragraph 68a, Article 134, Child Endangerment, was added to the list of enumerated Article 134 offenses
and addresses offenses committed by the accused who has a duty of care to a child under the age of 16. It
requires that the accused endangered the child’s mental or physical health, safety, or welfare through design

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or culpable negligence, provides definitions of the terms used, and establishes a hierarchy of maximum
punishments depending on the manner and type of harm committed.

• Paragraph 87, Article 134, Indecent Acts or Liberties with a Child. This offense was removed as it was
subsumed into the new Article 120 provision.

• Paragraph 88, Article 134, Indecent Exposure. This offense was removed as it was subsumed into the new
Article 120 provision.

• Paragraph 90, Article 134, Indecent Acts with Another. This offense was removed as it was subsumed into
the new Article 120 provision.

• Paragraph 97, Article 134, Pandering and Prostitution. The amendments added a new offense of patronizing
a prostitute.

• Paragraph 109, Article 134, Threat or Hoax: Bomb. The amendments broadened the offense beyond threats
involving explosives, to now include weapons of mass destruction, biological or chemical agents, substances,
or weapons or hazardous material.

Other UCMJ Articles contained in Appendix 2 of the MCM:

• Article 2(a)(10) was amended to apply jurisdiction to persons serving with or accompanying an armed force
in the field in time of declared war or contingency operation.

• Articles 8, 22, 46, 47, 49, 58, and 88 were amended to remove the obsolete reference to “Territory” of the
United States.

• Article 39 was amended to allow for Article 39(a) sessions to be held with the accused present via
audiovisual technology (such as videoteleconferencing) so long as the accused has counsel present at the
accused’s location. This amendment requires service regulations for implementation.

• Article 43 was amended to list offenses punishable by death to which the statute of limitations does not
apply; It also extended the statute of limitations for child abuse offenses to the life of the child victim or five
years from the date of the offense, whichever is later.

• Articles 1, 6, 15, 88, and 46, as well as other portions of the MCM were amended to change references to
the Coast Guard as being part of the Department of Transportation to reflect the Coast Guard being under the
Department of Homeland Security.

JOINT SERVICE COMMITTEE
ON MILITARY JUSTICE

MCM 2008

CONTENTS

Page

PART I PREAMBLE
1. Sources of military jurisdiction ............................................ I-1
2. Exercise of military jurisdiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-1
(a) Kinds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-1
(b) Agencies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-1
3. Nature and purpose of military law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-1
4. Structure and application of the Manual for Courts-Martial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-1

PART II RULES FOR COURTS–MARTIAL

CHAPTER I. GENERAL PROVISIONS
Rule 101. Scope, title . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-1
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-1
(b) Title. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-1
Rule 102. Purpose and construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-1
(a) Purpose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-1
(b) Construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-1
Rule 103. Definitions and rules of construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-1
Rule 104. Unlawful command influence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-4
(a) General prohibitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-4
(b) Prohibitions concerning evaluations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-5
Rule 105. Direct communications: convening authorities and staff judge
advocates; among staff judge advocates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-5
(a) Convening authorities and staff judge advocates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-5
(b) Among staff judge advocates and with the Judge Advocate General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-5
Rule 106. Delivery of military offenders to civilian authorities ................ II-5
Rule 107. Dismissed officer’s right to request trial by court-martial . . . . . . . . . . . II-6
Rule 108. Rules of court . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-6
Rule 109. Professional supervision of military judges and counsel . . . . . . . . . . . II-6
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-6
(b) Action after suspension or disbarment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-6
(c) Investigation of judges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-6

CHAPTER II. JURISDICTION
Rule 201. Jurisdiction in general . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-9
(a) Nature of courts-martial jurisdiction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-9
(b) Requisites of court-martial jurisdiction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-9
(c) Contempt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-9
(d) Exclusive and nonexclusive jurisdiction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-10
(e) Reciprocal jurisdiction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-10
(f) Types of courts-martial. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-11
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(g) Concurrent jurisdiction of other military tribunals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-12
Rule 202. Persons subject to the jurisdiction of courts-martial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-13
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-13
(b) Offenses under the law of war. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-14
(c) Attachment of jurisdiction over the person. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-15
Rule 203. Jurisdiction over the offense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-15
Rule 204. Jurisdiction over certain reserve component personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-15
(a) Service regulations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-15
(b) Courts-Martial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-15
(c) Applicability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-16
(d) Changes in type of service. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-16

CHAPTER III. INITIATION OF CHARGES; APPREHENSION; PRETRIAL
RESTRAINT; RELATED MATTERS
Rule 301. Report of offense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-17
(a) Who may report. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-17
(b) To whom reports conveyed for disposition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-17
Rule 302. Apprehension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-17
(a) Definition and scope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-17
(b) Who may apprehend. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-17
(c) Grounds for apprehension. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-18
(d) How an apprehension may be made. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-18
(e) Where an apprehension may be made. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-18
Rule 303. Preliminary inquiry into reported offenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-19
Rule 304. Pretrial restraint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-19
(a) Types of pretrial restraint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-19
(b) Who may order pretrial restraint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-20
(c) When a person may be restrained. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-20
(d) Procedures for ordering pretrial restraint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-20
(e) Notice of basis for restraint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-21
(f) Punishment prohibited. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-21
(g) Release. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-21
(h) Administrative restraint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-21
Rule 305. Pretrial confinement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-21
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-21
(b) Who may be confined. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-21
(c) Who may order confinement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-21
(d) When a person may be confined. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-21
(e) Advice to the accused upon confinement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-22
(f) Military counsel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-22
(g) Who may direct release from confinement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-22
(h) Notification and action by commander. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-22
(i) Procedures for review of pretrial confinement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-23
(j) Review by military judge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-24
(k) Remedy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-24
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(l) Confinement after release. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-24
(m) Exceptions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-25
Rule 306. Initial disposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-25
(a) Who may dispose of offenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-25
(b) Policy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-25
(c) How offenses may be disposed of. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-26
(d) National security matters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-26
Rule 307. Preferral of charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-27
(a) Who may prefer charges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-27
(b) How charges are preferred; oath. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-27
(c) How to allege offenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-27
(d) Harmless error in citation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-30
Rule 308. Notification to accused of charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-30
(a) Immediate commander. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-30
(b) Commanders at higher echelons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-30
(c) Remedy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-30

CHAPTER IV. FORWARDING AND DISPOSITION OF CHARGES
Rule 401. Forwarding and disposition of charges in general . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-31
(a) Who may dispose of charges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-31
(b) Prompt determination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-31
(c) How charges may be disposed of. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-31
(d) National security matters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-32
Rule 402. Action by commander not authorized to convene courts-martial . . . . II-32
Rule 403. Action by commander exercising summary court-martial jurisdiction II-32
(a) Recording receipt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-32
(b) Disposition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-33
Rule 404. Action by commander exercising special court-martial jurisdiction . . II-33
Rule 405. Pretrial investigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-34
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-34
(b) Earlier investigation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-34
(c) Who may direct investigation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-34
(d) Personnel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-34
(e) Scope of investigation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-35
(f) Rights of the accused. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-35
(g) Production of witnesses and evidence; alternatives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-35
(h) Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-38
(i) Military Rules of Evidence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-39
(j) Report of investigation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-39
(k) Waiver. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-40
Rule 406. Pretrial advice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-40
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-40
(b) Contents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-40
(c) Distribution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-40
Rule 407. Action by commander exercising general court-martial jurisdiction . II-40
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(a) Disposition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-40
(b) National security matters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-41

CHAPTER V. COURT-MARTIAL COMPOSITION AND PERSONNEL; CONVENING
COURTS-MARTIAL
Rule 501. Composition and personnel of courts-martial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-42
(a) Composition of courts-martial. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-42
(b) Counsel in general and special courts-martial. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-42
(c) Other personnel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-42
Rule 502. Qualifications and duties of personnel of courts-martial . . . . . . . . . . . . II-42
(a) Members. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-42
(b) President. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-43
(c) Qualifications of military judge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-43
(d) Counsel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-43
(e) Interpreters, reporters, escorts, bailiffs, clerks, and guards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-46
(f) Action upon discovery of disqualification or lack of qualifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-46
Rule 503. Detailing members, military judge, and counsel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-46
(a) Members. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-46
(b) Military judge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-47
(c) Counsel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-47
Rule 504. Convening courts-martial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-48
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-48
(b) Who may convene courts-martial. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-48
(c) Disqualification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-48
(d) Convening orders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-49
(e) Place. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-49
Rule 505. Changes of members, military judge, and counsel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-49
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-49
(b) Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-49
(c) Changes of members. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-49
(d) Changes of detailed counsel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-50
(e) Change of military judge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-50
(f) Good cause. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-50
Rule 506. Accused’s rights to counsel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-50
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-50
(b) Individual military counsel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-50
(c) Excusal or withdrawal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-51
(d) Waiver. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-51
(e) Nonlawyer present. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-51

CHAPTER VI. REFERRAL, SERVICE, AMENDMENT, AND WITHDRAWAL OF
CHARGES
Rule 601. Referral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-52
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-52
(b) Who may refer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-52
(c) Disqualification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-52
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(d) When charges may be referred. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-52
(e) How charges shall be referred. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-52
(f) Superior convening authorities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-53
Rule 602. Service of charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-53
Rule 603. Changes to charges and specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-54
(a) Minor changes defined. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-54
(b) Minor changes before arraignment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-54
(c) Minor changes after arraignment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-54
(d) Major changes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-54
Rule 604. Withdrawal of charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-54
(a) Withdrawal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-54
(b) Referral of withdrawn charges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-55

CHAPTER VII. PRETRIAL MATTERS
Rule 701. Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-56
(a) Disclosure by the trial counsel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-56
(b) Disclosure by the defense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-57
(c) Failure to call witness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-58
(d) Continuing duty to disclose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-58
(e) Access to witnesses and evidence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-58
(f) Information not subject to disclosure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-58
(g) Regulation of discovery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-58
(h) Inspect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-59
Rule 702. Depositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-59
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-59
(b) Who may order. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-59
(c) Request to take deposition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-59
(d) Action when request is approved. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-60
(e) Notice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-60
(f) Duties of the deposition officer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-60
(g) Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-61
(h) Objections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-61
(i) Deposition by agreement not precluded. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-62
Rule 703. Production of witnesses and evidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-62
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-62
(b) Right to witnesses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-62
(c) Determining which witness will be produced. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-63
(d) Employment of expert witnesses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-63
(e) Procedures for production of witnesses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-63
(f) Right to evidence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-65
Rule 704. Immunity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-66
(a) Types of immunity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-66
(b) Scope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-66
(c) Authority to grant immunity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-66
(d) Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-67

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(e) Decision to grant immunity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-67
Rule 705. Pretrial agreements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-68
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-68
(b) Nature of agreement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-68
(c) Terms and conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-68
(d) Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-69
(e) Nondisclosure of existence of agreement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-69
Rule 706. Inquiry into the mental capacity or mental responsibility of the accused II-70
(a) Initial action. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-70
(b) Ordering an inquiry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-70
(c) Inquiry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-70
Rule 707. Speedy trial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-71
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-71
(b) Accountability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-71
(c) Excludable delay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-72
(d) Remedy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-72
(e) Waiver. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-73

CHAPTER VIII. TRIAL PROCEDURE GENERALLY
Rule 801. Military judge’s responsibilities; other matters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-74
(a) Responsibilities of military judge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-74
(b) Rules of court; contempt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-74
(c) Obtaining evidence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-74
(d) Uncharged offenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-74
(e) Interlocutory questions and questions of law. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-75
(f) Rulings on record. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-76
(g) Effect of failure to raise defenses or objections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-76
Rule 802. Conferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-77
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-77
(b) Matters on record. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-77
(c) Rights of parties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-77
(d) Accused’s presence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-77
(e) Admission. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-77
(f) Limitations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-77
Rule 803. Court-martial sessions without members under Article 39(a) . . . . . . . . II-77
Rule 804. Presence of the accused at trial proceedings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-78
(a) Presence required. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-78
(b) Presence by remote means. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-78
(c) Continued presence not required. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-78
(d) Voluntary absence for limited purpose of child testimony. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-79
(e) Appearance and security of accused. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-79
Rule 805. Presence of military judge, members, and counsel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-79
(a) Military judge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-79
(b) Members. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-79
(c) Counsel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-80
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(d) Effect of replacement of member or military judge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-80
Rule 806. Public trial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-80
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-80
(b) Control of spectators and closure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-80
(c) Photography and broadcasting prohibited. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-81
(d) Protective orders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-81
Rule 807. Oaths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-82
(a) Definition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-82
(b) Oaths in courts-martial. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-82
Rule 808. Record of trial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-83
Rule 809. Contempt proceedings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-83
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-83
(b) Method of disposition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-83
(c) Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-83
(d) Record; review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-84
(e) Sentence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-84
(f) Informing person held in contempt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-84
Rule 810. Procedures for rehearings, new trials, and other trials . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-84
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-84
(b) Composition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-85
(c) Examination of record of former proceedings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-85
(d) Sentence limitations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-85
(e) Definition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-85
Rule 811. Stipulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-86
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-86
(b) Authority to reject. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-86
(c) Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-86
(d) Withdrawal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-86
(e) Effect of stipulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-86
(f) Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-86
Rule 812. Joint and common trials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-87
Rule 813. Announcing personnel of the court-martial and accused . . . . . . . . . . . II-87
(a) Opening sessions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-87
(b) Later proceedings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-87
(c) Additions, replacement, and absences of personnel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-87

CHAPTER IX. TRIAL PROCEDURES THROUGH FINDINGS
Rule 901. Opening session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-88
(a) Call to order. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-88
(b) Announcement of parties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-88
(c) Swearing reporter and interpreter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-88
(d) Counsel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-88
(e) Presence of members. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-89
Rule 902. Disqualification of military judge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-89
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-89
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(b) Specific grounds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-89
(c) Definitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-89
(d) Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-90
(e) Waiver. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-90
Rule 903. Accused’s elections on composition of court-martial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-90
(a) Time of elections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-90
(b) Form of election. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-90
(c) Action on election. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-90
(d) Right to withdraw request. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-91
(e) Untimely requests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-91
(f) Scope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-91
Rule 904. Arraignment ....................................................... II-91
Rule 905. Motions generally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-92
(a) Definitions and form. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-92
(b) Pretrial motions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-92
(c) Burden of proof. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-92
(d) Ruling on motions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-93
(e) Effect of failure to raise defenses or objections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-93
(f) Reconsideration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-93
(g) Effect of final determinations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-93
(h) Written motions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-94
(i) Service. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-94
(j) Application to convening authority. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-94
(k) Production of statements on motion to suppress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-94
Rule 906. Motions for appropriate relief . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-94
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-94
(b) Grounds for appropriate relief. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-94
Rule 907. Motions to dismiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-96
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-96
(b) Grounds for dismissal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-96
Rule 908. Appeal by the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-98
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-98
(b) Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-98
(c) Appellate proceedings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-99
(d) Military judge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-99
Rule 909. Capacity of the accused to stand trial by court-martial . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-99
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-99
(b) Presumption of capacity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-100
(c) Determination before referral. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-100
(d) Determination after referral. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-100
(e) Incompetence determination hearing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-100
(f) Hospitalization of the accused. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-100
(g) Excludable delay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-100
Rule 910. Pleas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-100
(a) Alternatives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-100
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(b) Refusal to plead; irregular plea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-101
(c) Advice to accused. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-101
(d) Ensuring that the plea is voluntary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-101
(e) Determining accuracy of plea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-102
(f) Plea agreement inquiry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-102
(g) Findings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-102
(h) Later action. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-102
(i) Record of proceedings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-103
(j) Waiver. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-103
Rule 911. Assembly of the court-martial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-103
Rule 912. Challenge of selection of members; examination and challenges of
members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-103
(a) Pretrial matters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-103
(b) Challenge of selection of members. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-104
(c) Stating grounds for challenge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-104
(d) Examination of members. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-104
(e) Evidence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-104
(f) Challenges and removal for cause. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-104
(g) Peremptory challenges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-105
(h) Special courts-martial without a military judge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-106
(i) Definitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-106
Rule 913. Presentation of the case on the merits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-106
(a) Preliminary instructions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-106
(b) Opening statements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-107
(c) Presentation of evidence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-107
Rule 914. Production of statements of witnesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-108
(a) Motion for production. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-108
(b) Production of entire statement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-108
(c) Production of excised statement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-108
(d) Recess for examination of the statement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-108
(e) Remedy for failure to produce statement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-108
(f) Definition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-108
Rule 914A. Use of remote live testimony of a child . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-108
(a) General procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-108
(b) Definition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-109
(c) Prohibitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-109
Rule 914B. Use of remote testimony . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-109
(a) General procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-109
(b) Definition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-109
Rule 915. Mistrial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-109
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-109
(b) Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-109
(c) Effect of declaration of mistrial. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-109
Rule 916. Defenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-110
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-110
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(b) Burden of proof. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-110
(c) Justification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-110
(d) Obedience to orders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-110
(e) Self-defense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-110
(f) Accident. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-112
(g) Entrapment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-112
(h) Coercion or duress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-112
(i) Inability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-112
(j) Ignorance or mistake of fact. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-112
(k) Lack of mental responsibility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-113
(l) Not defenses generally. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-114
Rule 917. Motion for a finding of not guilty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-114
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-114
(b) Form of motion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-114
(c) Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-114
(d) Standard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-114
(e) Motion as to greater offense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-114
(f) Effect of ruling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-115
(g) Effect of denial on review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-115
Rule 918. Findings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-115
(a) General findings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-115
(b) Special findings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-115
(c) Basis of findings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-116
Rule 919. Argument by counsel on findings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-116
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-116
(b) Contents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-116
(c) Waiver of objection to improper argument. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-116
Rule 920. Instructions on findings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-117
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-117
(b) When given. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-117
(c) Requests for instructions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-117
(d) How given. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-117
(e) Required instructions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-117
(f) Waiver. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-118
Rule 921. Deliberations and voting on findings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-118
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-118
(b) Deliberations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-118
(c) Voting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-118
(d) Action after findings are reached. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-119
Rule 922. Announcement of findings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-119
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-119
(b) Findings by members. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-120
(c) Findings by military judge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-120
(d) Erroneous announcement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-120
(e) Polling prohibited. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-120

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Rule 923. Impeachment of findings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-120
Rule 924. Reconsideration of findings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-120
(a) Time for reconsideration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-120
(b) Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-120
(c) Military judge sitting alone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-120

CHAPTER X. SENTENCING
Rule 1001. Presentencing procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-122
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-122
(b) Matter to be presented by the prosecution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-122
(c) Matter to be presented by the defense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-124
(d) Rebuttal and surrebuttal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-124
(e) Production of witnesses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-124
(f) Additional matters to be considered. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-125
(g) Argument. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-125
Rule 1002. Sentence determination ........................................... II-125
Rule 1003. Punishments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-126
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-126
(b) Authorized punishments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-126
(c) Limits on punishments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-128
(d) Circumstances permitting increased punishments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-129
Rule 1004. Capital cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-130
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-130
(b) Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-130
(c) Aggravating factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-131
(d) Spying. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-133
(e) Other penalties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-133
Rule 1005. Instructions on sentence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-133
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-133
(b) When given. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-133
(c) Requests for instructions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-133
(d) How given. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-133
(e) Required instructions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-134
(f) Waiver. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-134
Rule 1006. Deliberations and voting on sentence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-134
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-134
(b) Deliberations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-134
(c) Proposal of sentences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-134
(d) Voting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-135
(e) Action after a sentence is reached. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-135
Rule 1007. Announcement of sentence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-135
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-135
(b) Erroneous announcement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-136
(c) Polling prohibited. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-136
Rule 1008. Impeachment of sentence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-136
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Rule 1009. Reconsideration of sentence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-136
(a) Reconsideration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-136
(b) Exceptions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-136
(c) Clarification of sentence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-136
(d) Action by the convening authority. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-136
(e) Reconsideration procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-136
Rule 1010. Notice concerning post-trial and appellate rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-137
Rule 1011. Adjournment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-137

CHAPTER XI. POST-TRIAL PROCEDURE
Rule 1101. Report of result of trial; post-trial restraint; deferment of confinement,
forfeitures and reduction in grade; waiver of Article 58b forfeitures . . . . . . . . . II-138
(a) Report of the result of trial. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-138
(b) Post-trial confinement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-138
(c) Deferment of confinement, forfeitures or reduction in grade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-138
(d) Waiving forfeitures resulting from a sentence to confinement to provide for dependent
support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-139
Rule 1102. Post-trial sessions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-140
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-140
(b) Purpose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-140
(c) Matters not subject to post-trial sessions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-140
(d) When directed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-141
(e) Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-141
Rule 1102A. Post-trial hearing for person found not guilty only by reason of lack
of mental responsibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-141
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-141
(b) Psychiatric or psychological examination and report. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-141
(c) Post-trial hearing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-141
Rule 1103. Preparation of record of trial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-141
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-141
(b) General courts-martial. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-142
(c) Special courts-martial. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-143
(d) Summary courts-martial. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-143
(e) Acquittal; courts-martial resulting in findings of not guilty only by reason of lack of
mental responsibility; termination prior to findings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-143
(f) Loss of notes or recordings of the proceedings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-143
(g) Copies of the record of trial. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-143
(h) Security classification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-144
(i) Examination and correction before authentication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-144
(j) Videotape and similar records. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-144
Rule 1103A. Sealed exhibits and proceedings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-145
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-145
(b) Examination of sealed exhibits and proceedings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-145
Rule 1104. Records of trial: Authentication; service; loss; correction; forwarding II-146
(a) Authentication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-146
(b) Service. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-146
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(c) Loss of record. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-147
(d) Correction of record after authentication; certificate of correction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-147
(e) Forwarding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-148
Rule 1105. Matters submitted by the accused . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-148
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-148
(b) Matters which may be submitted. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-148
(c) Time periods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-148
(d) Waiver. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-149
Rule 1106. Recommendation of the staff judge advocate or legal officer . . . . . . II-149
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-149
(b) Disqualification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-149
(c) When the convening authority has no staff judge advocate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-149
(d) Form and content of recommendation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-149
(e) No findings of guilty; findings of not guilty only by reason of lack of mental
responsibility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-150
(f) Service of recommendation on defense counsel and accused; defense response. . . . . . . II-150
Rule 1107. Action by convening authority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-151
(a) Who may take action. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-151
(b) General considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-152
(c) Action on findings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-153
(d) Action on the sentence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-153
(e) Ordering rehearing or other trial. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-154
(f) Contents of action and related matters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-155
(g) Incomplete, ambiguous, or erroneous action. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-157
(h) Service on accused. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-157
Rule 1108. Suspension of execution of sentence; remission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-157
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-157
(b) Who may suspend and remit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-157
(c) Conditions of suspension. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-158
(d) Limitations on suspension. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-158
(e) Termination of suspension by remission. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-158
Rule 1109. Vacation of suspension of sentence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-158
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-158
(b) Timeliness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-158
(c) Confinement of probationer pending vacation proceedings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-158
(d) Vacation of suspended general court-martial sentence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-159
(e) Vacation of a suspended special court-martial sentence wherein a bad-conduct discharge
or confinement for one year was not adjudged. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-160
(f) Vacation of a suspended special court-martial sentence that includes a bad-conduct
discharge or confinement for one year. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-160
(g) Vacation of a suspended summary court-martial sentence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-161
Rule 1110. Waiver or withdrawal of appellate review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-161
(a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-161
(b) Right to counsel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-161
(c) Compulsion, coercion, inducement prohibited. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-162
(d) Form of waiver or withdrawal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-162
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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-165 Rule 1114. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-163 (a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-163 (d) Form and content of review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-167 (c) Contents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-163 (c) Disqualification. . . . . . . . . . . . . II-162 (g) Effect of waiver or withdrawal. . . . . . . . . . . . II-172 (e) Cases not reviewed by the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Review by a judge advocate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-173 (f) Scope. . . . . . . . . . Execution of sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-163 (b) Exception. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-163 Rule 1112. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Disposition of the record of trial after action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-167 (e) Authentication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-163 (e) Forwarding to officer exercising general court-martial jurisdiction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-173 xiv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-170 Rule 1202. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-168 (f) Distribution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-167 (b) By whom issued. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-165 (d) Other considerations concerning the execution of certain sentences. . . Promulgating orders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-169 (b) Cases reviewed by the Judge Advocate General. . . . . . . . II-170 Rule 1203. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-170 (b) Duties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-171 (d) Notification to accused. . II-165 (c) Punishments which the convening authority may not order executed in the initial action. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-163 (b) Special courts-martial. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-165 (b) Punishments which the convening authority may order executed in the initial action. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Review by a Court of Criminal Appeals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MCM 2008 Page (e) To whom submitted. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-173 (a) Cases reviewed by the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces. . . . . . . . . . . . . II-169 (a) Cases required to be referred to a Court of Criminal Appeals. . II-165 (a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-169 (c) Remission and suspension. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Review by the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-171 (c) Action on cases reviewed by a Court of Criminal Appeals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . substantial compliance required. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appellate counsel . . . . . . . II-163 (a) General courts-martial. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-162 (f) Time limit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-171 (a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-164 Rule 1113. . . . . . . . . . . . . II-168 CHAPTER XII. . . . . . II-163 (c) Summary courts-martial. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-167 (a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-164 (f) Action by officer exercising general court-martial jurisdiction. . II-167 (d) Orders containing classified information. . . . . . . . . Action by the Judge Advocate General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . APPEALS AND REVIEW Rule 1201. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-171 (b) Cases reviewed by a Court of Criminal Appeals. . . . . . II-170 (a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-164 (g) Forwarding following review under this rule. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-162 Rule 1111. . . . . II-173 Rule 1204. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

II-181 Rule 1305. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Record of trial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-180 (a) Who may convene summary courts-martial. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-177 (g) Action on the petition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary courts-martial generally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-180 Rule 1302. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-175 Rule 1208. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-175 (a) New trial. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Right to object to trial by summary court-martial . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . Review by the Supreme Court . . . . . . . II-175 Rule 1207.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New trial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-176 (b) Who may petition. . . . II-176 Rule 1210. . . . . . . . . . . . II-176 (a) When a conviction is final. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . II-176 (b) Effect of finality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SUMMARY COURTS-MARTIAL Rule 1301. . . . . . . . . II-175 (a) Cases subject to review by the Supreme Court. . . . . . Trial procedure . . Finality of courts-martial . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-174 Rule 1205. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-179 (a) Composition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-182 (a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-180 (b) When convening authority is accuser. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-180 Rule 1304. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-179 (c) Jurisdiction. . . . . . II-179 (f) Power to obtain witnesses and evidence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-177 (h) Action when new trial is granted. . . . . . . . . . . . II-179 (d) Punishments. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-179 (e) Counsel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. II-173 (c) Action on decision by the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-177 (d) Effect of petition. II-177 (f) Grounds for new trial. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-175 (b) Action by the Supreme Court. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-175 (b) Remission and suspension. . . . . . . . II-176 Rule 1209. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-180 Rule 1303. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-176 (c) Form of petition. . . . . . . . . MCM 2008 Page (b) Petition by the accused for review by the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-180 (b) Summary court-martial procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Convening a summary court-martial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-175 (b) Other cases. . . . . . . . . . Powers and responsibilities of the Secretary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Restoration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-175 (a) Sentences requiring approval by the Secretary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . II-182 xv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-178 CHAPTER XIII. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-180 (g) Secretarial limitations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-175 Rule 1206. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-177 (e) Who may act on petition. . . . . . II-180 (c) Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-180 (a) Pretrial duties. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sentences requiring approval by the President . II-176 (a) In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-179 (b) Function. . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . III-1 (a) Questions of admissibility generally. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . III-2 SECTION II JUDICIAL NOTICE Rule 201. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-2 (a) Domestic law. . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-2 (d) Testimony by accused. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Judicial notice of adjudicative facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scope . . . Purpose and construction . . . .. . .. . III-2 (b) Foreign law. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-1 (c) Hearing of members. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-1 Rule 102. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-2 (f) Time of taking notice.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-2 (e) Opportunity to be heard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-1 Rule 103. . . . . II-183 (c) Authentication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . III-1 (b) Relevancy conditioned on fact. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-2 (a) Scope of rule. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-2 Rule 201A. . Judicial notice of law . . . . . . . . III-1 Rule 104. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-183 Rule 1306. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . III-1 (a) Applicability. . . II-183 (d) Forwarding copies of the record. . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . Ruling on evidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-1 (a) Effect of erroneous ruling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-2 (e) Weight and credibility. . . .. . . . III-2 (d) When mandatory. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-2 (c) When discretionary. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-1 (b) Record of offer and ruling. . . Remainder of or related writings or recorded statements . . . .. . . . . Limited admissibility . . . . . . . . . . III-1 (b) Secondary Sources. . . II-183 (c) Review by a judge advocate. . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . Preliminary questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-183 PART III MILITARY RULES OF EVIDENCE SECTION I GENERAL PROVISIONS Rule 101. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . Post-trial procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-183 (d) Review by the Judge Advocate General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-2 xvi . . . II-183 (a) Matters submitted by the accused. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-1 (c) Rule of construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-1 (d) Plain error. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-2 Rule 105. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-2 (g) Instructing members. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MCM 2008 Page (b) Contents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-183 (b) Convening authority’s action. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-2 Rule 106. . . . . . . . . .. . III-1 (c) Hearing of members. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-2 (b) Kinds of facts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-6 (g) Corroboration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-6 Rule 305. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AND EYEWITNESS IDENTIFICATION Rule 301. . . . . III-4 (b) Exceptions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Warnings about rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Confessions and admissions . . . . . . . . . . . . III-8 Rule 311. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and use of statements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-3 (c) Exercise of the privilege. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-4 Rule 302. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-4 (a) General rule. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-4 Rule 303. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-9 (d) Motions to suppress and objections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Privilege concerning compulsory self-incrimination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-7 (g) Waiver. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-6 (c) Warnings concerning the accusation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-5 (f) Defense evidence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Degrading questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-4 (b) Exceptions. . . . . . . . . III-7 (d) Counsel rights and warnings. . . . . . . . . . III-7 (f) Exercise of rights. . . . . III-8 (a) General rule. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-7 (h) Nonmilitary interrogations. . . . . . III-5 (e) Burden of proof. . . Privilege concerning mental examination of an accused . . . . . . . . . . III-8 (c) Nature of search or seizure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-3 (e) Waiver by the accused. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Statements by one of several accused . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MCM 2008 Page SECTION III EXCLUSIONARY RULES AND RELATED MATTERS CONCERNING SELF- INCRIMINATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-8 (b) Exceptions. . . . III-4 (c) Release of evidence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-4 (d) Noncompliance by the accused. . III-4 (c) Definitions. . . . . . . SEARCH AND SEIZURE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-3 (g) Instructions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-9 (f) Defense evidence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-6 (h) Miscellaneous. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Evidence obtained from unlawful searches and seizures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-6 (b) Definitions. . . . . . . . . . . . III-5 (d) Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . right to remain silent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-6 (a) General rule. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-3 (d) Waiver by a witness. . . . . . III-3 (a) General rule. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-10 xvii . . . . III-4 (e) Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-9 (e) Burden of proof. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-7 (e) Presence of Counsel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-4 (a) General rule. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-4 Rule 304. . . . . . . . . . . . . III-3 (f) Effect of claiming the privilege. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-10 (g) Scope of motions and objections challenging probable cause. . . . III-8 Rule 306. . . . . . III-10 (h) Objections to evidence seized unlawfully. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-3 (b) Standing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-13 (f) Searches incident to a lawful stop. . . . . . . . . . . . .MCM 2008 Page (i) Effect of guilty plea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-16 xviii . . . . . . . . III-15 (h) Execution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-15 Rule 316. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-12 Rule 314. . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-14 (b) Definitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . or similar facilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-11 (g) Medical qualifications. . . . . . . . . . . III-11 (c) Intrusion into body cavities. . . . . . III-11 (f) Intrusions for valid medical purposes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-12 (a) General rule. III-15 (g) Exigencies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-14 (d) Power to authorize. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-16 (c) Regulations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-16 (a) General rule. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-16 (c) Apprehension. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Body views and intrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-14 Rule 315. . . aircraft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interception of wire and oral communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-10 (a) General rule. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-16 (b) Authorization for judicial applications in the United States. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-12 (c) Inventories. . . . . . . . . . . . . III-12 (b) Inspections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-15 (f) Basis for Search authorizations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-12 (b) Border searches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-14 (e) Power to search. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-16 (d) Seizure of property or evidence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-12 (d) Searches of government property. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-14 (c) Scope of authorization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inspections and inventories in the armed forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-13 (h) Searches within jails. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-10 Rule 312. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-12 (a) General rule. . . Searches not requiring probable cause . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-16 (b) Seizure of property. . . . . . . . . III-11 (b) Visual examination of the body. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Probable cause searches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-12 (e) Consent searches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-12 (c) Searches upon entry to or exit from United States installations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-16 Rule 317. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and vessels abroad. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-14 (a) General rule. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-13 (i) Emergency searches to save life or for related purposes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-13 (g) Searches incident to a lawful apprehension. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-11 Rule 313. . . . . . . . III-16 (e) Power to seize. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-11 (e) Other intrusive searches. . . . . . . . . . III-16 (f) Other seizures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-14 (j) Searches of open fields or woodlands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Seizures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-16 (a) General rule. . . . . . . . . . . . confinement facilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-14 (k) Other searches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-11 (d) Extraction of body fluids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . .. . Exclusion of relevant evidence on grounds of prejudice. . . .. .. .. .. . wrongs. . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . III-20 Rule 411. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . Lawyer-client privilege . . . .. . .... . .. . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... ... . . . . .. Methods of proving character .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . III-17 (a) General rule.. III-19 (a) Reputation or opinion. . . .. .. . . . . .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . III-23 (a) General rule of privilege.. . . . . . . . III-20 (a) In general. . . . .. III-19 (d) Definitions. .. . . . III-17 (c) Motions to suppress and objections. . . . . .. . . . . . . . Eyewitness identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. III-20 Rule 410. .. .. . . . . .. or acts.. . . . .. III-21 Rule 413.. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .. . . . . . .. . ... . . . . . . .. .. . . .. . . . . III-23 xix . ... . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . . . . Sex offense cases. . . . .. .. . . . . ... . . . . .. .. .. . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-19 Rule 404. . . . . .. . . irrelevant evidence inadmissible III-19 Rule 403. .. . . . III-17 (d) Burden of proof. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . III-19 Rule 405. . . . . . . . . . . . other crimes . . . .. . .. . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . Habit. . . . . . .. .. . . . .. . . .. .... . . . . . . . . . ... . Inadmissibility of pleas. . . . . . .. . .. . Evidence of similar crimes in child molestation cases . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . III-20 (a) Evidence generally inadmissible.. . . . . . . . . . . . . III-18 Rule 402. . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . III-20 (b) Definitions. III-19 Rule 407. . . ... .. . . . . . . . . III-21 (c) Procedure to determine admissibility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . .. . Character evidence not admissible to prove conduct.. . . . . . . . . . ... . .. . ... . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . Compromise and offer to compromise . .. . III-18 (f) Rulings. ... . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . .. . . . . . .. . . Relevant evidence general admissible.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-20 Rule 409.. . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . III-23 Rule 502. .. . . . .. .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . Subsequent remedial measures . . . .. . . . . . .. . . III-21 Rule 414. . . . . . . . . . . . III-18 (g) Effect of guilty pleas. . . . . . . III-20 Rule 408. . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. III-19 Rule 406. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . III-22 SECTION V PRIVILEGES Rule 501. . . . . .. . .. .. . ... . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . III-18 (e) Defense evidence. . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . .. . III-20 Rule 412. . .. . .. . . . . . . . .... . Payment of medical and similar expenses .. . General rule . .. .. . . . . . .. ... . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . ... . . ... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. .. . III-19 (b) Specific instances of conduct. . . . . . . . relevance of alleged victim’s sexual behavior or sexual predisposition . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . routine practice .. . . . . . III-20 (b) Exceptions. . . .. . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . confusion.. .. . .. . . . . . .. .. . .. . . . . .. . . . .. .. . III-19 (a) Character evidence generally. . . . . . .. MCM 2008 Page Rule 321.. III-18 SECTION IV RELEVANCY AND ITS LIMITS Rule 401.. plea discussions. III-17 (b) Definition of “unlawful”. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . Evidence of similar crimes in sexual assault cases . .. . .. .. .. . .. . . . .. . . . . . Definition of “relevant evidence” . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-19 (b) Other crimes. exceptions. . . .. . or waste of time . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . Liability insurance .. . . . .. ... . . . . ... and related statements .. .. .. . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . III-19 (c) Affidavits. . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .

. . III-31 (k) Introduction of government information subject to a claim of privilege. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . Classified information . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . III-30 (i) In camera proceedings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . Husband-wife privilege . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-29 (b) Scope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... III-25 (a) General rule of privilege. . . . III-30 (f) Action after motion for disclosure of information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-32 (a) Rule of privilege. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-26 (h) Notice of the accused’s intention to disclose classified information. . . . . . III-32 (d) Procedures. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . III-26 (e) Pretrial session. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-30 (h) Prohibition against disclosure. . . . . . . . . . . . . Political vote . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. III-29 (d) Action prior to referral of charges. . . . . . . . . III-25 Rule 505. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-29 (e) Pretrial session. III-29 Rule 506. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-28 (j) Introduction of classified information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-26 (g) Disclosure of classified information to the accused. . . . . . . . III-24 (a) General rule of privilege. .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-24 (c) Who may claim the privilege. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .MCM 2008 Page (b) Definitions. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-33 xx . . . . . .. . . . . . III-30 (j) Appeals of orders and rulings. III-32 Rule 508. . . . . . . . . . . . III-29 (k) Security procedures to safeguard against compromise of classified information disclosed to courts-martial. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-26 (d) Action prior to referral of charges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-25 (c) Exceptions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-32 (c) Exceptions. . III-30 (g) Disclosure of government information to the accused. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-24 Rule 504.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Identity of informant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Communications to clergy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-25 (a) Spousal incapacity. . . . . . . III-32 Rule 507. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-25 (b) Definitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Government information other than classified information . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-25 (d) Definitions. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-26 (f) Action after referral of charges. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-24 Rule 503. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . III-23 (c) Who may claim the privilege. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-32 (b) Who may claim the privilege. . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-24 (d) Exceptions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . III-29 (a) General rule of privilege. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-25 (c) Who may claim the privilege. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-25 (b) Confidential communication made during marriage. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-24 (b) Definitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. III-29 (c) Who may claim the privilege. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-31 (l) Procedures to safeguard against compromise of government information disclosed to courts-martial. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-27 (i) In camera proceedings for cases involving classified information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . instruction . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . . . . III-36 Rule 609.. . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . .. . III-33 Rule 512. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . III-35 Rule 605. . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . III-37 xxi . . . . . . .. . .. . Comment upon or inference from claim of privilege. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. .. .. . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . Evidence of character. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . Interpreters . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . III-34 (e) Procedure to determine admissibility of patient records or communications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . III-35 (b) Inquiry into validity of findings or sentence. . . . . . ... . .. . . . . . Competency of military judge as witness . . III-33 (b) Definitions. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . III-37 Rule 611.. .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . Deliberations of courts and juries ... ... . . . . . . .. . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . ... . III-36 (d) Juvenile adjudications. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . III-36 (e) Pendency of appeal. . ... . III-33 Rule 513. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . III-34 (d) Exceptions. . . . . III-33 (a) General rule of privilege. . . III-37 (d) Remote live testimony of a child. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . annulment. . . III-35 (a) At the court-martial. . .. . . . . . . . . . . III-34 (c) Who may claim the privilege.. . . . . . . . . ... . . .. Mode and order of interrogation and presentation . . . or certificate of rehabilitation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . III-36 (b) Time limit. . . . General rule of competency . . . . . . . . . III-35 Rule 607. . .. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-35 Rule 604.. .. . . . . III-36 (c) Evidence of bias. . . . . . . . . . .. ... . . . . . . . . . . . ... .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . ... III-36 Rule 608.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MCM 2008 Page Rule 509. .. . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . III-36 (b) Specific instances of conduct. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-33 Rule 511. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . III-35 Rule 606. . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . III-34 SECTION VI WITNESSES Rule 601. . . . . . . III-36 (a) Opinion and reputation evidence of character.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . Lack of personal knowledge . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . Competency of court member as witness . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . conduct. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. .. . .. . . . . . .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . III-33 Rule 510. . . . . . . . . . . . . III-33 (c) Instruction. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . III-36 (f) Definition. . . . III-36 (c) Effect of pardon. . . . . . III-36 (a) General rule. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. Who may impeach . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . .. . . . . . . ... . . Privileged matter disclosed under compulsion or without opportunity to claim privilege . . .. . Waiver of privilege by voluntary disclosure . .. . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . .. .. . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . Religious beliefs or opinions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impeachment by evidence of conviction of crime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . III-37 Rule 610. . . .. . . . . III-37 (c) Leading questions. . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . ... .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . .... .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . III-37 (a) Control by the military judge. . and bias of witness . . . III-33 (a) Comment or inference not permitted. . . . . ... III-33 (b) Claiming privilege without knowledge of members. . . . . . .. . . . Psychotherapist-patient privilege . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . III-35 Rule 603. .. . . . . . . . Oath or affirmation . . . . .. . . . . . III-37 (b) Scope of cross-examination. . . . . . . . .. . .. . . ... . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . III-35 Rule 602. .

. . . . . . . . .. . . . III-37 Rule 613. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. III-39 (c) Hearsay.. .. . . ... . . . . . .. Opinion on ultimate issue . . . III-38 (b) Interrogation by the court-martial. . .. . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . .. . . . . III-39 Rule 802. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... ... . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . .. . .. . . Polygraph Examinations . . .. .. . . .. . . Hearsay rule . . . . . . . . III-41 (13) Family records. . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Court appointed experts . . .. . . . . . . .. .. III-40 (4) Statements for purposes of medical diagnosis or treatment.. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-38 Rule 703. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-40 (1) Present sense impression.. .MCM 2008 Page Rule 612. . . . . . . . . . . . . III-41 (9) Records of vital statistics. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . III-40 (6) Records of regularly conducted activity. . .. . . . .. .. . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .... . . . . . ... . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . ... . .. . . .. . . . .. . .. . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . Calling and interrogation of witnesses by the court-martial . III-39 (b) Disclosure of employment... . .. . . .. . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . availability of declarant immaterial . . .. . . . . . ... . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-40 (8) Public records and reports. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . III-39 Rule 705.. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-38 (a) Examining witness concerning prior statement. . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. .. . . . . ... . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . emotional. III-40 (7) Absence of entry in records kept in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (6). . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . .. . . . . .. . ... . . . . . . . . . . .. . III-40 Rule 803.. .. . . . . . III-40 (3) Then existing mental. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . baptismal. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . Opinion testimony by lay witnesses . . . . . . . Writing used to refresh memory . .. . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-38 (b) Extrinsic evidence of prior inconsistent statement of witness. . . . . . III-41 (11) Records of religious organizations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-38 SECTION VII OPINIONS AND EXPERT TESTIMONY Rule 701. . . . . III-40 (5) Recorded recollection. . .. . .. . . . III-39 Rule 704. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . Bases of opinion testimony by experts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hearsay exceptions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . or physical condition. .. .. . . . III-39 Rule 706. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . III-39 (a) Appointment and compensation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-41 (10) Absence of public record or entry.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . .. and similar certificates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-39 (c) Accused’s experts of own selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . III-39 (d) Statements which are not hearsay. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . III-38 (a) Calling by the court-martial. . . III-38 Rule 614. . . . . III-39 Rule 707. . . .. III-40 (2) Excited utterance. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . ... .. . . . . . . . . . . . Testimony by experts . . .. III-38 Rule 615. III-39 (b) Declarant. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . III-39 (a) Statement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . III-38 Rule 702. . . . . . . . . . . III-41 (14) Records of documents affecting an interest in property. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . .. . . . III-39 SECTION VIII HEARSAY Rule 801. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . .. .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . ... . . . . . . . ... . . . .. . . . . . . . . Prior statements of witnesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. III-41 (12) Marriage. .. . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . ... . .. Exclusion of witnesses . ... . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Definitions . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-41 xxii . . . . III-38 (c) Objections. . . . . Disclosure of facts or data underlying expert opinion . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . III-42 (23) Judgment as to personal.. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . III-45 SECTION X CONTENTS OF WRITINGS. . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . III-43 Rule 902. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-44 (2) Domestic public documents not under seal. . III-42 Rule 804. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-43 Rule 807. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. .... . III-43 SECTION IX AUTHENTICATION AND IDENTIFICATION Rule 901. . III-46 Rule 1003.. . . . . .. . III-41 (16) Statements in ancient documents. . . . . . . . . . .. . declarant unavailable . . . .. . . . . III-45 (2) Photographs. III-45 (6) Newspapers and periodicals. . . . . . III-42 (20) Reputation concerning boundaries or general history. .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Requirement of authentication or identification . . . . . . . MCM 2008 Page (15) Statements in documents affecting an interest in property. . . . . family or general history. . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . III-43 (b) Illustrations. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . III-44 (4) Certified copies of public records. . . .. . .. . Residual exception. . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . Attacking and supporting credibility of declarant . III-44 (4a) Documents or records of the United States accompanied by attesting certificates. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . or boundaries. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Self-authentication . . . . . . . III-45 (4) Duplicate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-44 (1) Domestic public documents under seal. . . . . . . . . ... . . . . .. III-45 (10) Presumptions under Acts of Congress and regulations. commercial publications. . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . III-41 (19) Reputation concerning personal or family history. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . III-45 (3) Original. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . ... . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. .. .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-45 (8) Acknowledged documents. . III-42 (21) Reputation as to character. . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . III-42 (b) Hearsay exceptions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-41 (17) Market reports. . . . III-42 (24) Other exceptions. .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . III-41 (18) Learned treatises. .. . . . ... . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-42 Rule 805. . . . . . Requirement of an original . . Hearsay exceptions. . . . . . . . III-45 (5) Official publications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Admissibility of duplicates .. . . . . . . . . . . . III-43 Rule 806. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . III-45 (7) Trade inscriptions and the like. . . . . . . . . . . III-45 (1) Writings and recordings. . . . . . III-44 (3) Foreign public documents. . . . III-43 (a) General provision. . . . . III-45 (11) Certified domestic records of regularly conducted activity. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. ... . . . . .. . . .. . . . III-42 (22) Judgment of previous conviction. . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . Definitions . . . .. . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . ... . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . AND PHOTOGRAPHS Rule 1001. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . Hearsay within hearsay . . . . . . . . . . RECORDINGS. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. Subscribing witness’ testimony unnecessary . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . III-42 (a) Definitions of unavailability. . . . . III-45 (9) Commercial paper and related documents. . . . . .. . .. .. .. . . . . . . . III-46 xxiii .. . . . . . . . III-45 Rule 1002. . . . . III-45 Rule 903. . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .

. . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . . . . . . Admissibility of other evidence of contents . . . III-46 (a) Rules applicable. IV-3 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Amendments. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . .. . . . . III-46 (2) Original not obtainable. . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 81—Conspiracy . .. Text of statute. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . IV-1 a. .. . .. . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 78—Accessory after the fact . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . IV-3 e. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . IV-5 a. . . .. . . . . . . . IV-3 4. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . IV-5 xxiv . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. III-47 Rule 1103. . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Applicability of rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . III-47 (c) Rules relaxed. . .. III-46 Rule 1008. . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . IV-3 3. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . Lesser included offense. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . III-46 (4) Collateral matters. . . . . . . . . III-47 Rule 1102. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Public records ... . . .. . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . IV-2 a.. . . . . . . . . . IV-4 a. . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-5 5. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. .. . . . . . .. . . . . III-46 SECTION XI MISCELLANEOUS RULES Rule 1101. . IV-5 b. . III-46 (b) Rules of privilege. . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions of military judge and members . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . .. . . IV-3 a. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . Summaries . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . III-46 Rule 1006. . . . . . . . . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . .. Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . Sample specification. . . . . IV-4 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . III-46 Rule 1005. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . III-47 (d) Rules inapplicable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-46 (1) Originals lost or destroyed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .MCM 2008 Page Rule 1004. . . . . . . . . .. . . . IV-4 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . Testimony or written admission of party . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . IV-4 b. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-5 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 80—Attempts .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . Title . . . . . . . . . . IV-2 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-3 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . III-46 Rule 1007. .. . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . Article 79—Conviction of lesser included offenses ... .. IV-1 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . Elements. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-2 b.. . IV-1 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-47 PART IV PUNITIVE ARTICLES (STATUTORY TEXT OF EACH ARTICLE IS IN BOLD) 1. . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-5 e. . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-2 d.. . . . . Article 77—Principals . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . III-46 (3) Original in possession of opponent. . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 86—Absence without leave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-7 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-8 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . or separation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-15 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-13 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-6 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . appointment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-15 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-9 f. . . . . . . . . . . IV-9 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . appointment. . . . . . . . . IV-7 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-12 c. . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-16 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-15 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-9 f. . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . IV-9 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 83—Fraudulent enlistment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-6 e. . . . . . . . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 84—Effecting unlawful enlistment. . . IV-10 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specifications. . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MCM 2008 Page c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-7 c. . . IV-10 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . or separation . . IV-9 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 87—Missing movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-12 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-8 c. . IV-9 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-9 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. . . . Sample specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-15 d. . . . . IV-7 d. . . . . . . . . . . IV-12 e. . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-16 xxv . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-15 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-9 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . IV-9 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 85—Desertion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . Article 82—Solicitation . . IV-12 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-7 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-9 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-12 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-12 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-8 b. . . . . . . . . . . IV-9 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-6 6. . . . . . . . IV-7 e. . Lesser included offense. . . . . . IV-8 a. . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-7 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-15 f. . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specifications. Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-5 d. . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. IV-9 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-15 11. . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 94—Mutiny and sedition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 91—Insubordinate conduct toward warrant officer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-24 f. IV-25 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-26 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-21 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 92—Failure to obey order or regulation . . . . . . . Article 90—Assaulting or willfully disobeying superior commissioned officer IV-18 a. . . . . . . IV-16 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-16 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-25 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-23 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-18 c. . . . IV-17 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 88—Contempt toward officials . . . . . . . . . . . IV-22 d. . . . Explanation. . . . . . . IV-17 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-17 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 89—Disrespect toward a superior commissioned officer . . . . . . . . . . IV-21 a. Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-17 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-16 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-22 e. . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . Maximum punishment. . Sample specification. . . IV-22 f. Text of statute. . . . . Sample specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-18 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . or petty officer . . . . . . IV-17 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-20 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. IV-18 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-25 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-18 e. . . . . . Lesser included offense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-24 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-26 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-25 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-17 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . IV-18 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-23 b. . . . IV-19 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-20 f. . . Lesser included offense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-20 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 93—Cruelty and maltreatment . . . . . . . IV-23 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . IV-21 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-17 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-26 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-23 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-25 d. . . . . . . . . . . . IV-17 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specifications. . . . . . . . . . . IV-17 d. . IV-23 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. .MCM 2008 Page f. . IV-26 xxvi . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . noncommissioned officer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

breach of arrest. . Text of statute. Sample specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-32 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-28 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-31 f. . . . . . . . . IV-28 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-32 d. . . . . . . . IV-33 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-34 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-37 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-32 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. IV-33 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and escape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-32 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 99—Misbehavior before the enemy . . IV-33 c. Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . . Lesser included offense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-31 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-26 b. Sample specification. . Article 98—Noncompliance with procedural rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specifications. . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . IV-28 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-32 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-33 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-35 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-36 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-32 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specifications. . . . . Article 96—Releasing prisoner without proper authority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . IV-33 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . MCM 2008 Page a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-32 c. . . . . . . . . IV-27 19. IV-36 24. . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-32 e. . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . IV-31 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-31 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 100—Subordinate compelling surrender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-27 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-32 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-26 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . Text of statute. . . . . . IV-36 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-26 c. IV-36 f. . IV-37 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-27 e. . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. . . . . . . . . . IV-30 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 97—Unlawful detention . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-37 xxvii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-30 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-33 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-30 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-28 b. . . . . . . . . IV-32 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-32 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 95—Resistance. . IV-32 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-31 b. Text of statute. . . Elements. . . . . . flight. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-31 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . .

. . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . IV-43 30. . . . IV-38 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 105—Misconduct as a prisoner . . . . . . . . IV-43 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-43 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-39 f. . . . . . . . . . Article 102—Forcing a safeguard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-40 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-38 26. . . . . . IV-44 30a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-39 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-40 28. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-43 a. . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . IV-37 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-38 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-37 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-39 c. . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-38 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-38 f. . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-44 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-42 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-42 c. . . . . . . . . . Article 103—Captured or abandoned property . Lesser included offenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-40 d. . . . . . . . . IV-41 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-44 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-38 b. . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-39 e. . . . . . .MCM 2008 Page e. . . IV-38 e. . . . . . . . . . . IV-40 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 101—Improper use of countersign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-39 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-43 b. . . . . . . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . IV-39 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-44 xxviii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-43 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . IV-39 c. . Lesser included offense. Article 104—Aiding the enemy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mandatory punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-42 a. . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-41 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-41 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 106a—Espionage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 106—Spies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-38 d. . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-41 a. . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specifications. . IV-44 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-42 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-39 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-38 a. . . . . . . . IV-42 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-42 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-44 c.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . or destruction . . . . . . . . . . IV-54 xxix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-48 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 108—Military property of the United States—sale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . IV-49 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-47 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-45 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-54 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-50 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-52 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-50 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 111–Drunken or reckless operation of vehicle. . . . . . . . . . . . spoilage. . . . . . . . . . . IV-51 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-49 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . damage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-50 34. . or vessel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-50 a. . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. Lesser included offenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 110—Improper hazarding of vessel . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-47 c. . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . IV-47 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-53 e. . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . Explanation. . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-46 c. . . . IV-52 c. . . . IV-50 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . or wrongful disposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-52 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-46 a. . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-50 e. . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. Article 107—False official statements . . . . . IV-47 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . IV-46 e. . . destruction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-51 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-46 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-46 31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-52 d. . . . IV-50 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 109—Property other than military property of the United States—waste. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . IV-46 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-44 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-46 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . MCM 2008 Page a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-53 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 112—Drunk on duty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-54 36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . aircraft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-47 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specification. . . . IV-54 b. . . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. loss. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . IV-49 b. . . . . . . . . . . . IV-48 e. . . IV-49 c. . IV-45 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-47 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-51 e. . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-47 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-49 33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . IV-59 40. . . Sample specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-60 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-58 d. . . . . IV-62 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-57 38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-54 37. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-60 c. IV-61 42. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-59 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . etc. . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specifications. . . . . . IV-57 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-62 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-55 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-61 a. . . . . . . . . . . of controlled substances . . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-60 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-61 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-58 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . IV-60 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-62 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-59 f. . . . . . . . . IV-60 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-62 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. Article 113—Misbehavior of sentinel or lookout . IV-54 e. . . . . IV-55 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-60 41. . . . . . . . . IV-61 c. . . . . . . . Article 116—Riot or breach of peace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-58 e. . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 117—Provoking speeches or gestures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-55 d. . . . . . . . . . . . IV-54 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-54 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 112a—Wrongful use. . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . possession. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specification. IV-58 a. . . . . . . . . IV-59 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-55 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-59 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-59 a. Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-61 b. . . . . IV-62 xxx . . . . . . . . . . . Article 115—Malingering . . . . . . . IV-60 b. . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-61 e. . . IV-56 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-62 a. . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-61 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-59 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-59 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . IV-58 b. . . . . .MCM 2008 Page c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 114—Dueling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-59 39. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-64 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-85 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . IV-65 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-64 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-62 b. . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-78 g. . . . . . . . .. . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . IV-84 b. . . . . . IV-67 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . Maximum punishment. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . IV-84 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-66 44a. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-65 f. . Sample specifications. . . . . . . . . . Article 121—Larceny and wrongful appropriation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-64 c. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . Article 120a—Stalking . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-77 f. . . . . IV-66 b. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . IV-67 e. . . . . . . . . . . . IV-64 44. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . Sample Specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-64 b. . . . . . . .. . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-84 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . IV-62 43. . . . . IV-84 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specification.. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-66 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Lesser included offenses. . . . .--Death or injury of an unborn child . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-84 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 118—Murder . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . .. . . . . . . . IV-76 e. . . . .. . . IV-68 45. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-72 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-89 47. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . IV-84 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . IV-63 d. . . . . Article 120—Rape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . Article 119a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-84 b. . . . . . . . IV-78 45a. . . . . . . . . . IV-84 46. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-62 c. IV-89 xxxi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-66 c. . . . IV-88 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Additional lesser included offenses. . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-64 a. . . . . . . . . IV-85 d. . . . ... . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-62 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . . . ... . . . . . . IV-65 d. Article 119—Manslaughter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and other sexual misconduct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sexual assault. . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-88 e. . . . . . . . . . IV-68 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-68 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offenses.. . . . . . IV-68 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-76 d. . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. Article 122—Robbery . . . . . . . . . . IV-84 c. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . MCM 2008 Page f. . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-96 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-96 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-90 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . IV-96 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-96 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-94 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-89 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-96 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-92 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-97 53. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-91 49. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-96 b. . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-95 b. . Sample specifications. . . . Explanation. . IV-95 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 123a—Making. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-91 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-90 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-90 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-98 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 127—Extortion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . draft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-97 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-96 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 125—Sodomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-92 b. . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-95 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . Text of statute. . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . IV-95 c. . . drawing. . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-90 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 126—Arson . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . or uttering check. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-98 xxxii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-96 a. . IV-91 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-93 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-96 52. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-92 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-94 50. . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-94 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 124—Maiming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-97 e. . . . . . . . . . IV-89 b. . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . IV-96 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-95 51. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-98 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-95 f. . . . Elements. . . . . . . IV-97 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specification. . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . IV-90 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-90 48.MCM 2008 Page a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . or order without sufficient funds . . . . . IV-90 c. . . . . . . . . . . Article 123—Forgery . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-95 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-89 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-98 b. Sample specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-98 54. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 132—Frauds against the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-98 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . IV-105 d. . . Explanation. . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 128—Assault . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . Article 130—Housebreaking . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . IV-98 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-107 b. IV-111 xxxiii . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . IV-111 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-106 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-108 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-109 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-109 59. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-107 58. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . Lesser included offense. . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . Elements. Article 133—Conduct unbecoming an officer and gentleman . IV-105 f. . . IV-107 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 131—Perjury . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-104 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specifications. Elements. . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-105 a. . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . IV-111 d. . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . IV-107 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-111 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-102 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 129—Burglary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-105 57. . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-105 e. . . . . . . . . . . . MCM 2008 Page d. . . . . . . IV-105 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-105 56. . . . . . . . . . . IV-103 a. IV-107 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-111 b. . . IV-105 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-103 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . . . . . IV-98 e. . . . . . IV-103 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-105 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-109 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-111 c. . . . IV-104 f. IV-103 55. . . . . . . IV-111 f. . . . . . . . Sample specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-98 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specification. . . IV-102 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-105 c. . . . . . . IV-98 c. . . . IV-107 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-104 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . IV-105 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . IV-99 d. . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-111 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-117 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . . . . . . . . IV-114 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-116 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-114 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-116 c. . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-116 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . arson. IV-117 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-114 f. . . . . . . . . Article 134—(Bribery and graft) . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . IV-115 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-116 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . IV-114 d.. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . Sample specifications. . . . . . IV-117 a. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . IV-114 d. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-114 c. . IV-116 66. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-116 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. . . . . . . . . .. . . IV-114 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-114 b. . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . IV-116 65. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sodomy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MCM 2008 Page 60. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 134—(Bigamy) . . . . . . . . IV-115 e. . Maximum punishment. . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-116 f. . . . . . . . . IV-117 c. . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-115 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-118 xxxiv . . . . . . . IV-115 d. . . . . . . .. . . . . or housebreaking) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-115 63. IV-112 61. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-114 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-112 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-115 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. robbery. . . . . . . . . . IV-116 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 134—(Assault—with intent to commit murder. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . burglary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . Article 134—General article . . . . . . . . Article 134—(Abusing public animal) . . . . . . Deleted – see Appendix 27. . voluntary manslaughter. . . . . .. . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-115 a. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . Explanation. IV-116 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . IV-116 e. . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rape. . . . . . IV-114 62. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-115 64. Lesser included offenses. . . . . . . . .. . IV-117 67. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-116 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . Article 134—(Burning with intent to defraud) . IV-111 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-116 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . IV-117 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-117 f. . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 134—(Adultery) . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . IV-114 b. . . . . .

. . IV-120 b. . . . . . . . . . IV-118 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-120 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . IV-121 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-119 69. . . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-122 d. Article 134—(Cohabitation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-120 a. . Explanation. Lesser included offense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 134—(Child endangerment) . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-118 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-118 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 134—(Correctional custody—offenses against) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-118 a. . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-118 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. . IV-118 a. . . . . . Article 134—(Check. . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-121 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-120 70. . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-122 xxxv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-122 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-119 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . IV-118 68a. . . . . . . . . . Article 134—(Debt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dishonorably failing to pay) . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-120 c. . Text of statute. . . . . . MCM 2008 Page d. . . . . . . . . IV-120 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . IV-121 a. . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-121 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-121 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-120 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-121 b. . . . . . . . . . IV-121 c. . . . . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . Article 134—(Disloyal statements) . . . . . . . . . . . IV-120 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-118 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-119 f. . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-120 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-118 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-118 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-120 f. . . . . . . . . . . . IV-118 c. . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-118 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . worthless. . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-121 72. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-120 a. Lesser included offense. . . . . . . . . IV-118 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-121 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-121 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . IV-121 b. . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wrongful) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-121 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . making and uttering—by dishonorably failing to maintain funds) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-121 71. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-118 68. . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-122 d. . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-123 77. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . IV-123 e. . . . . Text of statute. . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-123 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-125 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-124 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . Lesser included offense. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . IV-123 75. . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . IV-123 a. . . . . . . IV-122 e. . . IV-123 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-122 73. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . obtaining services under) . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-123 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-125 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . IV-123 b.. . . . . . . . . . Article 134—(False swearing) . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment.MCM 2008 Page f. . . . . . . . . . IV-123 f. . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . IV-122 a. . IV-123 d. . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-124 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-122 74. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-123 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . IV-124 78. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specification. IV-124 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-125 79. . . . . . . . . . . IV-125 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . drunkenness) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. IV-125 xxxvi . . .. . . . . . . . . . Article 134—(Drunk prisoner) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-122 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . IV-123 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 134—(False pretenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-125 a. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specifications. Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . IV-123 d. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . IV-124 b. . . . . . . IV-123 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-123 76. . Lesser included offense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-123 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . IV-124 a. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-123 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 134—(Drinking liquor with prisoner) . . . . . . . . IV-123 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . IV-123 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-124 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-122 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . IV-123 e. . . . IV-122 c. . . . . . . . . . . Article 134—(Drunkenness—incapacitation for performance of duties through prior wrongful indulgence in intoxicating liquor or any drug) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-125 b. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 134—(Disorderly conduct. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 134—(False or unauthorized pass offenses) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-123 c. . . . . . . . . . . . IV-125 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 134—(Firearm. . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-126 b. . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-128 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-126 e. . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-126 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-128 b. . . . . . discharging—through negligence) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-126 82. . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . IV-125 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-126 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . IV-128 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-128 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-127 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . discharging—willfully. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-128 e. . . . . . . Sample specification. IV-128 xxxvii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 134—(Fraternization) . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-128 f. Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-126 d. . . . . . . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-127 e. . . . IV-125 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-126 e. . . . . . . . . . . negligent) . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-128 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-126 81. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. . . . . . . . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . IV-127 d. IV-127 a. . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-128 85. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-126 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MCM 2008 Page a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-126 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-126 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . under such circumstances as to endanger human life) . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-127 a. . . . . . . . . . IV-126 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 134—(Fleeing scene of accident) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-127 b. . . . Article 134—(Firearm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-128 c. . . . . . . . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. IV-128 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-126 80. . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 134—(Homicide. . . . . Article 134—(Gambling with subordinate) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-127 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-128 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-126 f. . . Lesser included offense. . . . . . . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-128 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-127 83. . . . . . . . . IV-126 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-126 a. . IV-127 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-125 c. . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . IV-127 c. . IV-127 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-126 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-128 84. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . IV-129 e. IV-130 f. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . or petty officer.. . . .. . . . . . . . . . IV-130 e. .. . Elements. . Explanation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . Sample specification. ... . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . .. . . Text of statute. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 134—(Indecent language) . IV-129 f. . warrant. . . . . . . . . . IV-130 92. . . . . . . . . . . . IV-129 89. . . IV-131 e. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . Elements. . . . . . . . . . IV-129 88.. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-129 a. . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . ... . . . . . . . .. . ... . . . .. . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-130 b. . . . . . . . IV-130 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . secreting. . . IV-130 c. .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-130 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 134—(Mail: taking. . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-131 d. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . Text of statute. . . . .. . . . IV-129 b. . . . . . . . . . IV-130 91. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . .. IV-129 b. . . . . Article 134—(Mails: depositing or causing to be deposited obscene matters in) IV-132 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . IV-131 94. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . IV-131 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . IV-130 a. . . . . IV-130 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . noncommissioned. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-130 e. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 134—(Jumping from vessel into the water) . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . destroying. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-131 93. . . .. . . IV-129 f. . . . . IV-129 86. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. IV-129 a. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. . . . . . .. . . . . . . or an agent or official) . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. ..MCM 2008 Page d. . . . . . Deleted – see Appendix 27. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . IV-130 90. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . IV-129 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . Explanation.. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . IV-130 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . IV-131 f. . . . .. . . . . IV-131 e. .. . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . opening. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. .. Sample specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . Article 134—(Kidnapping) . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . Lesser included offense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . IV-132 xxxviii . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-129 c.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-131 f. . . . .. . . Maximum punishment. .. . . . . . . . . . Sample specification. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . Deleted – see Appendix 27.. . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-129 c. . . . . . . . . . IV-131 a. Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . Deleted – see Appendix 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-130 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . . . .. IV-129 87. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . or stealing) .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-130 d. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . Article 134—(Impersonating a commissioned. . . . . . IV-131 c. . . . . IV-129 d. . . . . . .. IV-130 b. . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .

IV-132 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-134 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-135 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-134 c. IV-135 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-132 c. . . . . . . . IV-136 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-133 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-132 b. . . . . . . Art 134 (Wrongful interference with an adverse administrative proceeding) IV-133 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . IV-135 e. Violation of) . . . . . . . Article 134—(Misprision of serious offense) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-136 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-136 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-133 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-133 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-134 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . Sample specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-132 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . IV-135 97a. Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-134 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-135 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . IV-134 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-134 97. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 134—(Obstructing justice) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-136 xxxix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . . . . . . . IV-133 b. . . . . . . . . . . IV-135 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-133 96. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-134 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 134—(Parole. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 134—(Pandering and prostitution) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-132 d. Lesser included offense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . IV-135 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-133 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-132 95. IV-132 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-136 e. Explanation. . . . MCM 2008 Page b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-133 d. . . . . . . Article 134—(Perjury: subornation of) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . IV-132 e. . . . . . IV-136 e. . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-133 e. . IV-133 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . IV-132 f. Lesser included offenses. Text of statute. . . . . IV-136 a. . . . . . . IV-133 96a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . IV-136 98. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . IV-136 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. IV-133 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specification. . . IV-133 c. Lesser included offense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-135 b. . . . .

. . Elements. . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-138 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-137 100a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . IV-138 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-137 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-137 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. . . IV-138 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . or destroying) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-138 a. . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. Maximum punishment. Article 134—(Quarantine: medical. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 134—(Public record: altering. . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . obliterating. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-137 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-136 d. . . . . . . . . . . . removing. . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . concealing. . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . or disposal of property to prevent) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-138 103. . Sample specification. . . . . IV-138 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mutilating. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. .MCM 2008 Page f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . breaking) . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 134—(Self-injury without intent to avoid service) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . breaking) . IV-136 f. IV-138 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . Article 134—(Restriction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 134—(Seizure: destruction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . removal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . IV-136 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-138 d. . IV-137 b. . . . . . IV-137 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-138 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-138 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-138 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-137 101. . . . . IV-139 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-137 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-137 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. IV-136 e. . . . . . . . . . IV-137 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-138 103a. . . . IV-138 c. . . . . . . IV-136 100. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-136 a. . . . . . . . . . . . IV-138 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-137 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-138 f. . . . . . . . . . . Article 134—(Requesting commission of an offense) . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-137 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-138 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-136 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 134—(Reckless endangerment) . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-137 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-138 102. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-136 99. . . . . . . . . . . . IV-137 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-138 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . . . . . . . IV-139 xl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . IV-139 d. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-142 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . IV-140 d. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . IV-143 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. IV-141 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . IV-142 109. . . . . IV-142 f. IV-141 f. Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . Article 134—(Threat or hoax designed or intended to cause panic or public fear) . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-140 f. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-139 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . IV-141 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . Article 134—(Threat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-141 e. . . . . . . . . . . . IV-141 107. . . . . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . IV-140 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-141 108. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-142 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . Article 134—(Soliciting another to commit an offense) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . IV-142 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 134—(Testify: wrongful refusal) . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . IV-143 110. . . . . IV-139 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . buying. . . . . . . . . . . . IV-140 105. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-141 d. . . . . . . . . . . IV-141 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-140 e. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . Article 134—(Stolen property: knowingly receiving. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-140 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-141 b. . . . IV-140 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . IV-140 106. . . IV-140 a. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-141 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-143 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-141 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . IV-141 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . IV-141 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-142 b.. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . IV-143 xli . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-139 a. MCM 2008 Page f. . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-140 b. IV-141 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-141 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 134—(Straggling) . IV-140 f. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . IV-139 104. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . communicating) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . IV-140 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-139 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-141 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-142 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . concealing) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 134—(Sentinel or lookout: offenses against or by) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specifications. . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. Maximum punishment. . . . . . V-2 xlii . . . . . . V-2 3. . . . IV-144 d. . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. . . Sample specification. . . . . V-1 g. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Relationship of nonjudicial punishment to administrative corrective measures. .. . . . . . . . . . . IV-144 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commander. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . . .MCM 2008 Page a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-144 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-144 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V-1 a. . . . . . . . . . . . Limitations on nonjudicial punishment. . . . Text of statute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . Effect of errors. . . ribbon. . . . . . . . . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-144 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . Article 134—(Wearing unauthorized insignia. . . . . . . . IV-144 a. . . . . badge. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . V-2 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . decoration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V-2 i. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-144 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . Who may impose nonjudicial punishment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . V-2 2. . . V-1 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Policy. . . . . . . . . . . . IV-145 f. . . .. . . . . . . . . . V-2 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-143 f. . . . . . . . Text of statute. . . . . Article 134—(Weapon: concealed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-144 f. . . . . Lesser included offenses. . V-1 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V-2 h. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. . . . . IV-144 112. . . . . . IV-144 e. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . V-2 c. . . Authority. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . . . . . Purpose. .. . . . . . . . . Sample specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V-1 f. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-143 d. . . IV-143 b. . . . . . . . . . Elements. . Explanation. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . IV-145 PART V NONJUDICIAL PUNISHMENT PROCEDURE 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements. . Maximum punishment. . Elements. carrying) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V-1 e. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-144 c. . . . . . . Principal assistant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V-2 4. . . . . device. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. IV-144 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V-1 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-145 d. . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . IV-143 111. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-144 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Applicable standards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-144 a. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . IV-144 d. . . . . IV-144 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-145 e. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Right to demand trial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Article 134—(Unlawful entry) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum punishment. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . Minor offenses. . . . . . . . .. .. . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . IV-143 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV-143 c. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . or lapel button) . . Officer in charge. IV-144 113. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser included offense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V-3 d. . . V-7 6. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Uniform Code of Military Justice 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V-8 f. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Charge Sheet (DD FORM 458) 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Authorized maximum punishments. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . Action by superior authority. . . . . . . . . . V-4 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V-9 Appendices 1. . . . . . . Effective date and execution of punishments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . V-9 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting aside. . . . . . V-4 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Notice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forms for Orders Convening Courts-Martial 7. . . . . . . DoD Directive 5525. . . . . . .. . . V-5 d.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Constitution of the United States—1787 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Memorandum of Understanding Between the Departments of Justice and Transportation (Coast Guard) Relating to the Investigations and Prosecution of Crimes Over Which the Two Departments Have Concurrent Jurisdiction 4. Time limit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V-8 a. . .. remission. . .. . V-2 b. .. . . . Subpoena (DD FORM 453) 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Punishments . . . . . . . . . . V-7 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . Punishments imposed on reserve component personnel while on inactive-duty training. . . . . . . . Format of appeal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V-8 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forms of Findings 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Who may act on appeal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V-7 g.. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V-8 d. . . . MCM 2008 Page a. . . . . . . . . . . Investigating Officer Report (DD FORM 457) 6. . . . . . . . . V-8 b. . . . . . . . V-8 c. . . . . . . . . . . Nonjudicial punishment accepted. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Suspension. . . . V-8 7.. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nature of punishment. . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . General limitations. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonjudicial punishment based on record of court of inquiry or other investigative body. . . . . . V-7 a. . . . . . Mitigation. . . . . . . . . V-4 a. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . Remission. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Decision by servicemember. . . . Records of nonjudicial punishment . . . . . . V-4 b. . . . . . . . Punishments imposed on reserve component personnel when ordered to active duty for disciplinary purposes. . Forms of Sentences xliii . .. Guide for General and Special Courts-Martial 9. . . . . . . . mitigation. .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . Appeals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Suspension. . . . . . . . . . . .. Legal review. . . . . . . V-8 e. . . . . . . . . . . Guide for Summary Courts-Martial 10. . . . . . . V-6 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . V-7 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and setting aside . . . . . .7 3. . . . . . . . . . . Limitations on combination of punishments. . . . . . . V-6 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . V-3 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

Guide for Preparation of Record of Trial by General Court-Martial and by Special Court-Martial When a Verbatim Record is Not Required 14. Punitive Articles Applicable to Sexual Assault Offenses Committed Prior to 1 October 2007 xliv . Historical Executive Orders 26. Analysis of Nonjudicial Punishment Procedure 25. Analysis of Rules for Courts-Martial 22. Maximum Punishment Chart 13. Guide for Preparation of Record of Trial by General Court-Martial and by Special Court-Martial When a Verbatim Record is Required 15. Analysis of Punitive Articles 24. The Joint Service Committee on Military Justice (JSC) 27.MCM 2008 12.M. Forms for Action 17. Waiver/Withdrawal of Appellate Rights in General and Special Courts-Martial Subject to Review by a Court of Military Review (DD Form 2330) 20. Waiver/Withdrawal of Appellate Rights in General Courts-Martial Subject to Examination in the Office of the Judge Advocate General (DD Form 2331) 21. UCMJ. Forms for Court-Martial Orders 18.C. Record of Trial by Summary Court-Martial (DD Form 2329) 16. Analysis of the Military Rules of Evidence 23. and R. 1109 (DD Form 455) 19. Report of Proceedings to Vacate Suspension of a General Court-Martial or of a Special Court-Martial Sentence Including a Bad-Conduct Discharge or Confinement for One Year Under Article 72.

“The Roles and Responsibilities of the provost courts shall be guided by the appropriate Joint Service Committee (JSC) on Military Justice. this Preamble. or regulations issued thereunder. or any other authority of the Government of the United States. the JSC is guided by DoD Directive other competent authority. United States (2007 edition). the United States Court of Appeals for the Military law consists of the statutes governing the Armed Forces. (Martial law). Cf. International law the jurisdiction exercised by commanders with includes the law of war. This (Military government). trial by military tribunals. (Military law). 4. See Part V of this the Rules for Courts-Martial. These supplementary materials do not constitute the official views of the Department of Defense. the Department of Justice. of the municipal law which regulates its military establishment.” principles of law and rules of procedures and evi. respect to nonjudicial punishment. and the inherent au. mittee (JSC) on Military Justice reviews the Manual (2) Military commissions and provost courts for for Courts-Martial and proposes amendments to the the trial of cases within their respective jurisdictions. and various appendices. ysis. (3) Courts of inquiry for the investigation of any Discussion matter referred to such court by competent authority. the constitutional powers of the President and rights or responsibilities that are binding on any person. The Manual shall be identified as “Manual for (b) Agencies.” Any jurisdiction is exercised include: amendments to the Manual made by Executive Or- (1) Courts-martial for the trial of offenses against der shall be identified as “2006” Amendments to the military law and..§ 551 (1982). and thereby to strengthen the (1) A government in the exercise of that branch national security of the United States. DoD Directive 5500. Exercise of military jurisdiction taining good order and discipline in the armed forces. has published supplementary scribe regulations governing courts of inquiry. Nature and purpose of military law military departments. and they do not constitute rules. and the Punitive Articles).17 includes provisions allowing dence prescribed for courts-martial. the 3. in conjunction with the Depart- ment of Homeland Security. Military jurisdiction is exercised by: military establishment. and (3) A belligerent occupying enemy territory. The supplementary materials do not create under. PART I PREAMBLE 1. other entity (including any authority of the Government of the I-1 . to assist in main- 2. the Punitive Articles. The purpose of military law is to promote justice. III. to promote efficiency and effectiveness in the (a) Kinds. Nonjudicial Punishment Procedures (Part I–V). for example. party. the Department of Homeland Security. See Article 135. These (4) Nonjudicial punishment proceedings of a materials consist of a Discussion (accompanying the Preamble. The Secretary concerned may pre. The Department of Defense. the law of war. the Mil- itary Rules of Evidence. Military law in- The sources of military jurisdiction include the cludes jurisdiction exercised by courts-martial and Constitution and international law. public participation in the annual review process. Structure and application of the Manual (2) A government temporarily governing the civil for Courts-Martial population within its territory or a portion of its territory through its military forces as necessity may The Manual for Courts-Martial shall consist of require. “2006” tial. 5 military establishment and regulations issued there- U. United States. an Anal- Manual.S. Department of Defense for consideration by the Subject to any applicable rule of international law or President on an annual basis. and IV of The Department of Defense Joint Service Com- this Manual for rules governing courts-martial. military commissions and 5500. in the case of general courts-mar.C. The agencies through which military Courts-Martial. the Rules for Courts-Martial. materials to accompany the Manual for Courts-Martial. commander under Article 15. Sources of military jurisdiction thority of military commanders. Manual for Courts-Martial.17. In conducting its an- to any regulations prescribed by the President or by nual review. See Parts II. of persons who by the law of war are subject to being the year the Executive Order was signed. Manual shall be applied consistent with the purpose (4) A government with respect to offenses against of military law.

published piecemeal. United States whether or not included in the definition of “agen. binding judicial precedents applicable to courts. 1917. 1969 and 1984).. The amendment to paragraph 4 of the Preamble is intended The 1995 amendment to paragraph 4 of the Preamble is to address the possibility of more frequent amendments to the intended to eliminate the practice of identifying the Manual for Manual and the arrival of the 21st century. with periodic amendments identified cy” in 5 U. the numbering and lettering of the edition should match that of 1921. however. Manual was published in its entirety sporadically (e. the relevant Executive order containing those amendments in its martial) which are based on sources of authority independent of entirety in a Manual appendix. new edition of the Manual. the supplementary materials. of itself.C. Amendments forth in the Executive Order or established by other legal authori. Failure to comply with matter set forth as “Changes” to the Manual.g. by a particular year. means that it is more appro- although these materials may refer to requirements in the rules set priately identified by the calendar year of edition. §551(1)). it was logical to identify the Manual by the I-2 . United States.S.¶4. 1951. 1949. calendar year of publication. made in a particular calendar year will be identified by publishing ties (for example. with amendments to it the most recent Executive Order included in the publication. In the event that Courts-Martial. As long as the multiple editions of the Manual are published in the same year. 1928. constitute error. The more frequent publication of a in the supplementary materials does not.

any explosive bomb. § 232(5) or command or an officer in charge except in Part V or 844(j). how- Rule 102. tration. or (1) “Article” refers to articles of the Uniform Code (E) The summary court-martial officer. 810(d).M. preliminary. the date on which the period begins shall not instruction that the case be treated as capital. all forms of high explosives. 504 concerning who may convene courts-martial. tion apply throughout this Manual. (11) “Explosive” means gunpowders. GENERAL PROVISIONS Rule 101. a military judge has not been detailed. unless the context indicates otherwise. mixture. (12) “Firearm” means any weapon which is de- II-1 . Definitions and rules of (C) The military judge when a request for trial by construction military judge alone has been approved under The following definitions and rules of construc. unless the context indicates otherwise. unless otherwise (D) The members of a special court-martial when expressly provided. 903. of Military Justice unless the context indicates (9) “Days.C. detonators. context: (b) Construction.C. depending on the to trial by court-martial. Rule 103. Scope.C.M.S. and any other compound. and any incendiary bomb The Uniform Code of Military Justice is set forth at Appendix 2. breakers). or device which is an ex- (5) “Commander” means a commissioned officer in plosive within the meaning of 18 U. or special court-martial.). in count. the period shall be in calendar days. the just determination of every proceeding relating (8) “Court-martial” includes. Unless otherwise speci- which a capital offense has been referred with an fied. a copy (a) Purpose. title (6) “Convening authority” includes a commissioned (a) In general. number of days. or similar device.C. fire bomb. PART II RULES FOR COURTS–MARTIAL CHAPTER I. the Rules for Courts-Martial (R. grenade. and. Discussion smokeless powders. R.” When a period of time is expressed in a otherwise. which offense death remains an authorized punish- ment under R.M. These rules are intended to provide for may be made by handwriting.C. death is an authorized punishment under the code and Part IV of this Manual or under the law of war. Purpose and construction ever made. fuzes (other than electrical circuit Justice. and Discussion appellate procedures and activities. expressly provided. and the elimination of unjustifiable expense (B) The military judge when a session of a gen- and delay. (7) “Copy” means an accurate reproduction. whenever sors in command. blasting (4) “Code” refers to the Uniform Code of Military materials. (b) Title.M. These rules shall be construed to (A) The military judge and members of a general secure simplicity in procedure. or grenade. unless the context indicates (3) “Capital offense” means an offense for which otherwise. powders used for blasting. missile. but the date on which the period ends shall the case of a rehearing or new or other trial. fairness in adminis. (2) “Capital case” means a general court-martial to unless otherwise specified. supplementary. or similar device. eral or special court-martial is conducted without members under Article 39(a). (10) “Detail” means to order a person to perform a specific temporary duty. These rules govern the procedures officer in command for the time being and succes- and punishments in all courts-martial and. Whenever necessary and feasible. These rules may be known and cited as See R. and other detonating agents. for count as one day.

several persons. 801. “writing” includes printing and typewriting and re- (A) The accused and any defense or associate or productions of visual symbols by photographing. acts on that person’s initiative. in a geographic sense. ance with Article 26. or things. §§ 1 through 5 and in 10 U. The word “county” includes a parish. “Vessel” as including all means of water transportation. multigraphing. include corporations.C. or application. “Company” or “association” as including successors in the Navy and Coast Guard who is a judge and assigns. organizations. § 3. time of. counsel when acting on behalf of the accused with § 2. Words denoting number. and joint stock companies. parties. 1 U. partnerships. The word “company” or “association”. Except as otherwise expressly words used in the present tense include the future provided. or any other respect to the court-martial in question. (14) “Members. gender. Discussion tion connotes activities. (16) “Party. Guam. § 801 and the like in which elements of more than one (Article 1) are set forth below.” The members of a court-martial In determining the meaning of any Act of Congress. as well as individuals.C. “the military judge” societies.” and so forth. a general or special court-martial detailed in accord. “officer” includes any person authorized by law to tial to which charges in a case have been referred perform the duties of the office. words importing the masculine gender include the feminine as well.C. and equivalent subdivision of a State or Territory of the United States.S.M.R.C.M.M.S. this title is enacted. in the context of a summary court-martial as well as the present. motion. “military judge” includes the summary court-martial the words “insane” and “insane person” and officer or in the context of a special court-martial “lunatic” shall include every idiot.” Party. the 1004(c)(6) and of implementing the applicable para. and person non compos mentis.” For purpose of R.C. (B) Any trial or assistant trial counsel represent. the Canal (20) The definitions and rules of construction in 1 Zone. and the Air National Guard of “time of war” exists for purposes of R. and means the principal legal advisor of a command § 5.C. 1 U. (13) “Joint” in connection with military organiza. in the context of parties to a “oath” includes affirmation.C. American Samoa. § 101. 10 U. the words “person” and “whoever” without a military judge. (17) “Staff judge advocate” means a judge advocate The word “vehicle” includes every description of carriage or other artificial contrivance used or capable of being so designated in Army.S. § 101.C. advocate. the Army Na- existence of hostilities warrants a finding that a tional Guard of the United States. Definitions (19) “War. or otherwise. the United States. Unless other. or words of similar a request.S. “signature” or “subscription” includes a mark when for trial. manifolding. as a means of transportation on water. without the need for in like manner as if these last-named words. lunatic. respect to the court-martial in question. In addition to the definitions in sections 1-5 of title 1. when used in reference to a corporation. “time (1) “United States”. “Territory” means any Territory organized after 1004(c)(6) and Parts IV and V of this Manual. operations. (3) “Possessions” includes the Virgin Islands. shall be deemed to embrace the (18) “sua sponte” means that the person involved words “successors and assigns of such company or association”. used. Air Force. the president. import. were expressed. means the of war” means a period of war declared by Congress States and the District of Columbia.S. 103(12) signed to or may be readily converted to expel any U. or Marine Corps. firms.C. as a means of transportation on land.C. insane person. wise indicated in the context. following definitions apply in this title: graphs of Parts IV and V of this Manual only. military service of the same nation participate. means the military judge detailed to the court-mar. and the Guano islands. so long as it remains a Territory. unless the context indicates otherwise— are the voting members detailed by the convening words importing the singular include and apply to authority. §§ 101 and projectile by the action of an explosive. and “sworn” includes court-martial. assistant defense counsel and agents of the defense mimeographing. ing the United States. associations. “Vehicle” as including all means of land transportation. so long as II-2 . §§ 1 through 5. “County” as including “parish. the National Guard.S. words importing the plural (15) “Military judge” means the presiding officer of include the singular. and so forth. 10 U. (2) Except as provided in section 101(1) of title 32 for or the factual determination by the President that the laws relating to the militia. the person making the same intended it as such. companies. § 1.S. § 4. and agents of the trial counsel The word “vessel” includes every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used or capable of being when acting on behalf of the trial counsel with used. and 10 U. means: affirmed.

(18)-(21). with respect to mat. it means the executive part of the depart. National Guard. active members authorized to be in an armed force. and the District of Columbia. activities. and the Canal Zone. and clude allowances. MCM. (18) “Grade” means a step or degree. respect to matters concerning the Coast Guard when it is not and (31)-(33) reflect the adoption of terminology which.”] (B) the Secretary of the Navy. while in the active (C) is organized. (A) is an air force. 1003(c)(2). retired pay. duty. (4) “Armed forces” means the Army. active and inactive. and stores (B) is trained. MCM. and has its officers appointed. R. tivities. (D) is federally recognized. and Coast Guard. A choice has been (10) “Army National Guard” means that part of the made where established uses conflict. equipment.” Paragraph 126i.” See paragraphs 4c. armed. with respect to mate”) prescribed for members in the same rating or other cate- matters concerning the Air Force. and grade refer to the current definition of “grade. (28) “Shall” is used in an imperative sense. at the 13c(1). ferred to officer personnel by ’rank’ and enlisted personnel by “grade. the sixteenth clause of section 8. commission or warrant in a warrant officer grade. of the Constitution. scale of office or military rank that is established and designated and all field headquarters. a and inactive. grade. at a school designated as a service school by law partly at Federal expense. Navy. and has its officers appointed. 1969 (Rev). with seaman apprentice). the Secretary of Defense. (15) “Commissioned officer” includes a commissioned (5) “Department”. department. terms defined have been most commonly used. numbers. MCM 1951 re- seat of government. as commonly and tradition- matters concerning the Army. Puerto (21) “Authorized strength” means the largest number of Rico. installations. 103(20) they remain possessions. enactment of the code and. and functions under the control or supervision of the (17) “Enlisted member” means a person in an enlisted Secretary of the department. MCM. 16b. with respect to or seniority is clearly intended. same terms in the code and current and prior Manual provisions. 126i. “Rate” means the name (such as “chief boatswain’s (C) the Secretary of the Air Force. tions. It includes full-time training the sixteenth clause of section 8. 126d. represents (9) “National Guard” means the Army National Guard the closest practicable approximation of the ways in which the and the Air National Guard. (D) is federally recognized. tional field. ac. and the Coast Guard mate”) prescribed for members of an armed force in an occupa- when it is operating as a service in the Navy. members of the Army National Guard. differ from usage of the (6) “Executive part of the department” means the exec. Part IV. Army. special pay. the Department of the Navy. [Definitions established in clauses (18) and (19) post-date the ments. on an inactive status list. reserve components. article 1. but does not include any Territory or the reserve component of the Air Force all of whose members are Commonwealth. as the case may be. and equivalent pay. (20) “Rating” means the name (such as “boatswain’s ters concerning the Navy. and seniority.C. (25) “Active status” means the status of a reserve com- (12) “Air National Guard” means that part of the organ- missioned officer. the who is not in the inactive Army National Guard or inactive Air Canal Zone. paragraphs Navy. and 84c. as a grade by law or regulation. forces. R. including those of the military depart. and 168. ized militia of the several States and Territories. a component. utive part of the Department of the Army. and or by the Secretary of the military department concerned. and attendance. Air Force. Air Force. (14) “Officer” means commissioned or warrant officer. and equipped wholly or incentive pay. armed. though operating as a service in the Navy. as a result. clause (19) above. 1984. and gory who are in the same grade (such as chief petty officer or (D) the Secretary of Homeland Security. and the Department of the refers to the MCM. in a graduated ment. (23)-(30). and the District of Columbia. 1951. see also (8) “Secretary concerned” means— paragraph 126i. “Rank” as defined in 10 U. (27) “Pay” includes basic pay. a grade. under of all kinds.C. rank.C.M. or Department of the Air Force. The words II-3 . members of the Air National Guard. article 1. when used with respect to a military warrant officer. ally used. 1951 provision regarding “lineal precedence. or any other category of the armed forces. including the executive parts of the military departments.M. 83c(2). other than a commissioned warrant officer. and equipped wholly or military service. and functions under the control or supervision of (19) “Rank” means the order of precedence among members of the armed forces. (7) “Military departments” means the Department of the 1951. retainer pay. but does not in- partly at Federal expense. under military service of the United States. (22) “Active duty” means full-time duty in the active (B) is trained. (15).S. (23) “Active duty for a period of more than 30 days” (11) “Army National Guard of the United States” means means active duty under a call or order that does not specify a period of 30 days or less. (13) “Air National Guard of the United States” means (29) “May” is used in a permissive sense. When used with respect to the De. undefined in the source statutes restated in this title. (26) “Supplies” includes material. § 101. means the executive part of the department and all (16) “Warrant officer” means a person who holds a field headquarters. installa. or in the Retired Re- that— serve. the reserve component of the Army all of whose members are (24) “Active service” means service on active duty.] organized militia of the several States and Territories. [Note: The definitions in clauses (3). annual training duty. Marine Corps. Except where lineal position (A) the Secretary of the Army. (C) is organized. that— branch. of the Constitution. partment of Defense. Department of the See Articles 1(5) and 25(d)(1). MCM. forces. Puerto Rico. reserve components. the Marine Corps. (A) is a land force.

Unlawful command influence Coast Guard serving in or having the grade of admiral. .” mean that no person is required. reprimand. appointment. as defined in (39) “Dental officer” means an officer of the Dental section 2014(y) of title 42. (36) Repealed. officers of that armed force. with respect to the findings or sen- of the Coast Guard by the Secretary of Homeland Security. the Marine Corps. United States Code. of national security. and Air Force and. with respect to an enlistment. or regulation Corps of the Army. (7) “Midshipman” means a midshipman of the United serves by an authority designated by the Secretary concerned and States Naval Academy and any other midshipman on active duty performed by them on a voluntary basis in connection with the in the naval service.S. to serve as the Judge Advocate with respect to any other exercise of the functions of General of the Coast Guard. and the Coast Guard conduct of the proceedings. the court-martial or tribunal or such persons in the (2) The Navy. or (15) “National security” means the national defense and an officer of the Air Force designated as a dental officer. and States Coast Guard Academy. Article 1. who are serving on active duty. military judge. rear admiral. 103(15). with respect to an enlistment. accused. or office. or [NOTE: The Secretary of Homeland Security has designated the Chief Counsel. and sworn to by another. Judge Advocates General of the Army. ment. (B) an officer of the Air Force or the Marine Corps (37) “Active-duty list” means a single list for the Army. means enlistment. Marine Corps. this title (article 26).S. (B) special additional duties authorized for Re. grade.] (11) “Law specialist” means a commissioned officer of (34) “Reserve”. as the case may interest other than an official interest in the prosecution of the be. (33) “Regular”. Navy. or Navy. Corps of the Army or Navy. with respect to the appointment of a legal duties for a command. who is designated as a judge advocate. (1) Convening authorities and commanders. appropriate authority. (41) “Flag officer” means an officer of the Navy or Rule 104. or brigadier general.C. vice (a) General prohibitions. or Navy. by any (3) “Commanding officer” includes only commissioned officers.C. [See also R. prescribed training or maintenance activities of the units to which (8) “Military” refers to any or all of the armed forces. to require protection against unauthorized disclosure for reasons or an officer in the Air Force designated as a medical officer. or (12) “Legal officer” means any commissioned officer of office held as a Reserve of an armed force. severally. appoint- the Coast Guard designated for special duty (law). (9) “Accuser” means a person who signs and swears to It includes those duties when performed by Reserves in their charges. the Marine Corps. an official designated to serve as Judge Advocate General counsel thereof. appointment. member of the armed forces in a regular or reserve component. or Marine Corps serving in or having the grade of general. and (B) any restricted data.M. No person as one armed force.C. the Navy. other than officers described in (14) “Classified information” (A) means any informa- section 641 of this title.M. (10) “Military judge” means an official of a general or ment. or special court-martial detailed in accordance with section 826 of office in a regular component of an armed force. the convening authority or commander may censure. major general. No 10 U. subject to the code may attempt to coerce or. U. Corps of the Army. any person who directs that charges nominally be signed status as members of the National Guard. or office. (40) “General officer” means an officer of the Army. unauthorized means. and any other person who has an (32) “Spouse” means husband or wife. (13) “Judge Advocate” means— refers to his most recent appointment in the component that is (A) an officer of the Judge Advocate General’s neither a promotion nor a demotion. or the United law. or the Coast Guard designated as such by or permitted to do the act prescribed. influence the action of a court- (4) “Officer in charge” means a member of the Navy. . lieutenant general. or admonish a court-martial or other mil- except when the Coast Guard is operating as a service in the itary tribunal or any member.R. Air Force or Marine Corps (required to be maintained (C) an officer of the Coast Guard who is desig- under section 620 of this title) which contains the names of all nated as a law specialist.]. grade. or Coast Guard designated to perform (35) “Original”. Coast Guard. 103(20) “no person may . martial or any other military tribunal or any member II-4 . the United States Air Force Academy. tence adjudged by the court-martial or tribunal.” (5) “Superior commissioned officer” means a commis- (31) “Inactive-duty training” means— sioned officer superior in rank or command. appoint. (A) duty prescribed for Reserves by the Secretary (6) “Cadet” means a cadet of the United States Military concerned under section 206 of title 37 or any other provision of Academy. tion or material that has been determined by an official of the (38) “Medical officer” means an officer of the Medical United States pursuant to law. or commodore. grade. an Executive Order. means enlistment. when it is operating as a service in the Navy. shall be considered (2) All persons subject to the code. § 801. authorized. (30) “Includes” means “includes but is not limited to. Air Force. an officer of the Medical Corps of the Navy. an officer of the Dental Corps of the Navy. Definitions In this chapter: (1) “Judge Advocate General” means. they are assigned. grade. admiral. foreign relations of the United States.

(1) Evaluation of member or defense counsel. which shall ensure the absence of any command tary judge or counsel. Subsections (a)(1) and (2) of this rule do not prohibit action by Discussion the Judge Advocate General concerned under See paragraph 22 of Part IV concerning prosecuting violations of R. (a) Convening authorities and staff judge advocates. Direct communications: military judge. Subsections performance of duty as a military judge may be as (a)(1) and (2) of this rule do not prohibit statements prescribed in regulations of the Secretary concerned and instructions given in open session by the mili. approving. the manner in which such and procedural aspects of courts-martial. in reaching the findings or sentence in any judge detailed to a general court-martial. Article 37 under Article 98. Unless the general cused of an offense against civilian authority may be court-martial was convened by the President or the delivered. cerning the effectiveness. 106 thereof. (D) Offense. or with the Judge Advocate General. may prescribe. thority may not prepare or review any report con- (3) Exceptions. The staff judge advocate of any to be advanced in grade. counsel.M. to the civilian authority for Secretary concerned.M. or member of a court-mar. A member may be placed in restraint by mili- nor any member of the convening authority’s staff tary authorities for this purpose only upon receipt of may prepare or review any report concerning the a duly issued warrant for the apprehension of the effectiveness. or in determining whether a member of the command. In Convening authorities shall at all times communicate the preparation of an effectiveness. neither the convening authority trial.C. Subsections (a)(1) and (2) of military judge detailed to a special court-martial the rule do not prohibit general instructional or in. R. Delivery of military offenders to of any defense counsel because of the zeal with civilian authorities which such counsel represented any accused. military judge will be rated or evaluated upon the (B) Court-martial statements. Under such regulations as the Secretary concerned (2) Evaluation of military judge. When the military judge is normally courses are designed solely for the purpose of in. 103(17) for a definition of staff judge advocate. upon request. which re- case or the action of any convening.M. The convening au- judicial acts. fitness. (C) Professional supervision. which relates to the performance of duty as a mili- formational courses in military justice if such tary judge. or while serving as individual counsel. Subsection (a)(1) and (2) of this rule do not prohibit appropriate action against a per- son for an offense committed while detailed as a Rule 105. fitness. convening authorities and staff judge tial. or lates to the performance of duty as a military judge. in whole or in part for the purpose of determining (b) Among staff judge advocates and with the Judge whether a member of the armed forces is qualified Advocate General.C. influence in the rating or evaluation of the military judge’s judicial performance. command is entitled to communicate directly with signment or transfer of a member of the armed the staff judge advocate of a superior or subordinate forces. or efficiency of the military member or upon receipt of information establishing II-5 . directly with their staff judge advocates in matters ciency report or any other report or document used relating to the administration of military justice. or effi. among staff judge advocates (b) Prohibitions concerning evaluations. or in determining the as. duty of any such person as a member of a court- martial. rated or the military judge’s report is reviewed by structing personnel of a command in the substantive the convening authority. reviewing authority with respect to such authority’s (B) Special courts-martial. advocates. a member of the armed forces ac- (A) General courts-martial.C. or (B) Give a less favorable rating or evaluation Rule 106. armed forces should be retained on active duty. 109. or efficiency of a (A) Instructions. fitness. no person subject to the code may: Discussion (A) Consider or evaluate the performance of See R.

S. When a Judge Advocate General suspends a person from Discussion practice or the Court of Appeals for the Armed See Article 4 for the procedures to be followed.M. Challenges to these deci- (a) In general. (1) In general.M. or for the conduct of court-martial proceedings. and upon reasonable belief that such restraint al. Rules of professional conduct promulgated pur- is necessary. Dismissed officer’s right to Judge Advocate General concerned may upon good request trial by court-martial cause shown modify or revoke suspension. Copies of all rules of court issued under this violations of applicable ethical standards. conduct not inconsistent with this rule or this Manu- fense. Prior to imposing any discipline under this rule. Sanctions may include but delivery. The Rule 107. are not limited to indefinite suspension from practice in courts-martial and in the Courts of Criminal Ap- Discussion peals. general court-martial within a reasonable time.C. trial judge or appellate military judge to perform the cedures prescribed by the Judge Advocate General duties of the judge’s office. These rules and procedures prom- sons designated by the Judge Advocate General may ulgated pursuant to Article 6a are established to in- make rules of court not inconsistent with these rules vestigate and dispose of charges. trial judge or appellate military judge will be for- To discharge this responsibility each Judge Advo. Professional supervision of example. See also Article Forces disbars a person. including. Rule 108. Each Judge Advocate General is re- sions are more appropriately left to the appellate process. judge advocates. 1113(d)(2)(A)(ii) for the effect of such delivery on Judge Advocate General of the armed service of the execution of a court-martial sentence. eral may suspend that person from practice upon written notice and opportunity to be heard in writing.C. Such suspensions may only be imposed by the See R. impartiality. Complaints concerning a military proceedings governed by the code and this Manual. Allegations of judicial misconduct or been delegated. including. warded to the Judge Advocate General of the service cate General may prescribe rules of professional concerned or to a person designated by the Judge II-6 .R. such courts. matters relating to the incompetence. for Rule 109. sponsible for the professional supervision and disci- pline of military trial and appellate military judges. judges and appellate military judges are contained in § 1161(a)(3). rule shall be forwarded to the Judge Advocate Gen- eral concerned. allegations. Judicial misconduct includes any act or omis- and timely notice of the rule or who has not been sion that may serve to demonstrate unfitness for prejudiced under Article 59 by the absence of such further duty as a judge. Noncompliance with such proce- unfitness shall be investigated pursuant to the proce- dures shall not affect the validity of any rule of dures of this rule and appropriate action shall be court with respect to a party who has received actual taken. and other lawyers who practice in (3) Complaints. concerned or a person to whom this authority has (2) Policy. Erroneous decisions of a judge are not subject to investigation under this rule. but not limited to notice. that officer may apply for trial by subsection (c) of this rule. the subject of the proposed action must be provided notice and an opportunity to be heard. (b) Action after suspension or disbarment. 106 probable cause that the member committed an of. Rules of court (c) Investigation of judges.C. any Judge Advocate Gen- 75(c). The Judge Advocate General concerned and per. Such restraint may continue only for suant to this rule may include sanctions for such time as is reasonably necessary to effect the violations of such rules. Such information pertaining to the fitness of a military rules shall be disseminated in accordance with pro. Discussion The term “unfitness” should be construed broadly. Proce- If a commissioned officer of any armed force is dures to investigate complaints against military trial dismissed by order of the President under 10 U. and military judges and counsel misconduct of the judge.

C. Confidentiality protects the subject judge and the judiciary oral or written admonition or reprimand. taken as true. Upon receipt. or the per- son designated to receive complaints under subsec- Discussion tion (c)(3) of this rule will conduct or order an Complaints need not be made in any specific form. (c)(5)(A) of this rule. be senior to the by judges. ferred to the appropriate criminal investigative agency in accord- ance with Appendix 3 of this Manual. the individual designated to conduct the inquiry should. if An individual designated to receive complaints under this practicable. a former appellate military judge cial misconduct or unfitness for further service as a should be designated. a party. would constitute judi. Upon receipt of find- (A) In general. complaints. The Judge Ad. (B) Appropriate actions. minor professional disciplinary action may be reasonable promptness. R. (A) In general. taken or the complaint may be forwarded. nated to conduct the initial inquiry should. missing a complaint as unfounded. Prior to the commencement of an initial in- quiry. If practicable. judge. The individual designated to conduct complaints should be made under oath. lawyers. be an initial inquiry will be conducted. If the sub- of a service may be designated to receive complaints against ject of the complaint is an appellate military judge. The Judge Advocate gaged in judicial misconduct or is otherwise unfit General concerned may dismiss the complaint. more likely than not that the subject judge has en. Confidentiality also en- courages the reporting of allegations of judicial misconduct or Advocate General concerned will be notified prior to unfitness and permits complaints to be screened with the full taking minor professional disciplinary action or dis- cooperation of others. the individual desig- the news media relating to the conduct of a judge may also form the basis of a complaint. missed as unfounded. military trial judges. An initial inquiry is necessary if member of the same Court of Criminal Appeals as the subject of the complaint. The Judge when a complaint is not substantiated. at a minimum. judges under their jurisdiction. The Judge Advocate General concerned. be a military trial judge or an individual subsection should have judicial experience. a complaint will be screened by the Discussion Judge Advocate General concerned or by the indi- To avoid the type of conflict prohibited in Article 66(g). Such inquir. Complaints may be made the inquiry should. An initial inquiry is necessary ings and recommendations required by subsection to determine if the complaint is substantiated. Minor professional disciplinary Complaints under this subsection will be treated with confiden. If the the subject of a complaint from performing judicial complaint is not substantiated pursuant to subsection duties pending the outcome of any inquiry or inves. If the complaint is substanti- ies or investigations shall be conducted with ated.M. order for further service as a judge. if practicable. The chief trial judge with experience as a military trial judge. members of the subject of the complaint. the be notified that a complaint has been filed and that subject of the complaint will. the vidual designated in subsection (c)(3) of this rule to Judge Advocate General’s designee should not ordinarily be a receive complaints. A (c)(5) of this rule the Judge Advocate General con- complaint is substantiated upon finding that it is cerned will take appropriate action. to the Judge Advocate General concerned. the complaint. appoint an ethics commission II-7 . Complaints containing allegations of criminality should be re- (6) Action by the Judge Advocate General. late military judge. During the initial inquiry. an additional inquiry. vocate General concerned may temporarily suspend (D) Action following the initial inquiry. Reports in plaint is a military trial judge. court personnel. if practicable. 109(c)(6)(B) Advocate General concerned to receive such (B) Responsibility to conduct initial inquiry. have experience as an appel- (4) Initial action upon receipt of a complaint. The Judge Advocates General are responsible for the professional supervision and discipline of military trial and appellate military (5) Initial inquiry. with find- Discussion ings and recommendations. If the subject of the com- general public or members of the military community. the Judge Advocate General concerned shall (C) Due process. given notice and an opportunity to be heard. the complaint shall be dis- tigation conducted pursuant to this rule. action is defined as counseling or the issuance of an tiality. but if possible initial inquiry.

(B) Duties. The Secretary of Defense (7) The Ethics Commission. The commission will perform those duties assigned by the Judge Advocate General con- (C) Standard of proof. 109(c)(6)(B) to consider the complaint. II-8 . and convincing evidence. Prior to taking profes. in writing.M. or the Secretary of the service concerned may estab- (A) Membership. refer the matter to another section (c)(6)(B) of this rule. If appointed pursuant to sub. If the subject of the com- rule. the commission should include one or more vocate General under subsection (a) of this rule. Members of the The discretionary reassignment of military trial judges or appel.C. the commission should include one or more individuals with experi- Discussion ence as an appellate military judge. (D) Due process. that the subject of the complaint gaged in judicial misconduct or is unfit for contin- engaged in judicial misconduct or is otherwise unfit ued judicial service. the commission will provide an sional disciplinary action. given notice and an opportunity to be heard. (8) Rules of procedure. Any military trial judges or individuals with experience decision of the Judge Advocate General. if practicable. If the rule. The Judge Advocate General concerned may appoint an ad hoc or cerned will ensure that the subject of the complaint a standing commission. is final and is not subject to appeal. other than minor discipli. the commission may be for continued service as a military judge. the Judge Advocate General con. is. under this as a military trial judge. be senior to the late military judges to meet the needs of the service is not profes. plaint is an appellate military judge. opinion as to whether the subject’s acts or omissions nary action as defined in subsection (c)(5) of this constitute judicial misconduct or unfitness. judge. sional disciplinary action.R. Normally. and that required to recommend an appropriate disposition to such misconduct or unfitness is established by clear The Judge Advocate General concerned. an ethics commission appropriate investigative agency or take appropriate shall consist of at least three members. subject of the complaint. commission should. professional disciplinary action pursuant to the rules If the subject of the complaint is a military trial of professional conduct prescribed by the Judge Ad. Prior to taking final action on Discussion the complaint. cerned. at a minimum. lish additional procedures consistent with this rule and Article 6a. the Judge Advocate General concerned shall commission determines that the affected judge en- find.

whenever the local civil authority is superseded in whole or part The judgment of a court-martial without jurisdiction is void by the military authority of the occupying power. arts. the courts-martial without jurisdiction. A court-martial has no power to ad. A court- martial always has jurisdiction to determine whether Discussion it has jurisdiction.C. and ment or the law of war is not affected by the place where the court-martial sits except as otherwise ex. official empowered to convene it. 4. collect private debts. general courts-martial have power to try certain persons for Discussion violations of the law of war and for crimes or offenses against the law of the territory occupied as an incident of war or belligerency See R.M.C. The location of an offense is often of major importance in the application of this doctrine. 3559-60 T. 202. Discussion pressly required by this Manual or applicable rule of See R. a court-martial may not ad. Discussion The code applies in all places (Article 5). (1) The court-martial must be convened by an judge civil remedies. Discussion ty. In cases where a person is tried by general court. cordance with these rules with respect to number and qualifications of its personnel. judge the payment of damages. Article 2(a)(11) and (3) Each charge before the court-martial must be (12) establishes court-martial jurisdiction only in certain places. court-martial normally sits in the country where the offense is committed. to offenses under the code is not affected by the place where the court-martial sits. and 66. martial jurisdiction. 1302. may be limited by the service-connection doctrine. the members. A summary court-martial appointed under 10 U. 907(b)(2)(C)(iv). 501-504. the code. As used here Discussion “personnel” includes only the military judge. See Arti- cles 4. Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection (c) Contempt. Jurisdiction in general of Civilian Persons in Time of War. (2) The court-martial must be composed in ac- (2) The code applies in all places.I. But 201(f)(1)(B). 64. (a) Nature of courts-martial jurisdiction. Except insofar as required by the Constitution.M. A court-martial may punish for con- II-9 .T.M. 203 and discussion.C. order the return of property. 3365. See R.A.S.C. In addition to the power to try persons for offenses under the code. and is entitled to no legal effect.C.M. 202. referred to it by competent authority. 3516. or the Manual.M.C. jurisdiction of courts-martial does not depend on where the offense was committed. For example. Otherwise for a court-martial to “Jurisdiction” means the power to hear a case and to render a have jurisdiction: legally competent decision.S. and must do so under certain circumstances. JURISDICTION Rule 201. 810(d) concerning the effect of certain decisions by martial for offenses against the law of an occupied territory. and the summary court-martial. 504.S.M. 64. 601. but its application See R. 1949. Discussion (3) The jurisdiction of a court-martial with respect See R.M.C.C. (1) The jurisdiction of courts-martial is entirely penal or disciplinary.C. 6 U. See R. The jurisdiction (4) The accused must be a person subject to court- of a court-martial with respect to military govern. See R. Discussion (5) The offense must be subject to court-martial jurisdiction. see R. 1301. See R.C.M. 203. international law. August 12. or order a criminal forfeiture of seized proper. affected by these Rules or this Manual. and 66. CHAPTER II. (b) Requisites of court-martial jurisdiction. §§ 4712 or 9712 to dispose of the effects of a deceased person is not See R.M.C.M. No.

may not exceed confinement for 30 days or a fine of See R. 907(b)(2)(C). code and local criminal law. or equiva. using the implementing regulations and same misconduct by both a court-martial and another federal procedures prescribed by the Secretary concerned of court. or gesture in its presence. 2846. (1) Each armed force has court-martial jurisdic- (d) Exclusive and nonexclusive jurisdiction. subject to commanding officer of a joint command or joint R.C. (e) Reciprocal jurisdiction. as a matter of policy a person who is pending (A) The court-martial is convened by a com- trial or has been tried by a State court should not ordinarily be mander authorized to convene courts-martial under tried by court-martial for the same act. the Secretary of Defense. vene a court-martial under subsections (e)(2)(A) or (e)(2)(B) of this rule may expressly authorize a com- Discussion manding officer of a subordinate joint command or In the case of an act or omission which violates the code and a subordinate joint task force who is authorized to criminal law of a State.C. out manifest injury to the armed forces. 907(b)(2)(C) and regulations of the Secre. or attached to a combatant command or joint state. See also Memorandum of Understanding Between Depart.C.M.S. 4 U. The punishment sons subject to the code to the extent possible under applicable agreements. or by a proper President under Article 22(a)(9) to empower any civilian tribunal. efforts should be made sign.I. 1792. 201(g) concerning the jurisdiction of other Discussion military tribunals. the determination which nation. and (C) A commander who is empowered to con- is not a right of the suspect or accused. 1951.R. bers of a visiting force. trial of members of any of the armed forces assigned foreign or domestic. under regulations lent). or. (B) The accused cannot be delivered to the Under international law. June 19. which the superior command may prescribe. Although it is constitutionally the military service of the accused. when: permissible to try a person by court-martial and by a State court for the same act. or agency will exercise jurisdiction is a matter command. See R.M. See also R. (A) or (B) exist. (B) So much of the authority vested in the may be tried by a court-martial. However.A. a person may not be tried for the armed force.C. foreign or domestic. a friendly foreign nation has juris. and such a commanding (3) Where an act or omission is subject to trial by officer may convene general courts-martial for the court-martial and by one or more civil tribunals. NATO force except when the circumstances described in Status of Forces Agreement. No.C. for the nations. or who disturbs its to maximize the exercise of court-martial jurisdiction over per- proceedings by any riot or disorder. See. states. or both. tion over all persons subject to the code. international subsection (e)(2) of this rule. unless expressly or impliedly consents to An accused should not ordinarily be tried by a court- relinquish its jurisdiction to the visiting sovereign. See R. or agreements might preclude trial by one state of a person acquitted or finally convicted of a given act by the other state.C. convene special and summary courts-martial to con- tion which agency shall exercise jurisdiction should normally be made through consultation or prior agreement between appropri- vene such courts-martial for the trial of members of ate military officials (ordinarily the staff judge advocate) and other armed forces assigned or attached to a joint appropriate civilian authorities (United States Attorney. task force to convene courts-martial is delegated to tary concerned. failure to comply with II-10 . 201(c) tempt any person who uses any menacing word. armed force of which the accused is a member with- diction to punish offenses committed within its borders by mem. the United States. foreign or domestic. As a matter of policy. authorities.M. by both. The procedures martial convened by a member of a different armed and standards for determining which nation will exercise jurisdic- tion are normally established by treaty.M. Overseas. command or joint task force. or both. combatant command may convene courts-martial (2) An act or omission which violates both the over members of any of the armed forces. the determina. 106 concerning delivery of offenders to civilian $100. for example.T.M. 809 for procedures and standards for contempt proceedings. ments of Justice and Defense Relating to the Investigation and Prosecution of Crimes Over Which the Two Departments Have (3) A member of one armed force may be tried Concurrent Jurisdiction at Appendix 3.M. and agencies concerned.S. by a court-martial convened by a member of another Under the Constitution. (1) Courts-martial have exclusive jurisdiction of (2)(A) A commander of a unified or specified purely military offenses. T.

C. 504. substantial expense or delay. the Secretary fense by the code and Part IV of this Manual. (ii) When a general court-martial exercises ju- Examples of manifest injury include direct and substantial effect risdiction under the law of war. see R. or (A) Cases under the code. discipline. out by the department that includes the armed force (ii) Upon a finding of guilty of an offense of which the accused is a member. 1003. or of Defense or an official acting under the authority (b) The case has not been referred with a of the Secretary of Defense shall designate which special instruction that the case is to be tried as organization will exercise jurisdiction. refer the matter to any occupying power.C. court-martial for a common trial. orders promulgated by competent authority of the or. As to the authority to convene courts-martial.M. Cases involving two or more accused who Certain limitations on the discretion of military tribunals to ad- II-11 . the code for any offense made punishable under the martial for the command which held the trial. departmental review after that by general courts-martial may try any person subject to the officer with authority to convene a general court. or counsel (f) Types of courts-martial. General courts-martial also may try any person that review is required by the code. R. where code. mander of a unified or specified combatant com. or military operations.C.M. (7) Except as provided in subsections (5) and (6) (B) Cases under the law of war. and the proclamations. see R. 504(c). general courts-martial (6) When there is a disagreement between the may. or as otherwise directed by the President or Secre- (i) General courts-martial may try any per- tary of Defense. subject to R. 503(a)(3) Discussion.C. (i) Except as otherwise expressly provided. person authorized to convene a court-martial of the accused. (iii) Notwithstanding any other rule. or (A) a commander of a unified or specified (b) The law of the territory occupied as an combatant command or. who is a member of an armed force different from (1) General courts-martial. or 106. punishment permitted by the law of war. 201(f)(1)(B)(ii) this policy does not affect an otherwise valid are members of different armed forces should not be referred to a referral. Discussion Subsection (f)(1)(B)(i)(b) is an exercise of the power of military Discussion government.M.C.M. shall be carried for a violation of Article 83. or vene a court-martial. the accused is a member. regulations. ad- Secretaries of two military departments or between judge any punishment authorized under R. (5) In all cases. the Secretary of a military department and the com. made punishable by the code. within limits prescribed by this Manual.M. As to the composition of a court-martial for the trial of an Discussion accused who is a member of another armed force. it may adjudge any on morale. both. incident of war or belligerency whenever the local (B) a commander of any other joint command civil authority is superseded in whole or part by the or joint task force that is not part of a unified or military authority of the occupying power. the matter shall be of the occupied territory includes the local criminal referred to the Secretary of the armed force of which law as adopted or modified by competent authority. “Manifest injury” does not mean minor inconvenience or expense. ordinances. whenever action under this Manual son who by the law of war is subject to trial by is required or authorized to be taken by a person military tribunal for any crime or offense against: superior to— (a) The law of war. The Secretary may con. member. (4) Nothing in this rule prohibits detailing to a court-martial a military judge. 104. The law specified combatant command. that of the accused or the convening authority. the mand or other joint command or joint task force as death penalty may not be adjudged if: to which organization should exercise jurisdiction (a) Not specifically authorized for the of- over a particular case or class of cases. capital. or loss of essential witnesses. take other appropriate action.

requirement for a military judge does not apply to the requirement for capital offenses. has been (A) In general. is detailed to represent the accused.I. or the other conditions have been met.C.C.A. 201(f)(1)(B)(ii) judge punishment under the law of war are prescribed in interna. art. as the terms are here used. or forfeiture of pay for the accused may permit any capital offense other more than six months.C. (i) A capital offense for which there is pre- dismissal. the convening authority shall. th. The physical condition or military exigency exception to the punishable by the code and.M. fied under Article 27(b). (ii) An officer exercising general court-mar- (ii) A bad-conduct discharge. special courts- martial may adjudge. 1003 except death. 3365. Aug. If a military judge cannot be and (d)(1). other military tribunals of concurrent jurisdiction II-12 . 68. may not be adjudged by a than one described in subsection (f)(2)(C)(i) of this special court-martial unless: rule to be referred to a special court-martial for trial.R. such detailed subject to the code for any noncapital offense made counsel. ing the consent of the officer exercising general gencies. for example. provost courts. dishonorable discharge. Discussion judged unless the case has been referred to trial as See R. prior to trial. judge could not be obtained. however. be detailed because of physical conditions or mili. 103(3) for a definition of capital offenses. confinement tial jurisdiction over the command which includes for more than six months. Physical conditions or military exi. No. confinement for more than 1 year. (B) Punishments. T. See.S. 1103(c) concerning the requirements for a record of trial in special courts-martial. Except as otherwise expressly detailed and made available. and not otherwise disqualified. Discussion provided compelling reasons exist why trial must be See R. tional conventions. and by regulation. a bad-conduct discharge. See R. sel. or use the services of. appended to the record of trial and shall set forth in detail the reasons why a military judge could not be (C) Limitations in judge alone cases. as provided in this rule. rare circumstances. (i) Upon a finding of guilty. A general detailed. In that event.M. The requirement for counsel is satisfied when counsel quali- (2) Special courts-martial. confinement nals. 3516.C.S. does not have jurisdiction to try any person for any offense for which the death penalty may be ad. or forfeiture of pay for conferring jurisdiction upon courts-martial do not more than six months. tial jurisdiction to refer capital offenses.M. or any forfeiture of pay for more than 1 year. officers exercising special court-mar- (b) A military judge is detailed to the trial. any punishment authorized under (C) Capital offenses R. for detailing counsel qualified under Article 27(b). such as on an isolated ship on the high seas or in a unit in an inaccessible area. See also R. even though the accused may not provided. 503 concerning detailing the military judge and coun- noncapital. This statement shall be 1949. special courts-martial may try any person choose to cooperate with. 1301(c) detail a military judge. 6 U. and why the trial had to be held at that court-martial composed only of a military judge time and place. Mere inconven- ience does not constitute a physical condition or military exigency and does not excuse a failure to (3) Summary courts-martial. 12.C. under limitations prescribed by this Manual. may be adjudged provided deprive military commissions. detailed because of physical conditions or military (g) Concurrent jurisdiction of other military tribu- exigencies.T. power of a special court-martial shall not be referred forfeiture of pay exceeding two-thirds pay per mon. (a) Counsel qualified under Article 27(b) (iii) The Secretary concerned may authorize. held at that time and at that place.M. may exist under court-martial jurisdiction over the command. other than except in a case in which a military judge could not those described in subsection (f)(2)(C)(i) of this rule.M. to trial by special court-martial without first obtain- tary exigencies.M. The provisions of the code and this Manual for more than six months. hard scribed a mandatory punishment beyond the punitive labor without confinement for more than 3 months.C. Geneva Convention Relative make a written statement explaining why a military to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War. to such a court-martial.

or entry onto active duty pursuant to orders. custody of the armed forces serving a sentence imposed by court. diction under [Article 2(a)] and a change of status from civilian to When a person is ordered to active duty for failure to satis- member of the armed forces shall be effective upon taking the factorily participate in unit activities. See discussion of “constructive enlist- or by the law of war may be tried by military com. a “constructive enlist- ment” may be established under Article 2(c). and fied categories of civilians (Article 2(a)(8). and 73. (A) Inception of court-martial jurisdiction over active (iii) Call to active duty. A parent or guardian may. or 106. which provides: (1) Authority under the code. Gener- have the capacity to enlist by law. a ceremony which was in substantial compliance with the require- person becomes subject to court-martial jurisdiction upon enlist. see subsection (3) and (4) of this discussion). Article 2 lists classes of per.S. or other military tribunals. subject to the contempt powers of a court-martial. at the time of comply with procedures prescribed by regulations. See also DOD Directive 1332. the order must substantially oath of enlistment. men (Article 2(a)(2)). ments prescribed by statute and regulations. speci. Similarly. See the Secretary concerned. person has made timely and persistent efforts to correct such an These are several important qualifications and exceptions to error.14 and service regulations for specific rules on separation of persons 17 years of age on the basis of a parental request. An application by a parent for release does not deprive a court-martial of juris- (a) In general. depending on all the circumstances of the case.” Article 2(b). members of Reserve components not on active duty fications of sections 504 and 505 of this title at the time of under some circumstances (Article 2(a)(3) and (6)). persons in the voluntary submission to military authority [that is. Even if a person lacked capacity to understand the effect of Discussion enlistment or did not enlist voluntarily. court-martial jurisdiction could be estab- See also Article 48 and R. (12). (ii) Induction. § 1170. be amendable to trial by court-martial. “The voluntary enlistment of any of reasons. provost courts. Orders transfer. Notwithstanding any other provision of law. and. and an opportunity to object to the activation. 104. to the extent enlistment. acceptance of a duct after an apparent induction.C. Persons age 17 (but not yet 18) may not enlist without Discussion parental consent. (10).M. A person who is. for court-martial jurisdiction to exist.C. No court-martial jurisdiction ally. (9). without parental consent. These include active duty serving with an armed force who— personnel (Article 2(a)(1)). Court-martial jurisdiction does not (2) Active duty personnel. not insane. (3) received military pay or allowances. 202(a) with respect to offenders or offenses that by statute result under Article 2(c). court- martial jurisdiction will exist only when the coercion is removed missions. the person must be given notice of the activation and the over such a person may exist as long as the incapacity continues. reasons therefor. insane. duction is found.M. intoxicated.C. because of incorrect classification or erroneous denial of exemp- ring a person to the inactive reserve are the equivalent of a tion) does not of itself negate court-martial jurisdiction. cadets. proceeding of any kind. In general. A person need not be subject to the code to Even if a person never underwent an enlistment or induction be subject to trial by court-martial under Articles 83. 10 U. factorily in unit activities. and a “constructive enlistment” under Article 2(c) is established. component may be called or ordered to active duty for a variety (i) Enlistment. a “constructive enlistment” may person waives the right to contest involuntary activation by fail- II-13 . R. discipline. (1) submitted voluntary to military authority. court-martial jurisdiction may be defeated if improper in- these general guidelines. service in time of war or national person who has the capacity to understand the significance of emergency. When a discharge certificate for purposes of jurisdiction. concerned issued pursuant to competent orders. terminate the enlistment of a 17-year-old who enlisted jurisdiction. or a “constructive enlistment” under martial jurisdiction over active duty personnel ordinarily ends on Article 2(c) exists. Courts-martial may try any person diction to try a person for offenses committed before action is when authorized to do so under the code. of courts-martial court-martial jurisdiction exists over the person. certain retired personnel (Article 2(a)(4) (2) met the mental competency and minimum age quali- and (5)). under some circumstances. 809 concerning who may be lished under this provision. and midship. substantive defects in it. has waived objection to commission. within 90 days of its See Articles 104 and 106 for some instances of concurrent inception. Absent effective Rule 202. or as a result of failure to participate satis- enlisting in the armed forces shall be valid for purposes of juris. and (4) performed military duties. aviation cadets. A member of a reserve duty personnel. if the person has not yet reached the age of 18. delivery of a discharge certificate or its equivalent to the person The fact that a person was improperly inducted (for example. Persons subject to the jurisdiction action by a parent or guardian to terminate such an enlistment. a person sons who are subject to the code. or under the age of 17 does not due process requires. including training. the draftee by con- ment in or induction into the armed forces. (11). Court-martial jurisdiction is most extend to a draftee until: the draftee has completed an induction commonly exercised over active duty personnel. A If the incapacity ceases to exist. ment” below. intoxicated. if the enlistment was involuntary. Article 3. certain persons whose status as members of the armed forces or is subject to [the code] until such person’s active service has been as persons otherwise subject to the code apparently has ended terminated in accordance with law or regulations promulgated by may. nevertheless. In addition. 4. or under the age of 17] martial (Article 2(a)(7)). completed on such an application. Court.

For offenses occurring prior to 23 October 1992. servicemembers discharge is. 106 Stat. Members of a the courts of the United States or of a State. martial jurisdiction over civilians under the code is limited by tion Act for Fiscal Year 1993. at the time of the court-martial. As indicated above. and is after apprehension subject protest. the time an offense was committed may be tried by court-martial (3) Public Health Service and National Oceanic and for that offense despite a later discharge or other termination of Atmospheric Administration. Amendment to Article 3(a). by reentry into the armed forces ble to the jurisdiction of courts-martial notwithstanding the termi- or otherwise. serving a sentence imposed by a court-martial remain subject to nate court-martial jurisdiction. lent is delivered or until the Government fails to act within a (d) A person discharged from the armed reasonable time after the person objects to continued retention. court-martial. court-martial jurisdiction normally continues past the time the armed forces and before the execution of the discharge as of scheduled separation until a discharge certificate or its equiva.M.M. or the District of Columbia. nation of a period of such duty. from temporary to permanent officer. as well as District of Columbia. See R. force may be tried for an offense committed while a member of ered. Comple. and cate or its equivalent ordinarily serves to terminate court-martial (3) The reenlistment occurred after 26 jurisdiction. if action with a view to trial is initiated before Upon conviction of that charge such a person is subject to trial by discharge or the effective terminal date of self-executing orders. well as for offenses committed after it. (4) Limitations on jurisdiction over civilians. subject to the code.C. a Territory. tion over an offense committed before the discharge is not af- (a) A person who was subject to the code at fected. forces who is later charged with having fraudulently obtained that As indicated in subsection (c) of this rule. subject to the code. Moreover. Even after such adjustments are consid. For example.R. 102-484. at the time of the the code. An original term of enlistment may the code and court-martial jurisdiction. without an interval between the periods (iii)(a) below. There are several exceptions to the tus does not end. that officer’s military sta- (iii) Exceptions. There is merely a change in personnel status general principle that court-martial jurisdiction terminates on dis. 202(a) ure to exercise this right within a reasonable time after notice of end of the accused’s term of enlistment for the purpose of reenlis- the right to do so. under the 1992 ration from any later period of service. subject to the statute of limitations. See Article 3(a) prior to the 1992 amendment. of service under the two commissions. armed forces. The exercise of jurisdiction under Article 2315. For of. the delivery of a valid discharge certifi. Pub. would otherwise have expired or the terminal date of such orders. Thus. relevant statutes and decisions should be carefully exam- court-martial may adjudge confinement for five (5) or more years. (c) Persons in the custody of the armed forces tion of an enlistment or term of service does not by itself termi. Nothing in this (1) The discharge was issued before the rule limits the power of general courts-martial to try II-14 . see nent of that armed force. at the time of the nel. or the reserve component in federal service on active duty. (2) The person remains. (e) No person who has deserted from the (ii) Effect of discharge and reenlistment.C. by reentry into the armed forces or otherwise. a court-martial for any offenses under the code committed before person may be retained beyond the date that the period of service the fraudulent discharge. subject to trial may be retained past their scheduled time of separation. A prisoner who has re- be adjusted for a variety of reasons.L. when an offenses committed during the earlier term of service only if the officer holding a commission in a Reserve component of an offense was punishable by confinement for five (5) years or more armed force is discharged from that commission while on active and could not be tried in the courts of the United States or of a duty because of acceptance of a commission in a Regular compo- State. a person who reenlists following a (f) When a person’s discharge or other separa- discharge may be tried for offenses committed during the earlier tion does not interrupt the status as a person belonging to the term of service. the person is. (i) Effect of completion of term of service. (B) The person cannot be tried in (5) Members of a Reserve Component. ting. Territory. and court-martial jurisdic- charge or its equivalent. Before initiating court-martial proceedings against a (A) The offense is one for which a civilian. 2505 (1992). 2(a)(11) in peacetime has been held unconstitutional by the (2) For offenses occurring before 23 Oc. court-martial a person who reenlists following a discharge may be tried for jurisdiction over that person does not end. Article 2(a)(10) has also tober 1992. to the code. No. members of a reserve component are amena- court-martial. Court- See Article 3(a) as amended by the National Defense Authoriza. 204. over by court-martial on that charge. are subject to (C) The person is. been limited. by action with a view to trial while they are still subject to the code while in the custody of the armed forces for trial. judicial decisions. (b) A person who was subject to the code at the time the offense was committed is subject to trial by court- martial despite a later discharge if— (b) Offenses under the law of war. such as making up time lost ceived a discharge and who remains in the custody of an armed for unauthorized absence. Members of the Public Health Serv- that status if: ice and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (1) For offenses occurring on or after 23 become subject to the code when assigned to and serving with the October 1992. Supreme Court of the United States. ined. general category of persons subject to the code. and those in federal service on inactive-duty training. (B) Termination of jurisdiction over active duty person. July 1982. armed forces is relieved from court-martial jurisdiction by a sepa- fenses occurring on or after 23 October 1992. subject to the code. However.

C. 204(b)(1) persons under the law of war. of self-executing orders. Ordinarily. (1) In general. nonjudicial punishment proceedings. the code during the entire period. A member ordered to active duty ment. Discussion Discussion Such regulations should describe procedures for ordering a re- Court-martial jurisdiction exists to try a person as long as that servist to active duty for disciplinary action. 435 (1987) is that jurisdiction of courts-martial depends Discussion solely on the accused’s status as a person subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice. pursuant to Article 2(d) may be retained on active duty to serve any adjudged confinement or other Rule 203.M. 483 U. Jurisdiction over the offense restriction on liberty if the order to active duty was To the extent permitted by the Constitution. Thus. ment or other restriction on liberty. Courts-martial have power to try any offense sequent periods of inactive-duty training or active under the code except when prohibited from so doing by the duty. arrest. See also investigation. and preferral of charges. See paragraph 5e to continued retention. Normally. the law of pursuant to Article 2(d) after service of the confine- war. The rule enunciated in Solorio v.C. Once court-martial jurisdiction over a person attaches. 103 (Discussion). Guard are subject to Federal court-martial jurisdiction only when poses of punishment. United States. such as restriction. person occupies a status as a person subject to the code. the person may be held for trial by court- martial beyond the effective terminal date. Actions by which court-martial ju- ings.M. Once court-martial jurisdiction attaches. component personnel ment. such jurisdiction shall con. and punish. subject to the limitations of this Manual and offense for which held and shall remain subject to the UCMJ. or confine- cial court-martial. notwithstanding the expiration of that person’s (a) Service regulations. R. Rule 204. procedures for the exercise of court-martial jurisdic- When jurisdiction attaches over a servicemember on tion and nonjudicial punishment authority over re- active duty.C. no allegation of the accused’s armed (c) Attachment of jurisdiction over the person. The Secretary concerned term of service or other period in which that person shall prescribe regulations setting forth rules and was subject to the code or trial by court-martial. See R. the offense concerned is committed while the member is in Fed- If jurisdiction has attached before the effective terminal date eral service. and for pur. with a view to trial. and referral of charges. over a person when action with a view to trial of that person is taken. convening authorities and commanders authorized to conduct martial jurisdiction until lawfully discharged or. (b) Courts-Martial (1) General and special court-martial proceed- (2) Procedure. force or unit is necessary for military members on active duty. designation of Article 104 and 106. a servicemember is subject to court. the inclusion of the ac- 201(f)(1)(B). when the ser. be retained on active duty after service of the punishment if II-15 . All punishments remaining unserved at the time the member is re- Discussion leased from active duty may be carried over to sub- (a) In general.S. sentence. for the preferral. 307 regarding required specificity of pleadings. in the case of general courts-martial. Court-martial jurisdiction attaches See R.M. Part V. imposition active duty prior to arraignment at a general or spe- of restraint. but courts-martial may try any offense under the code such member may not be retained on active duty and. serve component personnel under Article 2(a)(3) and tive duty over objection pending disposition of any 2(d). approved in accordance with Article 2(d)(5). cused’s rank or grade will be sufficient to plead the service status of the accused. Constitution. the servicemember may be held on ac. (b) Pleading and proof.C. it Members of the Army National Guard and the Air National continues throughout the trial and appellate process. act within a reasonable time on objection by the servicemember See definitions in R. Jurisdiction over certain reserve tinue for all purposes of trial. concerning limitations on nonjudicial punishments Court-martial jurisdiction attaches over a person upon action imposed on reservists while on inactive-duty training. and f. and not on the “service-connection” of An accused ordered to active duty pursuant to Article 2(d) may the offense charged. A member of a reserve component must be on risdiction attaches include: apprehension. forwarding. the government fails to purposes. and for other appropriate vicemember’s term of service has expired.M.

C.M. 202(c)(1).R. The accused may does not apply to a person whose military status was not be held beyond such periods of training for trial completely terminated after commission of an or service or any punishment. fense while on active duty or inactive-duty training. It does not include a discharge conditioned upon accept- (c) Applicability. This subsection normal periods of such training. 202(a). 202(c). (d) Changes in type of service. an accused who com.C. A member of a regular or reserve component remains subject to riods of inactive-duty training or active duty. This subsection is not applicable ance of further military service. 204(b)(1) permitted by other authority. II-16 . who is alleged to have committed an of- (2) Summary courts-martial. serve component may be tried by summary court. All punishments offense. is subject to court-martial jurisdiction without regard martial either while on active duty or inactive-duty to any change between active and reserve service or training. service. paragraph (2)(B)(ii) and (iii) periods which are scheduled solely for the purpose of conducting regarding the jurisdictional effect of a discharge from military court-martial proceedings. court-martial jurisdiction after leaving active duty for offenses committed prior to such termination of active duty if the member Discussion retains military status in a reserve component without having been discharged from all obligations of military service. A member of a re. Article 2(d) may be retained on active duty pursuant to R.M. Discussion. For example. when a member is held on active duty pursuant to mits another offense while on active duty ordered pursuant to R.M.C.M. A member of a re- serve component at the time disciplinary action is initiated. A summary court-martial conducted during within different categories of reserve service subse- inactive-duty training may be in session only during quent to commission of the offense. remaining unserved at the end of a period of active duty or the end of any normal period of inactive Discussion duty training may be carried over to subsequent pe.C. A “normal period” of inactive-duty training does not include See R. A “complete termination” of military status refers to a discharge relieving the servicemember of any further military service.

Discussion Apprehension is the equivalent of “arrest” in civilian terminology. Code of Military Justice. (2). including the Uniform R. 3056. R. of an offense shall forward as soon as practicable 311(c)(1).C. police. Competent authority superior to that commander may direct otherwise. PRETRIAL RESTRAINT. See Arti. Evid. CHAPTER III. 305 (Pretrial restraint.C. 18 U. 303 (Preliminary inquiry). The rule does not apply to actions taken by any person in a tigative agency. as (a) Who may report. Evid. investigative.C. 304. 311(c)(1). 40 U. R. any military authority who receives a report Evidence obtained as the result of an apprehension which is in violation of this rule may be challenged under Mil. or to appropriate persons in the chain of command. How- (1) Military law enforcement officials. Bureau of Investigation. whether sub- An apprehension must be based on probable cause. APPREHENSION. Apprehension is the taking of a cies become involved in the apprehension of persons subject to trial by courts-martial may depend on the statutory authority of person into custody. R. 302 (Apprehension). (see Mil. Any person may report an of- it is with an apprehension. See also persons for violations of federal laws. Typi. Upon receipt of a report. to trial by court-martial. Ordi.S. Evidence obtained as the result of an unlawful civilian the report and any accompanying information to the arrest may be challenged under Mil. and persons designated investigative purposes.M.C. Security ever. Nothing in this rule limits cally such reports are made to law enforcement or investigative the authority of federal law enforcement officials to personnel. Furthermore. see R. 38 U. § 318 and the Veterans (a) Definition and scope.S. the military authority who arrest. military police. apprehension.C. For example. R. although each involves the exercise of by proper authorities to perform military criminal government control over the freedom of movement of a person. and normally involves a relatively II-17 . or police duties.C.C. 3053. R. when in each of the forego- thority is notified and acts under R. agents of the Federal R. 314(f) and (g).C. Evid.M. or apprehend persons not subject to trial under the code. Apprehension eral Services Administration. This fense subject to trial by court-martial.) See subsection (c) of this rule concerning the may apprehend any person subject to trial by court- bases for apprehension. § 218. confinement). 306 (Initial disposition). See Mil.M. The following officials cle 9.C.C. master at arms personnel. narily. §§ 3052. If the suspect is unidentified. Report of offense short period of custody. This rule applies only to apprehensions made by persons authorized to do so under subsec- Discussion tion (b) of this rule with respect to offenses subject Any military authority may receive a report of an offense.M. receives a report of an offense. an extensive search of the person is not authorized incident to an investigative detention. rule does not affect any seizure of the person less severe than (b) To whom reports conveyed for disposition. immediate commander of the suspect. Other agencies have apprehension powers include the Gen- Rule 302. whether or not subject to trial by report may be made by any means. R. and the cus- tody initiated in an apprehension may continue until proper au- ject to the code or not.C. A apprehend persons. the official making the apprehension investigative detention may be made on less than probable cause is in the execution of law enforcement duties. United States Marshals. 304 or 305. and agents of the Secret Service may apprehend persons for any offenses commit- ted in their presence and for felonies. 302 does not affect the authority of any official to detain. (b) Who may apprehend. The extent to which such agen- (1) Definition. the agency and the agency’s formal or informal relationships with the Department of Defense. that person should forward the report to the immediate commander of the suspect unless that person believes it would be more appropriate to notify law en- Discussion forcement or investigative authorities. the fact that an accused was never apprehended does not affect the jurisdiction of a court-martial to try the accused. 314(f)). private capacity. An apprehension is different from detention of a person for members of the shore patrol. Administration.S. 304. 202(c) concerning attachment of jurisdiction. (In military terminology. receives the report should refer it to a law enforcement or inves.M. An apprehension is not required in every martial: case.M. (2) Scope. When a person who is not a law enforcement official enabling statutes and other law. An ing instances. the immediate commander of a Several federal agencies have broad powers to apprehend suspect should refer to R. and no particular format is court-martial.M. Evid. R. “arrest” is a form of restraint. INITIATION OF CHARGES. RELATED MATTERS Rule 301.M. guard. to the extent permitted by applicable required.

A private dwelling includes dwellings. petty. tents. Discussion (3) Civilians authorized to apprehend deserters. A commissioned officer to whom the apprehending person is re. such as (c) Grounds for apprehension. and inform as promptly as possible the immediate com- possession. whether or not sub- that an offense has been or is being committed and divided into individual units: living areas in military the person to be apprehended committed or is com. No person subsection (b)(2) of this rule may also apprehend may enter a private dwelling for the purpose of persons subject to the code who take part in quar. and noncom. except as provided in subsection (e)(2) of local law enforcement officers to apprehend persons for other this rule. making an apprehension under these rules unless: rels. A person who determines probable The phrase “persons designated by proper authority to per. aircraft. law enforcement duties should not apprehend a commissioned (3) Use of force. chain of command of the person apprehended if it is impractical to inform the immediate commander. any civilian officer having authority In addition to any other action required by law or regulation or proper military officials. See Article 8. Commonwealth. and apartments.C. Territory. or any official higher in the apprehension is of a deserter from the armed forces. inactive duty training. vessels. or disorders. or of the United States may apprehend (1) In general. (d) How an apprehension may be made. or assigned. this authority does not permit state and any place. violations of the code. or rented by the an offense triable by court-martial upon probable residents. person is in custody. II-18 . The the code or trial thereunder may be apprehended for quarters may be owned. All commissioned. A person subject to single family houses. wherever they occur. warrant. Persons authorized to apprehend under field encampments. Neither warrants nor any other au- thorization shall be required for an apprehension Discussion under these rules except as required in subsection Noncommissioned and petty officers not otherwise performing (e)(2) of this rule. Territory. and may be occupied on a cause to apprehend. frays. conviction is not necessary. 314(e) of 316(d)(2). bunkers. R. 302(b)(1) Discussion Discussion Whenever enlisted persons. any person making an apprehension to apprehend offenders under laws of the United under these rules should: maintain custody of the person appre- States or of a State. district. circumstances to effect the apprehension. mere suspicion is not enough but proof which would support a sponsible. cause may rely on the reports of others. vehicles. and ci.M. (1) In general. but it may be implied by the ty. barracks. Discussion The code specifically provides that any civil officer. warrant. “Reasonable grounds” means that there must be the kind of relia- vilian police and guards apprehend any commissioned or warrant ble information that a reasonable. pet. mitting it. guard or police duties” includes special agents of the Defense Criminal Investigative Service. Under Article 8. including police and guards. “Private dwelling” exists when there are reasonable grounds to believe does not include the following. An apprehension may be made at any deserter. and noncommissioned officers on active duty or circumstances. or the District of Columbia. when the mander of the person apprehended. leased.However. Probable cause to apprehend temporary or permanent basis. (2) Private dwellings.R. This notice should be given missioned officers. on or off a military installation. prudent person would rely on officer. (2) Warrants. form military criminal investigative. whether of a (e) Where an apprehension may be made. State. orally or in writing. such persons should make an immediate report to the which makes it more likely than not that something is true. An apprehension is made by clearly notifying the person to be apprehended that (2) Commissioned. and similar places. or hended. duplexes. Evid. Any person authorized under officer unless directed to do so by a commissioned officer or in these rules to make an apprehension may use such order to prevent disgrace to the service or the escape of one who force and means as reasonably necessary under the has committed a serious offense. (A) Pursuant to consent under Mil.

F. reason to believe that the person to be offense or offenses triable by court-martial. or (ii) if the person to be apprehended is not a Discussion resident of the private dwelling. R.M. That officer may be informed that charges may be ure to secure a warrant or authorization to enter that preferred if the officer determines that preferral is warranted. authorized by a search warrant. Pretrial restraint may consist of conditions For example.C. each issued by com- A person who is an accuser (see Article 1(9)) is disqualified petent civilian authority. if law enforcement officials enter a private dwelling on liberty. they confinement. moral or physical restraint on a person’s liberty which is imposed before and during disposition of Discussion offenses. in conducting any inquiry or further investigation. Evid. when the immediate commander is dwelling entered may not challenge the legality of a general or special court-martial convening authority. from convening a general or special court-martial in that case. See also R. or innocence and any evidence relating to aggravation. or mitigation. Evid. Evid. R. Pretrial restraint is dwelling. Conditions on liberty of authority to execute civilian arrest or search warrants. 41 and 28 C. (ii) if the person to be apprehended is not a and any implementing regulations. 311-317). 504(c)(1).C. there exists. Pretrial restraint is incident to otherwise lawful presence in a private (a) Types of pretrial restraint. Mil. R. Therefore.C. dure. mary of expected evidence. this should be brought to the attention of appropriate authorities. 315(g) or 316(d)(4)(B). at the time command is accused or suspected of committing an of the entry. arrest. P. 60. (C) In the case of a private dwelling which is military property or under military control.M. extenua- (i) if the person to be apprehended is a resi. dent of the private dwelling. Fed. Evid. Evid. 301-306). or non- Rule 303. the entry has been The preliminary inquiry is usually informal. the apprehension is If it appears that any witness may not be available for later authorized by an arrest warrant and the entry is proceedings in the case. may apprehend persons therein if grounds for an apprehension exist. 304(a)(1) (B) Under exigent circumstances described in authority must derive from an appropriate Federal or state proce- Mil. and the ap- mediate commander shall make or cause to be made prehension has been authorized by an official listed a preliminary inquiry into the charges or suspected in Mil. 315(d) upon a determination that offenses. A person who is not a resident of the private R. reason to believe that the person to be (see Mil. R. In other cases a more extensive investigation may be necessary. there exists at the time The Military Rules of Evidence should be consulted when conducting interrogations (see Mil. or on the basis of the sufficiency of such a warrant or authorization. thorized by an arrest warrant issued by competent If the offense is one for which the Department of Justice has civilian authority. in serious or complex cases the commander should con- time of the entry. offenses (i) if the person to be apprehended is a resi- Upon receipt of information that a member of the dent of the private dwelling. Although the commander may ists to apprehend the person and to believe that the conduct the investigation personally or with members of the com- person to be apprehended is or will be present at the mand. or pursuant to a valid search warrant or search authorization. It may be an exami- authorized by an official listed in Mil. R. sider whether to seek the assistance of law enforcement personnel (D) In the case of a private dwelling not in. The inquiry should gather all reasonably available evidence bearing on guilt cluded in subsection (e)(2)(C) of this rule. dwelling.1. appropriate coordination should be made under the Memorandum of Understanding. the prelim- an apprehension of that person on the basis of fail. 702 (depositions). inary inquiry should be conducted by another officer of the com- mand. Crim. probable cause to apprehend the person exists. The are imposed by orders directing a person to do or II-19 . Evid. the im- apprehended is present in the dwelling. or investigative responsibilities. 321).M. tion. Nothing in this subsection ((e)(2)) affects the legality of an apprehension which Rule 304. R. R. nation of the charges and an investigative report or other sum- 315(d) upon a determination that probable cause ex. resident of the private dwelling.R. searches of the entry. Preliminary inquiry into reported military property in a foreign country. See e. restriction in lieu of arrest. R. This subsection is not intended to be an independent grant (1) Conditions on liberty.g. and eyewitness identifications (see apprehended is present and the apprehension is au. see Appendix 3.

M. form of restraint. imposed by order of competent authority. warrant appropriate action such as nonjudicial punishment or However. Restriction in lieu of arrest is a less severe restraint on liberty than is arrest. See R. serving as guard. Such conditions (b) Who may order pretrial restraint. circumstances. orders not to go to a certain place (such as the (1) An offense triable by court-martial has been scene of the alleged offense).C. See R. Pre- under R. See R. officer to whose authority the civilian or officer is (2) Restriction in lieu of arrest. 304(a)(2)-(4). 305.M. Restriction in lieu subject may order pretrial restraint of that civilian or of arrest is the restraint of a person by oral or writ.C. petty. Discussion erwise directed.M. A com- ends when the person is placed.C. and who ordered the arrest or a superior authority. 306. Probable cause to order pretrial re- straint exists when there is a reasonable belief that: Conditions on liberty include orders to report periodically to a specified official. if so. 305(h)(2)(B) should be imposing it. officer. and. a restricted person shall. 202(c) concerning attachment of jurisdic- court-martial. may be ordered into restraint before trial except for Discussion probable cause. No person of offenses. Arrest includes suspension from performing Discussion full military duties and the limits of arrest are normally narrower The decision whether to impose pretrial restraint. Pretrial confinement is physical authority may withhold from a subordinate the au- restraint. der pretrial restraint of civilians and commissioned or bearing arms. The actual nature of the type or types. perform full military duties while Civilians may be restrained under these rules only when they are restricted. when such conditions are imposed.R. trial restraint other than confinement is imposed by notifying the person orally or in writing of the re- II-20 .M.M. see R. specified persons (such as the alleged victim or potential wit.C.C. 202.C. The restraint imposed. required to perform full military duties such as com. Any commissioned offi- directing the person to remain within specified cer may order pretrial restraint of any enlisted limits. In addition. and orders not to associate with committed. a person in the status of arrest may not be person.C.C. The absence of pre- 16. will determine whether it is technically an arrest or considered. such a breach or tion. on noncommissioned officers authority to order pretrial duty inconsistent with the status of arrest. R. circumstances require to ensure the presence of the person re- Breach of arrest or restriction in lieu of arrest or violation of strained or to prevent foreseeable serious criminal misconduct. conditions on liberty are offenses under the code. (3) Delegation of authority. (3) Arrest. ten orders directing the person to remain within specified limits. Arrest is the restraint of a person by oral or written order not imposed as punishment. thority to order pretrial restraint. Part IV. commanding officer. however. subject to trial by court-martial. what than those of restriction in lieu of arrest. or to take part in rou. The restraint should not be more rigorous than the restriction in lieu of arrest. they (3) The restraint ordered is required by the must by sufficiently flexible to permit pretrial preparation. The status of arrest automatically and warrant officers may not be delegated.M. (2) Of enlisted persons. and 102. 707(a) requires that the accused be brought to trial within 120 days of preferral of charges or imposition of restraint (d) Procedures for ordering pretrial restraint. 304(a)(1) refrain from doing specified acts. See R. The authority to or- manding or supervising personnel. A superior competent (4) Confinement. may be imposed in conjunction with other forms of (1) Of civilians and officers. See paragraphs Restraint is not required in every case. Thus.M. depriving a person of freedom pending disposition (c) When a person may be restrained.M. 305 concerning the standards and procedures violation may provide a basis for the imposition of a more severe governing pretrial confinement. and not the characterization of it by the officer factors listed in the Discussion of R. (2) The person to be restrained committed it. Conditions on liberty must not hinder pretrial prepara- tion. by the authority manding officer may delegate to warrant. Only a commanding restraint or separately.M. and nesses). tine training and duties. 19. it may trial restraint does not affect the jurisdiction of a court-martial. should be made on a case-by-case basis. (4) Authority to withhold. When such an offense occurs.C. unless oth. but this restraint of enlisted persons of the commanding offi- shall not prevent requiring the person arrested to do cer’s command or subject to the authority of that ordinary cleaning or policing.

306.C. or master at arms restraint by a person authorized to impose it. See R. or all offense charged against the prisoner.M. When a person is placed under restraint.M. (g) Release.” Article 11(a). the accused is acquitted of all charges.M. a person may be released from pretrial “No provost marshal. Pretrial confinement See R. (d) When a person may be confined. 305(d) straint. perform punitive labor. No person No member of the armed forces may be placed in confinement in who is restrained pending trial may be subjected to immediate association with enemy prisoners or other foreign na- tionals not members of the armed forces of the United States. (c) Who may order confinement. Pretrial prohibits limitations on a servicemember imposed confinement is imposed pursuant to orders by a for operational or other military purposes independ- competent authority by the delivery of a person to a ent of military justice.M. ject to the code. Pretrial restraint is not Discussion punishment and shall not be used as such. or medical reasons. commander of a guard. Pretrial confinement is physical re- be given to a person who is confined. Prisoners being held for trial United States are separated from prisoners of the other categories shall not be required to undergo punitive duty hours mentioned. when the restraint shall terminate when a sentence is ad- committing officer furnishes a statement. 305(e) concerning additional information which must (a) In general. However. Pretrial may refuse to receive or keep any prisoner committed to his charge by a commissioned officer of the armed forces. 304(b).C. imposed by order of competent authority.C.M. or wear special facilities. No person may be ordered into pretrial confinement except for prob- II-21 .M. charges are dismissed. signed by him. Discussion Rule 305. 305. the person shall be informed Discussion of the nature of the offense which is the basis for See also R. they may be confined in the same confinement or training. that officer should be notified. This rule does not prohibit minor punishment during (b) Who may be confined. Except as otherwise provided in Discussion R. restrain is not the commander of the person restrained.C. The order to an Discussion enlisted person shall be delivered personally by the Pretrial restraint may be imposed (or reimposed) if charges are to authority who issues it or through other persons sub. R. Offenses under the code by a person under restraint may be disposed of in the same manner as any other offenses. 201 and 202 and the discussions therein concerning Discussion persons who are subject to trial by courts-martial.C. If the person ordering the straint. Any person who is sub- pretrial confinement for infractions of the rules of ject to trial by court-martial may be confined if the the place of confinement. (e) Notice of basis for restraint. if members of the armed forces of the basis for that restraint. including administrative hold place of confinement. The order to an officer or a civilian shall be delivered personally by the authority who (h) Administrative restraint. Discussion See R. (f) Punishment prohibited. facilities and treatment under regulations of the Sec- retary concerned. depriving a person of freedom pending disposition of charges.C. Prisoners shall be afforded requirements of this rule are met. of the judged. including its terms or limits. punishment or penalty for the offense which is the Article 12. be reinstated or of a rehearing or “other” trial is to be ordered. Nothing in this rule issues it or by another commissioned officer. such restraint. uniforms prescribed only for post-trial prisoners.

it may be necessary to confine a person apprehended in the course of a violent crime. 304(B) is notified within 24 hours after that commitment. continue until a proper authority under R. ate commander of the prisoner should be notified.M. 302(b)). Unless oth- ment exists when there is a reasonable belief that: erwise provided by regulations of the Secretary (1) An offense triable by court-martial has been concerned. assignment of military counsel. a person who has been apprehended could be physically restrained. Nothing in subsections R. 305(d) able cause. and the name of the person who ordered or authorized confinement.M. Ordinarily. “any commander” includes physically detaining the person. this rule to have military counsel of the prisoner’s own selection. the person who initially orders confine. and the commander of the installation on which the “[W]hen charged only with an offense normally tried by confinement facility is located.C.M. ordered the pretrial confinement. For example. For pur- background and character or even the details of an offense before poses of this subsection. In the latter case. but this would not be pretrial confine- report to be made to the commander that shall con- ment in the sense of this rule until a person authorized to do so tain the name of the prisoner. Any (3) Confinement is required by the circumstances. Counsel may be assigned for the limited 305(i)(1) below. against the prisoner. commander shall decide whether pretrial confine- oner before the initial review under subsection (i) of ment will continue. If requested by the prisoner ber of the commander’s unit or organization has and such request is made known to military authori. a military confinement. military counsel shall be provided to the pris.” Article 10. an officer appointed under Discussion regulations of the Secretary concerned to conduct the review under subsection (i) and/or (j) of this The person who directs confinement should consider the matters discussed under subsection (h)(2)(B) of this rule before ordering rule. but is not necessarily. the prisoner shall be so informed. (e) Advice to the accused upon confinement. Custody (1) Report. cause a and takes action. Thus. and the right to request (2) Action by commander. However. in confinement. Custody may be imposed by warrant. Not later than 72 hours after the (4) The procedures by which pretrial confinement commander’s ordering of a prisoner into pretrial will be reviewed. provided the commander is a neu- purpose of representing the accused only during the tral and detached officer and acts within 48 hours of pretrial confinement proceedings before charges are the imposition of confinement under military con- referred. whichever probable cause determination of subsection R.C.C. may for confinement. commander of a prisoner. Unless the commander of the prisoner is restraint which is imposed by apprehension and which may be. until additional the immediate or higher commander of the prisoner information can be secured.R.C. and (A) Decision. physical. II-22 .M. 304(b) directed confinement. If assignment is made for this limited pur. the immedi- (1) The nature of the offenses for which held. compliance with subsection (h)(2) of this rule. and may whose charge the prisoner was committed shall. noncommissioned. Confinement should be distinguished from custody. once charges have been referred. summary court-martial. occurs first. (3) The right to retain civilian counsel at no ex- pense to the United States. In unusual (2) The right to remain silent and that any state. (2) The person confined committed it. whichever situation is applicable.M. a prisoner does not have a right under committed.M. R.C. cases any commander to whose authority the prisoner is subject. It is often not possible to review a person’s direct release from pretrial confinement. the commander so notified must ensure person.M. may be noti- ment made by the person may be used against the fied. after receipt of a report that a mem- (f) Military counsel. been confined. and (g) Who may direct release from confinement. confinement or. A commander’s compliance this rule or within 72 hours of such a request being with this subsection may also satisfy the 48-hour first communicated to military authorities. trol. judge detailed to the court-martial to which the ment is not required to make a detailed analysis of the necessity charges against the accused have been referred. [an accused] shall not ordinarily be paced (h) Notification and action by commander. 305(d).C. or. Each Discussion person confined shall be promptly informed of: This report may be made by any means. or petty officer into anyone authorized to apprehend (see R.C. the offenses charged under R. Probable cause to order pretrial confine. such as the commander of the confinement facility. pose. the commissioned. the ties.

including extenuating circumstances. readiness. If continued pretrial confinement is approved. a second memorandum need not be prepared. and mander should consider whether the prisoner could be safely returned to the prisoner’s unit. R. or investigation. (iii) Confinement is necessary because it is arrest. Information need not be received under oath. pretrial hearing. or other offenses which pose a cial records. foreign nation or group of nations. 7 days of the imposition of confinement. a neutral (3) The accused’s ties to the locale. cludes: a military or defense advantage over any (i) Procedures for review of pretrial confinement. Within charged or suspected. met. that is. This memorandum shall be forwarded serious threat to the safety of the community or to to the 7-day reviewing officer under subsection the effectiveness. including any record necessity for continued pretrial confinement. pretrial confinement shall be made by a neutral and detached officer within 48 hours of imposition of Discussion confinement under military control. civilian custody at the request of military authorities. that: prisoner’s personnel records. before pretrial confinement may be approved. If the prisoner is apprehended by civilian authorities and remains in A person should not be confined as a mere matter of convenience or expedience. a favorable for- eign relations position. probable cause determination and the 72-hour com- mander’s decision immediately after an accused is Although the Military Rules of Evidence are not applicable. and similar proceedings. Some of the factors which should be considered under this reasonable efforts will be made to bring the prisoner subsection are: under military control in a timely fashion. In cal- of previous misconduct. or (i)(2) of this rule. financial resources. the initial date of confinement II-23 . upon reasonable oath may add to its reliability.M. the commander should judge the reliability of the information (B) Requirements for confinement. (i) An offense triable by a court-martial has Less serious forms of restraint must always be considered been committed. A commander may examine the grounds. police records. the commander shall pre- (b) The prisoner will engage in serious pare a written memorandum that states the reasons criminal misconduct. The information may be received orally or trial confinement unless the commander believes in writing. serious as witness statements. foreseeable that: (a) The prisoner will not appear at trial. but an upon probable cause. or (C) 72-hour memorandum. at liberty or under restriction. If such a memorandum was pre- safety of the command. (2) The weight of the evidence against the accused. trials. memorandum at any time. additional information may be added to the relations of the United States and specifically in. 304. 305(i)(2) 305(i)(1). ordered into pretrial confinement. available. (6) The accused’s record of appearance at or flight from culating the number of days of confinement for pur- other pretrial investigations. Thus the com- (ii) The prisoner committed it. security” means the national defense and foreign however. overt or covert.C. and for the conclusion that the requirements for confine- (iv) Less severe forms of restraint are inade. Re- of successfully resisting hostile or destructive action view of the adequacy of probable cause to continue from within or without. “national ment. such of witnesses or other obstruction of justice. investigative reports. morale.C. Before relying on the reports of others. including family. See R. The com. discipline. and length of residence. or conditions on liberty. and poses of this rule. and detached officer appointed in accordance with off-duty employment.M. or a defense posture capable (1) 48-hour probable cause determination. or this subsection prevents a neutral and (7) The likelihood that the accused can and will commit detached commander from completing the 48-hour further serious criminal misconduct if allowed to remain at liber- ty. As used in this rule. shall review the probable cause determination and (5) The accused’s service record. or offi- injury of others. regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned (4) The accused’s character and mental condition. This memorandum may include hearsay and Serious criminal misconduct includes intimidation may incorporate by reference other documents. or to the national security of pared by the commander before ordering confine- the United States. (1) The nature and circumstances of the offenses (2) 7-day review of pretrial confinement. and may consider the recommendations of others. the commander must have a reasonable belief that the information is believable mander shall direct the prisoner’s release from pre- and has a factual basis. ment in subsection (h)(2)(B) of this rule have been quate.

reviewing officer establishes that the prisoner should oner’s counsel. after the order of release. before the 7-day reviewing officer and make a state. the military judge shall review the propriety of lease from pretrial confinement has been directed by pretrial confinement upon motion for appropriate a person authorized in subsection (g) of this rule relief. 1003(b)(6) and (7). using the conversion confinement. The 7-day reviewing officer shall upon formula under R. from pretrial confinement only if: (A) Nature of the 7-day review. or (i) of this rule. reconsider the poses of this subsection. and 305. and (E) Reconsideration of approval of continued forfeiture of pay.C. (i).C. istrative credit under subsection (k) of this rule for (iii) Standard of proof. The military judge shall order admin- apply to the matters considered. and there is not sufficient this subsection shall include a review of the memo. (C) The provisions of subsection (i)(1) or (2) mand may also appear before the reviewing officer of this rule have not been complied with and infor- to make a statement.M. For pur- request. including any (B) Information not presented to the 7-day submitted by the accused. if practicable. including the factual findings on credit is to be applied in addition to any other credit which they are based. The 7-day review.R. The review under an abuse of discretion. (j) Review by military judge. ment is adjudged. A copy of the memorandum and of confinement served. The requirements for any pretrial confinement served as a result of an confinement under subsection (h)(2)(B) of this rule abuse of discretion or failure to comply with the must be proved by a preponderance of the evidence. and after notice to the parties. This cer’s conclusions. The 7-day reviewing offi. provisions of subsections (f). Section V (Privileges) and Mil. written matters may be considered.M. shall be allowed to appear be released under subsection (h)(2)(B) of this rule. (B) Extension of time limit. A representative of the com. If no confine- officer shall be maintained in accordance with regu. of pretrial confinement that involves an abuse of (D) Memorandum. (h). mation presented to the military judge does not es- (ii) Rules of evidence. of fine. if any. for good cause. the reviewing officer shall served as a result of such noncompliance. R. or ment. Once the charges for which the accused has been confined are referred to (l) Confinement after release. may be confined again before completion of trial except upon the discovery. 302 under subsection (h)(2)(B) of this rule. (k) Remedy. 305(i)(2) under military control shall count as one day and the (1) Release. restriction. The prisoner and the pris. This credit shall be applied first all documents considered by the 7-day reviewing against any confinement adjudged. fine. noncompliance. The mili- approve continued confinement or order immediate tary judge may order additional credit for each day release. No person whose re- trial. the Military Rules of Evidence shall not (2) Credit. Except for Mil. or (j) of this rule shall be an administrative credit against the sentence adjudged limit for completion of the review to 10 days after for any confinement served as the result of such the imposition of pretrial confinement. hard labor without confinement. discretion or unusually harsh circumstances. (h). The credit shall not be applied against any other form of punishment. Additional tion (h)(2)(B) of this rule. Evid. tablish sufficient grounds for continued confinement Evid. R. be equal to 1 day of total forfeiture or a like amount nificant information not previously considered. 1 day of confinement shall decision to confine the prisoner based upon any sig. extend the time subsections (f). Such credit shall be computed at the (C) Action by 7-day reviewing officer.. information presented to the military judge justifying randum submitted by the prisoner’s commander continuation of pretrial confinement under subsec- under subsection (h)(2)(C) of this rule. The remedy for noncompliance with ing officer may. the credit shall be applied against request. shall be set forth in a written the accused may be entitled as a result of pretrial memorandum. Upon rate of 1 day credit for each day of confinement completion of review. (A) The 7-day reviewing officer’s decision was (i) Matters considered. in that order. The military judge shall order release date of the review shall also count as one day. or if the confinement adjudged is lations prescribed by the Secretary concerned and insufficient to offset all the credit to which the ac- provided to the accused or the Government on cused is entitled. II-24 .

C.M.M. 604. ing the offense’s effect on morale. See R. Discussion Each commander in the chain of command has independent. they may be withdrawn from that (2) At sea. requirements of such units or in such areas would Once charges are referred to a court-martial by a convening make application of such provisions impracticable. case of a person on board a vessel at sea. the nature of the offenses. including. the character and military service of the accused.C. tinue under subsection (h)(2)(B) of this rule. and (i) of this rule shall not apply in the tion with the Department of Justice is required. A decision by a commander ordinarily does not bar a different specific units or in specified areas when operational disposition by a superior authority. 601(f). of a person accused or suspected of committing an (H) availability and admissibility of evidence. and (This provision is not suspended under subsection (2) since the discipline. (D) possible improper motives of the accuser. Subsections (e)(2) and (3). The suspension of include: subsection (h)(2)(A) of this rule removes the 72-hour requirement (A) the character and military service of the accused. (B) the nature of and circumstances surrounding the able to comply with it. erally. 304(b) concerning who may order confinement. commander of a vessel is always available. military exigencies. overlapping discretion to dispose of offenses within the limits of (1) Operational necessity. offenses in individual cases. The goal should be a disposition could bear on the application of those standards). and II-25 . Ordinarily the immediate commander same or similar and related charges against the accused by an- other jurisdiction. has discretion to dispose of offenses by members of (G) availability and likelihood of prosecution of the that command. includ- confinement decision as soon as reasonably possible. See Appendix 3 with respect to offenses for which coordina- (h)(2)(C). welfare. ate level of disposition listed in subsection (c) of this mitted by the operational requirements and mission rule. safety. (E) reluctance of the victim or others to testify. Such transfer posed of in a timely manner at the lowest appropri- shall be accomplished at the earliest opportunity per. the commander should consider. since in a combat environment. Also. and fair. that officer’s authority. 401(c). either alone or mander may withhold the authority to dispose of in conjunction with all other available evidence. The Secretary of De. the commander may not be avail. offense triable by court-martial initially determines (I) existence of jurisdiction over the accused and the how to dispose of that offense. the interest Under this subsection the standards for confinement remain the of justice. pretrial that is warranted. yet (m) Exceptions.M. confinement on board the vessel at sea may continue only until the person can be trans. See R. court-martial only in accordance with R. (f). (f). R. Many factors must be taken into any delay in the transfer. jus. (h)(2)(A) and (C). Allegations of offenses should be dis- ferred to a confinement facility ashore. health. Initial disposition (F) cooperation of the accused in the apprehension or (a) Who may dispose of offenses. any recommendations made by subordinate commanders. Rule 306.C. In such situations.M. consideration and balanced. Upon such transfer the memorandum required by subsection (h)(2)(C) of this rule shall be Discussion transmitted to the reviewing officer under subsection The disposition decision is one of the most important and difficult (i) of this rule and shall include an explanation of decisions facing a commander. A superior commander may not limit the dis- cretion of a subordinate commander to act on cases Discussion over which authority has not been withheld. in keeping with the policy in fense may suspend application of subsections (e)(2) subsection (b) of this rule. types of cases. or gen- tifies confinement. and (i) of this rule to by the official at the lowest echelon with the power to make it. offense. The prisoner’s In deciding how an offense should be disposed of. The commander must make the pretrial offense and the extent of the harm caused by the offense. to the extent they are known. 306(b) of evidence or of misconduct which. Each commander conviction of others.C. (b) Policy. Normally. the initial disposition decision is made and (3). confinement remains subject to judicial review. and the effect of the decision on same (although the circumstances giving rise to the exception the accused and the command. factors commander still must determine whether confinement will con. appropriate. authority competent to do so. however. of the vessel. to the extent practicable.) (C) appropriateness of the authorized punishment to the particular accused or offense. any mitigating or extenuating circum- Discussion stances. A superior com.

707 (speedy trial requirements). are necessary.C.C. If charges have been preferred.C. if warranted (see R. R. If allegations are for- should be informed. If major changes R. In See R. When a decision is made to take no action. If charges have been pre. 603(a) and (b). the II-26 .M. such as for or initiate administrative action. Additional guidance on times of the offenses. believes that trial would be detrimental to the prose- cution of a war or harmful to national security. Before charges may a view to a joint or common trial. or so that a subordinate can dispose of the instead of other action taken under this rule. 306(b) (J) likely issues. See also R. because of lack of authority or otherwise.C. Within the reports.R.M. or any combination of the above. program reclassification. See R.C. which that commander believes is an appropriate disposition.C. If it appears that the accused may lack mental capacity 405 and 406 is necessary.M. prefer them and dispose of them (4) Disposition of charges. A commander may take A matter may be forwarded for other reasons. or ferred. 401(a) concerning who may dismiss charges. rehabilitation and limits of the commander’s authority. the affected charge should be preferred anew. 307. 307). admonition.C. or referring them to a When charges are brought against two or more accused with summary. 909. but ing of privileges. 601 (c) regarding disqualification posed of in accordance with R. 303. 916(k). and other ratings. security classification changes. 401(c)(1) concerning dismissal of charges. See R. dis. censure.C. and administrative Discussion separation. personnel reliability initially dispose of a charge or suspected offense.M. But see R. Charges may be dis- under this rule. criticism.M. with a recommendation as to disposition.C. 405 may be directed. exhortation. See Part V. (d) National security matters.M. these matters is found in R. Prompt disposition of charges is essential. 303 has been conducted. A commander may decide to take (5) Forwarding for disposition. Adminis- trative actions include corrective measures such as counseling. 401-407. If a commander not approval.M. However. they may be dismissed. warded to a higher authority for disposition. reprimand.M.M. an investiga- to stand trial or may not have been mentally responsible at the tion under R. may forward a matter concerning an offense. academic reports.C. which are subject to regulations of the Secretary concerned. be referred to a general court-martial.M.C. to a superior or subordinate authority for disposition. a commander consider the matter pursuant to Article 15. that an offense warrants trial by court-martial.C. the matter should be forwarded to a superior officer and R. See Charges may be disposed of by dismissing them. of an accuser. special. See R. Discussion Other administrative measures. the disposition decision becomes a matter within the discretion of the higher authority. include matters related to efficiency (c) How offenses may be disposed of. commander may. pecuni- ary liability for negligence or misconduct. 706. See commander who forwards or disposes of charges may make mi.M. see R. administrative reduc- may take the actions set forth in this subsection to tion for inefficiency. or general court-martial. 307(c)(5). see nor changes therein. to regulations of the Secretary concerned.C. forwarding R.M.C. a commander reassignment. see R.M. subject matter. extra authorized to convene general courts-martial finds military instruction. Discussion Discussion A decision to take no action or dismissal of charges at this stage does not bar later disposition of the offenses under subsection The immediate commander may lack authority to take action (c)(2) through (5) of this rule. 401. 601(e)(3).M. A commander no action on an offense. the cial punishment. (2) Administrative action. Therefore.M. Discussion sure that the accused has been notified in accordance with R. if appropriate. in addition to or investigation of allegations and preferral of charges.M.M. charges. bar to reenlistment.C. career field reclassification.C. rebuke. A commander may Before determining an appropriate disposition.C. 601(c) concerning disqualification of an accuser. (1) No action. 307 concerning preferral of charges. such cases. 308. the commander should en. and that charges are in proper form.M. the accused 401(c)(2) concerning forwarding charges. (3) Nonjudicial punishment. compliance with R.C. if appropriate.C. they may be preferred. Each If charges have not been preferred.C.M. reproach. If charges have not already been preferred. 603(d). nonjudi- should ensure that a preliminary inquiry under R. them to another commander for disposition. or the administrative withhold.M.

M. see R. For violations of the law of war.C. There may also essary delay. there will be only court-martial at any time but should be preferred without unnec. 306(a). that you have personal knowl. oath. but several specifications thereunder. beginning with “I” if there is more than one additional charge. An offense specifically defined by Articles before a commissioned officer of the armed forces 81 through 132 may not be alleged as a violation of Article 134.C.M. 307(c)(3) matter shall be forwarded to the general court-mar.)” 407(b).C. The format of charge and specifi- cation is used to allege violations of the code. and that the same are true in fact to tial convening authority for action under R. A charge states the article of the which the charges are later referred. Rule 307. A person who has been the accuser or nominal accuser (see Article 1(9)) may not also serve as the convening authority of a general or special court-martial to (2) Charge. See Articles 22(b) and 23(b). The accuser’s belief may be based upon reports of others in whole or in part. Article 118(1)) should not be included in the charge. con- “You (swear) (affirm) that you are a person subject to the cise. R. law of war. Additional charges do not require a separate trial if prefers charges must: incorporated in the trial of the original charges before arraign- ment. Preferral of charges should not be unnecessarily delayed.C.C. If there is only one charge.M.C. A person who preferred. Discussion No person may be ordered to prefer charges to which that person Discussion is unable to make truthfully the required oath. See Article 136 for authority to administer oaths.C. territory which the accused is alleged to have tial convening authority is not disqualified by being the accuser). Ordinar- ily persons subject to the code should be charged with a specific Discussion violation of the code rather than a violation of the law of war.M. it is not continue a course of conduct so that a ringleader or other conspir- numbered. but each must allege a violation of a different article of the code. charge(s) and specification(s). These ordinarily relate to offenses not known at the time or committed after the original charges were (b) How charges are preferred. When a good reason exists—as when a person is permitted to (A) Numbering charges.M.C. 201(f)(1)(B). constituting the offense charged. But see subsection (d) of this rule. see R. goes uncharged until guilty knowledge becomes apparent—a rea- (B) Additional charges. See the statute of limitations prescribed by Article be several charges.M. 707 concern. (1) Sign the charges and specifications under oath (C) Preemption. and definite statement of the essential facts Uniform Code of Military Justice. See R. See belief. Preferral of charges (a) Who may prefer charges. 401–404 and 407) should not be ordered to prefer charges when Discussion this would disqualify that person from exercising that persons’s authority or would improperly restrict that person’s discretion to The particular subdivision of an article of the code (for example. R. A specification is a plain. 104 and 504(c). each charge is ators may also be discovered or when a suspected counterfeiter numbered by a Roman numeral. code.M. below. Charges preferred after others have sonable delay is permissible. ” fact to the best of that person’s knowledge and referring to the local penal law of the occupied territory.M. (So help you God. act on the case. the best of your knowledge and belief. see (D) 43. Any person subject to (c) How to allege offenses. (2) State that the signer has personal knowledge (D) Charges under the law of war. been preferred are labeled “additional charges” and are also num- ing speedy trial requirements. See R. or “Violation of . and subsection (b) of this rule. The following form may be used to administer the oath: (3) Specification. But see subsection (d) of this rule. When there Charges may be preferred against a person subject to trial by are numerous infractions of the same article. However. the code may prefer charges. A person authorized to dispose of offenses (see R. violated. bered with Roman numerals. 601. authorized to administer oaths. one charge. 601(e)(2).M.C. See Article 30(a) See Appendix 4 for a sample of a Charge Sheet (DD Form 458). 1302(b) (summary court-mar. A specification is edge of or have investigated the matters set forth in the foregoing sufficient if it alleges every element of the charged II-27 . When there is more than one charge. (1) In general. however. and See paragraph 60c(5)(a) of Part IV. or local penal law of an occupied R. In the case of a person of or has investigated the matters set forth in the subject to trial by general court-martial for violations of the law charges and specifications and that they are true in of war ( see Article 18). the charge should be: “Violation of the Law of War”.

however. Navy. (iv) Basis of personal jurisdiction. If the name of which will indicate the basis of jurisdiction. the name acknowl. either conjunctively (the accused “lost and social security number or service number of an accused should destroyed”) or alternatively (the accused “lost or destroyed”). it may otherwise be fense charged should be stated in the specification with sufficient necessary to allege the status as in an allegation of using provok- precision to identify the offense and enable the accused to under. The specification should state the accused’s must be alleged. intent. cer. “wrongfully. principals. no (H) Other considerations in drafting specifications. One specification should not allege more than one offense. the specifications are num. color. If the alleged act is accused is known by more than one name.C.C. alias Lt. Specific evidence . (iii) Social security number or service number. offense normally will be sufficient to establish subject-matter tion under a charge it is not numbered. knowledge. If this cannot be done. If the (ii) Words indicating criminality. If there is no such acknowl. unit or organization. For example: In that Seaman conduct criminal ordinarily should be alleged.” or “without authority” (depending Smith.” or “did on divers occasions ular format is required.C. and serial number should not alleged except in certain absence offenses. If there is only one specifica.R.M. If a specific (C) Name and description of the accused. If the person has no military position. The (iv) Duplicitousness. a general physical description may be Jones. When the exact ordinarily be omitted. the accused’s rank or grade. alleging the place of the offense. details may be II-28 . See paragraph 42 stand what particular act or omission to defend against. For example: John the victim is unknown. it (i) Name. as in (D) Date and time of offense an allegation of disobedience of the command of a superior offi- (i) In general. (a) Military members on active duty. upon the nature of the offense) should be used to describe the (ii) Military association. should be used. the perpetrator. be alleged. Brown. and the change specific to inform the accused of the conduct charged. “from about 15 June permit the possible increased punishment. and to protect the accused fied by the present rank or grade followed by rank or grade on against double jeopardy. facts that increase the maximum tend(s) over a considerable period of time it is proper to allege it authorized punishment must be alleged in order to (or them) as having occurred.” In alleging the date of the (iii) Property. (a person employed by and serving with the U. Pleading the ac- tions appear. or state of mind is an element of the offense. the accused to prepare a defense. The specification should be sufficiently has changed since the date of an alleged offense. In some instances. middle name or initial. Navy. All principals are charged as if each was necessary for military members on active duty. leged. then words indicating criminality such as first. In (A) Sample specifications. if known. In describing property generic terms offense it is proper to allege it as “on or about” a specified day. bered in Arabic numerals. The exact hour of the offense is ordinarily details such as make. where near” a certain place if the exact place is uncertain. specifications. Robert R. The elements of the offense must be al- connection with the specifications under an additional charge. for example. Ex. 307(c)(3) offense expressly or by necessary implication. See R. Only those facts that make the accused’s the date of the alleged offense. and must be alleged if an element of the offense.” “unlawfully. or status name of such person should be alleged. (F) Subject-matter jurisdiction allegations. statute (including Articles 133 and 134).M. to enable is pertinent to the offense charged. 906(b)(5). For example: Seaman John P. the accused should be identi. If the rank or grade of the accused (iii) Specificity. the 24-hour clock should be used. The use of “at cept for aggravating factors under R. See paragraph 1 of Part IV for a discussion of (b) Persons subject to the code under Article 2(a). not itself an offense but is made an offense either by applicable edged by the accused should be used. such as “a watch” or “a knife. etc. (iv) Extended periods. The specification should describe the ac- or property of a person. full name: first name. (ii) Use of “on or about. When there is more than jurisdiction. U. When the acts specified ex- and R. middle initial and last cused’s armed force. it is proper to allege it as “at or the drafter should read the pertinent provisions of Part IV. time is alleged. the name believed to be the true name should be listed having the effect of law.” (E) Place of offense. In the case of an offense against the person under Articles 3 or 4. cused’s rank or grade along with the proper elements of the (B) Numbering specifications.M 1003(d) or about” is proper. However. or subject to trial by court-martial (ii) Victim. Army in used. last name. ing words toward a person subject to the code.S. Before drafting a specification.” Military rank or grade should fraudulent discharge). either expressly or by necessary implication. if two acts or a series of acts constitute one offense. of Part IV. model. allegation of the accused’s armed force or unit or organization is (i) Principals. Ordinarily. (G) Description of offense. supporting the allegations ordinarily should not be included in the tice . the first name. one specification under any charge. U. The date of the commission of the of. understand the particular act or omission to defend against. The place of the commission of the Discussion offense charged should be stated in the specification with suffi- cient precision to identify the offense and enable the accused to How to draft specifications. 1004.” and descriptive (iii) Hour.S. not be stated in the specification. 1983 to about 4 November 1983. followed by all known aliases.S. the elements of proof of various offenses and forms for specifica. between 15 June 1983 and 4 November 1983. etc.C. The specification should state accused’s acts. No partic. the victim may be described as “a the field in time of war) (a person convicted of having obtained a person whose name is unknown. then Seaman Appren. subsections (3) through (12). The term “additional” is not used in (i) Elements. position. or regulation or custom edgment.M. they may be alleged conjunctively.

C. acting jointly and pur.C.M. the value or amount should be alleged. and geographic or not be adjudged unless there is an allegation. However. although that Roe will be tried with Doe at a common trial. such as reveille.M. Commonly used and understood ab- an offense. Principals may be charged (a) If Doe and Roe are joint perpetrators of an jointly with the commission of the same offense. the mere fact that several persons happen to (b) If it is intended that Roe will be tried alone or have committed the same kinds of offenses at the time. components. Each specification shall only an approximate value is known.C. the value of each article should be stated followed by a statement of the aggregate (4) Multiple offenses. Prior convictions need length of a knife blade may be important when alleging a viola.M. . in which case the description must be sufficient to inform the ac.M. Charges and specifications value. for in such a breviations may be used. 906(b)(12) and 1003(c)(1)(C). . It is not necessary to more offenses. purpose. The however. Matters in aggravation that joint offenses the participants may be separately or jointly do not increase the maximum authorized punishment ordinarily charged. if known. scheduled duty. comforted. Roe may be material as tending to show concert of purpose. or assisted. it is not necessary that the specification contain a spe. When the value of property or other amount in accordance with R. such as the names of states or countries. should not be charged with both failure to report for a routine (vi) Orders. reasonable multiplication of charges against one (v) Documents. 307(c)(5) essential to the offense. These principles apply to allegations of amounts. identify the specific order or regulation allegedly violated. words of so named is believed by the accuser to be a principal criminality may be required if the alleged act is not necessarily in the offense which is the subject of the criminal. included offense thereof be separately charged. If the order allegedly violated is See also R. For A joint offense is one committed by two or more persons example: acting together with a common intent. . a value which will support the punishment. as well as proof. for they may “In that Roe did. 1004(b)(1). .” merely have been availing themselves of the same opportunity. but an accessory offense and it is intended to charge and try both at the same trial. When alleging oral statements the phrase “or words to that effect” should be added. When documents other than regulations person. R. verbatim or described in the specification. and date. of political entities. (c) Negating exceptions. In no case should both an offense and a lesser recite the text of the general order or regulation verbatim. units and organizations.C. A specification alleging a vio. case increased punishments that are contingent upon value may grades. specification. if the participants are members of different II-29 . For ease of proof alleging all known offenses by an accused may be an allegation may be “of a value not less than . (vii) Oral statements. more than one person as an accused if each person cific allegation negating the exceptions. There are times. If the order contains ex. it should be set forth offenses. Discussion (viii) Joint offense. the document may be set forth verbatim (including Discussion photocopies and similar reproductions) or may be described. not. In (ix) Matters in aggravation. does not neces- charged in the same manner as if Roe alone had committed the sarily establish this. . after the fact cannot be charged jointly with the principal whom they should be charged in a single specification as follows: the accused is alleged to have received. If several articles of different kinds are the subject of the offense. it may be alleged as “of a state only one offense.” If preferred at the same time. When the order is oral. and with absence without leave (a) General orders. if the failure to report occurred during the period for which the lation of a general order or regulation (Article 92(1)) must clearly accused is charged with absence without leave. determines the maximum punishment which may be adjudged for (x) Abbreviations.C. (5) Multiple offenders. Notice of such factors is normally provided (iv) Value. the term “of some value” may transaction should not be made the basis for an un- be used. Exact value should be stated. The fact that several persons happen to have offense.” design or purpose. section or paragraph. to show in the specification that Doe was a absented themselves without leave at about the same time will joint actor with Roe. Roe may be charged as follows: or plan justify joining them in one specification. or all may be charged together in a single specification. not be alleged in the specification to permit increased punish- tion of general regulation prohibiting carrying a knife with a ment. see (vii) below. or orders must be alleged (for example. bad checks in violation of Article 123a).” If the value of an item is unknown but obviously minimal. . 601(e)(3) concerning joinder of accused. a person cused of the offense charged. Offenders are properly joined only if there is a common unlawful suant to a common intent. What is substantially one value of about . For example. particularly abbreviations for ranks. 601(e)(2) concerning referral of several an “other lawful order” (Article 92(2)). However. Aggravating factors in capital cases should not be alleged blade that exceeds a certain length. See R.M. . See subsection (G)(ii) of this discussion. However. In the case of a joint offense each accused may be charged separately as if each accused acted alone See also R. did. A specification may name ceptions. in the absence of evidence indicating a joint design. when sufficient doubt as to the facts or the law exists to general order or regulation should be cited by its identifying title warrant making one transaction the basis for charging two or or number. “In that Doe and Roe. even though Doe is not to be tried with Roe. in the specification. in conjunction with Doe. so they must be alleged. (b) Other orders. For example: the should not be alleged in the specification.

See R. Evid. This must be charges and of any person who ordered the charges weighed against the possible unfairness to the accused which may to be preferred. 307(c)(5) armed forces. they must be charged separately because their trials mander of the accused shall cause the accused to be must be separately reviewed. 306.M. and no relief shall be granted upon a failure to Rule 308. result if their defenses are inconsistent or antagonistic. and expense. Error in or omission charges are forwarded shall cause the accused to be of the designation of the article of the code or other informed of the matters required under subsection statute.C. permit the accused to adequately prepare a defense. the accomplice is expected to testify. The preparation of joint charges is informed of the charges preferred against the ac- discussed in subsection (c)(3) Discussion (H) (viii)(a) of this rule. An ac- cused cannot be called as a witness except upon that accused’s Discussion own request. com- manders at higher echelons to whom the preferred (d) Harmless error in citation. Notification to accused of charges comply with this rule unless the accused demon- (a) Immediate commander. as soon as practicable. If the testimony of an accomplice is necessary. R.M. (b) Commanders at higher echelons. See R. strates that the accused has been hindered in the preparation of a defense. cused. II-30 . 906(b)(5) and (6) concerning motions to amend specifications and bills of particulars. The sole remedy for violation of this conviction if the error or omission did not prejudi. the When notice is given. be ground for dismissal of a charge or reversal of a (c) Remedy. law of war. or regulation violated shall not (a) of this rule as soon as practicable. See also Mil.M. labor.C. When the ac- cused has not been informed of the charges. 603 concerning amending specifications. if known. and the name of the person who preferred the The advantage of a joint charge is that all accused will be tried at one trial.R. rule is a continuance or recess of sufficient length to cially mislead the accused. thereby saving time. The immediate com.C. a certificate to that effect on the Charge accomplice should not be tried jointly with those against whom Sheet should be completed. See Appendix 4.

306(b). the original charge failed to state mental capacity to stand trial or may not have been mentally an offense. CHAPTER IV. 33. 306(b) and (c). Only persons au- thorized to convene courts-martial or to administer (c) How charges may be disposed of. nature or seriousness of the offense. See See R. a commander may not A commander may dispose of charges individually or collective- dispose of charges under this rule.C. 1302(b) (accuser may refer charges to a is dismissed. 707. that appropriate. 308.M.M. 706. types of cases. See R. 907(b)(2)(C) concerning the effect of dismissing also Articles 10. authority to do so has been limited or withheld by pose of charges. immediate commander for initial consideration as to disposition.M.M.M.C. or was so defective that a major amendment was responsible at the times of the offenses. deleted specifications or otherwise recording that a specification However. see sole discretion of the commander concerned. FORWARDING AND DISPOSITION OF CHARGES Rule 401. the affected charge should be preferred anew. It is appropriate to dismiss a charge and prefer another 307(c)(5).M.C.M. 407(b). a commander may dis- withhold the authority of a subordinate to dispose of pose of charges by dismissing any or all of them. When a commander with there are other sound reasons why trial by court-martial is not authority to dispose of charges receives charges.C.C. 504 as to who may convene courts-martial and para- graph 2 of Part V as to who may administer nonjudicial punish. charges in individual cases.C.C. charges should not be dismissed with a view to offering nonjudi- cial punishment unless the accused has indicated willingness to Discussion accept nonjudicial punishment if again offered.M. 307(a)) that commander is ineligible to refer such Charges are ordinarily dismissed by lining out and initialing the charges to a general or special court-martial. see R. see R. See Appendix 3 when the charges may involve matters in Each commander has independent discretion to determine how which the Department of Justice has an interest. more accused with a view to a joint or common trial. except to the extent that the com- mander’s authority has been withheld by superior competent au- thority. a commander who receives charges should ensure that: (1) a preliminary inquiry under R.C.M. (a) Who may dispose of charges. 98. 601(c). The decision whether to dismiss charges in such circumstances is within the In determining what level of disposition is appropriate. If charges are referred to a court-martial. 603(a) and (b). ordinarily all known Ordinarily charges should be forwarded to the accused’s charges should be referred to a single court-martial. ly.M. discipline. See also R. Before determining an appropriate disposition. As to the rules concerning speedy trial. See R. (1) Dismissal. 603(d)). When charges are brought against two or Charges may be amended in accordance with R.M. when it is unsupported by available evidence.C.M. II-31 .C.M. Before dismissing charges because trial would be detrimental to the prosecution of a war or harmful to national commander shall promptly determine what disposi- security. See R.C. 603(d).M. 601(e)(3). 104. 30. or forwarding any or all of them to another commander generally.C. 603. see R. Charges should be disposed of in accord- ance with the policy in R. (2) the accused has been (2) Forwarding charges. charges will be disposed of. When a commander dismisses Each commander who forwards or disposes of charges may charges further disposition under R. When all charges and specifications are dismissed. 306(c) of make minor changes therein. for disposition. changes are necessary. A superior competent authority may superior competent authority. If major the offenses is not barred. R.C. or did not adequately reflect the 916(k). If it appears that the accused may lack charge anew when. Forwarding and disposition of notified in accordance with R. see R. and (3) the charges are charges in general in proper form.M.M. Discussion ment. tion will be made in the interest of justice and If the accused has already refused nonjudicial punishment. the accuser and the accused ordinarily should be informed. see R.M.C. A charge should be dismissed when it fails to state an of- fense. charges after the court-martial has begun. 909. for example. or when (b) Prompt determination.C. summary court-martial).C.M. 401(d). Unless the nonjudicial punishment under Article 15 may dis.C. See R. or referring any or all of them to a court-martial which the commander is empowered to Discussion convene. If the power to convene courts-martial and to administer nonjudicial punishment has been withheld. 303 has been conducted.C. required (see R. If a commander is an accuser (see Discussion Article 1(9).

M. but believes that trial would probably be detrimental cific recommendation as to disposition.C. they should be forwarded by a letter of transmittal or indorsement. authorized to convene courts-martial stances in the case. solely to obtain such statements or reports when it otherwise appears that sufficient evidence to warrant trial is or will be available in time for trial. no recommendation as to disposi- tion may be made. To the extent cer exercising general court-martial convening practicable without unduly delaying forwarding the charges.M.M. Action by commander exercising Discussion summary court-martial jurisdiction Except when directed to forward charges. When charges are forwarded with a view to disposition other Discussion than trial by general or special court-martial. 401(c)(2) for additional guidance concerning forward- receiving them to dispose of them without further investigation. as appropriate. Other matters which may be appropriate include information concerning the accused’s background and character Rule 402. 601. When practicable. See generally R. the authority. 401(c)(1) concerning dismissal of charges. 404. (1) Dismiss any charges. from acting as convening authority in the case. 404. and exhibits. for example.C.C. Immediately upon receipt of commander may not be required to take any specific action to dispose of charges. documentary evidence.M. ing charges.C. or 407. Rule 403. If the forwarding commander is disqualified (3) Referral of charges. see R. 308 (notification to accused of charges). 303 (preliminary inquiry). Action by commander not of military service. 308 (notification to accused of charges) concerning other duties of the immediate commander when in receipt of charges.M.C. as should copies of any investigative or authorized to convene courts-martial may: laboratory reports. the 407. a subordinate (a) Recording receipt. and a description of any unusual circum. When charges are forwarded to When the immediate commander is authorized to convene a commander who is not a superior of the forward. letter should include or carry as inclosures: a summary of the available evidence relating to each offense. R. ments. No authority may direct a commander to make a spe. 104. to the prosecution of a war or harmful to national When charges are forwarded to a superior commander with a security.M.C.C. If because of the bulk of Discussion documents or exhibits. that matter should be brought to the attention of the conven- ing authority promptly and should be noted in the letter of disposition. copies of signed statements of the witnesses ized to administer nonjudicial punishment but not should be forwarded. 303 (preliminary inquiry). and options for further action. and any other matters required by su- perior authority or deemed appropriate by the forwarding com- mander. charges may be sent or returned to a martial jurisdiction over the command shall cause II-32 . When appropriate. When it appears that any witness may not be available for later proceedings in the case or that a deposition may be appropri- (2) Forward them to a superior commander for ate. basis for the disqualification shall be noted. the forwarding commander R. 401(c)(2)(A) (A) Forwarding to a superior commander. courts-martial.M. they should be properly preserved and of dismissal. 403. or however. if applicable. it is impracticable to forward them with See R. they should be accompanied by sufficient information to enable the authority See R. See also paragraph 1d(2) of sworn charges. 403.M. 407(b). See R. shall make a personal recommendation as to disposi- tion. an indi- cation that the accused has been offered and refused nonjudicial See R. the effect the letter of transmittal. See. the charges shall be forwarded to the offi- view to trial by general or special court-martial. (d) National security matters. subordinate commander for compliance with procedural require- When charges are forwarded to a superior com.M. punishment. an officer exercising summary court- Part V. If a commander who Discussion is not a general court-martial convening authority A commander’s recommendation is within that commander’s sole finds that the charges warrant trial by court-martial discretion.R. mander for disposition. a commander author- available witness statements.C.M. ing commander. The summary of evidence should include When in receipt of charges.C.C. evidence of previous Discussion convictions and nonjudicial punishments of the accused. transmittal. (B) Other cases. should be referred to in the letter of transmittal. See R. Forwarding charges should not be delayed.

Rule 404.M.M. 601 concerning referral of charges to a special court-martial. 1302(c) concerning referral of charges to a summary court-martial. 401(c)(2)(B) concerning forwarding charges to a sub.C.M.C. When in receipt of charges a com.C.M. 405. charges to a superior. 907(b)(2)(B).M. 401(c)(1) concerning dismissal of charges. 504(b)(2) concerning who may con- vene special courts-martial.C. 404(d) the hour and date of receipt to be entered on the of investigation with the charges to a superior com- charge sheet. Action by commander exercising special court-martial jurisdiction (b) Disposition. Charges may be preferred and forwarded to an 405(b). ordinate.C. concerned.C. the effect of dismissing charges.M. When appropriate. 601(d).M.M. 601(d).M. and options for further action.M. or for trial. If an investigation of running of the statute of limitations. or Discussion Discussion See R. forward the report II-33 . When in receipt of charges. mander for disposition. When appropriate. and. Discussion Discussion See R.C.M. See R. ordinate even if the subordinate previously considered them.C. (d) Subject to R. 401(c)(2)(A) for guidance concerning forwarding See R. 401(c)(2)(B) concerning forwarding charges to a sub- See R.M.C. a commander exercis- mander exercising summary court-martial jurisdic. after dismissing charges. officer exercising summary court-martial jurisdiction over the command to stop the running of the statute of limitations even though the accused is absent without authority. the matter) to a subordinate commander for the matter) to a subordinate commander for disposition. R. See R. Discussion Discussion See R. for disposition.C. if appropriate. 1302(a) concerning who may exercise An investigation should be directed when it appears that the summary court-martial jurisdiction. the effect See R. See Article 23 and R.M.M. direct a pretrial investigation under R. after dismissing charges. ordinate even if that subordinate previously considered them.C. 401(c)(2)(A) for guidance concerning forwarding charges to a superior. the subject matter already has been conducted. Discussion Discussion See Article 24 and R. refer charges to a (4) Subject to R. (c) Forward any charges to a superior commander (3) Forward any charges to a superior commander for disposition.C. (b) Forward charges (or.C. charges may be forwarded to a sub- ordinate. charges are of such a serious nature that trial by general court- The entry indicating receipt is important because it stops the martial may be warranted.C. 401(c)(1) concerning dismissal of charges. (1) Dismiss any charges. see R.C.M.M.C. refer charges to a summary court-martial or to a special court-martial summary court-martial for trial.C. (2) Forward charges (or. See R.C. 405. charges may be forwarded to a sub. See Article 43. Discussion Discussion See R.M. ing special court-martial jurisdiction may: tion may: (a) Dismiss any charges. and options for further action. disposition. 1302(c) concerning referral of charges (5) Unless otherwise prescribed by the Secretary to a summary court-martial. of dismissing charges.M. R.

counsel. forward the report forded the rights to counsel. direct a pretrial investigation under the accused was present at the investigation and af- R. See subsection (e) of this rule. the form of the charges. in disposition of the case or disapproval of the proceedings. Such requests shall be acted on in accord- section (k) of this rule.R. The func- tion of the investigation is to ascertain and impartially weigh all The investigating officer should be an officer in the grade of available facts in arriving at conclusions and recommendations. as a matter of discretion. and of investigation with the charges to a superior com. party. subsection (d)(2)(B) of this rule.M. commissioned officer not the accuser. The commander authorized to direct the investigation may resented by individual military counsel.M. The investigation is not limited to source. Unless prohibited Rule 405. who shall conduct the investigation and Discussion make a report of conclusions and recommendations. Recom- mendations of the investigating officer are advisory. approves a subject matter of an offense has been conducted request by the accused for retention of detailed II-34 . If an investigation of the fense counsel.M. unless the authority who detailed the de- (b) Earlier investigation. major or lieutenant commander or higher or one with legal train- not to perfect a case against the accused. When the accused is rep- held. and concerned. Pretrial investigation by regulations of the Secretary concerned. Failure to comply with (1) Investigating officer. The investigating officer may seek legal advice concerning be limited to the issues raised by the charges and necessary to the investigating officer’s responsibilities from an impartial proper disposition of the case. 404(e) (e) Unless otherwise prescribed by the Secretary before the accused is charged with an offense. charges are changed to allege a more serious or essentially differ- (A) Detailed counsel. may request to be represented by individual military The accused may waive the pretrial investigation. and.C. counsel direct that it be conducted notwithstanding the waiver. Except as provided in subsection (k) tigation may be directed under this rule by any of this rule. investigations which meet the requirements of this subsection.M. compliance with this rule. 506(b). if appropriate. tent with these rules. no mander for disposition. ters set forth therein has been made in substantial (d) Personnel. The primary purpose of the investigation required by Article 32 The investigating officer is disqualified to act later and this rule is to inquire into the truth of the matters set forth in in the same case in any other capacity. In such case. further investigation is required unless demanded by the accused to recall witnesses for further cross- Discussion examination and to offer new evidence. An investigation should be directed when it appears that the charges are of such a serious nature that trial by general court. The investigation should ing. If at any time after an investigation under this rule the (2) Defense counsel. an inves- (a) In general. cross-examination. 405. certified in accordance with Article 27(b) shall be ticle 32. military counsel Failure to comply substantially with the requirements of Ar. see R. and to secure information on which to determine what disposition should be made of the case.C.M. court-martial convening authority. presentation of evidence required by this rule. Discussion martial may be warranted. The commander direct- this rule shall have no effect if the charges are not ing an investigation under this rule shall detail a referred to a general court-martial. 405(b).C. See sub. That authority ferred to a general court-martial for trial until a may also give procedural instructions not inconsis- thorough and impartial investigation of all the mat. but may not obtain such advice from counsel for any examination of the witnesses and evidence mentioned in the ac. further investigation should be directed with respect to the new or different matters alleged. If an investigation of An earlier investigation includes courts of inquiry and similar the subject matter already has been conducted. Except as provided in ent offense. the charges. no investigation need be ance with R. as investigat- ing officer. may result in delay detailed to represent the accused. 405. which failure prejudices the accused. Discussion The investigation also serves as a means of discovery.C. See R. no charge or specification may be re. detailed to represent the accused shall ordinarily be excused. (c) Who may direct investigation.M. companying allied papers. The accused ate relief relating to the pretrial investigation.C. 905(b)(1) and 906(b)(3) concerning motions for appropri- (B) Individual military counsel.C. See R.

and such other matters as may be necessary to make (10) Have evidence. Representation by civilian (2) Be informed of the identity of the accuser. Except as provided in subsec- tion (g)(4)(A) of this rule. delay. (5) Be informed of the witnesses and other evi- dence then known to the investigating officer. inquiry into the legality of a cumulative. or the subject matter of such offense and make a rec. 506(b). R. pearance of the witness outweighs the difficulty. counsel shall not limit the rights to military counsel (3) Except in circumstances described in R.C. (1) In general. the investigating officer may investigate (11) Present anything in defense. 804(b)(2). When the investigating officer is aware the significance of the testimony and personal ap- that evidence may not be admissible.C.C. R.M. (9) Have witnesses produced as provided for in (e) Scope of investigation.M. A witness is admissibility of evidence and need not consider such matters “reasonably available” when the witness is located except as the investigating officer deems necessary to an in.M. and presentation afforded dur- That commander shall follow the procedures in ing the investigation of any charge offense. or request an appropriate authority to detail: (7) Be informed of the right against self-incrimi- (A) Counsel to represent the United States. be present throughout the taking of evidence. as a matter of discretion. the investigating officer will inform the request by the accused for individual military coun. See R. and otherwise afford the accused the same opportunity for sel to the commander who directed the investigation. and uncharged offenses. if the request is timely. and effect on military operations of II-35 . within 100 miles of the situs of the investigation and formed recommendation. (B) A reporter. ficer. shall inquire into the truth and form of the charges.C. cross examination. alterna- same with regard to investigation of both charged tives. extenuation. and (8) Cross-examine witnesses who are produced under subsection (g) of this rule. ged offense. Upon request. The accused may be rep- (f) Rights of the accused. The commander who directed the in. Discussion (A) Witnesses. thorities produced as provided under subsection (g) tion indicates that the accused committed an unchar. ex- In investigating uncharged misconduct identified during the pense. See also subsection (i) of this rule. The investigating officer shall forward any pretrial investigation. the investigation shall not be unduly de- layed for this purpose. For example. detail investigation. within the control of military au- charges. If evidence adduced during the investiga. (C) An interpreter. This includes witnesses requested by the ac- However. the accused is entitled to: to a reasonable time to obtain civilian counsel and to have such counsel present for the investigation.M. under subsections (d)(2)(A) and (B) of this rule. ble. and cused first having been charged with the offense. (3) Others. including documents or a recommendation as to the disposition of the physical evidence. without the ac. (1) Be informed of the charges under investigation. accused of the general nature of each uncharged offense investi- gated. (C) Civilian counsel. However. shall be produced if reasonably availa- search or the admissibility of a confession may be appropriate. At any pretrial investiga- resented by civilian counsel at no expense to the tion under this rule the accused shall have the right United States. any witness whose testi- The investigation may properly include such inquiry into issues mony would be relevant to the investigation and not raised directly by the charges as is necessary to make an appro- priate recommendation. 502(d)(6) concerning the duties of defense counsel. this should be noted in the report. mitigation for consideration by the investigating of- ommendation as to its disposition. Discussion (4) Be represented by counsel. (6) Be informed of the purpose of the vestigation may also. nation under Article 31. 405(g)(1)(A) counsel. (12) Make a statement in any form. The accused’s rights under subsection (f) are the (g) Production of witnesses and evidence. The investigating officer subsection (g) of this rule. representation. the investigating officer is not required to rule on the cused. of this rule.

M. the investigating shall decide whether a civilian witness is reasonably officer should notify the defense and inquire whether it requests available to appear as a witness. the investigating officer should inform the balanced against the relative difficulty and expense of obtaining commander who directed the investigation. attend a pretrial investigation.R. the investigating officer shall tective order under subsection (g)(6) of this rule. the production of other witnesses or evidence. ble is not subject to appeal by the accused but may be reviewed by the military judge under R. If the immediate commander determined the investigating officer should consider whether. if the request is timely. or effect on military operations must be the witness should be invited to attend and when appropriate. commander that the witness is not reasonably availa- erations of obtaining the evidence. The the witness is willing to appear. The investigating officer should con. including documents or physical evi. or to establish a mitigating rule. Otherwise. requiring the investigating officer to notify the appropriate authorities of requests by the accused for information privileged under Mil. if different. delay. personal appear- “reasonably available. able. Under subsection (g)(3) of this other witness by reputation evidence. Evid.M. 405(g)(1)(A) obtaining the witness’ appearance.C. as to potential witnesses. the witness’ presence at the hearing. sonably available. Generally. the witness is not reasonably alternative to that witness’ personal appearance if the sole reason available because civilian witnesses may not be compelled to for the witness’ testimony was to impeach the credibility of an. Section purpose of placing the appropriate authority on notice that an order. to permit nonproduction. 505 or 506.. expense. the significance of the witness’ live testimony must be stantial costs or delay. The time and place of the investigation may be changed if reasonably necessary to permit Discussion the appearance of a witness. shall be produced if reasonably availa- ble. witness on leave for 10 days would normally justify using an If the witness refuses to testify. The investigating officer will be produced and other evidence considered. the investigating officer should Discussion consider what evidence will be necessary to prepare a thorough and impartial investigation. as authorized under subparagraph(g)(6). testimony under subsection (g)(4)(A) of this rule would be suffi- cient. Similar considerations apply to the A witness located beyond the 100-mile limit is not per se unavail. the reasons for that probable importance of a witness’ testimony. mander of the witness shall be requested to make the sonably available if its significance outweighs the witness available. As soon as (A) Military witnesses. but ness and with others. Discussion 906(b)(3). is for the (B) Evidence. The investigating offi- practicable after receipt of a request by the accused cer shall make an initial determination whether a for information which may be protected under Mil. R. the temporary absence of a informed that necessary expenses will be paid. production of evidence. After making a preliminary determination of what witnesses (B) Civilian witnesses. 804(a)(1)-(6). In preparing for the investigation. Evid. whether their personal appearance availability with the immediate commander of the requested wit- will be necessary. the immediate com- the convening authority. is not witness was the only eyewitness to the offense. military witness is reasonably available. To determine if a witness beyond 100 miles is reasonably If the production of witnesses or evidence would entail sub- available. if the same unavailable under Mil. If the investigating officer deter- more important the testimony of the witness. expense. The investigating officer should initially determine whether a cer intends to call it must be determined whether each witness is civilian witness is reasonably available without regard to whether reasonably available. the investigating officer shall tigating officer decides that the witness is not rea- notify the person who is authorized to issue a pro. On the other hand. difficulty. personal appearance is preferred. an alternative to determination should be provided to the investigating officer. evidence. protect whatever information the government may decide to re- dence. the accused. Evidence is rea. For example. Evid. Evid.C. That determination is a balancing test.” ance would be required if the defense requested it and the witness is otherwise reasonably available. Subject to Mil. the greater the mines that a civilian witness is apparently reasonably available. the defense may request production of Discussion witnesses whose testimony would favor the prosecution. R. in light of the that the witness is not reasonably available. and effect on military op. Such evidence includes evidence requested by (2) Determination of reasonable availability. may be required to V. A determination by the immediate difficulty. Once it is determined what witnesses the investigating offi. If the inves- R. The investigating officer may discuss factors affecting reasonable sider. A witness who is character trait of the accused. delay. In addition to witnesses for the defense. and inform the parties. and which is relevant to the investigation and not cumulative. which is under the control of the Government lease to the accused. 505 or 506. civilian witnesses may be paid for travel and associated II-36 . R. The provision in (B).

(C) Evidence. idence. the of that witness.C. reproduction of similar accuracy of the evidence. phone. an investigating mination that a witness or evidence is not reasonably officer may consider. or II-37 . and a per diem allowance may be paid to civilians (iii) An alternative to testimony. radio. UCMJ. or (ii) Statements under oath taken by tele. (i) Sworn statements.M. 702(b). the claimed. Vol 2. R. reasonably available. (4) Alternatives to testimony. Except for use in phone. or similar means providing each party Discussion the opportunity to question the witness under cir- cumstances by which the investigating officer may The investigating officer may discuss factors affecting reasonable reasonably conclude that the witness’ identity is a availability with the custodian and with others. (ii) An authenticated copy. (vi) Unsworn statements.C. (v) An unsworn statement describing the ev- paragraphs C3054. and cides that it is not reasonably available. or (vi) An offer of proof concerning pertinent characteristics of the evidence. radio. when the evidence is officer may consider. or similar means providing each party support of the deposition of a witness under Article 49. and gating officer. photograph. (ii) Statements under oath taken by tele- 906(b)(3). (A) Unless the defense objects. (iii) Prior testimony under oath. the investi. If the custodian determines that the evidence is not reasonably available.M. scribed by the Secretary of a Department. (vii) Offers of proof of expected testimony gating officer shall inform the parties. provide testimony or documents. when per- requested to testify in connection with an investiga- mitted under subsection (g)(4)(B) of this rule. If the investigating officer de. document’s con- Discussion tents. (iv) Depositions. The investigating officer shall (v) Stipulations of fact or expected make an initial determination whether evidence is testimony. regardless of the availability of available. viewed by the military judge under R. the investigating officer shall include a the evidence: statement of the reasons for the determination in the (i) Testimony describing the evidence. C6000. (5) Alternatives to evidence.M. A determination by the custodian over objection of the defense. the investigating officer cumstances by which the investigating officer may and any government representative to an Article 32. in tion under this rule according to regulations pre- which the evidence is described. an investigating over objection of the defense. Otherwise. (ii) An authenticated copy.C. but may be re. Transportation expenses reproduction of similar accuracy of the evidence. UCMJ. or (3) Witness expenses. when the witness is that the evidence is not reasonably available is not not reasonably available: subject to appeal by the accused. See Department of Defense Joint Travel Regulations. (i) Sworn statements. reasons for that determination should be provided to the investi. photograph. sonably available. unsworn statements. (A) Unless the defense objects. (B) The investigating officer may consider. (iv) A stipulation of fact. and (v) In time of war. or expected testimony. custodian of the evidence shall be requested to pro. If the defense objects to a deter. 405(g)(5)(B)(ii) expenses to testify at a pretrial investigation. (B) The investigating officer may consider. (iv) Deposition of that witness. the opportunity to question the witness under cir- and ordered pursuant to R. (D) Action when witness or evidence is not rea. vide the evidence. proceeding does not possess authority to issue a subpoena to reasonably conclude that the witness’ identity is as compel against his or her will a civilian witness to appear and claimed. regardless of the availability of not reasonably available: the witness: (i) Testimony describing the evidence. (iii) Prior testimony under oath. report of investigation.

505 ine all other evidence considered by the investigat- or 506 may apply. If. they no lesser methods short of closing the Article 32 can be used to should be preserved until the end of trial. An Evid. have each witness directed the investigation or the investigating officer. If an objection raises a substantial question about a matter The following oath may be given to witnesses: within the authority of the commander who directed the investiga- “Do you (swear) (affirm) that the evidence you give shall be tion (for example. under oath. if necessary. the investi. 505(g)(1)(B) through (F) or 506(g)(2) through objection shall be noted in the report of investigation (5). All testimony shall be taken See also subsection (k) of this rule. The investigating officer formation. Any objection alleging failure to terms of any such protective order may include comply with this rule. all or part of the proceeding may be restricted or gating officer should. the Government shall inform the parties what other evidence will be agrees to disclose to the accused information to considered. sign and swear to the truth of the respective summaries. unless it would unduly delay completion of the investigation. so help you appointed) the investigating officer should promptly inform the God)?” commander who directed the investigation. whether the investigating officer was properly the truth. the investigating officer may invite but hearing may be closed to spectators. Evid. The investigating officer is required to include in the report of the investigation a summary of the substance of all testimony. Access by spectators to See subsection (j)(2)(B) of this rule. (e). promise of information disclosed to the accused. The defense shall be given wide objections. require a party to file any objection in writing. closure. Commanders or investigating officers must conclude that dings of testimony were taken during the investigation. 405(g)(5)(B)(iii) (iii) An alternative to testimony. (3) Access by spectators. (1) Presentation of evidence. R. reduce the substance of foreclosed in the discretion of the commander who the testimony of each witness to writing and. the investigating circumstance-by-circumstance analysis of whether closure is nec- officer should notify the commander who directed the investiga. in writing. be available at the time anticipated for trial. may enter an appropriate pro. the If the accused testifies. in 305(c). should comply with the warning requirements of Mil. mitted under subsection (g)(4)(B) of this rule. the commander or inves- If during the investigation any witness subject to the code is tigating officer must make specific findings of fact in writing that suspected of an offense under the code. Commanders or investi- If it appears that material witnesses for either side will not gating officers must conduct a case-by-case. and nothing but the truth (. The investigating officer may (h) Procedure. witness-by-witness. Any closure must be nar- not require the accused to swear to the truth of a summary of that rowly tailored to achieve the overriding interest that justified the testimony. or mitigation. The (2) Objections. After the hearing. full opportunity to present any matters in defense. (d). The parties shall be permitted to exam- which the protections afforded by Mil. except subsection (j). The written findings of fact must be included II-38 . (B) Other evidence. the convening authority. The following oath may be given to a witness in such cases: Discussion “You (swear) (affirm) that this statement is the truth. Discussion (A) Testimony. as well as those terms specified by Mil. and. the Article 32 investigations are public hearings and should remain whole truth. essary. except that the accused may make an Although the investigating officer is not required to rule on unsworn statement. response to an objection as to matters relating to the conduct of the proceedings when the investigating officer believes such ac- Discussion tion is appropriate. Evid. whenever possible. The investigating officer order. and nothing but the truth (. the investigating officer support the closure. or other ing officer. shall be prohibiting the disclosure of the information except made to the investigating officer promptly upon dis- as authorized by the authority issuing the protective covery of the alleged error. to guard against the com. the investigating officer may take corrective action in latitude in cross-examining witnesses. tective order. prior to referral. R. so help you God)?” open to the public whenever possible. The defense shall have the service concerned. shall not be required to rule on any objection. person designated by regulation of the Secretary of (C) Defense evidence. If substantially verbatim notes of a testimony or recor. the whole truth. the Article 32 investigation is necessary.C. protect the overriding interest in the case. When an overriding inter- est exists that outweighs the value of an open investigation. (6) Protective order for release of privileged in. if a party so requests. when per. extenuation. If a commander or investigating officer believes closing tion so that depositions may be taken if necessary.M. which the evidence is described. R.R.

M. commander shall promptly cause a copy of the report to be delivered to each accused. The report of investigation shall (4) Objections. the reasons why any essential witness may not then (i) Military Rules of Evidence. That ment. An (H) The investigating officer’s conclusion investigating officer may consider any evidence. the scope of the inquiry. even if that evi. or recit- (4) Presence of accused. R. pretrial investigations under this rule. Evid. The investigating be forwarded to the general court-martial convening authority officer shall cause the report to be delivered to the within 8 days after an accused is ordered into arrest or confine. (G) The investigating officer’s conclusion Discussion whether the charges and specifications are in proper The investigating officer should exercise reasonable control over form. See subsection (e) of this rule. the taking of evidence shall not be prevented and the (D) A statement of any reasonable grounds for accused shall be considered to have waived the right belief that the accused was not mentally responsible to be present. whether reasonable grounds exist to believe that the dence would not be admissible at trial.M. The Military Rules be available. 412 and Section V—shall not apply in investigation. protecting (B) The substance of the testimony taken on classified material. The investigating officer shall be preferred. trauma to a child witness or an alleged victim of a sexual crime. see subsection (g)(4) of this rule as to limitations on the ways in which testi- accused committed the offenses alleged. 916(k) (mental responsibility). the investigating officer may recommend that the (j) Report of investigation. However. persists in conduct which is such as will be available at the time anticipated for trial and to justify exclusion from the proceeding. Discussion For example. and mony may be presented. including disposition. of the proceeding is voluntarily absent (whether or not informed by the investigating officer of the obli. or See R. Discussion gation to be present). addresses of defense counsel and whether defense This subsection does not prohibit a convening au- II-39 . 909 (mental capacity). considered by the investigating officer appear in subsection (g) of this rule.C.C. whenever the accused: for the offense or was not competent to participate (A) After being notified of the time and place in the defense during the investigation. 301.M. Examples of over. incapable of testifying in an open setting. the charges and the report of investigation should (3) Distribution of the report. (F) An explanation of any delays in the 303. Report (DD Form 457). (2) Contents. including any stipulated testimony. Discussion If practicable. Article 33. protecting the safety of a witness or alleged victim. charges and specifications be amended or that additional charges (1) In general. or mat- ters considered by the investigating officer. The further progress of als of the substance or nature of such evidence. of Evidence—other than Mil. R. (I) The recommendations of the investigating Certain rules relating to the form of testimony which may be officer. or if not present the reason why. Any objection to the report shall include: be made to the commander who directed the investi- (A) A statement of names and organizations or gation within 5 days of its receipt by the accused. documents. commander who directed the investigation. 302. 405(j)(4) in the Article 32 investigating officer’s report. 305. (B) After being warned by the investigating of- ficer that disruptive conduct will cause removal from (E) A statement whether the essential witnesses the proceeding. (C) Any other statements. and receiving evidence where a witness is both sides. See R. counsel was present throughout the taking of evi- riding interests may include: preventing psychological harm or dence. 306 and 401 concerning other possible dispositions. make a timely written report of the investigation to See Appendix 5 for a sample of the Investigating Officer’s the commander who directed the investigation.C.

When in receipt of charges. Information which is incor- for trial by a general court-martial. If the report fails to include reference to objections which defense counsel. including an objection to the convening authority. should be accurate.C.M. discussion of significant aggravating. 401(c)(1) concerning dismissal of charges and the effect of dismissing charges. tion of each offense is warranted by the evidence indicated in the report of investigation (if there is such a report). See R. tary advice is necessary before the charges may be referred to another general court-martial. The standard of proof to be applied in R.C. (1) Conclusion with respect to whether each spec- ification alleges an offense under the code. 905(b)(1). for good cause shown. Defects in the pretrial Discussion advice are not jurisdictional and are raised by pretrial motion.C. 604) or when a mistrial has been de.C. The advice of the staff judge advocate mander exercising general court-martial jurisdiction shall include a written and signed statement which may: sets forth that person’s: (1) Dismiss any charges. failure to make a timely (4) Recommendation of the action to be taken by objection under this rule.M. or summary courts-martial.C.M. supplemen. 406(b)(2) is probable cause. the charge sheet. The accused may waive an investigation the offense. and the recommendation of the Article 32 investigating officer.M. See R. shall constitute waiver of the objection. See R. the convening authority. judge advocate shall be provided to the defense if clared in a general court-martial ( see R. ding letter. The staff judge advocate may make changes in the charges Rule 407. Discussion tigating officer. general court-martial jurisdiction (a) Disposition. martial would have jurisdiction over the accused and (k) Waiver. authority for consideration and advice. a com- (b) Contents. Another person may prepare the advice. as appropriate. failure to object to The advice need not set forth the underlying analysis or the report will constitute waiver of such objections in the absence rationale for its conclusions. charges are referred to trial by general court-martial. When charges have been withdrawn from a general (c) Distribution. Before any charge may be referred they are required. it shall be re. or the mili. Action by commander exercising and specifications in accordance with R. endorsements.C. II-40 . Discussion unless disqualified.906(b)(3). advice and must make an independent and informed appraisal of tary judge. there is no legal requirement to include such information. as appropriate. extenuating. and under this rule.905(b)(1) and its Discussion. Grounds for disqualification in a case include previous action in See also R. 601(d)(1). and report of investigation are for- The commander who receives an objection may direct that warded with the pretrial advice. A copy of the advice of the staff court-martial (see R. Rule 406.M. a defense request for a deposition may be gating factors. 603. should include when appropriate: a brief summary of the evi- Even if the accused made a timely objection to failure to dence. A convening authority may. In addition. See A pretrial advice need not be prepared in cases referred to special R. or miti- produce a witness.M. the report. the commander who directed the The staff judge advocate is personally responsible for the pretrial investigation.M. 905(b)(1).M.C. that case as investigating officer. (2) Forward charges (or. but the staff judge advocate is. any recommendations for disposition of the case necessary to preserve the issue for later review. and failure to do so is not error.C. the charges and evidence in order to render the advice. 906(b)(3). trial counsel. by commanders or others who have forwarded the charges. after dismissing charges. seek the advice of a lawyer before referring charges to such a court-martial. Relief from the waiver may be granted by the inves. whether or not (a) In general. rect or so incomplete as to be misleading may result in a determi- ferred to the staff judge advocate of the convening nation that the advice is defective. How- ever. military judge. In addition. necessitating appropriate relief.R. or member.M.C. the pretrial advice the investigation be reopened or take other action.M. Ordinarily. responsible for it and must sign it personally. 915).C. were made under subsection (h)(2) of this rule. forwar- of good cause for relief from the waiver. however. 405(j)(4) thority from referring the charges or taking other (3) Conclusion with respect to whether a court- action within the 5-day period. Discussion (2) Conclusion with respect to whether the allega. Pretrial advice Whatever matters are included in the advice.

308 (notification to accused of charges).C. 405(b).M. if so. Discussion See R. cerned for disposition under Article 43(e). R. 601.M. When in receipt of Discussion charges the trial of which the commander exercising See R.M. and. refer charges to a A subordinate commander may not be required to take any general court-martial.M.M. whether the security considerations in- Discussion volved are paramount to trial. 104. unless otherwise prescribed by regulations of the Secretary (4) Refer charges to a summary court-martial or a concerned. general court-martial jurisdiction. See R. 303 (prelimi.C. after which additional action under this In time of war. the commander may dismiss the See R.M. specific action or to dispose of charges.M. See. charges. See R. for example.C.C. be warranted.M. charges may be forwarded to the Secretary con- rule may be taken. 407(b) the matter) to a subordinate commander for are of such a serious nature that trial by general court-martial may disposition.C. If an investigation of the subject matter already has been conducted.C.C. 401 (c)(2)(A) for guidance concerning forwarding general court-martial jurisdiction finds would proba- charges to a superior. authorize trial of them. See R.M. charges may be Discussion sent or returned to a subordinate commander for compliance with procedural requirements. As the commander finds appropriate.C.C. 504(b)(1)concerning who may exercise nary inquiry).C. 601 concerning referral of charges. (b) National security matters. bly be inimical to the prosecution of a war or harm- ful to national security. direct a pretrial investigation under Discussion R.M. When appropriate. (5) Unless otherwise prescribed by the Secretary concerned. See R.C.C. (6) Subject to R. R.M. 401(c)(2)(B) concerning forwarding charges to a sub- ordinate. See Article 22 and R. 405. (3) Forward any charges to a superior commander for disposition. the Secretary may take action suspending the statute of limitations Discussion in time of war.C.M. that commander. See also paragraph 1d(2) of Part V. 1302(c). 306 and 401 concerning other dispositions. Under Article 43(e). R. 405. An investigation should be directed when it appears the charges II-41 .M.C. 601(d). shall determine whether trial is warranted special court-martial for trial. See R. or forward them to a superior authority.M.

bailiffs. escorts. COURT-MARTIAL COMPOSITION AND PERSONNEL. experience.C. interpreters.C. clerks. the convening authority shall state in the con. exigencies. (1) Qualifications.C. Each member shall be on active duty with the lesser number of reasonably available members armed forces and shall be: under 12. (b) Counsel in general and special courts-martial. Composition and personnel of special courts-martial. or of the military judge alone if re- (a) Members. the convening authority shall detail the next ment. No member of a court-martial may have access to or use in any open or closed session Discussion this Manual. quested and approved under R. Special courts-martial enlisted person and has made a timely request under shall consist of: R. 903. reports of decided cases. 903. CONVENING COURTS-MARTIAL Rule 501. (B) A warrant officer. The members detailed to a (B) In all capital cases. 503(a)(2). to general and special courts-martial. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration martial. (B) A military judge and not less than three Discussion members. except derlies. and deciding all matters submitted to them. Qualifications and duties of tial shall consist of a military judge and not less than personnel of courts-martial five members. istration and of the Public Health Service are eligible to serve as members when assigned to and serving with an armed force.C. such as re.M. or Retired members of any Regular component and members of Reserve components of the armed forces are eligible to serve as (C) A military judge alone if a military judge members if they are on active duty. general courts-mar.M. unless 12 members are not reasonably ion of the convening authority are best qualified for available because of physical conditions or military the duty by reason of their age. except when the accused vening order the reasons why 12 members are not is a commissioned officer. education. The Discussion Public Health Service includes both commissioned and warrant See R. (2) Duties. Assistant trial if necessary. (A) Except in capital cases. adjudge a proper sentence. the military judge. includes only commissioned officers. but in no event fewer than five. officers.M. No but need not be detailed by the convening authority member may use rank or position to influence an- personally. Rule 502. The members of a court-martial shall Military trial and defense counsel shall be detailed determine whether the accused is proved guilty and. (1) General courts-martial. and vote with other members in deliberating upon porters. Each member has an equal voice (c) Other personnel. and judicial tempera- ble. case. except the president of a special II-42 . length of service. general courts-martial shall consist of a military judge and no fewer than court-martial shall be those persons who in the opin- 12 members. and or. Regulations of the Secretary concerned courts-martial may also require or restrict the use of reporters in special courts- martial. is detailed and if requested and approved under Members of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Admin- R. If 12 members are not reasonably availa.M. (A) Not less than three members. (C) An enlisted person if the accused is an (2) Special courts-martial. training. (a) Composition of courts-martial. may be detailed or employed as appropriate as otherwise specifically provided in these rules. based on the and associate or assistant defense counsel may be evidence and in accordance with the instructions of detailed. other member. CHAPTER V. Other personnel. 1301(a) concerning composition of summary courts. or reasonably available. In such a (A) A commissioned officer. or any other The convening authority may direct that a reporter not be used in reference material.

gather evidence of the offense. Only persons cer- (b) President. provided. (1) Certified counsel required. member. tions on other duties which a military judge in special courts- mination. (d) Counsel. perform the duties assigned by this Manual to counsel. 801 for description of some of the general duties of the military judge. Members should not form an opinion on any matter in connection with a case until that matter has been submitted to them for determination. (c) Qualifications of military judge. or a designee. Individual military or civilian the Judge Advocate General or the Judge Advocate defense counsel who represents an accused in a General’s designee.M. proved by the Judge Advocate General. tified under Article 27(b) as competent to perform duties as counsel in courts-martial by the Judge Ad- (1) Qualifications. and (A) A member of the bar of a Federal court or assigned and directly responsible to the Judge Advo- of the bar of the highest court of a State. certified to be qualified for duty court-martial shall be: as a military judge of a general court-martial. See R. or as assistant trial counsel or assist- State and who is certified to be qualified for duty as ant defense counsel in general or special courts- a military judge by the Judge Advocate General of martial. The Secretary concerned may prescribe (B) If not a member of such a bar. counsel or associate defense counsel in general or (2) Duties. the military judge of a general (3) Qualifications of individual military and civil- court-martial shall be designated for such duties by ian defense counsel. showing to the satisfaction of the military judge that the counsel has appropriate training and familiarity II-43 . Any commissioned of- forces who is a member of the bar of a Federal court ficer may be detailed as trial counsel in special or a member of the bar of the highest court of a courts-martial.C. 506(b)(3).C. witnesses. A military judge shall be a commissioned officer of the armed (2) Other military counsel. The president of a court-mar- vocate General of the armed force of which the tial shall be the detailed member senior in rank then counsel is a member may be detailed as defense serving. 502(d)(3)(B) court-martial without a military judge may use such Discussion materials in open session. The Secretary concerned may establish addi- the armed force of which such military judge is a tional qualifications for such counsel.M. The president shall have the same du- special courts-martial or as trial counsel in general ties as the other members and shall also: courts-martial. of the vided in these rules. In addition. (A) Preside over closed sessions of the mem- bers of the court-martial during their deliberations. As used in this subsection ity to practice law and is found by the military judge “military judge” does not include the president of a to be qualified to represent the accused upon a special court-martial without a military judge. Similar restric- case with anyone until the matter is submitted to them for deter. Discussion Military judges assigned as general court-martial judges may perform duties in addition to the primary duty of judge of a Members should avoid any conduct or communication with the military judge. or other trial personnel during the trial general court-martial only when such duties are assigned or ap- which might present an appearance of partiality.M. When the accused has individual military or civilian defense judge. Except as pro. R. members should not discuss any part of a service of which the military judge is a member. who is authorized by a recognized licensing author- cial courts-martial.C. a person must be a member of the bar of a Federal requesting instructions from the military judge. See R. The Judge Advocate General (C) In a special court-martial without a military concerned may establish additional requirements for certification. the detailed counsel is “associate counsel” unless ex- the military judge except as otherwise expressly cused from the case. a lawyer additional qualifications for military judges in spe. or cate General or the Judge Advocate General’s designee. and court or the highest court of a State. Discussion (B) Speak for the members of the court-martial To be certified by the Judge Advocate General concerned under when announcing the decision of the members or Article 27(b). Members should not on their own visit or conduct a martial may perform may be prescribed in regulations of the view of the scene of the crime and should not investigate or Secretary concerned.

or of proof on motions which may be anticipated. Trial counsel must promptly provide such cases to be prepared.M. Trial counsel should bring to the attention of the person who. as defense coun. 913). prepare to conduct the examination and cross-examination of witnesses. place. 602. preparation.M. should: report to the convening authority any substantial irregu- (ii) whether the accused wants the counsel to appear with larity in the convening orders. prepare to make an opening statement case. it is presumed that a (E) Trial. or custom of the service. bring to the attention of the (iv) practical alternatives for discipline of the counsel in the convening authority any case in which trial counsel finds trial inadvisable for lack of evidence or other reasons. 701). military counsel. and witnesses for the prosecution and (if known) defense of the date. or any other matter within the discretion of the trial counsel shall prosecute cases on behalf of the court-martial. R. (C) Relations with the accused and defense counsel. 1001(g)). time. 602. has acted in that capacity. report an military defense counsel. and necessary equipment and supplies are provided for the court-martial. an appropri- (5) Duties of trial and assistant trial counsel. comply with applicable discovery rules (see (A) The accuser. 1 1 0 1 ( a ) ) . 1103. between referral and trial of a case. actual or anticipated reduction of the number of members below (iii) the familiarity of the counsel with spoken English. or purport to transmit to the military judge or members the views of the convening authority or others as to the guilt or innocence of the accused.C. Trial counsel should: ensure that a between the accused and civilian defense counsel. arrange for the presence of witnesses and evidence in ac- serve as counsel for an opposing party in the same cordance with R. other parties.C. a reporter (if authorized). Trial (v) whether foreign witnesses are expected to testify with counsel must communicate with a represented accused only whom the counsel may more readily communicate than might through the accused’s defense counsel. and the Military Rules of Evidence. authentication. if necessary.M. secure for use at trial such legal texts as may (D) A member.M. In the absence of evidence to the contrary. See R. the burden of proof of guilt and the burdens (C) A military judge. each offense charged.M. 919.M. (G) Assistant trial counsel. and the counsel may facilitate communication and confidence (D) Preparation for trial. 502(d)(3)(B) with the general principles of criminal law which referred charges. and distribution of copies of the re- cord as required by these rules and regulations of the Secretary Discussion concerned (see R. has been detailed military judge any substantial irregularity in the proceedings. No person shall act as trial member and all personnel of the court-martial. event of misconduct. M . a n d s u p e r v i s e t h e under law. and (if applicable) the officer in charge of the any act or duty which trial counsel may perform c o n f i n e m e n t f a c i l i t y (s e e R . full. as counsel for any party to the court-martial to which the case has Trial counsel should not allude to or disclose to the members any been referred. and orderly presen- tation of the evidence at trial. be available and necessary to sustain the prosecution’s conten- No person who has acted as counsel for a party may tions.C.R. regulation. 603). trial counsel should cause a copy of the charges apply in a court-martial. An assistant trial counsel may act (A) General duties before trial. charges. give timely notice counsel or assistant trial counsel or. or allied papers.C. on Discussion sentencing (see R. see R. obtain copies of the charges and specifications and convening orders for each (4) Disqualifications. Under the supervision of written notice of the findings and sentence adjudged to the con- trial counsel an assistant trial counsel may perform vening authority or a designee.C. suitable room. evidence not yet admitted or reasonably expected to be admitted in evidence or intimate. except when to the members. Trial counsel should: examine the charge sheet and allied papers for completeness and correctness. tial.M. correct (and initial) mi- Discussion nor errors or obvious mistakes in the charges but may not without In making such a determination—particularly in the case of civil. However. 1104).C. Immediately upon receipt of in that capacity only under the supervision of the detailed trial II-44 .C. Trial counsel of the court-martial have been scheduled.M. and prepare to make final argument on the findings and. The ate sentence. other personnel of the court-mar- expressly requested by the accused. of the prosecution’s case ( see R. and uniform of the meetings of the court- sel or associate or assistant defense counsel in any martial.C. prepare to make a prompt. the accused’s immediate com- mander.C. (i) the availability of the counsel at times at which sessions (B) Relationship with convening authority. ensure that any person having custody of the accused is case in which that person is or has been: also informed. 703. and ian defense counsel who are members only of a foreign bar—the assure that the information about the accused on the charge sheet military judge also should inquire into: and any evidence of previous convictions are accurate. to be served upon accused. United States and shall cause the record of trial of (F) Post-trial duties. transmit. quorum to the convening authority.M. consider the elements of proof of (B) An investigating officer. authority make any substantial changes (see R. C . and Trial counsel may not attempt to induce an accused to plead (vi) whether ethnic or other similarity between the accused guilty or surrender other important rights.

assistance of trial counsel in obtaining the presence of witnesses and evidence for the defense. defense counsel statement. 1001(g)). if the request is approved. Defense counsel may have the required of a trial counsel.C. An assistant the facts of the case before advising the accused. make an unsworn waives appellate review. defense counsel should immediately inform the convening author- (ii) Examination of the record.M.M. 903).M. except as the accused may authorize (see also Mil. 1201(b)(1). Appeals for the Armed Forces and the Supreme Court. and to make final argu- counsel may perform any act or duty which a de. 1202 and 1203.C. disclose to the accused any interest defense convening authority in taking action on the case. the rights to introduce quences of waiver of appellate review. Unless the con. ment on the findings and.M. See If the accused wants to request individual military counsel. See R. 502).M. interests of the accused at trial. See R. defense Discussion counsel must continue to represent the accused. See R. cused in a joint or common trial or in allied cases must be defense counsel should explain the powers of that court and particularly alert to conflicting interests of those accused. Defense counsel counsel may have in connection with the case.M.C. and to assert any available the accused elects to waive appellate review. any disqualifica. Defense counsel must explain the conse- meaning and effect of a plea of guilty. on sentencing (see R. 1103(i)(1)(B). 506. the R. and have counsel make a statement on behalf of the should explain that the case will be reviewed by a judge advocate II-45 . See R.C. See also counsel will begin preparation of the defense immediately after R. Unless the accused directs otherwise. See Defense counsel must explain to the accused: the elections R. defense counsel will defense. the selection of counsel. This notice may be forwarded for thority permits. may also submit a brief of any matters counsel believes should be tion. 1101(c). Defense counsel should represent and protect the custom of the service. Defense counsel shall represent the evidence that the defense plans to introduce is admissible and to be prepared to object to inadmissible evidence offered by the accused in matters under the code and these rules prosecution. If the accused the rights of the accused to testify under oath. the right to plead guilty or not guilty and the R. See R.C. serve as fense counsel should in any case examine the record for accuracy associate counsel if the accused requests and the convening au- and note any errors in it.M. 1103(b)(3)(C). and should give trial counsel may not act in the absence of trial counsel at trial in the accused a candid opinion of the merits of the case.C. if necessary. See R. (E) Post-trial duties. must: guard the interests of the accused zealously within the Defense counsel should discuss with the accused the right to bounds of the law without regard to personal opinion as to the submit matters to the convening authority and the powers of the guilt of the accused. See R. arising from the offenses of which the accused is Defense counsel should: prepare to make an opening state- then suspected or charged. 805(c). when applicable. 913(b)). If A defense counsel designated to represent two or more co-ac.M. (A) Initial advice by military defense counsel. 1105. If the accused is convicted. or (D) Trial.C. and any other matter which might influence the accused in considered on further review.M.C. appellate brief.C. or if it is not available. fense counsel may perform under law.M. The de- ity through trial counsel and. See R. 919. 1110.C. Under the supervision of ment of the defense case ( see R. being detailed without waiting for approval of a request for indi- (iii) Submission of matters. Defense counsel the sentence or to disapprove any findings. and. defense coun- accused to make any request necessary to effect the election ( see sel should explain the nature of such review to the accused. These explanations must be made regardless of the in- assistant not qualified to serve as trial counsel. 901(d)(4)(D). R. ters for the latter’s consideration in deciding whether to approve (B) General duties of defense counsel.C. If the case may be examined in the office available as to composition of the court-martial and assist the of the Judge Advocate General under Article 69(a). 1204 and 1205.M. and advise the accused concerning the exercise of those rights. When a trial proceeds in the absence of the accused. R.C.M. a general court-martial unless the assistant has the qualifications (C) Preparation for trial. Responsibility for trial of a case may not devolve to an accused. and prepare to the defense counsel an associate or assistant defense examine and cross-examine witnesses.C. and to retain civilian counsel.C.M. See the defense counsel may submit to the convening authority mat- R. making such a request if the accused chooses to make one. Defense counsel should consider the elements of proof of the (6) Duties of defense and associate or assistant offenses alleged and the pertinent rules of evidence to ensure that defense counsel. the defense counsel must explain to the the defense counsel and inform the accused of the rights to re- accused the right to request the convening authority to defer quest individual military counsel of the accused’s own selection. tentions of the accused as to testifying and pleading.C. if evidence. all acts of an assistant trial counsel are presumed to Defense counsel should try to obtain complete knowledge of have been done by the direction of the trial counsel. military attachment to the record. and the rights to present evidence during sentencing and assist in preparing the waiver. 502(d)(6) counsel. Defense advise the accused of the right to be represented by counsel counsel should bring such matters to the attention of the military before it.C. to testify or remain silent.M.M. regulation. 703. Defense coun- (i) Deferment of confinement. represent the accused with undivided (iv) Appellate rights. If the accused is sen- sel should promptly explain to the accused the general duties of tenced to confinement. Evid. Defense counsel must explain to fidelity and may not disclose the accused’s secrets or confidences the accused the rights to appellate review that apply in the case. the case is subject to review by the Court of Criminal Appeals.M. Defense counsel should judge so that the accused’s understanding and choice may be also explain the possibility of further review by the Court of made a matter of record. service of the sentence to confinement and assist the accused in and of the effect of such a request. trary appears. vidual military counsel or retention of civilian counsel.

military judge.C. clerks. bailiff. cused.C. witness. An enlisted accused may.M. in the case of a new trial. of qualifications. any person who is in arrest or confinement. thority or. Associate or as. 805. report. Detailing members. R. 805(c). counsel may act without such supervision when circumstances require. cused has individual military or civilian counsel and detailed (C) Others. Discussion (B) A witness. the following persons may perform the following duties.C. escorts. 1201(b)(3). See. Rule 503. interpreters. vision of the defense counsel. Reporters shall record the (F) Associate or assistant defense counsel. II-46 . Discussion less the contrary appears. bailiff. 502(d)(6) and should submit any appropriate matters for consideration by the court-martial or for an accused who does not the judge advocate. Although associate counsel acts under the sistance of the court-martial shall have such duties general supervision of the defense counsel. (E) A member of the court-martial or of any other trial. 912(f) and should not be detailed as members: any person who is. The accused should be speak or understand English. An assistant defense (4) Payment of reporters. if discovered later.C. or rehearing. noting any errors or omissions.C. 1112. or orderly. See also R. The Secre- counsel may do this only if such counsel has the qualifications to tary concerned may prescribe regulations for the act as defense counsel.C. (A) The accuser. Other personnel detailed for the as- counsel is not excused. unless this is unavoidable. (A) Interpreters. The following persons are subject to challenge under R.M. Failure to note defects in the recommendation waives them. The qualifications of interpret. Un. er. advised of the right to apply to the Judge Advocate General for relief under Article 69(b) when such review is available. expense to the United States.M. of the defense counsel at trial unless the assistant has the qualifi- cations required of a defense counsel. associate defense as may be imposed by the military judge. all acts of an assistant or associate See R. The convening authority shall de- which that person is or has been in the same case: tail qualified persons as members for courts-martial. 807 regarding oaths for reporters. reporters. See R. and defense counsel are presumed to have been done under the super. of trial as prescribed in these rules. interpreters. any person who is junior to the ac- or new or other trial. See Discussion R. clerk. (f) Action upon discovery of disqualification or lack (e) Interpreters. (D) Counsel for any party. Interpreters shall interpret for (2) Enlisted members. any person who. Any person who discovers that a and guards. escort. (v) Examination of post-trial recommendation. Secretary concerned may prescribe.M. person detailed to a court-martial is disqualified or (1) Qualifications. an enlisted member from the (3) Duties.M.C. an accuser. subject to removal by the military judge. In addition to any disquali- and counsel fications which may be prescribed by the Secretary concerned. (a) Members. or counsel for any party. proceedings and testimony and shall transcribe them sistant counsel may act in that capacity only under the supervision so as to comply with the requirements for the record and by the general direction of the defense counsel. expenses. (C) An investigating officer.C. See R. (2) Disqualifications. investigating officer. was a member of any court-martial which earlier court-martial of which the trial is a rehearing previously heard the case. (B) Reporters. clerk. In addition to such other duties as the same unit as the accused. for example.R. to the military judge. de.M. or in the same case. fense counsel should examine it and reply promptly in writing. A detailed defense counsel becomes associate defense counsel when the ac.M. When The accused also may retain an unofficial interpreter without the post-trial recommendation is served on defense counsel. lacks the qualifications specified by this rule shall ers and reporters may be prescribed by the Secretary cause a report of the matter to be made before the concerned. and devolve upon an assistant who is not qualified to serve as defense counsel. bailiffs. per diem. Responsibility for trial of a case may not payment of allowances. or orderly in any case in (1) In general. Any person who is not disqualified under court-martial is first in session to the convening au- subsection (e)(2) of this rule may serve as escort. An assistant defense counsel may not act in the absence compensation of reporters and interpreters. 1106(f). escorts.M. no person shall act as interpreter.

Secretary concerned may require that the order be Members should ordinarily be of the same armed force as the accused. that that convening authority’s command or made availa. If authority of general and special courts-martial persons under to detail counsel has been delegated to a person. that military judge may detail obtained because of physical conditions or military himself or herself as military judge for a court-mar- exigencies. The writing or announcement shall Concurrence of the proper commander may be oral and need not indicate by whom the counsel was detailed. When such a request is made. (1) Detail an appropriate number of enlisted members to the A military judge from one armed force may be de- court-martial and. armed force. assistant trial and defense counsel. person may detail himself or herself as counsel for a ble by their commander.C. If au- prising at least one-third of the total number of thority to detail military judges has been delegated members unless eligible enlisted members cannot be to a military judge. the convening authority should: (3) Military judge from a different armed force.M. in accordance with regulations of the Sec- the general or special court-martial to which that retary concerned. The order detailing a coun- the convening authority or accused. The order detailing a mili- be assembled. force. See also R. (c) Counsel. by a person assigned as a military accused’s case has been or will be referred. Trial and defense counsel. members cannot be obtained. The Secretary concerned may require that Discussion the order be reduced to writing. a combatant command or joint command when permitted by the Judge Advocate General of (b) Military judge. The Judge Advocate General may del- then pending to proceed in the absence of enlisted members if egate authority to make military judges available for eligible enlisted members cannot be detailed because of physical this purpose. 1103(b)(2)(D)(iii). the court-martial may (2) Record of detail. A per- should be of the same armed force as the accused unless exigent son from one armed force may be detailed to serve circumstances make it impractical to do so without manifest in- as counsel in a court-martial in a different armed jury to the service. relieve an appropriate number of tailed to a court-martial convened in a different commissioned or warrant officers previously detailed. When a court-martial composed of members of dif- reduced to writing. II-47 . ferent armed forces is selected. detailed. The military judge shall be writing that enlisted persons serve as members of detailed. and associate de- (3) Members from another command or armed fense counsel shall be detailed in accordance with force. even if those persons are court-martial. or eral of the armed force of which the military judge (3) Advise the court-martial before which the charges are is a member. members of an armed force different from that of (2) Record of detail. request orally on the record or in (1) By whom detailed. 503(c)(3) before assembly. R. if appropriate. tried by a court-martial the membership of which The authority to detail military judges may be dele- does not include enlisted members in a number com. an enlisted accused may not be General or the Judge Advocate General’s designee. conditions or military exigencies. A convening authority may detail as members regulations of the Secretary concerned. The be shown by the record of trial. (1) By whom detailed. sel shall be reduced to writing and included in the record of trial or announced orally on the record at Discussion the court-martial.M. and the trial may proceed without tary judge shall be reduced to writing and included them.C. If such a judge and directly responsible to the Judge Advocate request is made. but the convening authority shall make a de- in the record of trial or announced orally on the tailed written explanation why enlisted members record at the court-martial. The writing or announce- could not be obtained which must be appended to ment shall indicate by whom the military judge was the record of trial. If the appropriate number of enlisted tial. at least a majority of the members (3) Counsel from a different armed force. a combatant command or joint com- (2) Withdraw the charges from the court-martial to which mand when permitted by the Judge Advocate Gen- they were originally referred and refer them to a court-martial which includes the proper proportion of enlisted members. gated to persons assigned as military judges. the armed force of which the counsel is a member.

(i) In the Army or the Air Force. or ited by superior competent authority. whether the command is separate or detached. mand. An accuser may not convene a gen- sitions designated in Article 23(a) and by command. If a commander is in doubt (a) In general. Convening courts-martial (B) Determination.M. A convening authority junior in rank to an accuser may not convene a general or special (A) Definition. The rule by which command devolves are found in regulations of the Secretary See the discussion under subsection (b)(1) of this rule. Unless otherwise lim- ited by superior competent authority. Rule 504. Discussion Discussion See also Article 1(9). The power to convene courts-martial may not be delegated. martial may be convened by persons occupying po. like that of any other commander. 1302(a). See R. 601(c). a command or unit is “separate or detached” convening authority is superior in command to the when isolated or removed from the immediate disci. The power of a commander of a separate or detached unit to II-48 . (2) Other. Unless otherwise lim. who is superior in command to the accuser. over the command.C. general courts- (ii) In the Naval Service or Coast Guard. if in the same chain of command. 503(c)(3) The Judge Advocate General may delegate authority convene courts-martial. A court-martial is created by a con.R. However. A convening authority junior in command plinary control of a superior in such manner as to to an accuser may not convene a general or special make its commander the person held by superior court-martial for the trial of the accused. or. see R.C. by the officer exercising general court-martial jurisdiction over the command. (3) Action when disqualified. by martial may be convened by persons occupying po- the flag or general officer in command or the senior sitions designated in Article 22(a) and by any com- officer present who designated the detachment. (4) Delegation prohibited. matter shall be determined: (b) Who may convene courts-martial. The authority to convene courts-martial is independent of rank and is retained as long as the convening authority remains a Discussion commander in one of the designated positions. or mander designated by the Secretary concerned or (iii) In a combatant command or joint com- empowered by the President. That authority may personally dis- detached. limited by superior competent authority. concerned. 307(a).M. When a commander “Separate or detached” is used in a disciplinary who would otherwise convene a general or special sense and not necessarily in a tactical or physical court-martial is disqualified in a case.” pose of the charges or forward the charges to an- other convening authority who is superior in rank to Discussion the accuser.M. Persons 1302(b) (accuser may convene a summary court-martial). See the discussion of subsection (b)(1) of this rule. authorized to convene general courts-martial may also convene special courts-martial. by the officer exercising general court-martial jurisdiction (1) General courts-martial. son accused. (2) Special courts-martial. eral or special court-martial for the trial of the per- ers designated by the Secretary concerned. (c) Disqualification. special courts. A subordinate joint command or joint task shall be forwarded to a superior competent authority force is ordinarily considered to be “separate or for disposition. may be to make persons available for this purpose.C. the charges sense. commanders primarily responsible for discipline. accuser. For purposes of Articles 23 and court-martial for the trial of the accused unless that 24. the vening order of the convening authority. (1) Accuser. Discussion (3) Summary courts-martial.

401(c). it may be appropriate to withdraw (B) New members. Before the court-martial is the Secretary concerned. and counsel (2) After assembly.M. a summary court-martial and detail the summary court-martial. and may designate where the court. If the convening authority has without replacement. shall be reduced to writing been designated by the Secretary concerned. judge.C. An order changing the members of the the members and may designate where the court. or Discussion (iii) As a result of challenge under R. After assembly no member may military judge. (2) Summary courts-martial. (A) By convening authority. court-martial. military ty’s delegate may not excuse members. 505(c)(2)(B) Discussion the charges from one court-martial and refer them to another. Discussion (i) Delegation. See R. except one which excuses members martial will meet. Before the court- martial will meet. the excusal should be announced on the See Appendix 6 for a suggested format for a convening order. The convening authority may See also R. Changes of members. no an appropriate location and facilities for courts-mar. members or counsel or when substitutions are made (1) General and special courts-martial. authority to excuse individual members to the staff judge advocate or legal officer or other (3) Additional matters. R. (c)(1)(B)(ii) and (c)(2)(A) of this rule. delegate. Additional matters to be principal assistant to the convening authority. See also R. however. 1302(c). the convening authority may been designated by the Secretary concerned. except: authority competent to detail such persons. (ii) By the military judge for good cause shown on the record. the change the members of the court-martial without convening order shall so state. 503. After assembly the convening authori- Rule 505. for a summary court-martial shall designate that it is (1) Before assembly.C. under regulations of the Secretary con- cerned. and counsel may be changed by an be excused. included in convening orders may be prescribed by (ii) Limitations. (b) Procedure.M. the convening authority’s delegate may (e) Place. minimum. Subject to this rule. Changes of the members of the court-martial should be kept to a 912. (A) Excusal. A con. 604.M.C. convening order shall so state. Discussion When members or counsel have been excused and the excusal is Discussion not reduced to writing. When new persons are added as (d) Convening orders. (a) In general.C.C. assembled. detailed by the convening authority may be excused by the convening authority’s delegate in any one court-martial. the members. (B) By convening authority’s delegate. A convening order (c) Changes of members. the before authentication of the record of trial. as to any members or counsel or the military judge. If the convening authority has martial is assembled. The convening authority shall ensure that excuse members without cause shown. If extensive changes are necessary and no session of the court-martial has begun. New members may be de- II-49 .C.M.M. showing cause. record.M. Members (i) By the convening authority for good also may be excused as provided in subsections cause shown on the record. A member who has been temporarily excused need not be formally reappointed to the court-martial. vening order for a general or special court-martial such persons shall be detailed in accordance with shall designate the type of court-martial and detail R. more than one-third of the total number of members tial are provided.

counsel. fense counsel or associate or assistant defense coun- sel. or Air Force. of their duties or positions: cuse or change such counsel only: (A) A general or flag officer. 505(c)(2)(B) tailed after assembly only when. an as individual military counsel because of the nature authority competent to detail such counsel may ex. (i) Under R. The Secretary concerned may determine other (f) Good cause. when the accused has made a timely written Rule 506. the military judge may be changed by an cate General of the Army. The accused has the right to be rep- third of the total membership. resented before a general or special court-martial by (d) Changes of detailed counsel. or der the member.M. 502(d)(3) as to qualifications of civilian counsel or been formed between the accused and detailed de.M. and either by the military counsel de- tail trial counsel may change the trial counsel and tailed under Article 27 or military counsel of the any assistant trial counsel at any time without show. “Good cause” does not include temporary in- cusals under subsection (c)(2)(A) of this rule. and other extraordinary circumstances which ren. Government. or the number of enlisted mem- bers. the conveniences which are incident to normal condi- number of members of the court-martial is reduced tions of military life. exigent circumstances. (a) In general. (C) A trial counsel. Judge Advocate Division. is reduced below one. Headquarters.R.M. accused is not entitled to be represented by more (2) Defense counsel. Accused’s rights to counsel request for enlisted members. The ing cause. (D) An appellate defense or government 506(c). as a result of ex. time. Before the court-martial is risdiction. (iii) For other good cause shown on the (E) A principal legal advisor to a command. than one military counsel.C. or military judge unable to military necessity.C. the Secretary concerned shall define ship. 506(b)(3). (2) After assembly. For purposes of this rule. civilian counsel if provided at no expense to the (1) Trial counsel. (e) Change of military judge.M. if reasonably available. tion for withdrawal by such counsel under R. the military judge may be changed by an (F) An instructor or student at a service school authority competent to detail the military judge. (B) A trial or appellate military judge. cy.C. An authority competent to de.M. After the court-martial is as. below a quorum. military exigen. (H) A member of the staff of the Judge Advo- sembled. or agency and. (ii) Upon request of the accused or applica. organization. the fol- formed between the accused and detailed defense lowing persons are not reasonably available to serve counsel or associate or assistant defense counsel.C. tion. as a result of disqualification under R. accused’s own selection. record.” While so assigned. (1) Reasonably available. cause. or counsel. or agency has general court-martial ju- (1) Before assembly. Navy. the authority competent to detail the military judge only Chief Counsel of the Coast Guard. an authority competent to detail defense counsel may excuse or change such counsel without showing (b) Individual military counsel. Marine 902 or for good cause shown. or the Director. After an attorney-client relationship has been “reasonably available. Subject to this subsec- (B) After formation of attorney-client relation. (A) Before formation of attorney-client rela. the nature or responsibilities of their assignments. geolineart considerations. Discussion tionship. organization. Before an attorney-client relationship has See R. when. when such command.C. individual military counsel. the principal assistant of such an advisor. (G) A student at a college or university. or academy: without cause shown on the record. A person who is a member of an proceed with the court-martial within a reasonable armed force different from that of which the accused II-50 . the previously detailed Corps. military judge is unable to proceed. assembled. “good persons to be not reasonably available because of cause” includes physical disability.

The au- II-51 . The Sec. detailed the counsel is subject to review only for retary concerned may prescribe circumstances under abuse of discretion. may approve a request from the ac- same extent as that person is available to serve as cused that detailed defense counsel shall act as asso- individual military counsel for an accused in the ciate counsel. Subject to this subsection. that may be considered in the exercise of discretion are the this exception shall not apply. activity. R.M. 505(d)(2) and subsection (b)(3) of reasonably available under subsection (b)(1) of this this rule. understand the disadvantages of self-representation the convening authority shall forward the request to and that the waiver is voluntary and understanding. made which requires action at the departmental or higher level. at the time of the trial or right to be represented by counsel and may thereaf- investigation for which requested. An adverse determination may be re.M. detailed the case. 502. be revoked if the accused is disruptive or fails to scribed by the Secretary concerned. the commander or head of the organization. If the accused’s shall be accepted by the military judge only if the request makes such a claim. 905(b)(6) and 960(b)(2) as to motions concern- determining whether a requested person is ing denial of a request for individual military counsel or retention “reasonably available” to act as individual military of detailed counsel as associate counsel. if the attorney- the general statutory policy that the accused is not entitled to be client relationship arose solely because the counsel represented by more than one military counsel. or by the mili- the convening authority shall deny the request and tary judge upon application for withdrawal by the notify the accused. The action of the authority who same armed force as the person requested.C. The accused may expressly waive the garding a charge in question or that the person re- quested will not. R. This determina. If the accused is See also Mil. be among those ter conduct the defense personally. defense counsel may be excused only with rule or under regulations of the Secretary concerned. or if the person is not military judge finds that the accused is competent to among those so listed as not reasonably available. the accused may have present and viewed upon request of the accused through that seated at the counsel table for purpose of consulta- authority to the next higher commander or level of tion persons not qualified to serve as counsel under supervision. and the detail of additional trial counsel. The military judge may require that a defense coun- or agency to which the requested person is assigned. follow basic rules of decorum and procedure. Discussion (3) Excusal of detailed counsel. (2) Procedure. Subject to the discretion of authority. sel remain present even if the accused waives coun- That authority shall make an administrative determi. the express consent of the accused. counsel. which exceptions may be made to the prohibitions in this subsection when merited by the existence of an Discussion attorney-client relationship regarding matters relating A request under subsection (b)(3) should be considered in light of to a charge in question. 615 if the person is a potential witness in represented by individual military counsel.C. Secretary concerned shall prescribe procedures for See R. the complexity of legal or factual issues. Except as otherwise pro- authority. retention of civilian defense counsel. seriousness of the case.M.M. Among the factors represented the accused on review under Article 70. 506(e) is a member shall be reasonably available to serve as thority who detailed the defense counsel. Evid.C. the military judge. defense counsel shall normally be excused. tion is a matter within the sole discretion of that (e) Nonlawyer present. sel and conducts the defense personally. Requests for an individual military counsel shall be made by the accused or the detailed defense counsel through the trial counsel to the convening (c) Excusal or withdrawal. Such waiver so listed as not reasonably available. there is an existing attorney-client relationship re- (d) Waiver. as a matter individual military counsel for such accused to the of discretion. unless the accused asserts that defense counsel for good cause shown.C. but no administrative review may be R. However. If the requested person is among those not vided in R. The right of nation whether the requested person is reasonably the accused to conduct the defense personally may available in accordance with the procedure pre.

601(b) and (c)). charges which the evidence might support. These requirements may be waived by the accused. For a definition of “accuser. but a case may not be referred to thority or a predecessor (see R. R.M.M. 306(a). 401(c) concerning actions which certain cases to summary courts-martial. R.M.” see Article 1(9). see R.C. 306.CHAPTER VI. (b) Who may refer.C.M. which may arise at trial. R. 404. See R. Referral shall be by the (d) When charges may be referred.C. 1301(c) concerning limitations on the referral of in rank or command. (1) Order. Any convening authority may refer charges to a court-martial convened by that Discussion convening authority or a predecessor. AMENDMENT.M. with the pretrial investigation requirements of ments between the commanders concerned. and a court-martial convened by that convening au- previous authority.C. The convening author- ity should consider the options and considerations under R. Discussion See R. See R. AND WITHDRAWAL OF CHARGES Rule 601.C.C.M. (e) How charges shall be referred.M. The finding may be based on hearsay in whole or who is authorized to convene the court-martial and is not dis.M. REFERRAL. Referral is the order of a convening finds or is advised by a judge advocate that there are authority that charges against an accused will be reasonable grounds to believe that an offense triable tried by a specified court-martial. and allied papers for disposition by competent authority superior See R. a general court-martial except in compliance with If trial would be warranted but would be detrimental to the subsection (d)(2) of this rule.C.C. The convening author- prosecution of a war or inimical to national security. 403. 405. Discussion Convening authorities are not disqualified from referring charges Discussion by prior participation in the same case except when they have See R.M.C.M. and 504. The convening (A) There has been substantial compliance authority’s power over the accused may be based upon agree. the superior may take. in part. 103(3) for convening authority who is disqualified may forward the charges the definition of a capital offense. The convening authority is not obliged to refer all petent authority. A capital offenses to special courts-martial. including objections to evidence. The convening author- a command different from that of the accused. 406. ity or judge advocate shall not be required before 401(d) and 407(b). 407. 504). charges are referred to resolve legal issues. instructions.C. and that the specification al- Discussion leges an offense. SERVICE. but as a practical ity may not refer a specification under a charge to a matter the accused must be subject to the orders of the convening authority or otherwise under the convening authority’s control to general court-martial unless— assure the appearance of the accused at trial. and (B) The convening authority has received the (c) Disqualification. including (2) General courts-martial.C.C.M. The convening authority or judge advocate qualified ( see R.M. See R. An accuser may not refer advice of the staff judge advocate required under charges to a general or special court-martial. see power to do so has been withheld by superior com. Referral (1) Basis for referral. personal order of the convening authority. The con- II-52 .M. If the convening authority (a) In general. 306 in exercising the discretion to refer. 1302 for rules relating to convening summary courts-martial. unless the For a discussion of selection among alternative dispositions. preferred charges which may consider information from any source and shall have been received by the convening authority for disposition not be limited to the information reviewed by any (see R. 307 as to preferral of charges and Chapter IV as to disposition).M.C. 201(f)(2)(C) concerning limitations on referral of acted as accuser. the convening authority may refer Referral of charges requires three elements: a convening authority it.C. by a court-martial has been committed and that the accused committed it. The convening authority may be of any command.

C. See subsection (3) below. Discussion ies of the charge sheet. if appropriate. “only officer present in the com- mand. dorsement. If. See subsection (2) below. After the order. 39(a) session—before a general court-martial within fenses or both. The original indorsement should not be obliterated. Rule 602. to be transmitted to the authority for further Any special instructions must be stated in the referral in. R. cated by procedural and evidentiary rules. confinement for more than six (f) Superior convening authorities. a continuance or a recess is an adequate remedy. whether serious or minor of. Related with the additional comments.M. 602 vening authority may include proper instructions in additional charges have been complied with. When the charges have been referred to a court-martial. Service of charges mitted to the trial counsel.C. Convening authori- the applicable notice requirements. arraignment of the accused upon charges. If the only officer present in a command refers the charges Such accused may be charged in one or more speci- to a summary court-martial and serves as the summary court. be brought to trial—including an Article court-martial for trial. In time of peace. If the accused demonstrates ties should consider that joint and common trials may be compli- specific prejudice from such failure to include the special instruc.M.M. including. Referral is ordinarily evidenced by an indorsement on the charge sheet. even though the offenses were not jointly vided that the convening authority has otherwise complied with committed. regardless whether related. the indorsed charge sheet and allied papers should be promptly trans. For example. must reflect the signer’s authority. Failure to include this special accused. A joint offense is one committed by two or more persons acting The convening authority shall indicate that the case is to be together with a common intent.C. consideration. Except as other- months. See also R. The convening authority should acknowledge by an instruc- tion that a bad-conduct discharge. In such a case the signature element martial. whether or not re- given when a court reporter is not detailed. The previous indorsement should be lined accused are alleged to have participated in the same out and initialed by the person signing the new referral. may not be adjudged when the prerequisites under Article 19 will not be met. tion. a superior competent See R.C. the indorsement should be completed need not be charged in each specification. 201(f)(2)(B)(ii). fications together or separately. transactions constituting an offense or offenses. 307(c)(5) Discussion. along with all related offenses against each of the referral block of the charge sheet. and every accused martial under R.C. for any reason. over against an accused may be referred to the same objection. See R. 1302.” allegations against two or more accused which may The convening authority may instruct that the charges be proved by substantially the same evidence may against the accused be tried with certain other charges against the be referred to a common trial.M. The convening authority may instruct that charges against Discussion one accused be referred for joint or common trial with another accused. wise provided in these rules. In computing necessary procedural requirements concerning the these periods. accused. the new (3) Joinder of accused. pro. the date of service of charges and the II-53 .M. or tional charges may be joined with other charges for before a special court-martial within a period of a single trial at any time before arraignment if all three days after service of charges. Allegations against two or referral is ordinarily made by a new indorsement attached to the more accused may be referred for joint trial if the original charge sheet. sentially the same. or forfeiture of pay for more than six months. act or transaction or in the same series of acts or 604. In the discretion of the cause to be served upon each accused a copy of the convening authority. Addi. The trial counsel detailed to the court-martial to which charges have been referred for trial shall (2) Joinder of offenses. this instruction may be authority may cause charges. Joint offenses may be referred for tried as a capital case by including a special instruction in the joint trial. charges are referred to a court-martial different from that to which they were originally referred. no person may. The signature may be that of a person acting by the order or direction Ordinarily all known charges should be referred to a single court- of the convening authority. ferred. only the original must be signed. A common trial may be used when the evidence of instruction at the time of the referral shall not bar the convening several offenses committed by several accused separately is es- authority from later adding the required special instruction. two or more offenses charged charge sheet. no addi- tional charges may be referred to the same trial Discussion without consent of the accused. Although the indorsement should be completed on all cop. a period of five days after service of charges. referral.

the accused should be told to discuss the matter with defense counsel.M. Changes to charges and investigation under R. the charge sheet so amended or changed must be (d) Major changes. Discussion If there has been a major change or amendment over the ac- cused’s objection to a charge already referred. Discussion Charges which have been properly referred to a court-martial may be withdrawn only by the direction of the convening author- Charges forwarded or referred for trial should be free from de. as when the value of an allegedly stolen item announced. Charges sion ordinarily should consult with the convening authority before and specifications withdrawn before commencement of trial will II-54 . rior competent authority may for any reason cause ted or redundant specifications.C. Discussion Charges which are withdrawn from a court-martial should be dismissed (see R. rule.C. or specifications as necessary. nor changes to charges or specifications before Some or all charges and specifications may be withdrawn. Rule 604. a new Rule 603. upon motion. The convening authority or a supe- Minor changes include those necessary to correct inartfully draf. in the case of a general court- charges and specifications are any except those martial. in a larceny specification is reduced. Similarly.M. Minor charges also include those which reduce the serious- ness of an offense. a new offense. to correct a misnaming of the any charges or specifications to be withdrawn from accused. See also R. or when a desertion specifi- cation is amended to allege only unauthorized absence. may not be made over the objection of the accused ice upon defense counsel is insufficient.C. Minor changes in the substance of the charge or specification as amended or changed has not been referred or. renumbering remaining charges person who makes them. After arraign- Trial counsel should comply with this rule immediately upon ment the military judge may.M. Minor errors may be corrected and cer’s independent judgment. behalf of the United States except an investigating Charges should not be withdrawn from a court-martial arbi- trarily or unfairly to an accused. 405 will be necessary if the charge as specifications amended or changed was not covered in the prior investigation.M.M. investiga- which add a party. in the case of a general court-martial. The trial counsel should promptly inform the defense counsel when charges have been unless the charge or specification affected is pre- served.M. Changes or amendments to served anew. In arraignment. Whenever after service the charges are minor changes in the charges and specifications at amended or changed the trial counsel must give notice of the any time before findings are announced if no sub- changes to the defense counsel. 602. See also subsection (b) of this officer appointed under R.C. investigated. change the nature included.C. to allege the proper article. acting upon. or substantial matter not tion are necessary. or substantially new stantial right of the accused is prejudiced. or to correct other slight a court-martial at any time before findings are errors. or prosecuting charges on disposition. 602 date of trial are excluded. or seriousness of the offense. a joint or common trial the withdrawal may be limited to charges against one or some of the accused. if appropriate. a new referral and. a new referral is necessary. If the accused has questions when served with charges. holidays and Sundays are making any changes which. If (a) Minor changes defined. 405 may make mi. they must be fairly included in those previously preferred. trial coun- accuser. permit receipt of the charges. 603. offenses. charges or specifications other than minor changes Service may be made only upon the accused. Whenever such amendments or changes add a new party. ity or a superior competent authority in the exercise of that offi- fects of form and substance. When charges are re-referred.C. which are likely to mislead the accused as to the offenses charged.R. Discussion (c) Minor changes after arraignment. allegations. Other changes should be signed and sworn to by an sel may withdraw charges or specifications by lining out the accuser. All changes in the charges should be initialed by the affected charges or specifications. A trial counsel acting under this provi. 401(c)(1)) unless it is intended to refer (b) Minor changes before arraignment. Any person them anew promptly or to forward them to another authority for forwarding. or served anew under R. and initialing the changes. ferred anew. Withdrawal of charges Discussion (a) Withdrawal. even though minor. When directed to do so by the the charge may be redrafted without being sworn anew by the convening authority or a superior competent authority. substitute serv.

These include receipt of additional general issue of guilt may be referred to another charges. it is permissible to refer charges which were withdrawn When charges which have been withdrawn from a court. of the members. pursuant to a pretrial agreement if the accused fails to fulfill the martial are referred to another court-martial. example. A withdrawal is improper if it was not directed personally and independently by the convening authority or by a superior compe- (b) Referral of withdrawn charges. the military judge must instruct them that the Improper reasons for withdrawal include an intent to inter- withdrawn charges or specifications may not be considered for fere with the free exercise by the accused of constitutional or any reason. 915 (Mistrial). accused. depends in part on the stage in referred to another court-martial unless the the proceedings at which the withdrawal takes place. for purposes of the propriety of a later referral. Before ar- withdrawal was for an improper reason. Charges withdrawn after withdrawal and later referral should be included in the record of some evidence on the general issue of guilty is introduced may be the later court-martial. have been withdrawn from a court-martial may be Whether the reason for a withdrawal is proper. reconsideration by the convening court-martial only if the withdrawal was necessitated authority or by a superior competent authority of the seriousness of the offenses. and routine duty rotation of the personnel constituting the court-martial.M. or with the impartiality of a court-martial.M. II-55 . Charges withdrawn after arraignment may be Discussion referred to another court-martial under some circumstances. 705. if further prosecution is contemplated at the rule. See R. questions concerning the mental capacity of the by urgent and unforeseen military necessity. there are many reasons for a withdrawal which will withdrawn after the introduction of evidence on the not preclude another referral. 604(b) not be brought to the attention of the members. if the later referral is more onerous to the re-referred only under the narrow circumstances described in the accused.C. Charges raignment. Therefore. For See also R. the reasons for the withdrawal should be specifications are withdrawn after they have come to the attention included in or attached to the record of the earlier proceeding.C. When charges or time of the withdrawal. codal rights.M.C. the reasons for the terms of the agreement. absence of the accused. Charges which tent authority. R.

or (C) Reduce the punishment. documents. The trial examinations. 506 covers the disclosure of unclassified II-56 . (B) Any results or reports of physical or mental (6) Evidence favorable to the defense. counsel which reasonably tends to: ence of which is known or by the exercise of due (A) Negate the guilt of the accused of an of- diligence may become known to the trial counsel. (B) To rebut a defense of alibi. As soon as practicable after service tion. photo. After such records when they are in the trial counsel’s service of charges. tion (a) of this rule. which are within the possession. and which are material to the preparation of the (B) Notify the defense of the names and ad- defense or are intended for use by the trial counsel dresses of the witnesses the trial counsel intends to as evidence in the prosecution case-in-chief at trial. the possession.C. 513.M. impeachment. includ- ing papers sent with charges upon a rehearing or (4) Prior convictions of accused offered on the new trial. notify the defense of any records of prior civilian or ders. fense charged. or control of military authori. if extraordi. (A) Permit the defense to inspect such written ies of portions thereof. and 1001(b). Except as other. or control of military authorities. disclose to the or copies thereof.C. merits. In addition to the matters required to be disclosed under subsec- Mil. (b)(1) or (2) of this rule. including session of the trial counsel. the Government is required to notify the defense of or provide to the defense certain information under other rules. upon request of the defense.C. statements. and which are material to the preparation of the defense or are intended for use by the trial counsel (B) Reduce the degree of guilt of the accused as evidence in the prosecution case-in-chief at trial. of an offense charged. 706. or lack of mental responsibility. convening or. or places. and court-martial convictions of the accused of which (C) Any sworn or signed statement relating to the trial counsel is aware and which the trial counsel an offense charged in the case which is in the pos. R. Evid. as soon as practicable. R. the trial counsel shall provide the following counsel intends to call: information or matters to the defense— (A) In the prosecution case-in-chief. Before arraignment the trial counsel shall (B) The convening order and any amending or. the exist. buildings. Discovery (3) Witnesses. when they were referred to the court-martial. see R. or. permit the defense to inspect: Discussion (A) Any paper which accompanied the charges Such notice should be in writing except when impracticable. CHAPTER VII. tangible objects. 701(f). and of scientific tests or experiments. custody. Before the beginning of trial on the (a) Disclosure by the trial counsel. the presentencing proceedings. innocent inges- ders. and ties. 602. papers. or were obtained from or belong to the accused. Upon (A) Any books. Discussion Discussion For specific rules concerning certain mental examinations of the accused or third party patients. defense the existence of evidence known to the trial custody. PRETRIAL MATTERS Rule 701. counsel shall. when trial of charges under R. call at the presentencing proceedings under R. tangible objects. and (1) Papers accompanying charges. reports.C. merits the trial counsel shall notify the defense of wise provided in subsections (f) and (g)(2) of this the names and addresses of the witnesses the trial rule. R. which are within the material as will be presented by the prosecution at possession. and shall permit the defense to inspect (2) Documents. the trial counsel shall counsel has received timely notice under subsection provide the defense with copies of.M. may offer on the merits for any purpose.M. request of the defense the trial counsel shall: graphs. 302 and Mil. R. Evid. Mil. nary circumstances make it impracticable to provide copies. Evid. Government shall permit the defense to inspect: (5) Information to be offered at sentencing.M. or cop.

C. in the case of an alibi consistent statements). and Mil. See R. written material that will be presented by the de.C. that are within the II-57 . See R. Mil. signed statements known by the defense to have shall permit the trial counsel to inspect books. and 613(a) (prior in. 507 (identity of informants). 321(e) (testimony of accused upon whom the accused intends to rely to establish for limited purpose of line-ups). the defense.M. 201A(b) (judicial notice of foreign law). the defense shall disclose. 304(d)(2) (notice of intent to alleged offense. shall (except as provided in R. and Mil. documents. (i) Provide the trial counsel with the names (4) Reports of examination and tests. Such notice by (memoranda used to refresh recollection). 906(b)(6). If the defense names and addresses of all witnesses. and notify the trial counsel before the beginning of trial 1004(b)(1) (aggravating circumstances in capital cases). date. 302 (mental examination of accused).M. whom the defense intends to call during the rule. Except as otherwise sponsibility of the accused. or copies thereof. See R. See particular case. statements by the accused during such inquiries. 301(c)(2) (notice of immunity or leniency to witnesses). R. R. (1) Names of witnesses and statements.C. See R. upon compliance with such request by the Gov- defense case in chief. 308 (identification of accuser). or case. R. Evid. R. Such notice should be in writing except when impracticable.C. innocent ingestion. 612 to the accused’s mental condition. on request of the trial counsel. Evid. and the limited purpose on confession). and the names and addresses of the witnesses use undisclosed line-up evidence). Evid. 311(f) (testimony of accused accused innocently ingested the substance in ques- for limited purpose on seizures). it should request a bill of particulars.C. concern disclosure of other specific matters. upon compliance with such request by under R.M. (intent to disclose classified information). tangible objects.M. Evid. R. R.M.M. 701(b)(4) information which is under the control of the Government. trial counsel to inspect any results or reports of physical or mental examinations and of scientific Discussion tests or experiments made in connection with the Such notice shall be in writing except when impracticable. If the de- and addresses of any witnesses whom the defense fense requests disclosure under subsection (a)(2)(B) intends to call at the presentencing proceedings of this rule. the defense shall notify the trial counsel of the (3) Documents and tangible objects. 304(f) (testimony of accused for gestion defense. If the defense the defense shall provide the following information needs more detail as to the time. photographs. 301(c)(2) (immunized witnesses).C. in the case of an innocent in- use undisclosed confessions). 302 concerning provided in subsections (f) and (g)(2) of this rule. or its intent to introduce expert testimony as (evidence based on lineups). 506(h) (intent to dis- close privilege government information). 412(c)(1) and (2) (intent of defense to use evidence of sexual misconduct by a victim). 1001(c).M. custody. and. (A) Before the beginning of trial on the merits. and the Government. copies or portions thereof. R. 916(k) concerning the defense of lack of mental responsi- bility. Evid. 706 concerning inquiries into the mental re- (b) Disclosure by the defense. Evid. disclosure.C. 304(d)(1) (statements by alibi. the defense. 321(c)(1) bility. which are within the pos- session. or place of the offense to to the trial counsel— comply with this rule. 311(d)(1) (evidence seized from accused). See Mil.M. 706(c)(3)(B) (mental exami. Other R. and provide all sworn or ernment. 405 (report of Article 32 investigation). been made by such witnesses in connection with the papers. or control of the defense and which (B) Upon request of the trial counsel. the place or places at which the defense Requirements for notice of intent to use certain evidence are claims the accused to have been at the time of the found in: Mil. or lack of mental responsi- accused). Mil. the place or places where. 311(d)(2)(B) (notice of intent to circumstances under which the defense claims the use undisclosed evidence seized). on request of trial (ii) Permit the trial counsel to inspect any counsel. on the merits of its intent to offer the defense of Evid.M. 505 covers disclosure of classified information. 701(f) for statements that would not be subject to R. 513) permit the fense at the presentencing proceeding. 914 (production of certain statements).C. and 609(b) (intent to Discussion impeach with conviction over 10 years old). (2) Notice of certain defenses. 321(c)(2)(B) (notice of intent to tion. 505(h) any such defenses. Mil. 302. the defense intends to introduce as evidence in the fense shall also defense case-in-chief at trial. defense. the de.C. other than the requests disclosure under subsection (a)(2)(A) of this accused. 706. R. The defense shall nation of accused).

a party discovers additional evi.M. custody. Discussion place. If. whether required by in closed proceedings for the purpose of reviewing this rule or not. for a limited purpose in relation to a confession). 505(h) (intent to disclose classified information). admissible against the ac- (1) Time.C. or make such other order as is search). Each party dence. judge may permit the party to make such showing. this rule shall be construed to require the disclosure ness’ testimony. the defense intends to introduce as evidence in the or as a threat of retribution for such testimony. in whole or in part. oral or written. the military judge may take one or more of be produced. leged government information). In addition to the matters covered in subsection (b) of this rule. Nothing in trial when the results or reports relate to that wit. (C) Prohibit the party from introducing evi- (e) Access to witnesses and evidence. in writing to be inspected only ness with a conviction older than 10 years). No party may unreasonably im. may. the military evidence of sexual misconduct by a victim). exception to exclusion under subsection (3)(C) include: the extent diate staffs should make no statement. the extent to which later events miti- II-58 . 701(b)(4) possession. 201A(b) ficient showing the military judge may at any time (judicial notice of foreign law). or control of the defense that prevent witnesses from testifying truthfully before a court-martial. 412(c)(1) and (2) (intent to offer appropriate. and manner. circumstances. evidence of such randa. the following actions: spection under this rule. commanders and members of their imme. 304(f) (testimony by the accused order that the discovery or inspection be denied. If at any time during the (d) Continuing duty to disclose. If the military judge grants to refresh recollection). before or during court-martial it is brought to the attention of the the court-martial.R. specify the time. place. which is subject to discovery or in. or similar working papers prepared by coun- intention and disclosures by the accused or defense sel and counsel’s assistants and representatives. existence of the additional evidence or material. consistent with this rule. defense case-in-chief at trial or that were prepared by a witness whom the defense intends to call at (f) Information not subject to disclosure. relief after such an ex parte showing. and take no of disadvantage that resulted from a failure to disclose. or deferred. defense counsel is required to give notice or disclose evidence (2) Protective and modifying orders. Nothing in this rule shall tention to rely upon a defense under subsection require the disclosure or production of notes. in any court-martial. the entire text of the party’s statement shall be sealed and attached (c) Failure to call witness. and and equal opportunity to interview witnesses and (D) Enter such other order as is just under the inspect evidence. the reason action which could reasonably be understood to discourage or for the failure to disclose. Such name is on a list of expected or intended witnesses material may be examined by reviewing authorities provided to an opposing party. counsel made in connection with such intention is (g) Regulation of discovery. Evid. 311(b) (same. and manner of making discovery and may prescribe such terms and conditions as are just. evidence. 612(2) (writing used by the military judge. The military judge cused who gave notice of the intention. lineup). that party shall promptly (A) Order the party to permit discovery. itary Rules of Evidence. If an in. (3) Failure to comply. Discussion Discussion Factors to be considered in determining whether to grant an Convening authorities. restricted. Upon motion by a party. memo- (b)(2) of this rule is withdrawn. of information protected from disclosure by the Mil- (5) Inadmissibility of withdrawn defense. military judge that a party has failed to comply with dence or material previously requested or required to this rule. notify the other party or the military judge of the (B) Grant a continuance. and 613(a) (prior inconsistent statements). The fact that a witness’ to the record of trial as an appellate exhibit. This rule shall not limit the right of pede the access of another party to a witness or the accused to testify in the accused’s behalf. R. 609(b) (intent to impeach a wit. not. upon a failure to call the witness. Upon a suf- under certain Military Rules of Evidence: Mil. 506(h) (intent to disclose privi. shall not be ground for comment the determination of the military judge. calling a witness. 321(e) (same. or raising a defense not shall have adequate opportunity to prepare its case disclosed.

703(b)). 1001. R. disclose other government information are in Mil. 507.M. Evid. As used in this rule “inspect” includes a deposition be taken on request of a party. Procedures governing refusal to disclose classified informa. Discussion (2) Contents of request. If only a part of a deposition is offered in evidence The sanction of excluding the testimony of a defense witness by a party. Before imposing this sanction. which is reduced to writing or recorded on videotape or audiotape or similar material. 405(g)) or at the time of trial (see R. See also subsection (g)(3) of the testimony of a defense witness should only be used if alterna. Objections may be made to testimony in a written Government. In any case. A request for a deposition may under the Military Rules of Evidence.M. See Mil. and deposition is requested. the con- vening authority or the military judge may order that (h) Inspect. (C) A statement of the reasons for taking the Note that under subsection (i) of this rule a deposition may be taken by agreement of the parties without necessity of an deposition.C. 702(c)(3)(A) gated the disadvantage caused by the failure to disclose. or on an interlocutory question as substantive evidence if the witness is unavailable under Mil. R. so far as otherwise admissible (A) In general. may be used on the merits be denied only for good cause. Moreover. Procedures governing refusal to disclose an informant’s identity are in Mil. which are reduced to writing before submission to a witness whose testimony is to be taken by depo. A deposition may be ordered when. cution. the countervailing public interests. 506. the right to photograph and copy. (b) Who may order. DD Form 456 (Interrogatories and Deposition) may be used tion are in Mil. is unknown. Depositions (1) Submission of request. 613.M. Evid. A request for a deposition A deposition is the out-of-court testimony of a witness under oath shall include: in response to questions by the parties. (D) Whether an oral or written deposition is A deposition may be taken to preserve the testimony of a requested. constitute the deposition testimony of the witness.C. 505. At any time after charges have been preferred. (3) Action on request.C. Evid. (c) Request to take deposition. person is to be examined. or both. other relevant factors. (2) the interest in the fair and efficient under the Military Rules of Evidence may be used in presentenc- administration of military justice. and (3) the potential prejudice ing proceedings as substantive evidence as provided in R. and any party may offer failure to comply with this rule was willful and motivated by a other parts. Evid. submitted. R. The transcript of a deposition may not be inspected by tive sanctions could not have minimized the prejudice to the the members. Rule 702. (B) A statement of the matters on which the sition. failure to show the probable relevance of II-59 . desire to obtain a tactical advantage or to conceal a plan to A deposition which is transcribed is ordinarily read to the present fabricated testimony. Procedures governing refusal to in conjunction with this rule.M. (A) The name and address of the person whose A deposition taken on oral examination is an oral deposition. and order. if the name of the person a deposition taken on written interrogatories is a written deposi. 106. or. Part of all of a deposition. to the truth-determining function of the trial process. a description of the office or position of tion. 804(a) except that a Discussion deposition may be admitted in a capital case only upon offer by the defense. A convening authority who has the charges for disposition or. after referral. due to exceptional circumstances of the case it is in the interest of Discussion justice that the testimony of a prospective witness be A copy of the request and any accompanying papers ordinarily taken and preserved for use at an investigation under should be served on the other parties when the request is Article 32 or a court-martial. including (1) the integrity of Part or all of a deposition so far as otherwise admissible the adversary process.C. the sanction of excluding court-martial by the party offering it. ever. R. See Mil. See Mil. any party may request (a) In general. the military judge deposition in the same way that they would be if the testimony must weigh the defendant’s right to compulsory process against were offered through the personal appearance of a witness. prepared by the prose- the person. Evid. after preferral of charges. reduced to writing and properly sworn to. The answers. this rule. 804(b)(1). R. R. witness who is likely to be unavailable at the investigation under Article 32 (see R. Written interrogatories are questions. an adverse party may require the proponent to offer all should be used only upon finding that the defense counsel’s which is relevant to the part offered. a deposition Good cause for denial includes: failure to state a proper ground may be used by any party for the purpose of contradicting or for taking a deposition. Evid. Evid. R. and any impeaching the testimony of the deponent as a witness. R. in writing that a deposition be taken. defense.

the deposition officer the request. served by a written deposition. mand. (f) Duties of the deposition officer. Discussion dering the deposition determines that the interests of Such instruction may include the time and place for taking the the parties and the court-martial can be adequately deposition. 502(d) are assigned to represent each party. if the change the place for taking the deposition.M. A request for a written (3) Instructions.M. may for cause shown extend or shorten the time or esting party of the action on the request and. (D) Waiver. Discussion (e) Notice. in the case of an oral deposition.C. The authority who whom the notice is served the deposition officer acts on the request shall promptly inform the requ. the convening author- a verbatim record is made or may be prepared.C. (1) Arrange a time and place for taking the depo- (1) Detail of deposition officer. See R. and interpreter. that counsel should be appointed to represent the accused. the reasons for denial.C. consistent request is denied. The party at whose request a deposition A request for an oral deposition may be approved without the is to be taken shall give to every other party reason- consent of the opposing party. shall: (d) Action when request is approved.C. The convening authority may deposition may not be approved without the consent give instructions not inconsistent with this rule to of the opposing party except when the deposition is the deposition officer. ity who directed the taking of the deposition shall ensure that counsel qualified as required under (7) Record. (B) Written deposition. barrassment. such as improper denial of a witness request at an Article will continue through a later court-martial. Discussion (3) Maintain order during the deposition and pro- See Article 49(c). Failure to review before the mili. an appropriate authority may be requested to make availa- ble an officer to serve as deposition officer. (8) Authenticate the record of the deposition and II-60 . and subject to any instructions under convening authority waives further consideration of subsection (d)(3) of this rule. if any. In accordance tary judge a request for a deposition denied by a with this rule. (5) In the case of a written deposition. The fact that the witness is or will be available for The counsel who represents the accused at a deposition ordinarily trial is good cause for denial in the absence of unusual circum- will form an attorney-client relationship with the accused which stances. with any instructions from the convening authority. able written notice of the time and place for taking the deposition and the name and address of each person to be examined. unavailability of an essential witness at an Article 32 If the accused has formed an attorney-client relationship with hearing. If charges have not yet questions submitted by counsel to the witness.M. or that the witness’ testimony would be Discussion unnecessary. the re- porter. been referred to a court-martial when a request to (6) Cause the proceedings to be recorded so that take a deposition is approved.M. ask the (2) Assignment of counsel. objections or mo- R. tions and the testimony to which they relate. em- When a deposition will be at a point distant from the com. ordinarily fense access to a witness. When a request sition and. the procedures for production of witnesses and evi- dence under R. On motion of a party upon (C) Notification of decision. shall detail an officer to serve as deposition officer (2) Arrange for the presence of any witness or request an appropriate civil officer to serve as whose deposition is to be taken in accordance with deposition officer.C. but not rule upon.M.R. 703(e). ordered solely in lieu of producing a witness for sentencing under R. tect the parties and witnesses from annoyance. 506. 1001 and the authority or. or oppression. 32 hearing. notify for a deposition is approved. or when the Government has improperly impeded de- military counsel concerning the charges in question. (4) Administer the oath to each witness. the convening authority the party who requested the deposition accordingly. 702(c)(3)(A) the witness’ testimony.

The testimony of the witness shall be martial can be served adequately by an oral deposi. videotape. When the testimony is tran- (ii) Be represented by counsel as provided in scribed. Discussion the accused shall have the rights to: The interrogatories and cross-interrogatories should be sent to the (i) Be present except when: (a) the accused. 506 for the purpose of taking a written dep- stantial irregularity in the proceeding. the deposition shall. fails to appear after notice subsection (h)(3) of this rule concerning objections. each response. See absent good cause shown. Each witness The deposition officer may enter additional matters giving an oral deposition shall be examined under then stated by the witness under oath. At an oral deposition. except when impracti- R. the whole truth. Opposing counsel may ex- amine the questions and shall be allowed a reasona- (g) Procedure. depositions recorded by R. R. officer shall swear the witness. 506. a deposition may be Discussion recorded by a reporter or by other means including videotape. ity who ordered the deposition. Discussion (B) Presence of parties. of the military judge. or similar material tion without the presence of the accused. except when the deposition is taken for use at a summary court-martial. and record mines that the interests of the parties and the court. if any. and the right to be represented by counsel as provided in (9) Report to the convening authority any sub. The deposition production of a witness on sentencing under R. prevents an orderly and fair proceeding. cable. 702(g)(3) forward it to the authority who ordered the deposi. see subsections (f)(7) and (h) of this rule.C.M. or a witness. audiotape. 914. As to production of prior statements of witnesses.C.C. audiotape. the deposition officer shall record the reason. In the discretion of the author- to which the accused would be entitled at the trial. or sound film. or sound film may be played A sample oath for a deposition follows. The party requesting a written deposition shall sub- The authority who ordered the deposition should forward mit to opposing counsel a list of written questions to copies to the parties. The scope and manner of examination and tion shall be signed by the witness if the witness is cross-examination shall be such as would be allowed available. which is in the possession of the United States and (3) How recorded. such as improper conduct by counsel be present at a written deposition.M. 613. No party has a right to When any unusual problem. be asked of the witness.C. ness. be submitted to the witness for examination. see R.C. (C) Submission of interrogatories to opponent. vening authority. recorded on videotape. ble time to prepare cross-interrogatories and (1) Oral depositions. (A) Rights of accused. read each question 1001 and the authority ordering the deposition deter. and nothing but the truth (so help you God)?” Discussion A deposition read in evidence or one that is played during a (2) Written depositions. (b) the accused is disruptive within the meaning of R. of time and place of the deposition. (B) Examination of witnesses. audiotape.M. The Government shall make availa.M. ble to each accused for examination and use at the The certificate of authentication shall then be taking of the deposition any statement of the witness executed. 804(b)(2).M. osition. (A) Rights of accused. R. The deposi- oath. for the court-martial or may be transcribed and read “You (swear) (affirm) that the evidence you give shall be to the court-martial. In the discretion As to objections. or (c) the deposition is ordered in lieu of (D) Examination of witnesses. The accused shall have tion. and or shall be transcribed.M. Evid. Mil. If the deposition is not signed by the wit- in the trial itself. objections. the truth.C. is recorded and transcribed by the reporter in the II-61 . court-martial. the deposi- tion officer should adjourn the proceedings and inform the con. deposition officer by the party who requested the deposition. presented by the parties to the witness. 612.

include. may arise as both an interlocutory question and a question that bears on the ultimate issue of guilt.C. in the absence of such evidence. but.M. See also R. and. the practical difficulties of producing the witness outweigh the significance of the witness’ personal Discussion appearance (although such testimony will not be ad- A party may show that an objection was made during the missible over the accused’s objection as evidence on deposition but not recorded. Relevant testimony is necessary when it is not cumulative by agreement of the parties. In most instances. Objections to any ques. the military judge may grounds for such objection shall be stated at the time authorize any witness to testify via remote means. court-martial shall have equal opportunity to obtain however.M. for child witnesses. or evidence at an oral deposition and the accused and Government.M. witness to testify in person. (1) Taking deposition. With the consent of both the timony. and the definition thereof are contained in R. including the benefit of testimony is admissible on the ultimate issue of guilt. An issue less the military judge forbids its use for good cause. the timing of the request for produc- tion of the witness. ing in this rule shall preclude the use of a deposition The procedures for receiving testimony via remote means at the court-martial by agreement of the parties un. ten deposition may be made at trial. 914B. the willingness of the party who proposed the question before the inter. Such deter- minations must be made based upon the relevant rules of compulsory process. deposition to the taking of the deposition on grounds (1) On the merits or on interlocutory questions. the United States. Nothing in this rule shall Discussion preclude the taking of a deposition without cost to See Mil. of taking such deposition.R. 801(e)(5). The deposition need not be Discussion included in the record of trial. interlocutory proceeding that may be caused by the tion in written interrogatories shall be served on the production of the witness. Factors to be considered the transcript of the deposition governs. (2) On sentencing. R. the military judge may matter which could have been corrected if the objec. the potential delay in the (3) Written depositions. vant and necessary. the ultimate issue of guilt). ment. A matter is not in issue (2) Use of deposition. Production of witnesses and remote means or similar technology over the accused’s objection evidence only as evidence on the interlocutory question. but are not limited to. which may be corrected if the objection is made Each party is entitled to the production of any wit- prior to the deposition waives such objection. the objec. when it is stipulated as a fact.M.C. or essential training. tes. testimony taken over a party’s objection will not be admissible as (a) In general. viding in-court testimony.C. this rule authorizes the admission of testimony by Rule 703. authorize any witness to testify on interlocutory tion had been made during the deposition. Subject to Article 49. (1) In general. (h) Objections. Objections to questions. Evid. the costs of produc- ing the witness. questions via remote means or similar technology if tion is waived if not made at the deposition. the likelihood of signifi- rogatories are sent to the deposition officer or the cant interference with military operational deploy- objection is waived. Objections to answers in a writ. there may be certain limited circumstances where the witnesses and evidence. 401 concerning relevance. noth. 702(g)(3) same way as any other testimony. The prosecution and defense and the evidence on the question that bears on the ultimate issue of guilt. In such circumstances.C. See R. Each party is entitled to the II-62 . orally or upon written questions. A failure to object prior to the (b) Right to witnesses. evidence. If an objection relates to a Over a party’s objection. the traumatic effect of pro- (i) Deposition by agreement not precluded. mission accomplishment. 801(c) concerning the opportunity of the court- martial to obtain witnesses and evidence. ness whose testimony on a matter in issue on the merits or on an interlocutory question would be rele- (2) Oral depositions. and when it would contribute to a party’s presentation of the case in some positive way on a matter in issue.

the trial counsel shall abate the proceedings. (c) Determining which witness will be produced. The trial counsel shall ar- within the meaning of Mil. substitute. 702. necessary for the prosecution. A list of witnesses under this subsection shall be submitted in time reasonably Discussion to allow production of each witness on the date See Mil. abated. advance of employment of the expert. of a witness in a timely manner shall permit denial ing is required under R. A request denied by found upon the exercise of due diligence and a syn. mony of the expert is relevant and necessary. The its or on an interlocutory question shall include the request shall include a complete statement of reasons name. In the the witness will give. whether the Government has provided or will nesses wanted for presentencing proceedings shall provide an adequate substitute. 905(j). the military judge tion is not required by this rule. and with no- (i) Witnesses on merits or interlocutory tice to the opposing party. so. if the testimony of a witness who is unavailable defense unless the trial counsel contends that the is of such central importance to an issue that it is witness’ production is not required under this rule. If the military judge attempt to secure the witness’ presence or shall grants a motion for a witness. See R.C. 703(e) production of a witness whose testimony on sentenc. 1001(e). When significant or unusual costs would be involved in produc- sel shall obtain the presence of witnesses whose ing witnesses. Notwithstanding subsec. shown. Failure to submit the name (e) Procedures for production of witnesses. from such denial may be granted for good cause tions (b)(1) and (2) of this rule. Howev. a synopsis of the testimony that it is expected Government fails to comply with the ruling. finds that the Government is required to provide a ness can be found upon the exercise of due dili. Evid. (A) Request. (2) Witnesses for the defense. Discussion (1) Witnesses for the prosecution. when the witness’ presence will be necessary.M. and the reasons why the wit. entitled under subsection (e)(2)(D) of this rule. absence of advance authorization. The defense shall submit to the (d) Employment of expert witnesses. 906(b)(7). unless the unavailability of produce the witness or the proceedings shall be the witness is the fault of or could have been pre. If essential to a fair trial. Evid. the convening authority may be renewed before the opsis of the expected testimony sufficient to show military judge who shall determine whether the testi- its relevance and necessity. a party is not enti. if known. The trial coun. but relief (3) Unavailable witness. If the military judge include the name. if (ii) Witnesses on sentencing. R. the proceedings shall be abated if the gence.M. the trial counsel should inform the convening au- testimony the trial counsel considers relevant and thority. as the convening authority may elect to dispose of the matter by means other than a court-martial. When the em- trial counsel a written list of witnesses whose pro- ployment at Government expense of an expert is duction by the Government the defense requests.M. tled to the presence of a witness who is unavailable (D) Determination. 804(a). R. submit a request to the questions. and. See also R. if known. range for the presence of any witness listed by the er. 1001(e). vented by the requesting party.M. R. A list of wit. The military judge may set a specific date by which such lists must be submitted.C.C. telephone number. and grants a motion for employment of an expert or address or location of the witness such that the wit.C. the party shall. 706.C. telephone number. of a motion for production of the witness. in (B) Contents of request. an expert witness ness’ personal appearance will be necessary under may not be paid fees other than those to which the standards set forth in R. considered necessary by a party. and to fix the compensation for the expert. the matter may be shall grant a continuance or other relief in order to submitted to the military judge.M. and if there is no adequate the trial counsel contends that the witness’ produc- substitute for such testimony. II-63 . A list of witnesses whose testimony the convening authority to authorize the employment defense considers relevant and necessary on the mer. (C) Time of request. and address or why employment of the expert is necessary and the location of the witness such that the witness can be estimated cost of employment.

Appropriate son who issued the subpoena may mail it to the witness in travel orders may be issued for this purpose. Formal service is advisable whenever it is anticipated that the witness will not comply voluntarily with the title. The attendance of persons not on active duty should be person authorized by this rule to issue it. service on the copy and return it in the envelope provided.R. the per- courts-martial as an incident of their employment. the subpoena may be sent in duplicate to the commander papers. The A witness must be subject to United States jurisdiction to be return envelope should be addressed to the person who issued the subject to a subpoena. A subpoena may be served by the hours notice before starting to travel to attend the court-martial. the appropriate or by an officer detailed to take a deposition to superior should be requested to issue the necessary order. or if informal coordination is inadequate. a request for the attendance of a military respectively. Discussion Discussion See Department of Defense Pay and Entitlements Manual. Service should ordinarily be made by a person subject to the Discussion code. or any other person who is not less than 18 years of age. if any. When the witness is not in the vicinity. but a subpoena may be used tary witness may be obtained by notifying the com. named and by tendering to the person named travel (A) In general. Such commanders therein at the proceeding or at an earlier time for should give prompt and effective assistance. enclosing a postage-paid envelope bearing a return ad- A subpoena may not be used to compel a civilian to travel dress. A subpoena may also command That person may do so by serving the subpoena personally when the person to whom it is directed to produce books. service at least 24 hours before the time the witness will have to Civilian employees of the Department of Defense may be travel to comply with the subpoena. A subpoena normally is prepared. A subpoena is not necessary if the witness appears voluntarily at If practicable. Their presence may be obtained through with it a statement to the effect that the rights of the witness to cooperation of the host nation. of the proceeding. directed by appropriate authorities to appear as witnesses in Informal service. the person who attend and give testimony at the time and place issued the subpoena must assure timely and economical service. mand by which the proceeding is directed. If the witness is not near the court-martial and attendance would involve travel at government also be issued by the president of a court of inquiry expense. documents or other objects designated of a military installation near the witness. A subpoena shall subpoena. and the Formal service. If service cannot II-64 . witness should be made so that the witness will have at least 48 (D) Service. examination or interview before trial. The duplicate copy of the subpoena must have entered upon it proof of service as indicated on the form and must be promptly A subpoena may not be used to compel a witness to appear at an returned to the person who issued the subpoena. A subpoena may be issued Discussion by the summary court-martial or trial counsel of a When military witnesses are located near the court-martial. The attendance of a mili. The presence of witnesses not orders and fees as may be prescribed by the Secre- on active duty may be obtained by subpoena. and date plicate on the official forms. signed. and issued in du- mander of the witness of the time. the witness is in the vicinity. with the request that the witness sign the acceptance of outside the United States and its territories. issuing travel orders inspection by the parties. Appropriate fees and mileage must be paid or tendered. Service shall be made by delivering a copy of the subpoena to the person (2) Civilian witnesses—subpoena. a subpoena should be issued in time to permit no expense to the United States. to obtain witnesses for a deposition or a court of inquiry. a United obtained in the manner prescribed in subsection (e)(2) of this rule. 703(e)(1) (1) Military witnesses. tary concerned. witness. See Appendix 7 for an example of a the witness’ presence is required and requesting the Subpoena with certificate of service (DD Form 453) and a Travel commander to issue any necessary orders to the Order (DD Form 453-1). The person who issued the subpoena should include not subject to subpoena. States marshal. Unless formal service is advisable. specified therein. A subpoena shall state the com. Foreign nationals in a foreign country are subpoena. their special or general court-martial to secure witnesses presence can usually be obtained through informal coordination or evidence for that court-martial. A subpoena may with them and their commander.M. duplicate. command each person to whom it is directed to See Article 47. secure witnesses or evidence for those proceedings If practicable. for their personnel to serve the subpoena when necessary.C. place. If formal service is advisable. (C) Who may issue. tendance. fees and mileage will not be impaired by voluntary compliance with the request and that a voucher for fees and mileage will be delivered to the witness promptly on being discharged from at- (B) Contents.

Subpoenas issued under R. civilian court under Article 47 for failure to comply with a sub. A warrant of attachment is a legal order addressed (e)(2)(G) of this rule “military judge” does not in- to an official directing that official to have the person named in clude a summary court-martial or the president of a the order brought before a court. In occupied enemy with the charge sheet and convening orders. deposition. in the ab- sence of agreements. these purposes. The and shall testify as soon as practicable and be military judge or. R. or both. addressed envelope should be provided for military interest in obtaining compliance with its lawful process. if there is no military judge. tendance of a witness at a deposition. other person who is not less than 18 years of age as (F) Relief. A warrant of attachment (E) Place of service. A stamped. A modified or withdrawn if appropriate. that the witness refused or willfully neglected to appear at the time and place specified on the sub- (ii) Foreign territory. Common. Evid. special court-martial without a military judge. A warrant of attachment may the attendance of civilian witnesses located within be executed by a United States marshal or such the occupied territory.M. duction of evidence which is relevant and necessary. If a person subpoenaed requests re. 703(f)(1) be made. The different purposes of the warrant of Discussion attachment and criminal complaint under Article 47 should be See Mil. convening authority may. that the witness is material. the person who issued the subpoena must be informed process issued by military authority. Only lief on grounds that compliance is unreasonable or such nondeadly force as may be necessary to bring oppressive. It serves to vindicate the promptly. written. may be issued only upon probable cause to believe (i) In general. issue a warrant of attachment to compel the attendance of a witness or production of documents. All documents in support of the warrant of attachment shall be attached to the warrant. A matter is not in issue criminal complaint. after referral. or court of inquiry may be used. territory. R. with principles of international (iii) Form. available without the Relevant evidence is necessary when it is not cumulative and intervention of civilian judicial proceedings. accordance with existing agreements or. together (iii) Occupied territory. Failing to comply with such a subpoena is a felony offense. tendered to the witness. that appropriate fees and mileage were within the United States. Each party is entitled to the pro- poena issued in compliance with this rule and formally served. wealths. (ii) Requirements.M. courts. in accordance with this Discussion rule. has as its purpose punishment for failing to comply with As to the discovery and introduction of classified or other II-65 . the released. has as its purpose the when it would contribute to a party’s presentation of the case in obtaining of the witness’ presence. borne in mind. and may result in a fine or imprisonment. Discussion A warrant of attachment (DD Form 454) may be used when necessary to compel a witness to appear or produce evidence (v) Definition. at the discre- tion of the district court. that the witness was duly served with a subpoena. or possessions. and that no valid excuse reasonably appears attendance of civilian witnesses may be obtained in for the witness’ failure to appear. court-martial. 703 are Federal process and a person not subject to the code may be prosecuted in a Federal (f) Right to evidence. it Territories. witness attached under this rule shall be brought (G) Neglect or refusal to appear. the authority issuing the warrant may direct. The warrant of attachment.C. In foreign territory. the poena. that the subpoena was issued in accordance with or court of inquiry may be served at any place these rules. testimony. 401 concerning relevance. the convening authority or.C. the appropriate commander may compel (iv) Execution. A warrant of attachment shall be law. A subpoena requiring the at. For purposes of subsection under this rule. prosecuted through the civilian Federal when it is stipulated as a fact. before the court-martial or proceeding without delay (i) Issuance of warrant of attachment. In executing a warrant of attachment. no more force than neces- sary to bring the witness to the court-martial. or documents. The some positive way on a matter in issue. the witness before the court-martial or other the military judge may direct that the subpoena be proceeding may be used to execute the warrant. (1) In general.

the convening authority or. required and requesting the custodian to send or deliver the evidence. and when the person has refused or is likely to refuse to testify or apply to a determination of what evidence will be provide other information on the basis of the privilege against produced. and ted immunity from the use of testimony. by a person with apparent authority to make it. a statement where it can be obtained. including the needs of good order and discipline. Discussion mitted to the military judge for an in camera inspec. (2) Use in a court-martial under subsection (b)(1) (C) Relief. and telephone number a heavy burden to show that it has not used in any way for the of the custodian of the evidence. place. a party is not entitled to (1) Transactional immunity. In many cases this burden makes (4) Procedures for production of evidence. Testimonial immunity is preferred because it does not bar dence to be produced and shall include a description prosecution of the person for the offenses about which testimony or information is given under the grant of immunity. of this rule of testimony or statements derived from dence requests relief on grounds that compliance such testimony or statements. statements. (2) Testimonial immunity. difficult a later prosecution of such a person for any offense that (A) Evidence under the control of the Govern. Notwithstanding sub- section (f)(1) of this rule. R. if there is no adequate substitute for such evidence. A person may be granted transactional immunity from trial by court- the production of evidence which is destroyed. see Mil.R. and date the evidence is to try that person before the testimony or statements are given. Evidence not under the control of the Gov. the military judge may direct that the evidence be sub. ing. and may do so only in accordance with this subpoena or order of production be withdrawn or rule. Rule 704. modified. Immunity ordinarily should be granted only when testimony (3) Determining what evidence will be produced. Two types of immunity may be granted under this rule. or failure to ernment may be obtained by subpoena issued in comply with an order to testify. martial for one or more offenses under the code. except that any defense request for the self-incrimination. the name. (c) Authority to grant immunity. 703(f)(1) government information. If the person having custody of evi. the testimony or information is given. However. or a similar promise. such testimony or statements and evidence derived from them II-66 . production of evidence shall list the items of evi. testimony. relief in order to attempt to produce the evidence or shall abate the proceedings. R. address. making a false official statement. Immunity (a) Types of immunity. and any information directly or indirectly derived the military judge shall grant a continuance or other from such testimony or statements by that person in a later court-martial. testifies or makes statements pursuant to a promise of immunity. false swear- ernment. 505 and 506. was the subject of that person’s testimony or statements. if it is intended to prosecute a person to whom testimonial ment. it may be necessary evidence of the time. or information derived from them. if such evidence is of such central impor. prevented by the requesting party. when a person be granted. Evid. of each item sufficient to show its relevance and In any trial of a person granted testimonial immunity after necessity. in some circumstances. Evidence under the control of the Government immunity has been or will be granted for offenses about which may be obtained by notifying the custodian of the that person may testify or make statements. A person may be gran- tance to an issue that it is essential to a fair trial. There- fore. and. (2) Unavailable evidence. with the subpoena or order of production is unrea. (1) A later court-martial for perjury. Nothing in this rule bars: (B) Evidence not under the control of the Gov.M. However. Evid. 505 and 506. the military judge may direct that the nity. Only general court-martial convening authorities are authorized to tion in order to determine whether such relief should grant immunity. or accordance with subsection (e)(2) of this rule.C. Only a general sonable or oppressive. or other information from the person is necessary to the public The procedures in subsection (c) of this rule shall interest. or otherwise not subject to compulsory process. prosecution of that person the person’s statements. unless the unavailability Discussion of the evidence is the fault of or could have been “Testimonial” immunity is also called “use” immunity. (b) Scope. lost. court-martial convening authority may grant immu- after referral. Subject to Mil. the Government must meet if known.

A general court. Unless the Department of testify despite a valid grant of immunity may be prosecuted for Justice indicates it has no interest in the case. to which it extends. tation with the Department of Justice. aiding the enemy.C. In addition. However. testimony or statement would make the person liable for a Federal When immunity is granted to a prosecution witness. thority. ness or. A request for such authorization should be forwarded through removes the right to refuse to testify or make a statement on self- the office of the Judge Advocate General concerned. Article 134. subversion. rior authority. vicemember who has received a valid grant of immunity may be immunity should not be granted without prior coordination with ordered to answer questions by investigators or counsel pursuant the Department of Justice. Under some circumstances a authority to grant immunity may be limited by supe- promise of immunity by someone other than a general court. Part IV. the decision to grant specifically authorized to do so by the Attorney immunity is a matter within the sole discretion of General of the United States or other authority des.S. (e) Decision to grant immunity. authorization by V. rules or statutes concerning classified information or the foreign relations of the United States. or violation of trial action in the case under some circumstances. Service incrimination grounds.C.. Department of Defense Directive 1355. A person who refuses to United States Attorney is appropriate. as to the affected charges and specifications. leges against disclosure of information. the military judge may. R. upon (3) Other limitations. A grant of immunity shall be written prosecution in a United States District Court only and signed by the convening authority who issues it. the civilian offense. sabotage. a ser- that person could be prosecuted in a United States District Court. grant appropriate relief See the discussion under subsection (c)(1) of this rule concerning directing that either an appropriate convening au- forwarding a request for authorization to grant immunity to the thority grant testimonial immunity to a defense wit- Attorney General. a general court-martial convening authority may grant immu- nity to a person subject to the code extending to a (d) Procedure. Section ment of Justice expresses no interest in the case. the Attorney General for the grant of immunity may be necessary An immunity order or grant must not specify the contents of to compel the person to testify or make a statement if such the testimony it is expected the witness will give. The grant shall include a statement of the authority ney General of the United States or other authority under which it is made and shall identify the matters designated under 18 U. findings that: munity under this rule may not be delegated.S. authorization for such refusal. R. (2) Persons not subject to the code. See paragraph 108. The (1) The witness intends to invoke the right II-67 . Evid. § 6004. the appropriate general court-martial convening au- ignated under 18 U. Ordinarily coordination with the local to that grant. However. Evid. shall be forwarded to the General Counsel of the Department of Defense for the purpose of consul- (1) Persons subject to the code. accused must be notified in accordance with Mil.” any person subject to the code. remove other privi- regulations may provide additional guidance. It does not. martial convening authority may bar prosecution altogether. A grant of immunity al. R.C. Persons subject to the code may be charged under the grant of immunity should be sought from the Attorney Gener. 704(e)(1) may be inadmissible in a later trial. See Mil. Even if the Depart. 301(c)(2). witness in a court-martial may be disqualified from taking post.1 (21 July 1981) provides: A convening authority who grants immunity to a prosecution “A proposed grant of immunity in a case involving espionage. See Mil. Discussion upon motion by the defense. The authority to grant im. 301(c). when specifically authorized to do so by the Attor. Per- sons not authorized to grant immunity should exercise care when Discussion dealing with accused or suspects to avoid inadvertently causing statements to be inadmissible or prosecution to be barred. Evid. Unless limited by nity to persons not subject to the code only when superior competent authority. Discussion Discussion When testimony or a statement for which a person subject to the A person who has received a valid grant of immunity from a code may be granted immunity may relate to an offense for which proper authority may be ordered to testify. The General Counsel shall martial convening authority may grant immunity to obtain the view of other appropriate elements of the Department of defense in furtherance of such consultation. spying. R. however. if a defense request to immunize a witness has been denied. § 6004.M. A general court-martial convening authority may grant immu. the proceedings against the accused be abated.

and (2) A promise by the convening authority to do Discussion one or more of the following: A pretrial agreement provision which prohibits the accused from (A) Refer the charges to a certain type of making certain pretrial motions (see R. convening authorities of punishment into less severe forms. to suspend all or part action by Federal civilian authorities in cases likely to be prose.M. same or a different convening authority. by a preponderance of the evi- other source and does more than merely affect the dence. that the accused breached the pretrial agreement is not required has forced the witness to invoke the privilege prior to reinstitution of withdrawn or dismissed specifications and/or charges. Subject to cations from the court-martial. (A) Not voluntary.C. If the defense moves to dismiss the reinstituted against self-incrimination.R. to defer confinement. A judicial determination or the Government. 704(e)(1) against self-incrimination to the extent permitted by charges from a court-martial and dismiss them if the accused law if called to testify. Pretrial agreements (D) Have the trial counsel present no evidence (a) In general.M. and specifications and/or charges on the grounds that the government (3) The witness’ testimony is material. (B) Refer a capital offense as noncapital. the right to complete sentencing additional terms or conditions which may be in. Secretary concerned may prescribe. that the accused has breached the terms of the pretrial agreement. the right to chal- or to enter a confessional stipulation as to one or lenge the jurisdiction of the court-martial. Subject to such limitations as the as to one or more specifications or portions thereof. shall ensure that appropriate consultation under the “Memoran- dum of Understanding Between the Departments of Justice and Defense Relating to the Investigation and Prosecution of Crimes (c) Terms and conditions. (C) Withdraw one or more charges or specifi. an accused and and the convening authority may enter into a pretrial agreement in accordance with this rule. and dismissal does not bar later reinstitution of the charges by the tory use of immunity to obtain a tactical advantage. of a sentence. not cumulative. subsection (c)(1)(A) of this rule. court-martial. through its own overreaching. the right to due process. 907(b)(2)(C)).C. proceedings. Rule 705. 704. Discussion Discussion The authority of convening authorities to refer cases to trial and approve pretrial agreements extends only to trials by courts-mar. such withdrawal (2) The Government has engaged in discrimina. A pretrial agreement may condition in a pretrial agreement shall not be en- include: forced if it deprives the accused of: the right to (1) A promise by the accused to plead guilty to. If the agreement is intended to grant immunity to an credibility of other witnesses. (2) Permissible terms or conditions. A term or condition in a See Appendix 3.M. see R.C. A term or (b) Nature of agreement. the govern- culpatory. has taken place prior to trial by court-martial or approval of a pretrial agreement in cases where such consultation is required. clearly ex. remains bound by the terms of the pretrial agreement. and to fulfill such to a speedy trial.M. or to mitigate certain forms cuted in the United States district courts. accused. the convening authority may agree to approve no tial. post-trial and appellate rights. 905–907) may be improper. the right more charges and specifications. Over Which the Two Departments Have Concurrent Jurisdiction ” (1) Prohibited terms or conditions. For example. the complete and effective exercise of cluded in the agreement and which are not prohib. counsel. not obtainable from any ment will be required to prove. pretrial agreement shall not be enforced if the ac- cused did not freely and voluntarily agree to it. ited under this rule. subsection (c)(1)(B) of this rule does not prohibit either party Discussion from proposing the following additional conditions: A convening authority may withdraw certain specifications and/or (A) A promise to enter into a stipulation of fact II-68 . and fulfills the accused’s promises in the agreement.C. (B) Deprivation of certain rights. (E) Take specified action on the sentence ad- judged by the court-martial. To ensure that such actions do not preclude appropriate sentence in excess of a specified maximum. Except when jeopardy has attached (see R.

The accused may withdraw may be initiated by the accused. (d) Procedure.C. The convening authority may ei- ther accept or reject an offer of the accused to enter (C) A promise to provide restitution. the agreement with before an alleged violation of such terms may shall be signed by the convening authority or by a relieve the convening authority of the obligation to person. The written agreement should contain a trial of another person. if any. rial term in the agreement. (E) A promise to waive procedural require- ments such as the Article 32 investigation. or cate or trial counsel before acting on an offer to enter into a the opportunity to obtain the personal appearance of pretrial agreement. contains any specified action on the adjudged sen- (e) Nondisclosure of existence of agreement. such as the staff judge advocate or trial fulfill the agreement. provided that convening authority. convening accused may withdraw a plea of guilty or a confes- authority. (3) Acceptance. extends. rate from the other portions of the agreement. In addition. lic policy.M. or if findings are set The proposed agreement shall be signed by the ac. the trial counsel. no member of a court-martial shall be informed of Discussion the existence of a pretrial agreement. if the accused ure by the accused to fulfill any material promise or elects to propose a pretrial agreement. 705(e) concerning offenses to which a plea of guilty or as any other agreed terms or conditions. (B) A promise to testify as a witness in the this should be stated. or if the accused agrees to waive the right to an Article 32 investigation. 410. After negotiation. For example. The decision whether to accept by the convening authority as well as during any or reject an offer is within the sole discretion of the period of suspension of the sentence. and counsel.M. or their duly authorized representatives.C. except as provided in Mil. See R. defense counsel.M. thority may withdraw from a pretrial agreement at any time before the accused begins performance of (2) Formal submission. witnesses at sentencing proceedings. ing authority agrees to withdraw certain specifications. R. If the agreement agreement is held improvident on appellate review. if the conven- to which a confessional stipulation will be entered. 910(h) or any term or condition not prohibited by law or pub- 811(d). promises contained in the agreement. All terms. the fact that The first part of the agreement ordinarily contains an offer to plead guilty and a description of the offenses to which the offer an accused offered to enter into a pretrial agreement. Pretrial agreement negotiations (A) By accused. 704(a)(2) concerning testimonial immunity. 1109 must be complied has accepted a pretrial agreement. into a pretrial agreement or may propose by coun- (D) A promise to conform the accused’s con. the defense condition in the agreement. who has been authorized by the convening authority to sign. (4) Withdrawal.C. It must also contain a complete and accurate statement of and any statements made by an accused in connec- II-69 . if any. Government representatives shall negoti- ate with defense counsel unless the accused has (B) By convening authority. upon the fail- under subsection (d)(1) of this rule. conditions. from a pretrial agreement at any time. such action shall be set forth on a page sepa- in a special court-martial without a military judge.C. the right Discussion to trial by court-martial composed of members or The convening authority should consult with the staff judge advo- the right to request trial by military judge alone.M. sional stipulation entered pursuant to a pretrial Either the defense or the government may propose agreement only as provided in R. teroffer any terms or conditions not prohibited by duct to certain conditions of probation before action law or public policy. Only a general court-martial convening authority may grant immunity. when inquiry by the shall submit a written offer. R. respectively. Except tence. the staff judge advocate. military judge discloses a disagreement as to a mate- and promises between the parties shall be written. aside because a plea of guilty entered pursuant to the cused and defense counsel. statement by the accused that the accused enters it freely and voluntarily and may contain a statement that the accused has been Discussion advised of certain rights in connection with the agreement. however. When the convening authority the requirements of R. (1) Negotiation. The convening au- waived the right to counsel. Evid.

after referral. defense counsel. whether during negotiations or during matter shall be referred to a board consisting of one a providence inquiry. 910(f) (plea agreement inquiry). (2) Matters in inquiry.C. did the accused have a severe mental disease trial. the order to the board shall specify: bility of the accused may be ordered by the military (A) That upon completion of the board’s inves- judge. or (a) Initial action. In ad- who considers the disposition of charges. if any. and. at the time of the alleged See R. When a mental examina. a statement consisting only of the board’s inquiry after referral of charges but before beginning ultimate conclusions as to all questions specified in of the first session of the court-martial (including the order shall be submitted to the officer ordering any Article 39(a) session) when the military judge is the examination.M. at least one member of the board shall be either a Discussion psychiatrist or a clinical psychologist. or to any dition to other requirements. When a mental examina- Rule 706. (3) Directions to board.M. Each member of the board shall be closed to the members. The convening authority may order such an tigation. trial counsel.) examination under this rule.C. the order shall require investigating officer. mental disease or defect rendering the accused una- ble to understand the nature of the proceedings (1) Before referral. not reasonably available. released by the board or other medical personnel tion is ordered under subsection (b) of this rule. inquiry into the mental capacity or mental responsi. In addition to the re- (2) After referral. the order shall con- mental responsibility of the accused tain the reasons for doubting the mental capacity or mental responsibility. the board to make separate and distinct findings as military judge. an quirements specified in subsection (c)(2) of this rule.M. or both.C. ligently in the defense? bility of the accused may be ordered by the conven- ing authority before whom the charges are pending Other appropriate questions may also be included.C. shall not be otherwise dis. 916(k) concerning mental responsibility of the tal disease or defect. The military judge may the investigating officer. or minor disorders such as nonpsychotic may be accompanied by an application for a mental behavior disorders and personality defects. to the mili- authority. for disposition. of the accused. (B) What is the clinical psychiatric diagnosis? Discussion (C) Was the accused. or member that there is reason to to each of the following questions: believe that the accused lacked mental responsibility for any offense charged or lacks capacity to stand (A) At the time of the alleged criminal con- duct. and quality or wrongfulness of his or her conduct? (D) Is the accused presently suffering from a (b) Ordering an inquiry. an against the accused or to conduct or cooperate intel- inquiry into the mental capacity or mental responsi. the of any earlier determination by the convening convening authority. After referral of charges.R. The board See also R. Before referral of charges. or more persons. 909 concerning the capacity of the accused to stand criminal conduct and as a result of such severe men- trial and R. (c) Inquiry. unable to appreciate the nature accused. Inquiry into the mental capacity or tion is ordered under this rule. that fact and the basis of the belief or observa- or defect? (The term “severe mental disease or de- tion shall be transmitted through appropriate chan- fect” does not include an abnormality manifested nels to the officer authorized to order an inquiry into only by repeated criminal or otherwise antisocial the mental condition of the accused. tary judge. the only to other medical personnel for medical pur- II-70 . The submission conduct. Normal- ly. the accused’s commanding officer. shall report as to the mental capacity or mental re- sponsibility or both of the accused. appointed pursuant order a mental examination of the accused regardless to Article 32 and to all counsel in the case. If it appears to any commander other reasons for requesting the examination. either a physician or a clinical psychologist.M. (B) That the full report of the board may be (1) By whom conducted. 705(e) tion therewith.

(iii) the date of entry on active duty under R. (2) Multiple Charges. within 120 days after the earlier of: 304(a) (2)-(4) is reimposed. 204. dismissal or mistrial for cases in which there is no (5) Disclosure to trial counsel. In some ther proceeded on nor severed under R.C.C. 908(b)(8) or 908(c)(3). The date of preferral of charges. (ii) the date of imposition of restraint under R. at different times. The date on which the accused is brought by the military judge. 707(b)(3)(C) poses. When charges are preferred the charges may be dismissed by the convening authority. upon request.M. Discussion (C) Government appeals. Offenses ordinar. R.C. the military judge may disclose to the time period under the rule shall begin on the earlier trial counsel any statement made by the accused to of the board or any evidence derived from such (i) the date of repreferral. accountability for each charge istrative action may be taken to discharge the accused from the shall be determined from the appropriate date under service or. The accused is brought to trial within the meaning of this rule at the time of ar- Discussion raignment under R. 904. by the military 304(a)(2)–(4). statement. If charges are dis- (4) Additional examinations.M. admin.M. In all other cases. if II-71 . (A) Dismissal or mistrial.M. or judge. unless it is deter- ily should be disposed of promptly to serve the interests of good mined that the appeal was filed solely for the pur- order and discipline. R. Additional examina.M. by court-martial.M. Priority shall be given to persons in arrest or confinement. After the decision of the Court of Criminal Appeals under R. If notice of appeal Delay from the time of an offense to preferral of charges or the under R.M. 302.C. subject to Mil. the charges may be tried subsection (a) of this rule for that charge.C. or the date of entry on investigation shall be released by the board or other active duty under R. or if a mistrial is granted.M. to the (b) Accountability. a new 120-day tions may be directed under this rule at any stage of time period under this rule shall begin on the date of the proceedings as circumstances may require. to trial shall count. on the date of notice to the parties under result in dismissal of the charges or other relief. 204 shall not count for medical personnel to any person not authorized to purpose of computing time under subsection (a) of receive the full report. after referral of charges. 304(a)(2)–(4). the 120-day time period under this rule shall begin on the earlier of Rule 707. R. 204.C. Evid.C. unless otherwise authorized by the convening (2) The imposition of restraint under R. commanding officer of the accused. a new 120-day time pe- imposition of pretrial restraint is not considered for speedy trial riod under this rule shall begin. released from pretrial restraint for a significant peri- od. (a) In general. other repreferral and cases in which the accused is in than the defense counsel.C. If the accused is See Mil. Speedy trial (i) the date of preferral of charges. Discussion (B) Release from restraint.C. pose of delay with the knowledge that it was totally frivolous and without merit. further action in the case may be suspended. Evid. missed.M. circumstances such delay may prejudice the accused and may 908(b)(4). or. except that a copy of the full report shall be (3) Entry on active duty under R. except pursuant to an order this rule. a new 120-day of charges.C.M.M.C. 908. authority or. after referral pretrial restraint. and (1) In general. No person. nor any matter considered by the board during its 304 (a)(2)-(4) is imposed. for all charges nei- purposes. R.M. or (1) Preferral of charges. furnished to the defense and. 302.C. (3) Events which affect time periods. Based on the report.C.M. accused. 908 is filed. The accused shall be brought to trial (ii) the date on which restraint under R. (C) That neither the contents of the full report the date on which pretrial restraint under R. See also Article 43 (statute of limitations).

909(f). all periods of such commitment shall should be made a part of the appellate record. In determining whether or tary concerned. for example. under R. the excluded. time to complete other proceedings related to the case.M. dismissed with prejudice where the accused has been ity. authority. 803.M. Upon accused’s timely motion to a (E) Commitment of the incompetent accused. or. the convening authority may delegate the ing a rehearing. A failure to comply with this rule will subsection (a) of this rule has run. or the accused is absent without author. counsel should provide the court a chronology torney General for hospitalization as provided in detailing the processing of the case. time to secure the availability of the accused. judge. shall be excluded when determining charges with or without prejudice. all requests for justice. the accused is returned to sentence-only rehearing. 904 or. together with support- time period under this rule shall begin on the date ing reasons and the dates covering the delay.M. This decision should be based on the facts and circum- stances then and there existing. each of the following fac- run.M. should be reduced to that the responsible convening authority receives the writing. (2) Motions. If. how much sentence relief is appropriate. the Supreme Court. If military judge under R. together with supporting reasons.C. Reasons to grant a delay might. time requested shall begin on the date the parties are notified of the by the defense. the facts and judge or the convening authority shall be similarly circumstances of the case that lead to dismissal. authorized by an appellate court.M. if arraignment is not required (such as in the case of a sentence-only rehearing). If a rehearing is ordered or to declassify evidence. include the need for: time to enable counsel to II-72 . In determining whether to dismiss General. or other evidence. at the end of result in dismissal of the affected charges. a new 120-day time period under this rule the reserve component to active duty for disciplinary action. at the time of the first session under R.C. Discussion and any prejudice to the accused from the delay. This chronology R. to a military judge for resolution. deprived of his or her constitutional right to a tence. prejudice to the government’s right to reinstitute (c) Excludable delay. if au- thorized under regulations prescribed by the Secre. will from the denial of a speedy trial. (2) Sentence relief. All other pretrial delays approved by a military tors: the seriousness of the offense. The decision to grant or deny a reasonable delay is a matter Any sentence relief granted will be applied against within the sole discretion of the convening authority or a military the sentence approved by the convening authority. a new 120-day Pretrial delays should not be granted ex parte. each of the fol- submitted to the military judge for resolution. lowing factors: the length of the delay. The charges must be proceedings.C. or the accused is hospitalized due to incompe. record of trial and the opinion authorizing or direct. such requests for pretrial delay will be judge shall consider. be submitted to the convening authority or. An accused is brought to trial within authority to grant continuances to an Article 32 investigating the meaning of this rule at the time of arraignment officer. impact of a re-prosecution on the administration of (1) Procedure. be excluded when determining whether the period in (d) Remedy. Prior to referral. among others. to the Supreme the mental capacity of the accused. the accused’s demand for speedy trial. Prior to referral. the decision granting the delay. time to allow examination into the Armed Forces or. ate security clearances for access to classified information or time (D) Rehearings. time to process a member of Court. or is otherwise in the custody of the Attorney speedy trial. subsequently. or additional time for other good cause. the military After referral. and any prejudice to the accused resulting pretrial delay. time to obtain appropri- Forces. or. Dismissal will be with or without shall begin on the date of such return to custody. the reasons for the delay. final decision of the Court of Appeals for the Armed substantial witnesses. if appropriate. and when practicable.C. in a the period of commitment. All periods of time during court-martial proceedings against the accused for the which appellate courts have issued stays in the same offense at a later date.R. a new 120-day time period under this rule (1) Dismissal.C. 905 for speedy trial the accused is committed to the custody of the At. among others. 707(b)(3)(C) there is a further appeal to the Court of Appeals for prepare for trial in complex cases. relief. sentence relief as the custody of the general court-martial convening appropriate. the court shall whether the period in subsection (a) of this rule has consider.

Discussion Speedy trial issues may also be waived by a failure to raise the (e) Waiver. Except as provided in R. 910(a)(2). ing reasons for delay and procedures for parties to request delay.C.M. issue at trial.M.C.M. R. See R. II-73 . 707(e) Discussion a plea of guilty which results in a finding of guilty See subsection (c)(1) and the accompanying Discussion concern- waives any speedy trial issue as to that offense. 905(e) and 907(b)(2).C.

C. 804 and 806. 809. and in what order. a witness be recalled. Military judge’s responsibilities. the manner in which voir dire (d) Uncharged offenses. See R. otherwise appropriate. R. 102.C. See also Mil.M. judge. Unless otherwise raised during the court-martial. contempt. the court-martial must not depart from established by the code and this Manual. (2) Subject to R. the order in which witnesses may testify (see R. The members or military judge may Discussion direct trial counsel to make an inquiry along certain lines to discover and produce additional evidence. and specified.C. 502(b)(2). within the framework 614. 913. See R.C. Other instructions (for example. The military judge may. 611). and when (1) Determine the time and uniform for each ses. The military properly present and support their contentions on any relevant judge is the presiding officer in a court-martial. and order in which the proceedings may take place.M. see Mil. instructions on the limited purpose for which evidence has been introduced. 504(d)(1). TRIAL PROCEDURE GENERALLY Rule 801. 905). R.C. If during the trial there is will be conducted and challenges made (see R. Thus. The parties are entitled to a reasonable opportunity to (a) Responsibilities of military judge. CHAPTER VIII.M. Discussion (4) Subject to subsection (e) of this rule. The court-martial may act See also R. (5) Instruct the members on questions of law and tary judge has the same authority and responsibility as a military procedure which may arise. For example. The military judge should consult with counsel concerning the R. Mil. 105) may be given whenever the need arises.M. Evid.C.M.M. The right of the members to have addi- flects the seriousness of the proceedings. the court-martial shall proceed 905. the court-martial. Discussion The military judge shall: The military judge instructs the members concerning findings ( see R. 919. or that a new witness be summoned. the president of a special court-martial without a mili. prescribe the manner an impartial role. 906(b)(11).C. exercise Discussion reasonable control over the proceedings to promote The members may request and the military judge may require that the purposes of these rules and this Manual.M.C. matter. 108. See also R. and promote the ascertainment of truth. preliminary instructions to sion of a court-martial. the military judge may determine: when.C. 1005). Discussion (c) Obtaining evidence. 920) and sentence (see R.C.C. and the time limits for argument (see R. tional evidence obtained is subject to an interlocu- tory ruling by the military judge. The military judge should prevent unnecessary waste of time II-74 . 1001(g)).M. with the trial of the offense charged. the members concerning their duties and the duties of other trial participants and other matters are normally appropriate.M. The military judge recesses or adjourns the court-martial as appropriate.M.M. exercise contempt power.M. See Discussion R. Courts-martial should be conducted to obtain evidence in addition to that presented by in an atmosphere which is conducive to calm and detached delib- eration and determination of the issues presented and which re- the parties. In taking such action. proceedings are maintained. (3) Subject to the code and this Manual. 913. the military judge may also determine (b) Rules of court. Evid. Evid. rule on The military judge is responsible for ensuring that court-martial all interlocutory questions and all questions of law proceedings are conducted in a fair and orderly manner. Sub- ject to R. promulgate and en- (2) Ensure that the dignity and decorum of the force rules of court.C. but must avoid undue other matters interference with the parties’ presentations or the appearance of partiality. The military judge the place of trial. motions will be litigated ( see R. or other evidence produced. the order in which the parties may argue on a tried offense not alleged in any specification before motion or objection.C. without unnecessary delay or waste of time or resources.M. 902(d) and evidence that the accused may be guilty of an un- 912). scheduling of sessions and the uniform to be worn. may: (1) Subject to R.M.C.

includ. When a ruling by the presi- for a finding of not guilty. is final ponderance of the evidence. R. If charges are preferred for an offense indicated by the the case except a previously granted motion for a evidence referred to in this subsection. in this Manual. including sessions at which questions (e) Interlocutory questions and questions of law. R. 912. and instructions. judge on any interlocutory question of fact. a military judge may examine an offered item of real martial without a military judge. Such sessions should be used to the extent court-martial shall be closed. the president of a special court-martial without does not include the president of a special court. at any time during the dent of a special court-martial without a military trial. judge in the case except a previously granted motion (B) Instructions. R. A tie vote on any (2) Ruling by the president of a special court- martial without a military judge. See also Mil. judge is subject to objection. (A) Determination. or documentary evidence before ruling on its admis- sibility without exposing it to other members.C.M. interlocutory question is final. 311. beginning with the junior in rank.M. When required by advise the members and shall give such instructions this Manual or otherwise deemed appropriate by the on the issue as may be necessary to enable the military judge. When a member objects to a ruling Discussion by the president of a special court-martial without a Sessions without members are appropriate for interlocutory ques. 321. expeditious progress of the vote orally. ruling on a matter. the president shall so (C) Article 39(a) sessions. See also Mil. other question is a determination in favor of the accused. and the members shall possible consistent with the orderly. the tions. court-martial and consult with other members before (B) Questions of fact. Any ruling by the presi- dent of a special court-martial without a military (D) Consultation. at all sessions of a special court-martial without a military judge. when such ruling is subject to the dent of a special court-martial without a military objection of any member. all members will be present instructing the members on evidence of uncharged misconduct. Evid. at any time during the trial. The military judge may court-martial without a military judge shall deter- change a ruling made by that or another military mine whether a ruling is subject to objection. Evid. or upon any are subject to objection by a member.M. 304. 105 concerning in R. finding of not guilty. (4) Standard of proof.C. interlocutory question shall be determined by a pre- or on a motion for a finding of not guilty. (A) Finality of rulings. (1) Rulings by the military judge. 801(e)(4) Discussion cial court-martial without a military judge may A report of the matter may be made to the convening authority change a ruling made by that or another president in after trial. special court-martial without a military judge which tion for a finding of not guilty. questions of law.C. unless otherwise stated unless objected to by a member. Any ruling by the mili. martial who participated in the first trial should sit in any later trial. Questions of fact in an ing a factual issue of mental capacity of the accused. the party II-75 . (C) Voting. interlocutory questions or questions members to understand the issue and the legal stand- of law shall be presented and decided at sessions ards by which they will determine it if objection is held without members under R. of law or interlocutory questions are litigated. made. the question shall be decided by a majority vote. and proceedings. Any ruling by the presi. (3) Procedures for rulings by the president of a tary judge upon a question of law.C. The president of a special (B) Changing a ruling. A tie vote on a motion for a finding of not guilty is a determination against the accused. Such a member would ordinarily be subject to a challenge (D) Presence of members. How- For purposes of this subsection “military judge” ever. 103. (A) Questions of law. In the absence of a rule in this (C) Changing a ruling. Manual assigning the burden of persuasion. no member of the court. 803. 505 and 912.M. See R. The president of a special judge on any question of law other than a motion for court-martial without a military judge may close the a finding of not guilty is final. including a mo. Except as provided for cause. military judge which is subject to objection. The president of a spe.

Mil. rulings by the president are subject to objection by any sion. For example. Evid. purely interlocutory if an accused raises a defense or objection and the disputed facts involved determine the ultimate question of Discussion guilt. A question may be both interlocutory and a question of law. 902 and 912. open session in the presence of the parties and the members. This distinction is important because the president of a objection. law. What “raises” an issue may vary with Interlocutory questions may be questions of fact or questions the issue. were given by an interrogator to a suspect under authority of this Manual. the legality of an order when disobedience of an order is charged. yond a reasonable doubt to permit a finding of guilty. 314(e)(5). 311(g)(2). the disputed facts must be resolved by each contention. and administrative matters such as declaring martial without a military judge. (The accused’s status of proof. The rules in this Manual and relevant deci. accused’s status as a military person may determine the ultimate the party making the objection. Evid.C. regardless of the burden of persuasion. see also R. All questions arising during trial except the question rulings and instructions shall be made or given in whether a challenge should be sustained. motion. 801(e)(4) making the motion or raising the objection shall bear which may determine the ultimate issue of guilt.C. only upon amenability to trial and the issue would be disposed of R. For example. If quired to furnish evidence or legal authority in support of the the motion is denied. when it appears that the motion or objection is vague. Evid. Questions which may good cause shown may grant relief from the waiver.M. Some issues may be raised by a timely motion or of law. (f) Rulings on record. 304(e). R. which re.C. 905 through 907) once solely as an interlocutory question.C. arrest. See. 311(e). or prior to any ex- would be a factual question.C. Evid. An interlocutory issue may have a different standard member in deliberation upon the findings. but be- evidence. 304(e).M. sentence. Challenges are specifically covered in Discussion R. guilty or does not include the president of a special court- not guilty). the question of the time set by this Manual or by the military judge what warnings. See R. the accused was charged with larceny and presented in this Manual. For purposes of Questions of law and interlocutory questions include all issues this subsection [R. the necessary inquiry into the pertinent facts and law. the trial. For example. question of guilt because status is an element of the offense. interlocutory questions of law. in which case they would be questions of fact. shall A question is interlocutory unless the ruling on it would constitute waiver thereof.M. the legality of restraint when there is a prosecution for breach of (g) Effect of failure to raise defenses or objections. however. On mixed questions of fact and issue is raised. as well as which side has the burden of persua. inapposite. as a servicemember would have to be proved by a preponderance quires consent for a search to be proved by clear and convincing of the evidence to uphold jurisdiction. on the Most of the common motions are discussed in specific rules other hand.) If. 801(f)] “military judge” which arise during trial other than the findings (that is. or request may be re.M. It is possible. for example. An issue may arise as both an interlocutory question and a question II-76 . legality of an act is normally a question of law. see R.R. tension thereof made by the military judge.C. if during a trial for desertion the accused moves to dismiss for lack or jurisdiction and presents some evi- A ruling on an interlocutory question should be preceded by any dence that the accused is not a member of an armed force. the same evidence as to military status. 808 and 1103 concerning preparation of the record of puted set of facts are normally questions of law.M. irrele- vant. for such ques- to make requests or motions which must be made at tions to be decided solely upon some factual issue. Mil. Others may not special court-martial without a military judge rules finally on be raised until the defense has made an offer of proof or pres. for example. See. of fact. determine the ultimate issue of guilt are not interlocutory. or spurious. offer of proof. the evidence would bear The prosecution usually bears the burden of persuasion (see Mil. Similarly.M. R. except as otherwise may be determined in Discussion the discretion of the military judge. but not on interlocutory questions ented evidence in support of its position. On interlocutory questions of fact the president of a R. but the military judge for finally decide whether the accused is guilty. 907. special court-martial without a military judge rules subject to the sions should be consulted when a question arises as to whether an objection of any other member. Mil. or the sufficiency of warnings before interrogation are Failure by a party to raise defenses or objections or normally questions of law. An issued is not the burden of persuasion. and the burden of persuasion is assigned therein. All sessions involving rulings or instructions made or given by the military judge (5) Scope. See. The military judge or president of a special court-martial member to the extent that the issue of fact can be isolated and may require a party to clarify a motion or objection or to make an considered separately. an issue has been raised. for example. recesses and adjournments. For example. Subsection (e) of this rule applies to or the president of a special court-martial without a the disposition of questions of law and interlocutory military judge shall be made a part of the record. if any. Questions of the applicability of a rule of law to an undis.

witness which. objection. or in special court-martial without a military No party may be compelled to resolve any matter at a conference.M. 410. Discussion The purpose of Article 39(a) is “to give statutory sanction to pretrial and other hearings without the presence of the members (b) Matters on record. a request for a ment and before action by the convening authority. does not include the president of a special court- No place or method is prescribed for conducting a confer. For purposes of this rule “military judge” A military judge may not participate in negotiations relating to pleas. 804 and 805. one or more conferences with the parties to consider such matters as will promote a fair and expeditious (e) Admission. hold the arraignment. Conferences need not be concerning those matters which are amenable to disposition on made part of the record. but matters agreed upon at either a tentative or final basis by the military judge. the military judge Normally the defense counsel may be presumed to speak for the may. and trial counsel. or defense counsel at a conference shall be used against the accused unless the admissions are re- Discussion duced to writing and signed by the accused and Conferences between the military judge and counsel may be held defense counsel. See R.M. in addition to routine or administrative matters. The purpose of such con- ference is to inform the military judge of anticipated issues and to (f) Limitations. Matters which will ultimately be in the Rule 803. after adjourn- done with the consent of the parties. All such sessions are a part of the trial and shall be solved at a conference. out the presence of members. Evid.M. and ordinarily should. which are likely to arise of charges. No party may be prevented dispose of interlocutory matters. This rule shall not be invoked in the expeditiously resolve matters on which the parties can agree. if litigated and approved at trial. including a subpoe- II-77 . judge. Failure of a party to object at trial to court-martial into session without members to ascertain the ac- cused’s understanding of the right to counsel. or when applicable. held before and after assembly of the court-martial. After referral. 901–910. R. if permitted is neither required nor prohibited at a conference. so that witnesses and members are not unneces- sarily inconvenienced. and enter findings of guilty upon an accepted plea of guilty. the right to request failure to comply with this subsection shall waive trial by military judge alone. and the accused’s choices with respect to these matters. however. when necessary before or during trial. or procedures when there are A military judge who has been detailed to the multiple accused may be resolved at a conference. court-martial may. such as admitting evidence. See subsection (b) below. bers. Conferences Discussion (a) In general.C. functions which do not require the presence of members. R. defense done by an agreement of the parties and not by a binding ruling counsel. Such a resolution must be included in the R. For example.C. after service such as unusual motions or objections. 803 Rule 802. hear objections and motions. rule upon other matters that may legally be ruled upon by the military under this rule from presenting evidence or from judge. A conference may be conducted by remote means or similar technology consistent with the definition in R. might be re. 705 and Mil. ence. seating members under Article 39(a) arrangements in the courtroom. or motion at trial. order accused. (c) Rights of parties. Such sessions may be Occasionally it may be appropriate to resolve certain issues. upon request of any party or sua sponte. for (d) Accused’s presence. if this can be and when authorized in these rules. call the in writing.” The mili- a conference shall be included in the record orally or tary judge and members may.C. by regulations of the Secretary concerned. The presence of the accused example. record. and perform other procedural making any argument.C. Court-martial sessions without military judge’s discretion.M. R. sel. not case of an accused who is not represented by coun- to litigate or decide contested issues. 914B. Conferences may be used to advise the military judge of issues or problems. such as conduct of voir dire. See. A conference may be appropriate in order to resolve schedul- ing difficulties.C. martial without a military judge. See subsection (c) below. and shall be made a part of the record. call the court-martial into session with- during trial. receive pleas. No admissions made by the accused trial. The military judge may. Note. enlisted mem- this requirement. in accordance with of the military judge. Evidence may be admitted and process. under Article 39(a). would delay the proceedings and cause expense or inconvenience. that this could only be conducted in the presence of the accused.M.

R. time. See also R. 803 na.C. Thus. that the accused should Article 39(a) authorizes sessions only after charges have be permitted to waive the right to be present only for good cause. There is no right to be absent. post-trial sessions. the accused’s behavior should be (whether or not informed by the military judge of of such a nature as to materially interfere with the conduct of the the obligation to remain during the trial). cused who was present when the trial recessed and who knew such as videoteleconferencing technology.M. attendance of the accused so substantial. The accused may expressly waive the right to be tempt. An accused who is in military custody or otherwise subject cle 39(a). Voluntariness may not be presumed.M. 703. 909.C. ogy may include two or more remote sites as long as Subsection (1) authorizes but does not require trial to pro- ceed in the absence of the accused upon the accused’s voluntary all parties can see and hear each other. For an absence from court-martial proceedings to be voluntary. Such alternatives include physical restraint disruptive conduct will cause the accused to be re.C. When an accused is absent from trial after arraignment. 809. if necessary. in the absence of evidence to the contrary. to any session and the consequences of foregoing it. depending on all progress of the trial to and including the return of the circumstances. Use of such audiovisual tech. but the accused and only after the military judge explains to the accused the right.M. For example.C. The further a continuance or a recess may be appropriate. but who none- the parties and the military judge for purposes of theless is not present when court reconvenes at the designated Article 39(a) sessions.M. Such alterna- which is such as to justify exclusion from the tives need not be tried before removing a disruptive accused courtroom. and the Government’s interest in the tion of evidence at such sessions. and the accused may be required to be present over objec. which can be an affront to the Discussion dignity and decorum of the proceedings. right to be present by being voluntarily absent after arraignment. See R. sentencing proceedings. determination of a Presence of the accused by remote means does not require the consent of the accused. the time of the plea. The accused shall be present absence unless the accused was aware that the court-martial at the arraignment. present is so fundamental. Removal may be preferable to such an alternative as binding and gagging. in time of peace. or proceedings. personal consent to proceeding without the accused. See R. (2) After being warned by the military judge that The military judge should consider alternatives to removal of a disruptive accused. is absent voluntarily. the military judge should— ever. it may be regulations of the Secretary concerned. and gagging) of the accused. 802 concerning conferences. the accused must have known of the scheduled proceedings and in- Rule 804. and properly be absent from the trial or proceeding without securing the permission of the military judge on the record. every stage would be held during the period of the absence.C. The right to be cused should be held or otherwise required to remain in the II-78 . 804 concerning waiver by the accused of the Voluntary absence.C. Trial may proceed without the pres- shall be considered to have waived the right to be ence of an accused who has disrupted the proceedings. For example. of the trial including sessions conducted under Arti. If authorized by the voluntary. In any case the accused may forfeit the right to be present. persists in conduct physically segregating the accused in the courtroom. under subsection (2). accused only when the accused has a defense coun. although an accused ser- proceedings vicemember might voluntarily be absent without authority. the military inferred. The prosecution has the burden to establish by a preponder- vided by this rule. In order to justify (1) Is voluntarily absent after arraignment removal from the proceedings.M. the ac- accused at trial by waiving the right to be present. See R. sentence shall not be prevented and the accused Removal for disruption. may be issued to compel attendance of witnesses and produc. been referred to trial and served on the accused. absence. an accused cannot frustrate efforts to identify the nity to consult throughout the proceedings. (c) Continued presence not required. or moved from the courtroom. Such technol. between when the proceedings were scheduled to resume. (A) Afford the accused and defense counsel ample opportu- tion. the findings and. how. To this end. When the accused is removed from the present at trial proceedings. Disruptive behavior of the accused may also constitute con- Express waiver. but it may be inferred. but only present whenever an accused. “Voluntary absence” means voluntary absence from trial. this would not justify proceeding with a court-martial in the accused’s (a) Presence required. shackling. See R. has an absolute right to object. the to military control at the time of trial or other proceeding may not return of the findings.M. courtroom for disruptive behavior. and secures the accused’s until the period prescribed by Article 35 has run. depending on the circumstances. voir dire and challenges of members. except as otherwise pro. (such as binding. initially present: after at least one warning by the military judge that such behavior may result in removal from the courtroom. Where there is some evidence that an accused who is absent nology will satisfy the “presence” requirement of the for a hearing or trial may lack mental capacity to stand trial. if any. that an ac- judge may order the use of audiovisual technology. ance of the evidence that the accused’s absence from trial is (b) Presence by remote means. be shown. Presence of the accused at trial tentionally missed them. capacity to voluntarily waive the right to be present for trial must sel physically present at his location.

such as videoteleconferencing may be used if deemed necessary by the military technology. as well as the obligation.M. requiring the presence of members may be con- ducted unless at least five members are present. in capital cases. the presence of the military judge at Article mission of the child’s testimony from the courtroom 39(a) sessions may be satisfied by the use of audio- to the accused’s location. emblems. The accused shall be properly except as provided in R.C. may be used for this purpose. if de- mission of the testimony will include a system that tailed.C. subject to R. such as closed-circuit at trial. (3) Effect on accused’s rights generally. and counsel (2) Procedure. contemporaneous communication with his counsel. The accused’s absence will be (a) Military judge. members. Physical restraint shall not be im- tion by the military judge that remote live testimony posed on the accused during open sessions of the of a child is appropriate pursuant to Mil.C. (3) Restraint. the accused’s commander shall render when an enlisted accused has requested enlisted such assistance as may be reasonably necessary to ensure that the accused is properly attired. examination of members under R.C. (d) Voluntary absence for limited purpose of child and subsection (c)(3) of this rule. tody or control of an accused before and during trial may be assigned. Responsibility for maintaining cus- (D) Ensure that the reasons for removal appear in the record. technological aids. No spe- wear the insignia of grade and may wear any deco- cial court-martial proceeding requiring the presence rations. 914A. 505 or 912(f).C. where attired in the uniform or dress prescribed by the 12 members are not reasonably available because of military judge. No general court-martial proceeding accordance with this rule. 912(d). An accused servicemember who refuses to present a television or audio transmissions.C. Evid. however. no proceeding requiring the presence of members may be conducted unless at least one-third II-79 . R. of cable to enable the accused to be informed about the proceedings. proper military appearance before a court-martial may be com- (C) Afford the accused a continuing opportunity to return to pelled to do so.M.C. or as otherwise provided in right to be present at the remainder of the trial in R. trans. solely.M. No court-martial proceeding. 503(a)(2). 912(h). (b) Members. Presence of military judge.M. The of members may be conducted unless at least three accused and defense counsel are responsible for en- members are present except as provided in R.C. 304 and 305. suring that the accused is properly attired. An elec- tion by the accused to be absent pursuant to subsec. Except as provided in R. 501(a)(1)(B). and offered the opportunity to remain upon good behavior. may take testimony from a remote location. 1102. This subsection recognizes the right. upon request. 611(d)(3). place in the absence of the military judge. the courtroom upon assurance of good behavior. 803. the accused may elect to voluntarily ab- sent himself from the courtroom in order to preclude Rule 805. detailed member except: Article 39(a) sessions under R. for purposes of Article 39(a) sessions courtroom from a remote location as well as trans. under such regula- testimony. when the member has been excused under tion (c)(1) shall not otherwise affect the accused’s R. (B) Take such additional steps as may be reasonably practi. (2) Custody. members. or (e) Appearance and security of accused. Normally.M. or ribbons to which entitled.M.C. ex- conditional upon his being able to view the witness’ cept the deliberations of the members. no court-mar- unless the accused has made a knowing and affirma. An accused servicemember shall physical conditions or military exigencies. A one-way transmission visual technology.M. tions as the Secretary concerned may prescribe. R. (1) Election by accused. the accused should be brought to the courtroom at appropriate inter- vals. the use of procedures described in R. To this end. The accused will also be provided private.M. Following a determina. at least 12 members are present (1) Appearance. and frequent recesses permitted to allow Discussion counsel to confer with the accused. court-martial unless prescribed by the military judge. 805(b) vicinity of the trial.M. If authorized by regulations of the Secretary will transmit the accused’s image and voice into the concerned. Unless trial is by military judge alone The procedures described herein shall be employed pursuant to a request by the accused. tial proceeding may take place in the absence of any tive waiver of these procedures.C. an accused servicemember to present a good military appearance Although not required. judge.M.

the basis fense should be adjudged without regard to any credit to which for the military judge’s belief that exclusion is nec- the accused may be entitled. 103(3) as to when a rehearing may be a capital case. for entering and exiting from the courtroom. evidence on the merits has begun in trial before (c) Counsel. such exigencies should not be manipulated to prevent attendance ranted and that the accused’s right to be adequately represented at a court-martial. servicemembers should be encouraged to or substitution of counsel. In order to maintain the no evidence has been presented. trial may not The fact that a trial is conducted with members does not proceed unless the testimony and evidence make it a public trial. There is no requirement that there actually be specta- dence on the merits has begun. thereof is read to the military judge. When. and the military judge ap- An assistant counsel who lacks the qualifications proves. and the means of access At a rehearing.C. 506(d) concerning the right attend courts-martial. This may (d) Effect of replacement of member or military include allocating a reasonable number of seats to members of the judge.C.C.R.M. At rule.M. however proceed in the absence of one or more defense ample. and establishing procedures (1) Members. special care must be taken to avoid arbitrary exclusion of specific groups or persons. under the circumstances. detailed under R.M. (a) In general. such as videoteleconferencing technology. such testimony and evidence. When after presentation of evi.C. the advised of the sentence limitation under this rule. military judge alone. 502(d)(6) and 505(d)(2) concerning withdrawal Although not required. See R. and that the exclusion is as narrowly tailored as possible.C. is read to the new member. other counsel for each under R. the military judge may reasonably limit Discussion the number of spectators in. The military judge attendance at courts-martial difficult or impracticable. This does not violate this rule. trial by military judge alone. When public access to a court-martial is limited for some reason. Except as otherwise provided in this gy. though only servicemembers are able to attend a court-martial.C.M. For least one qualified defense counsel shall be physi. and exclude specific persons from previously adjudged or approved. Because of the requirement for public trials. both the military and civilian communities. dignity and decorum of the proceedings or for other good cause. a continuance is not war. when a court-martial is conducted on a ship at sea or in a counsel. previously admitted on the merits. the courtroom. or the trial If authorized by regulations of the Secretary con. no court-martial proceeding should take place if be conducted in facilities which can accommodate a reasonable any defense or assistant defense counsel is absent unless the number of spectators.M. a new member is tors at a court-martial. if the military judge unit in a combat zone. See R. without the consent of the accused. military judge must make findings on the record 1005(e)(1). When excluding specific persons. press and to relatives of the accused. the trial proceeds as if (1) Control of spectators.M. See also subsection (b) below.C. The members should not be the courtroom.M.M. for purposes of Article 39(a) sessions solely. the trier of fact is not bound by the sentence to.C. and a verbatim necessary to serve as counsel for a party may not act record of the testimony and evidence or a stipulation at a session in the absence of such qualified counsel. As long as at least one qualified coun. 505(c)(2)(B).C. purposes of this rule. for ex- may. courts-martial shall be open to the public. cerned. of the accused to proceed without counsel. Public trial may be satisfied by the use of audiovisual technolo. essary. the presence of counsel at Article 39(a) sessions Rule 806. 504(d) concerning qualifications of counsel. An appropriate sentence on a retried or reheard of. the accused requests. proceeds as if no evidence had been presented. and in the absence of a stipulation as to (b) Control of spectators and closure. courts-martial must Ordinarily. finds that. See R. including lack of space. if recorded verba- tim. “public” includes members of cally present with the accused. Military exigencies may occasionally make accused expressly consents to the absence. a new military judge is detailed sel for each party is present. See R. 805(b) of the members actually sitting on the court-martial (2) Military judge. establishing the reason for the exclusion. 103(2) and R. II-80 . as. However. or.M. 505(e)(2) trial may not proceed unless party may be absent from a court-martial session. after the presentation of are enlisted persons. Discussion Discussion See R. The requirements of this rule may be met even would not be impaired. if not recorded verbatim.

M. and. The military judge may. R. area (see R. or from outside the immediate crowding or noise may justify limiting access to the courtroom. 505(i). 804 or reasonable alternatives to closure were considered by spectators when courtroom facilities are inade- and found inadequate. of publicity on the trial. Courts-martial shall be open to the proceedings from the courtroom shall not be permit- public unless (1) there is a substantial probability ted. and the public’s interest in. photographs—except for the purpose of preparing nesses. under some circumstances.C. including a thorough voir dire closed. Opening trials to protective order.M.C. exclusion must be read. 912). A protective order may proscribe extrajudicial statements by The accused may waive his right to a public trial. (2) closure is no broader video or audio transmission to permit viewing or than necessary to protect the overriding interest. likely effectiveness in ensuring an impartial court-martial panel. Prevention of over- recent arrivals in the command. and 513(e)(2). or watch any accounts concerning the case. as long as the exclusion is not so broad as to effectively include the president of a special court-martial with- bar everyone who might attend the sessions and is put into place out a military judge.M. may violate the accused’s right to a public trial. For example. Evid.M. Specific persons may be excluded when necessary to protect witnesses from harm or intimidation.M. A session may be closed over the objection of the accused or Discussion the public upon meeting the constitutional standard set forth in this Rule. See also Mil. upon request of any party or sua sponte.503(a)(3)). 806(d)). (3) hearing by an accused removed under R. Witnesses will ordinarily be excluded from the Video and audio recording and the taking of courtroom so that they cannot hear the testimony of other wit. A court-martial that present a substantial likelihood of material prej- session is “closed” when no member of the public is permitted to udice to a fair trial by impartial members. and (4) the military judge quate to accommodate a reasonable number of makes case-specific findings on the record justifying spectators. if necessary. If the reasons for issuing the order II-81 . issue an appro- Discussion priate protective order. Before issuing a public has a right in attending courts-martial. cluding specific persons. cumstances.M. a pretrial Article 39(a) The military judge must state on the record the reasons for issu- hearing at which the admissibility of a confession will be litigated ing the protective order. 806(d) Discussion may. or sequestering the members. A court-martial is not “closed” merely because the exclu- sion of certain individuals results in there being no spectators poses of this subsection. the proceedings are maintained and that the other rights and When such publicity may be a problem. to prevent parties The military judge is responsible for protecting both the accused’s and witnesses from making extrajudicial statements right to. a session may be limited. in accordance with this Rule. for the also be addressed by such a protective order. if unreasonable under the cir- harmful effects of publicity to dissipate (see R. 615. The fact counsel. The most likely reason for a defense request to close court. R. Access may be reduced when no other means is available to relieve a witness’ inability to testify due to embarrassment or extreme (c) Photography and broadcasting prohibited. See Mil. selecting members from achieve the purpose for which it is ordered. A military judge should not issue a protective order without first martial proceedings is to minimize the potentially adverse effect providing notice to the parties and an opportunity to be heard. under unusual circumstances. automatically justify closure. the record of trial—in the courtroom during the proceedings and radio or television broadcasting of (2) Closure. parties. “military judge” does not present.C.C. a session should be interests of the parties and society are protected. for a proper purpose. and witnesses that might divulge prejudicial mat- that the prosecution and defense jointly seek to have a session ter not of public record in the case. R. However. Public access to closed only as a last resort.906(b)(11)). (see R.C. Other appropriate matters may closed does not. as a matter of that an overriding interest will be prejudiced if the discretion permit contemporaneous closed-circuit proceedings remain open. specific persons excluded from the There are alternative means of protecting the proceedings courtroom. nervousness. 906(b)(1)). changing the place of trial (see Disruptive or distracting appearance or conduct may justify ex- R.M. issuing limited in time and scope to the minimum extent necessary to a protective order (see R. be closed. For pur- attend. and consider such an order’s process. a public trial. the military judge may.C. however. closure. (d) Protective orders. the military judge must consider whether other public scrutiny reduces the chance of arbitrary and capricious available remedies would effectively mitigate the adverse effects decisions and enhances public confidence in the court-martial that any publicity might create. even Alternatives that may occasionally be appropriate and are usually though other spectators remain. Whenever specific persons or preferable to closing a session include: directing members not to some members of the public are excluded. and. a continuance to allow the Exclusion of specific persons. listen to. 412(c). a session may be from harmful effects of publicity. in writing. Evid. in order to prevent disclosure to the public (and hence The military judge must ensure that the dignity and decorum of to potential members) of the very evidence that may be excluded.C.

C. preter in the trial of any case before a court-martial: “Do you (swear) (affirm) that in the case now in hearing you Discussion will interpret truly the testimony you are called upon to interpret (.R. the manner of recording it. “defense counsel. as appropriate. before the witness first testifies in a case: tions. before serving. Discussion Unless otherwise prescribed by the Secretary concerned the An affirmation is the same as an oath. to administer an oath.C.” the case now in hearing shall be the truth. is sufficient. the military judge administers the oath. will be administered to the members by the trial counsel: trial counsel. will be administered by the military shall prescribed: the form of the oath. Article 27(b)) these regulations may you God)?” provide for the administration of an oath on a one-time basis. the time and place of the judge: taking thereof. and See R. the military judge may reconsider the continued necessity of one other than a witness. Each witness before a court-mar. “Do you (swear) (affirm) that you will answer truthfully the associate defense counsel. “Oath” includes “affirmation. In those rare circumstances in which the trial counsel testifies as a witness. is not previously sworn the follow- Article 42(a) provides that regulations of the Secretary concerned ing oath. questions concerning whether you should serve as a member of reporter. or) upon the findings or sentence unless required to do so in due course of law (. The trial counsel or the summary (B) Witnesses. so help you God)?” (G) Oath for escort. and whether the oath “Do you (swear) (affirm) that you will faithfully perform all shall be taken for all cases in which the duties are to be per. certain duties. and that you will not speak to the II-82 . and escort shall take an oath to this court-martial. and the laws applica- ble to trial by court-martial.C. assistant trial counsel. the case of the accused now before rule.C. The trial counsel will administer the also R. so help you God)?” (B) Oath for members. 806(d) change.” stand.M.C. The military military judge of this court-martial (. perform their duties faithfully. the duties of (trial) (assistant trial) (defense)(associate defense) formed or in each case separately. nothing but the truth (. (F) Oath for witnesses. Any pro. as appropriate. or. “Do you (swear) (affirm) that you will faithfully perform the duties of reporter to this court-martial (. The escort on views or inspections by the court-martial will. “Do you (swear) (affirm) that you will escort the court- martial and will well and truly point out to them (the place in son to whom the oath is administered and which which the offense charged in this case is alleged to have been binds that person to speak the truth. “Do you (swear) (affirm) that the evidence you shall give in An accused making an unsworn statement is not a “witness. ble to trial by court-martial.” “associate defense counsel. Discussion Rule 807. The trial counsel or the summary ral of charges. properly to perform for a protective order. 1001(c)(2)(C). which will be administered by the trial counsel: cedure which appeals to the conscience of the per. so help you God)?” Discussion (C) Oaths for counsel.M. includ- ing any associate or assistant. that you will faithfully and impartially try. all the duties incumbent upon you as (A) Court-martial personnel. in the case committed) ( ). except in an affirmation forms below may be used. your conscience. as appropriate. so help you God)?” (E) Oath for interpreter. the trial counsel will administer the following oath to the military judge: (b) Oaths in courts-martial. See (D) Oath for reporter.M. Oaths When the oath is administered in a session to the military judge.” this court. so help personnel (Article 26(b). The following oath. take the following oath. 307 concerning the requirement for an oath in prefer. interpreter. and that you will not disclose or discover the vote or and “assistant defense counsel.” include detailed and opinion of any particular member of the court (upon a challenge individual military and civilian counsel. In the case of certified legal (assistant defense) counsel in the case now in hearing (. court-martial shall administer the following oath to every inter- tial shall be examined on oath. For purposes of this according to the evidence. 813 and 901 concerning the point in the proceedings following oath to every reporter of a court-martial who has not at which it is ordinarily determined whether the required oaths been previously sworn: have been taken or are then administered. When counsel for either side. the whole truth.M. See R. according to your conscience and the laws applica- (1) Who must be sworn. the words “so help you God” are omitted. or any counsel. judge. 405 and 702 concerning the court-martial will administer the following oath to each witness requirements for an oath in Article 32 investigations and deposi. When the military judge is not previously sworn. (A) Oath for military judge. members of a general or special court-martial. defense counsel. members. all persons in the courtroom should (a) Definition. assistant defense counsel. so help you God)?” See R.M. (2) Procedure for administering oaths. “Do you (swear) (affirm) that you will faithfully and impar- tially perform.

“Presence” includes those places outside shall also determine when during the court-martial the courtroom itself. include all The trial counsel of a general or special court. The military judge tempt which is committed in the presence of the court-martial or its immediate proximity. may be prosecuted in Federal civilian court under Article be recorded. R. such as waiting areas. whether inside or outside the courtroom. other places set aside for the use of the court-martial while it is in cept to describe (the place aforesaid) ( ) (. See should ensure that a qualified court reporter is detailed to the R.C. oaths. If the interruption is discovered paragraph 108. The military judge shall in all cases exceed confinement for 30 days or a fine of $100. 806. the record should be reconstructed as completely as possi. when an unseen person makes loud noises. In some cases it may be appropri- conduct discharge. deliberation room. but may be prosecuted as a use of videotapes. except the mili- tary judge. Part IV.M. See also Article 98. When the conduct apparently constituting contempt is not directly witnessed by the court-martial. and similar recordings for the re. 1103(j) as to the not punishable under Article 48. Persons subject to the notes. The punishment may not (c) Procedure. so help session. all proceedings. See subsection (b)(1) below. Persons not subject to military law having been duly subpoe- ments. including Discussion calling witnesses. the military judge should summarize or reconstruct A summary court-martial may punish for contempt.” determine whether to punish for contempt and. Because of the potential requirement for a verbatim Refusal to appear or to testify is not punishable under Article transcript. the trial counsel therein may result in removal or punishment for contempt. and rulings and instructions by the military judge. A person subject to the code who commits contempt may be tried by court-martial or otherwise disciplined for such miscon- Discussion duct in addition to or instead of punishment for contempt. Rule 808. Courts-martial may exercise con. Record of trial The words “any person. ex. which impede the orderly progress of the proceedings. ensure that a record which will meet the require. sign. The alleged offender shall be given a rea- sonable opportunity to present evidence.C.M. code may be punished under Article 134 for such offenses. 1305 concerning the record of trial in summary (1) Summary disposition.M. tuting contempt is directly witnessed by the court- See DD Forms 490 (Record of Trial). 809(c) members concerning (the alleged offense) ( ). Each contempt may be separately punished.C. argu. including sidebar conferences. ments of R. persons. cord of trial. or military commission may punish for contempt any person who uses any so advised. 1103 can be prepared. audiotapes. The military judge may order the offender removed whether or not Except in a special court-martial not authorized to adjudge a bad. A “direct” contempt may also be a con- See Article 136 concerning persons authorized to administer tempt not actually observed by the court-martial. that is. the alleged Rule 809. during trial. violation of Article 90 or 92. Contempt proceedings offender shall be brought before the court-martial (a) In general. contempt. members. See R. and 491–1 (Summarized Record of Trial-Article martial. (b) Method of disposition. for example. and foreign nationals outside the territorial martial shall take such action as may be necessary to limits of the United States who are not subject to the code. Article 48 makes punishable “direct” contempt. provost court. Violation of such orders is for later inclusion in the record.C. A “direct” contempt may be actually seen or heard by the you God)?” court-martial. should naed. The alleged offender shall have the right to be represented by counsel and shall be Article 48 provides: “A court-martial. 47 for neglect or refusal to appear or refusal to qualify as a Where there is recorder failure or loss of court reporter’s witness or to testify or to produce evidence. the conduct may be punished summarily. the portion of the proceedings which has not been recorded and then proceed anew and repeat the proceedings from the point where the interruption began.C. and informed orally or in writing of the alleged tempt power under Article 48.M. or who disturbs reasonable doubt before it may be punished. and the contempt proceedings shall be conducted. contempt proceedings are held.” as used in Article 48. in which case it may be punished summarily. or ate to warn a person whose conduct is improper that persistence forfeiture of pay for more than six months. See ble.M. if so.C. See subsection (b)(2) below. con- what the punishment shall be. See also R. court-martial. or both. 1103(f). 39(a) Session). When conduct consti- courts-martial.M. 491 (Summarized Record of Trial). its proceedings by any riot or disorder. See also R. The contempt must be proved beyond a menacing word. Trial counsel should also ensure that all exhibits The military judge may issue orders when appropriate to and other documents relating to the case are properly maintained ensure the orderly progress of the trial. whether or not subject to military law. (2) Disposition upon notice and hearing. or gesture in its presence. In such a case the procedures for punishing for contempt are more extensive. how- II-83 . 804. 48. confinement for more than six months.

which findings of guilty are based. If the person was an original trial except as otherwise provided in this held in contempt. R. if such a plea is found to be improvident. (e) Sentence. without reference to the Copies of this communication should be furnished to such other offenses being reheard on sentence only. The place of confine- fense of which the accused stands convicted but not ment for a civilian or military person who is held in sentenced may be established by any party whether contempt and is to be punished by confinement shall or not testimony so read is otherwise admissible be designated by the convening authority. the convening authority should be notified (B) Plea. Procedures for rehearings.C. rehearings which require findings on all charges and (d) Record. After find- persons including the immediate commander of the offender as ings on the merits are announced. The action of the convening author. 809(c) ever. merits or improperly admitted on the merits must not be brought to the attention of the members as a part of the original record of Discussion trial.R. whether or not such specifications are being tried for the first time or reheard. A sentence of confinement pursuant to a finding of contempt shall begin to run when it is (A) Contents of the record. The contents of the adjudged unless deferred. However. the procedure shall be the same as ing authority may approve or disapprove all or part in an original trial. new for the record and states that they were directly trials. in the case of a civilian. The conven. of the court-martial and of the action of the one or more specifications referred to the court-mar- convening authority upon the sentence. 1101. procedure which ordinarily occurs after challenges ity is not subject to further review or appeal. The immediate commander of the person held in contempt. The person ity ordering the rehearing. A record of the contempt specifications referred to a court-martial and in new proceedings shall be part of the record of the court. the rehearing shall be suspended and the matter reported to the author- (f) Informing person held in contempt. on sentence only. if the court-martial is composed of members. Otherwise. or disapproved record of the original trial consisting of evidence properly admitted on the merits relating to each of- by the convening authority. review. or other trials. and except as otherwise provided in this rule. proceedings outside the members’ presence. In of subsection (b)(2) shall apply. tial. tempt proceedings shall be prepared and forwarded (2) Rehearings on sentence only. the convening authority. if may be concerned with the execution of the punishment. (a) In general. held in contempt shall be informed by the convening authority in writing of the holding and sentence. or. rule. then a separate record of the con. ence of the court-martial. 804(b)(1) and whether or not it does not become effective until ordered executed by was given through an interpreter. A copy any. The accused at a rehearing only on immediately so that the necessary action on the sentence may be sentence may not withdraw any plea of guilty upon taken. shall be advised of the offenses on which the II-84 . When a rehearing on sentence is combined with a trial on the merits of any. The military judge may punish summarily under subsec- tion (b)(1) only if the military judge recites the facts Rule 810. A fine under Mil. See R. the procedure shall be the same as in martial during which it occurred. the provisions (1) Rehearings in full and new or other trials. and through and including the findings is omitted.M. shall be included with the record of both the trial and the con- the military judge shall conduct the contempt tempt proceeding.M. the members. except that the portion of the of the sentence. the trial will pro- Discussion ceed first on the merits. and other trials witnessed by the military judge in the actual pres. The military judge may de- lay announcing the sentence after a finding of con.C. In a rehearing to the convening authority for review. suspended. if (3) Combined rehearings. Evid. Discussion tempt to permit the person involved to continue to Matters excluded from the record of the original trial on the participate in the proceedings.

or higher authority following the previous trial or (2) Military judge. the trial counsel should be (e) Definition. Sentences at rehearings. “other trial” no sentence limitations apply if the original trial was invalid because a summary or spe- Discussion cial court-martial improperly tried an offense involv- ing a mandatory punishment or one otherwise See R. See R. An appropriate sentence on a retried or reheard of- (1) When permitted to do so by the military judge fense should be adjudged without regard to any credit to which after such matters have been received in evidence. the trier of fact is not bound by the sentence other trial. and any decision or review relating to the case. R. A tations set forth in R. 810(e) rehearing on sentence has been directed.M.C. II-85 . (c) Examination of record of former proceedings.M. The existence is combined with trial on new charges. (b) Composition. approved sentence in excess of or more severe than ber of the court-martial at any rehearing.M. 1003 for any new charges of which or new or other trial shall have the same right to request enlisted members or trial by military judge the accused has been found guilty. as well as invalid because of lack of jurisdiction or failure of a a statement of the reason for the rehearing. under R. charge to state an offense. The accused at a rehearing under R. otherwise provided in subsection (d)(2) of this rule. plus the total maximum punishment (3) Accused’s election. considered capital.C. The members should not be proceedings in the same case except: advised of the sentence limitation under this rule. new trial. In the case of an alone as the accused would have at an original trial. 103(2) and R. 902. the accused may be entitled. dence or other questions of law. the the record may be read to the members when neces- approved sentence resulting at a rehearing of the sary for them to consider a matter subject to objec- affected charges and specifications may include any tion by any member. or other trials shall be adjudged within the limi- trial.M.C. new trial. (1) In general.C. the sentence was approved in accordance errors committed at the former proceedings when with a pretrial agreement and at the rehearing the necessary to decide the admissibility of offered evi- accused fails to comply with the pretrial agreement. the maxi- or absence of a request for trial by military judge mum punishment that may be approved by the con- alone at a previous hearing shall have no effect on vening authority shall be the maximum punishment the composition of a court-martial on rehearing. new tri- tencing procedure shall be the same as at an original als.M. 801(e)(2). hearing. and such a part of by failing to enter a plea of guilty or otherwise. 1003 for the offenses being reheard as limited above. unless the sentence prescribed for the of- ing may be the same military judge who presided fense is mandatory. offenses on which a rehearing. accompanying docu.M. examine the record of any former previously adjudged or approved. The military judge at a rehear.M. “Other trial” means another trial of a provided a record of the former proceedings.C. after the earlier court- the record of former proceedings which relates to martial. No member of the court-martial trial has been ordered shall not be the basis for an which previously heard the case may sit as a mem. Except as single sentence shall be adjudged for all offenses. or other (1) Members. the sentence ultimately approved by the convening or other trial of the same case. otherwise lawful punishment not in excess of or Discussion more serious than lawfully adjudged at the earlier court-martial. except as otherwise provided in this rule.M.M.C. or 103(3) as to when a rehearing may be a capital case. Additional (d) Sentence limitations. When a rehearing or sentencing over a previous trial of the same case. (2) That the president of a special court-martial without a military judge may examine that part of (2) Pretrial agreement.C.C. and the sen. 903. case in which the original proceedings were declared ments. Discussion No member may.C. upon a rehearing or upon a new or At a rehearing. See R. 1005(e)(1). challenges for cause may be permitted. If. See R. 1003. When a rehearing is ordered.

The military judge been accepted a party may withdraw from it only if should also refuse to accept a stipulation which is unclear or permitted to do so in the discretion of the military ambiguous. in R.M. the stipulation must be disregarded by the evidence. but shall not be charged offense does not practically amount to a confession if the defense contests an issue going to guilt which is not foreclosed by presented to them. Thus. the opposing party may be entitled to a continuance to obtain proof of the matters which were to have been stipulated. consents to the stipulation. every element of a charged offense shall be presented to the military judge and shall be and when the defense does not present evidence to contest any included in the record whether accepted or not. stipulation. that is. the military judge must be satisfied that court-martial. presented to them. Once accepted. or explained in the same way that the stipulation will not be accepted without the accused’s as if the witness had actually so testified or the consent. before accepting any stipulation the military judge or ordered stricken from the record. 811 Rule 811. and (B) from the accused and counsel for each party the indicated testimony or document’s contents. The fact that the stipulation. or both. The Military Rules of Evi- agreements are. what the terms of such testimony or document. and an instruction to that effect should be given. were presented on the issue. the military judge should not accept a stipulation if there may not then be accepted. if so. if any. Stipulations elements of a charged offense. testimony or of a document’s contents may be at- cused that the accused understands the right not to stipulate and tacked. See also R.R. dence apply to the contents of stipulations. if a plea of not guilty is outstanding. every element of a shall be read to the members.C. martial and may not be contradicted by the parties If the stipulation practically amounts to a confession to an thereto. The parties may make an oral or If. a written stipulation of fact or of the stipulation. contradicted. a stipulation of should inquire to ensure that the accused understands the right not fact that has been accepted is binding on the court- to stipulate. the If a party withdraws from an agreement to stipulate or from a parties may be entitled to a continuance. See (b) Authority to reject. during an inquiry into a confessional stipulation the mili- written stipulation to any fact.M. directly (f) Procedure. when it establishes. understands the stipulation.M. before or after it has been accepted. defense to any offense charged should not be accepted nor. the military judge should conduct an inquiry as described above. (a) In general. a stipulation which accepted. The contends of a stipulation of expected offense to which a not guilty plea is outstanding. an normally practically amount to a confession if no other evidence oral stipulation shall be announced to the members. Once potential remaining issue of the merits. nor whether there are any agreements between the parties in connec. decline to accept a stipulation. except as described in the discussion under subsection (c) of this rule. A stipulation of fact which amounts to a complete judge. 705. that the accused understands the contents and effect of document had been actually admitted. a stipulation of fact that contraband a document’s contents may be read to the members. the parties consent to its admission. the interest of justice. that a factual basis exists for the stipulation. Before accepting a stipulation in If a party is permitted to withdraw from a stipulation previously accepted. and. A stipulation practically amounts to a confession when it is the equivalent of a guilty plea. after consulting with counsel. the military document. If a stipulation is rejected. should one which practically Discussion amounts to a confession. 910(f). but would not if the defense pres- if any. a written stipulation of expected testimony tends to establish. When offered. After a stipulation has is any doubt of the accused’s or any other party’s understanding of the nature and effect of the stipulation. Discussion (e) Effect of stipulation. Unless properly withdrawn Ordinarily. A party may withdraw from an Discussion agreement to stipulate or from a stipulation at any Although the decision to stipulate should ordinarily be left to the time before a stipulation is accepted. it may not be accepted unless the military judge ascertains: (A) from the ac. the stipulation parties. The military judge may. and consents to it. does it add anything to the evidentiary nature of the tion with the stipulation.C. (c) Requirements. Whenever a stipulation establishes the II-86 . judge must conduct an inquiry into the pretrial agreement. drugs were discovered in a vehicle owned by the accused would if any. by reasonable inference. For example.C. or the expected testimony of a witness. ented evidence to show that the accused was unaware of the presence of the drugs. and the parties so stipulated does not admit the truth of that the accused. a written stipulation or by reasonable inference. the contents of a tary judge discovers that there is a pretrial agreement. (d) Withdrawal.

if one co-accused elects to be tried by a court-martial (8) The name and rank (if any) of any detailed composed of officers. sure the record reflects the change and the reason for it. Announcing personnel of the previously absent or through the absence of person- court-martial and accused nel previously present. and a third submits a request for trial by military judge alone.M. make challenges for cause. by separately.M. In such martial closed. Thus. Discussion (2) The name. are absent. called to order after a recess or adjournment or after In a joint or common trial. See R. if charges for joint or common trials. R. or at the time the court- accused who did not join it.C. and sary. 906(b)(9) concerning motions to sever and (4) The names and ranks of the members. and unit or address of the accused. the stipulation does not apply to those the adjournment or recess. if any. other appropriate motions in joint or common trials. 601(e)(3) concerning referral of (3) The name and rank of the military judge. See also Mil. whether to testify. See R. by separate counsel. the military judge shall en- (a) Opening sessions. when necessary. (7) The names and ranks (if any) of counsel who approved) as to court-martial composition a severance is neces. if an enlisted accused. are present. if a military judge has been detailed.C. which the court-martial is convened. Joint and common trials led to order for the first time in a case. and absences of person- respect to whom it is accepted. judge alone. which request is approved. make peremptory (5) The names and ranks of members who are challenges (see R. the military judge against only one or some of the joint or several accused may be considered only against the accused concerned. request that the member- ship of the court include enlisted persons. instances the members must be instructed that the stipulation or evidence may be considered only with respect to the accused with (c) Additions. if presence of members is required.C.M. shall ensure that the record reflects whether all par- when a stipulation is accepted which was made by only one or ties and members who were present at the time of some of the accused. II-87 . 307(c)(5) concerning preparing charges and specifica- tions for joint trials. either through the appearance of new personnel or personnel Rule 813. In a joint or common trial. Whenever there is a replacement of the military judge. the military In joint trials and in common trials. Evid. When the court-martial is cal.C. including any amendment. three separate (b) Later proceedings. elect absent. bers be detailed to the court. each accused may be represented who are present. introduce evidence. and the distinction between one has been detailed. each accused judge shall ensure that the following is announced: shall be accorded the rights and privileges as if tried (1) The order. (6) The names and ranks (if any) of counsel who and. any member. nel. 306. Where different elections are made (and. request trial by military are present. rank.M.M. R. For example. 813(c) Rule 812. cross-examine witnesses. and a second requests that enlisted mem- court reporter. or counsel.C. When the court-martial is trials must be conducted. See R. 912). replacement. evidence which is admissible it has been closed for any reason. the two.

and given the opportunity to decide been reduced to writing. See R. the military judge so declares. resented by military counsel detailed to the defense. Failure to the matter and take appropriate action. counsel. the military judge shall decide are excluded. If any defense counsel is disqualified. If it appears that any counsel may be disqualified. error must be tested for prejudice. The military judge shall. the accused should be so informed If the orders detailing the military judge and counsel have not by the military judge. to order. (1) Trial counsel. 505(d)(2) and 506(c). convening whether any member of the defense has acted in any order. either alone or in asso- II-88 . If not sworn.M. 502(d) concerning qualifica- (b) Announcement of parties. such is present. if the disqualification is not waivable or if the accused elects not to waive the disqualification.C. (2) Defense counsel. reporter or interpreter. and the procedures in this subsection should be repeated. Any defense counsel not detailed shall state that Article 35 provides that in time of peace. If the membership of the prosecution or defense changes at any time during the proceedings. See R. if any. the procedures in this subsection should be repeated as to the new counsel. The period is three days for a special court-martial. If any counsel is disqualified. TRIAL PROCEDURES THROUGH FINDINGS Rule 901. the accused should be so informed. or by individual military counsel requested by the nounce the legal qualifications and status as to oaths accused. and any amending orders before calling the initial session manner which might tend to disqualify that counsel. and by civilian counsel. If it appears that any counsel these periods. shall be sworn. If a reporter or interpreter is replaced at any time during trial. Opening session member of the prosecution has acted in any manner (a) Call to order. Discussion If the disqualification of trial or defense counsel is one which the accused may waive. this should be noted for the record. if such military counsel is reasonably avail- of the members of the prosecution and whether any able. the accused should be informed of the choices available and given the opportunity to (c) Swearing reporter and interpreter. and whether that including Article 39(a) sessions. formed. the trial counsel shall disqualified counsel or any break in representation of the accused. In computing (3) Disqualification.C. counsel’s legal qualifications.M. the reporter and interpreter. the presence or absence of the tary judge should conduct an inquiry or hearing. If any detailed parties. The trial counsel shall an. In the case of defense is required. Counsel may be disqualified because of lack of necessary qualifi- cations. 503(b) and (c).C. After the court-martial tions of counsel. may be conducted over the ac. Holidays and Sundays are not excluded. In addition. The detailed defense counsel shall announce the legal qualifications and status as Discussion to oaths of the detailed members of the defense and The military judge should examine the charge sheet.M.C. 807 concerning the oath to be administered to a court to a change of defense counsel. the date of service and the date of the proceedings may be disqualified. (4) Inquiry. and members shall be counsel is disqualified. or because of duties or actions which are inconsistent with the role of counsel. counsel has acted in any manner which might tend cused’s objection until five days have elapsed from the service of to disqualify the counsel. the mili- is called to order. if any Disqualification of counsel is not a jurisdictional defect. CHAPTER IX. no proceedings. an oral announcement of such detailing whether to waive the disqualification. announce whether the reporter and interpreter. exercise such options. the military judge should en- sonnel have been accounted for as required in sub- sure that the accused is not prejudiced by any actions of the section (b) of this rule. charges on the accused in the case of a general court-martial.M. After the per. the military Discussion judge should ascertain on the record whether the accused objects See R. object waives the right to the waiting period. have been properly sworn. in open session: (A) Inform the accused of the rights to be rep- (d) Counsel. See R. but if it appears that the waiting period has not elapsed. the military judge should Discussion bring this to the attention of the defense and secure an affirmative waiver on the record. A court-martial is in session when which might tend to disqualify that counsel. the appropriate authority should be in- announced. military judge.

that could be sub- stantially affected by the outcome of the proceeding. the accused may request re. (5) Unsworn counsel. Disqualification of military judge is provided at no expense to the United States. the procedures de. because the military judge is not qualified under and ascertain the accused’s choice of counsel. (2) Where the military judge has acted as coun- ated in the practice of law. person: (A) Is a party to the proceeding. counsel should inform the military judge of the spouse.C. If the accused elects to waive (5) Where the military judge.M.C. R. 904 when authorized by the Secretary concerned.C. or herself in any proceeding in which that military tention of detailed counsel as associate counsel.M. which request may be granted or denied in the sole (b) Specific grounds. 803.M. 503(b). Unless it appears (3) Where the military judge has been or will be that there is good cause to believe no conflict of a witness in the same case. if such civilian counsel Rule 902. charged or in the same case generally. and make a reasonable effort to inform himself tary judge has been detailed. the military judge shall warded charges in the case with a personal recom- take appropriate measures to protect each accused’s mendation as to disposition. (4) Where the military judge is not eligible to act advise the accused of the right to effective assistance of counsel.C. has for- interest is likely to arise. except in the right to counsel. In cases in which a mili. Discussion A military judge should inform himself or herself about his or her (e) Presence of members. has expressed an Discussion opinion concerning the guilt or innocence of the Whenever it appears that any defense counsel may face a conflict accused. (a) In general. of this rule. 807. financial interests. 902(c) ciation with military counsel. staff judge representation and shall personally advise each ac. including separate representation. scribed in R. 502(c) or not detailed under R.C. or convening authority as to any offense cused of the right to effective assistance of counsel. legal officer. When defense R. financial or otherwise. advocate. 901 through 903. (E) Ascertain from the accused by whom the (B) Is known by the military judge to have an accused chooses to be represented.M. the military judge’s such conflict. proceeding. The military judge shall ad- or minister the oath to any counsel not sworn. is the accuser. A military judge shall also dis- discretion of the authority who detailed the counsel. or herself about the financial interests of his or her spouse and minor children living in his or her household. or a person within the third degree of rela- matter at an Article 39(a) session so that an appropriate record tionship to either of them or a spouse of such can be made. ian counsel. judge’s impartiality might reasonably be questioned.M. the military judge should inquire into the matter. (C) Is to the military judge’s knowledge likely Discussion to be a material witness in the proceeding. if afforded indi. a military judge shall disqualify himself vidual military counsel. Except as provided in subsection (e) (B) Inform the accused that.C. with respect to such joint sel. and performance of duties as military judge in a previous trial of the same or a related case. See R. investigating officer. qualify himself or herself in the following (C) Ascertain from the accused whether the ac. (1) Where the military judge has a personal bias (D) Promptly inquire. whenever two or more or prejudice concerning a party or personal knowl- accused in a joint or common trial are represented edge of disputed evidentiary facts concerning the by the same detailed or individual military or civil. or by civilian counsel who are associ. following words or phrases shall have the meaning indicated— II-89 . For the purposes of this rule the present in accordance with R.M. circumstances: cused understands these rights. and 905 through 910 shall be conducted without members (c) Definitions. counsel should discuss the matter with the accused. or. interest. of interest. counsel is aware of a potential conflict of interest.

grounds for disqualification in this rule exist in each case. listed accused elects to be tried by a court-martial including enlisted members. thereby. waiver may be (2) The “degree of relationship” is calculated ac. discovered. tary judge decides the matter. The military judge may. military judge should broadly construe grounds for challenge but the military judge shall ascertain. trial. and nieces. Before the end of the initial Article 39(a) session or. composition of court-martial grandchildren. on the record of the basis for disqualification. Upon notice of judge is disqualified. before assembly. nephews. (3) Except as provided under subsection (e) of (c) Action on election. preventing the proceedings (2) Request for trial by military judge alone. permit the accused to defer party or sua sponte. (b) Form of election. accepted provided it is preceded by a full disclosure cording to the civil law system. (1) Request for enlisted members. uncles. whether in a noncapital case. There is no peremptory challenge against a military judge. grandparents. courts-martial in which no military judge has been detailed. Trial by military judge alone is not military judge and to present evidence regarding a permitted in capital cases (see R. for example. aunts. upon motion of any as a matter of discretion. 503 or prepare a detailed written statement disqualification enumerated in subsection (b) of this explaining why physical conditions or military exi- II-90 . great grandchildren. the military of a special court-martial without a military judge. parents. as applicable. assembly. in the absence (3) “Military judge” does not include the president of such a session. the military judge shall recuse a timely request for enlisted members by an enlisted himself or herself. great (a) Time of elections. which time may be determined by the Discussion military judge. A (2) Request for trial by military judge alone. or other stages of litigation. should not step down from a case unnecessarily. 201(f)(1)(C)) or in special possible ground for disqualification before the mili. writing and signed by the accused or shall be made orally on the record. before assembly. accused or shall be made orally on the record. Discussion Only an enlisted accused may request that enlisted members be (2) Each party shall be permitted to question the detailed to a court-martial. decide whether the military requesting enlisted members until any time before judge is disqualified. rule. the convening authority shall detail enlisted (e) Waiver. 902(c)(1) (1) “Proceeding” includes pretrial. or. and argument on the subject so as to ensure that only matters listed persons shall be in writing and signed by the material to the central issue of the military judge’s possible dis. sisters. Where the ground for disqualification arises appellate review.M. They may be raised at any time. judge shall ascertain. the accused requests Possible grounds for disqualification should be raised at the trial by the military judge alone. A from becoming a forum for unfounded opinion. qualification are considered. and an earlier adverse ruling does not bar later consideration of defer requesting trial by military judge alone until the same issue. if the military judge rules that the military (1) Request for enlisted members. No military judge shall accept from the members to the court-martial in accordance with parties to the proceeding a waiver of any ground for R. Accused’s elections on Relatives within the third degree of relationship are children. whether an en- (d) Procedure. accused.R. as applicable.M. A request for Nothing in this rule prohibits the military judge from reasonably the membership of the court-martial to include en- limiting the presentation of evidence. when additional evidence is any time before assembly. this rule. military judge should carefully consider whether any of the Before the end of the initial Article 39(a) session. speculation or request for trial by military judge alone shall be in innuendo.C. brothers.M. The in the absence of such a session. Discussion (1) Request for enlisted members. The accused may earliest reasonable opportunity. post-trial. (1) The military judge shall. only under subsection (a) of this rule. as.C.C. Discussion Rule 903. the scope of questioning. grandparents.

A timely request for trial by military judge alone should be granted unless there is substantial reason why. Discussion In exercising discretion whether to approve an untimely request (B) Approve or disapprove the request.C. in the absence of such a made before a plea is entered. where such knowledge and understanding other- wise appear on the record. The accused may not be arraigned at a conference under R. session. Once the accused has been arraigned. or inconvenience which would result Discussion from granting the request. beginning of the introduction of evidence on the DD Form 1722 (Request for Trial Before Military Judge merits. R.16. Rule 904. the entry of pleas is not part of the arraignment. See R. this rule) unless these elections are not available to the accused.C. in the interest of justice. or (2) Request for military judge alone. In the absence of a request for enlisted Arraignment shall be conducted in a court-martial members or a request for trial by military judge session and shall consist of reading the charges and alone. cused to plead. of tactics or results from a substantial change of circumstances) against any expense. if a written request is used. the military judge should inquire plead. 904 gencies prevented this. A request for enlisted against that accused may be referred to that court-martial for trial with the previously referred charges. 601(e)(2). or failure Discussion to withdraw a request for enlisted members or trial Ordinarily the military judge should inquire personally of the by military judge alone in a timely manner shall accused to ensure that the accused’s waiver of the right to trial by waive the right to submit or to withdraw such a members is knowing and understanding. if there is a change of the mili- ceipt of a timely request for trial by military judge tary judge. members may be withdrawn by the accused as a The defense should be asked whether it has any motions to matter of right any time before the end of the initial make before pleas are entered. “military judge” tary judge may hear arguments from counsel before acting on the does not include the president of a special court- request. delay. however. before assembly. in the or withdrawal of a request. the military judge may until the error. the arraignment should be conducted at an Article 39(a) session when a military judge has been detailed. (f) Scope. approve an un- Alone (Art. of the identity of the military judge and of the right to trial by members. The trial of the general issue judge alone may be withdrawn by the accused as a shall not proceed until this is done.M. However. or. of requesting trial by military judge alone under this rule. The accused may waive the reading.M. no additional charges (1) Enlisted members. (d) Right to withdraw request. Discussion Discussion Ordinarily if no request for enlisted members or trial by military Arraignment is complete when the accused is called upon to judge alone is submitted. Failure to do so is not request. UCMJ)) should normally be used for the purpose timely request or withdrawal of a request. Failure to request. the military judge should balance the reason for the request (for example. (2) Military judge.C.C. whether such a request will be made ( see subsection (a)(1) of When authorized by regulations of the Secretary concerned. Upon re. See R. Arraignment (3) Other. whether it is a mere change military judge’s discretion.M. For purposes of this rule. A request for trial by military II-91 . of record. The basis for denial of a request must be made a matter martial without a military judge. and (e) Untimely requests. trial shall be by a court-martial composed of specifications to the accused and calling on the ac- officers.M. The mili. the military judge should not sit as factfinder. Some motions ordinarily must be Article 39(a) session. alone the military judge shall: Discussion (A) Ascertain whether the accused has con- sulted with defense counsel and has been informed Withdrawal of a request for enlisted members or trial by military judge alone should be shown in the record. 802. matter of right any time before it is approved. 905(b). as a matter of discretion. even after approval.

R.C. 907). 311(e). Questions concerning the admissibility of evidence (B) In the case of a motion to dismiss for lack on other grounds may be raised by objection at trial or by mo. Such nonjurisdictional defects include unsworn charges. ity of confessions and admissions. objections shall be resolved by the military judge at any time during the pendency of the proceedings). (3) Motions to suppress evidence. A motion is an application to the military judge for particular relief. 917). Discussion See. or referral of charges. subsection (c)(2)(B) of this rule.C.C. 104(a) concerning the applicability of the Mili- show jurisdiction or to charge an offense. which tary Rules of Evidence to certain preliminary questions. (b) Pretrial motions. 906(b)(3). ing. upon which it is made and shall set forth the ruling or relief sought. Motions may be motions to suppress [(see R.M. objection. or motions for appropriate relief (see R. investigation. A motion shall state the grounds for production of witnesses or evidence.M.C.C. written.M. 906). shall control. Discussion (c) Burden of proof. R. 703. 905(b)(3))]. resolution of which is necessary to decide a motion shall be by a preponderance of the evidence. Motions may be oral or. R. 906(b)(13). the burden of proof on any factual issue the R. Evid.R. and 321(d) for provisions spe- Mil. and inadequate pretrial advice. (2) Defenses or objections based on defects in the Discussion charges and specifications (other than any failure to See Mil. See Manual. 401–407. and eyewitness identification. or re- (6) Objections based on denial of request for indi- quest which is capable of determination without the vidual military counsel or for retention of detailed trial of the general issue of guilt may be raised defense counsel when individual military counsel before trial. 304(d).M. respectively. 601–604.C. 701 or judge. Motions generally tions in limine. Any defense. 307.M. R. 311(d). for example. (2) Assignment. Unless otherwise provided in this quate Article 32 investigation. or motions for findings of not guilty (see Discussion R. Evid. cifically assigning the burden of proof.M.M. Discussion (A) Except as otherwise provided in this Man- ual the burden of persuasion on any factual issue the See R. R. See R. inade- (1) Standard. See also R.M. Evid.C.C. plea is entered: (1) Defenses or objections based on defects (other Discussion than jurisdictional defects) in the preferral.C.M. denial of the right to speedy trial II-92 . 104(a) and (c).C. evidence obtained from unlaw- ful searches and seizures. 908 Discussion and Mil. 812. See R. 1001(e).C. 905 Rule 905.C. resolution of which is necessary to decide a motion shall be on the moving party. 307.C. 506(b).M.M. of jurisdiction.M. Mil. Evid. The following must be raised before a has been granted. not its Discussion form or designation. See R. The substance of a motion. motions to dis- miss (see R. at the discretion of the military (4) Motions for discovery under R. 906(b)(2). 304(e). forward. 906(b)(9) and (10). and 321(c) deal with the admissibil. (a) Definitions and form. 103(c).M. Discussion (5) Motions for severance of charges or accused.

M. 60 (C. A final determination in one case may be the basis for a made by the military judge. or objections. unless other. Different entered unless. such as a United States court. except that.C. 910(j) concerning matters waived by a plea of Government under other rules. 1209. if otherwise not prohibited by this standards may apply depending on the nature of the ruling. Where factual issues issue and finally determined by a court-martial. reconsider any ruling.M. See R. Except for a ruling which is. or appellate court. R. motion to dismiss or a motion for appropriate relief in another case. But see Article 3(b). 905(g) under R.C. ex. or appellate court which had judge shall state the essential findings on the record. failure to do so shall The determination must have been made by a court-martial. prior to authentica.C. 707. See R. See also R. but no such determina- tion shall be deferred if a party’s right to review or (g) Effect of final determinations.M. Whether a matter has been finally Failure by a party to raise defenses or objections or determined in another judicial proceeding with jurisdiction to to make motions or requests which must be made decide it. 29 M. the court-martial should adjourn and a same transaction as those charged at the court-mar- record of the proceedings should be prepared for the convening tial at which the determination was made. or the running of the statute of Discussion limitations. 907(b)(2)(C). See also R.C. jurisdiction to determine the matter may not be dis- puted by the United States in any other court-martial Discussion of the same accused. Scaff. A pretrial determination by a convening authority is not a final determination under this rule. The promulgating orders should reflect the action finally determined in any other judicial proceeding taken by the court-martial on each charge and specification.C. except when the offenses charged at the second sponte.M.M.M.M. incorrect determination of law. conviction.C. defenses. A motion made before pleas sentence. Federal governmental unit were parties. This rule also in the normal manner as long as one or more charges and specifi.M.A. It does not matter whether the earlier proceeding ended in an acquittal. are involved in determining a motion. tion is final. in.C. the burden of persuasion shall be upon Subsection (f) permits the military judge to reconsider any ruling the prosecution. R. other than one amounting to a finding of not guilty. trial may proceed may be disputed by the United States. that affects the legal sufficiency of any finding of guilt or the (d) Ruling on motions. 1989). See Article 76. shall apply to matters which were put in issue and cations remain. accused is not bound in a court-martial by rulings in another martial is adjourned for that case and. that determination be deferred until trial of the gen- eral issue or after findings. a ruling ordinarily is not final until action on the cept lack of jurisdiction or failure of a charge to court-martial is completed. On request of any party or sua erroneous. 202. court-martial. Discussion although some decisions by a convening authority may bind the See also R. See R. a determi- authority. requests.C. R. as long as the determina- good cause shown may grant relief from the waiver. must be raised before the court. rule shall constitute waiver. 1102 concerning procedures for post-trial reconsideration. or amounts to. The nature of the earlier II-93 . The military judge for 801(e).J. See R. See Manual. for example.C. Any matter put in appeal is adversely affected. 704.M.C. the military judge for good cause orders United States v. or otherwise. reviewing authority. the military judge may. in which the accused and the United States or a cluding any which were dismissed by the military judge on a motion. depending on the circumstances. and whether such determination binds the United States before pleas are entered under subsection (b) of this in another proceeding are interlocutory questions. 604.M. the military reviewing authority. 908(b)(4) regarding automatic stay of cer- nation of law and the application of law to the facts tain rulings and orders subject to appeal under that rule. Discussion (e) Effect of failure to raise defenses or objections. guilty. 705. Notwith- standing the dismissal of some specifications.M. a finding Other motions. See.M. when the offenses When trial cannot proceed further as the result of dismissal or charged at one court-martial did not arise out of the other rulings on motions. 1114.C. The allege an offense. 917(d) for the standard to be used to deter- are entered shall be determined before pleas are mine the legal sufficiency of evidence. body. or by another judicial constitute waiver. The United States is bound by a final determination by a court of competent jurisdiction even if the earlier determination is (f) Reconsideration. proceeding arose out of a different transaction from those charged at the first and the ruling at the first proceeding was based on an tion of the record of trial.C. R. of not guilty.M. 601. wise provided in this Manual.

in any event. The acquittal of the accused in Federal district court judge shall excise portions of the statement contain- would bar conviction of the accused in the court-martial. 202. the earlier dismissal would be grounds for dismissing the same charge and Discussion specification. upon a showing of reasonable cause. and appropriate they may be supported by affidavits.C.C. At a sion. See R. 914 accused was 18 at the time of enlistment) this would not require shall apply at a hearing on a motion to suppress dismissal in the second court-martial for a different offense. which may be resolved upon motion without trial of Examples: the general issue of guilt may be submitted by a (1) The military judge dismissed a charge for lack of per- sonal jurisdiction. also R. military judge. Submission of such matter to the convening second court-martial of the same accused for a different offense. if the first case had (b) Grounds for appropriate relief. Such motions may be disposed of before arraignment and without a session. the military judge ex. ing party. however. R. any matters other proceedings. the (1) Continuances. if a request to retain detailed counsel was denied tary judge. required.M. At a second court-martial for an unre. the (j) Application to convening authority. (4) At a court-martial for absence without authority.M. and is. The following become final. but would not bar further proceedings on a new The military judge should. interpretation of law. The accused defended solely on the purposes of this subsection. See with service and opportunity to reply to the oppos. Reasons for a continuance may include: insufficient opportunity (h) Written motions. tary counsel. Article 40. offense. trial or presenting its case. the issue of admissibility could be This list is not exclusive. specification not containing the same defect as the original speci- grant a continuance to any party for as long and as often as is fication. Whether a request for a continuance should be granted is a matter within the discretion of the military judge. if (k) Production of statements on motion to suppress. (2) Record of denial of individual military counsel either party is entitled to an Article 39(a) session to or of denial of request to retain detailed counsel present oral argument or have an evidentiary hearing when a request for individual military counsel was concerning the disposition of written motions. (i) Service. 905(g) determination and the grounds for it will determine its effect in otherwise provided in this Manual. If the earlier ruling had been based on an incorrect may be requested by motion for appropriate relief. initial ruling had been based on an error of law (for example. If a request for military counsel was denied. (a) In general. litigated anew at the second proceeding. Written motions may be sub. the service shall be made upon counsel when the accused is represented by individual mili- for each party. (3) At a court-martial for larceny. a law enforcement offi- basis of alibi and was acquitted. At a later court-martial for the same offense. Except as military judge shall ensure that a record of the mat- II-94 . A motion for appropriate relief is a cluded evidence of a statement made by the accused relating to request for a ruling to cure a defect which deprives a the larceny and other uncharged offenses because the statement party of a right or hinders a party from preparing for was obtained by coercion. Unless otherwise directed by the mili. 803. Motions for appropriate relief sistent with guilt in the second case. of this nature. the facts of the first trial must be examined to determine whether the finding of the first trial is logically incon. just. unavailability of an essential witness. and upon a claim of privilege the military and place as the assault on a Federal officer was alleged to have occurred. Note. lated offense.C. however. For assault on a Federal officer. Upon request. that if the before the military judge. the statement excluded at the first trial would be inadmissible. (2) The accused was tried in United States district court for evidence under subsection (b)(3) of this rule. counsel.M. without prej- new charge unless the prosecution could show that since that udice to the renewal of the issue by timely motion determination the accused had effected a valid enlistment or con- structive enlistment.C. authority is not. or member. 602. based on the earlier ruling. to prepare for trial.M. the military judge had ruled the enlistment invalid because the Except as provided in this subsection. the mitted to the military judge after referral and when interest of Government in the order of trial of related cases. on grounds that the accused was only 16 years party to the convening authority before trial for deci- old at the time of enlistment and when the offenses occurred. granted. and if the accused so requests.R. In cases ing privileged matter. Rule 906. illness of an accused. Written motions shall be served on all which denial was upheld on appeal (if available) or other parties. A continuance may be granted charge and specification were dismissed for failure to state an only by the military judge. except as otherwise provided in this the determination in the first case would require dismissal of the Manual. The accused is then charged in a cer shall be deemed a witness called by the Govern- court-martial with assault on a different person at the same time ment.

C. may not be amended over the accused’s objection A bill of particulars need not be sworn because it is not part unless the amendment is minor within the meaning of the specification. 907(b)(3)). each of which alleges a separate offense contained in the duplicitous specification.M. or. See also R.C.M. 307(c)(4). In a common trial. The military judge may not dismiss the bined with or results in other defects.M. if the duplicitousness is com- findings. and to enable the accused to plead the should ordinarily grant a continuance so the defect may be acquittal or conviction in bar of another prosecution for the same corrected. A bill of particulars may be if the unavailability results from temporary condi- amended at any time. vating circumstances which are not necessary to enhance the maximum authorized punishment or to explain the essential facts of the offense.C. is so defective See R. (3) Correction of defects in the Article 32 investi. other remedies may be appropriate. a specification which is otherwise not legally sufficient. 914 and Surplusage may include irrelevant or redundant details or aggra.M. 305(j). nor is a continuing offense involving against whom charges have been referred to a joint or common II-95 . a sever- two or more specifications. Discussion If a specification. If the motion is granted. or is laid under the wrong article. 307.M. Discussion A duplicitous specification is one which alleges two or more separate offenses.C. unclear. A bill of particulars should not be used to conduct discovery (4) Amendment of charges or specifications. 907(B)(3). Each specification may state only one offense.M. to avoid or minimize the danger of See R. 305. if it appears that an accused or the Government is prejudiced by (5) Severance of a duplicitous specification into a joint or common trial. and may make several separate acts. the accused should be given a continuance upon request.M. or substituting or adding new language.C. process of review in administrative channels. offense when the specification itself is too vague and indefinite for such purposes. 906(b)(9) ter is included in the record of trial. para. although stating an offense. However.C. However. R.M. ance shall be granted whenever any accused.M. A bill of particulars (see subsection (b)(6) of this rule) may also be used when a specifica- tion is indefinite or ambiguous. A specification may be amended by Discussion striking surplusage.C. tion is severance of the specification into two or more specifica- ance to inform the convening authority of those tions. Discussion (7) Discovery and production of evidence and See also R. 603(a). The purposes of a bill of particulars are to inform the accused of the nature of the charge with sufficient precision to enable the Discussion accused to prepare for trial. 1001(e) concerning production of evidence and witnesses. tary judge may grant reasonable continuances until the requested military counsel can be made available (6) Bill of particulars. the mili. See R. faces charges unrelated to Discussion those charged against the moving accused. When a specification is amended after the accused (8) Relief from pretrial confinement in violation has entered a plea to it.C. A charge or specification of acts underlying a charge. An amendment may be appropriate when a specification is witnesses. the accused should be asked to plead of R. the specification may be dismissed.M. other than the moving accused. 405. R. See subsection (b)(3) proceedings based on this issue. to force detailed disclosure charge or specifications. in an appropriate case (see R.C. Lesser included offenses (see Part IV. of this rule. 406. (9) Severance of multiple accused. inartfully drafted. anew to the amended specification.C. Discussion gation or pretrial advice. 703. redundant.M. such as misleading the charges or otherwise effectively prevent further accused. A motion for severance is a request that one or more accused graph 2) are not separate. the military judge surprise at the time of trial. The sole remedy for a duplicitous specifica- findings. subject to such conditions as tions or if the decision of unavailability is in the justice permits. The trial counsel may request a continu. that the accused appears to have been misled. A bill of particulars cannot be used to repair of R.C. or to restrict the Government’s proof at trial. A of the Government’s theory of a case. See R. misnames an accused. 701 concerning discovery.

916 concerning defenses. the prejudice which may result from bringing inadmissible mat- tions. 601(e)(3). See also R.C.C. 307(c)(5). a defense of a coaccused is antagonistic to the moving party. when an essential witness as to one offense is unavail- able. 909. 706.C. offenses is not alone a sufficient ground to sever offenses. 905(b)(3) and (d). In the case of joint charges. Grounds for dismissal Discussion include the following— See R. See R. A motion to dismiss is a request to terminate further proceedings as to one or more Discussion charges and specifications on grounds capable of resolution without trial of the general issue of guilt. controlled by the Supreme Court’s decision in Luce v. respect to that specification unless the decision to dismiss is When it is necessary to change the place of trial. Discussion Ordinarily. 321(d)(2). shown.M. 905(g) and subsection (b)(2) below. 304(e)(2). The purpose of such a motion is to avoid direct an appropriate amendment of the charges and specifica. 38 (1984).M. and Mil.C. See R. R. See also R.C. 907(b)(3)(B) concerning dismissal of tion shall be dismissed at any stage of the proceed- charges on grounds of multiplicity. and should be granted if good cause is evidence. tion (b)(1) or (b)(3)(A) below does not ordinarily bar a later tent with the ruling of the military judge. the choice reconsidered and reversed by the military judge. But see R. 812. and 916(k) regarding procedures and stand- ards concerning the mental capacity or responsibility of the accused.C.M. Joinder of minor and major offenses. Dismissal of a specification on grounds stated in subsec- to the convening authority. 1003 concerning determination of the maximum pun. Such a request should be liberally consid. or of unrelated sponsibility of the accused.M. The place of trial may be changed when necessary to prevent preju- dice to the rights of the accused or for the conven. (b) Grounds for dismissal. See R.M. of the general issue be resolved before they arise. United States. Rule 907.M. the military judge will presence of members. (14) Motions relating to mental capacity or re- martial. Motions to dismiss ience of the Government if the rights of the accused are not prejudiced thereby. 604. A change of the place of trial may be necessary when there exists in the place where the court-martial is pending so great a preju- Discussion dice against the accused that the accused cannot obtain a fair and impartial trial there. R. 469 U.M. a severance is ordinarily appropriate when: the moving party wishes to use the testimony of one or more of Discussion the coaccused or the spouse of a coaccused. (11) Change of place of trial. A request for a preliminary ruling on admissibility is a re- If a severance is granted by the military judge.C. Whether to rule on an evidentiary question before it arises during trial is a matter within the discretion of the military judge. or evidence as to See Mil.R. all known charges should be tried at a single court. (12) Determination of multiplicity of offenses for sentencing purposes. or II-96 . 906(b)(9) trial be tried separately.M. as long as the choice is not inconsis. outside the 801(a)(1). For example. Reviewability of preliminary rulings will be manifest injustice.C. (13) Preliminary ruling on admissibility of ered in a common trial. it might be appropriate to sever that offense to prevent Discussion violation of the accused’s right to a speedy trial. (a) In general.M.S. See also R. (A) The court-martial lacks jurisdiction to try the accused for the offense. or to obtain compulsory process over an Dismissal of a specification terminates the proceeding with essential witness. Evid. of places to which the court-martial will be transferred will be left 905(f). A charge or specifica- ishment.C. ters to the attention of court members. 104(c) any other accused will improperly prejudice the moving accused. (1) Nonwaivable grounds. (10) Severance of offenses.M. but only to prevent 311(e)(2). court-martial for the same offense if the grounds for dismissal no longer exist. See R. the military quest that certain matters which are ordinarily decided during trial judge will decide which accused will be tried first. Evid. For example.C. ings if: A ruling on this motion ordinarily should be deferred until after findings are entered.

his or her prior determina- tion whether that period of time is excludable. extended (Article 43(e) and (g)). This period may be tolled (iii) No court-martial proceeding in which an (Article 43(c) and (d)). The prosecu. (B) The statute of limitations (Article 43) has run. on the a trial in the sense of this rule. R. The date of receipt of sworn charges is See R. the accused was fleeing from justice or periods when the accused was absent without leave or in desertion are excluded.M. that case if: When the statute of limitations has run as to a lesser in- (A) Dismissal is required under R.C. desertion. the issue whether the statute of limitations has run will depend on the findings on the general issue of guilt. charges dismissed as defective or insufficient for any cause.M. where the date of an offense is in dispute.C. see R. (ii) Immunity from prosecution granted by a but is found not guilty of the absence offense.M. accused has been found guilty of any charge or pended (Article 43(f)) under certain circumstances. 915 an offense under the code may not be tried by court-martial over shall bar later prosecution for the same offense or objection if sworn charges have not been received by the officer offenses. A pardon may grant individual or general amnesty. respectively. 307(c) within six months of the dismissal. (D) Prosecution is barred by: When computing the statute of limitations. provided that. ing from justice. See Article 43(b).C. as to time.C. 201-203. (2) Waivable grounds.M. Discussion tary judge must determine by a preponderance.C.C. provided that: (i) No court-martial proceeding is a trial in Discussion the sense of this rule unless presentation of evidence Except for certain offenses for which there is either: no limitation on the general issue of guilt has begun. whether the accused was absent without authority or flee. the military judge person authorized to do so. if it appears that the accused is unaware of the right to assert the statute of limita. A charge or specification For example. prosecution is barred.M. (iv) No court-martial proceeding which la- Absence without leave. and fraudulent enlistment are cked jurisdiction to try the accused for the offense is not continuing offenses and are committed. 707. Discussion If sworn charges have been received by an officer exercising summary court-martial jurisdiction over the command within the See R. period of the statute.C.M. Some offenses are continuing offenses and any period of the of the case has been fully completed. excluded when computing the appropriate statutory period. the military judge shall inform court-martial or federal civilian court for the same the accused of this right.C. or suspended if it appears that is has run. 907(b)(2)(D)(iii) Discussion ment made (see R. The government would have up to six months to reinstate the charges Discussion if the original period of limitations has expired or will expire See R. offense. minor amendments ( see R. day the person goes absent. In cases where the accused is charged with both an absence offense and a non-absence offense. The mili. Article 43(g) allows the government time to reinstate (B) The specification fails to state an offense. if new charges are drafted or a major amend. and offense occurring within the statute of limitations is not barred.M.C. The date of the offense is included in the computation of the elapsed time. specification is a trial in the sense of this rule until tion bears the burden of proving that the statute of limitations has the finding of guilty has become final after review been tolled. or first receives pay or allow- ances under the enlistment. if so provided in those rules.M. would reconsider. cluded offense. 920(e)(2) with regard to instructions on the lesser offense. by a preponderance. 704.M. periods in which (i) A pardon issued by the President. a person charged with been terminated under R. or sus. 603(a)) may be made in the specification after the statute of limitations has run. exercising summary court-martial jurisdiction over the command within five years. It would not be necessary that the accused be charged with the absence offense. a finding shall be dismissed upon motion made by the accused by the court-martial that the offense occurred at an earlier time may affect a determination as to the running of the statute of before the final adjournment of the court-martial in limitations.C. extended. (C) The accused has previously been tried by tions in bar of trial. as an interlocutory matter. 604(b) or R. but not as to the charged offense. or child abuse offenses for which a time limitation has been enacted and applies that is based upon the life of a child (ii) No court-martial proceeding which has abuse victim. deserts. see Article 43(a) and (b)(2) . (iii) Constructive condonation of desertion es- II-97 . However. 603(d)) after the statute of limitations has run. In some cases.M.

is unnecessary to enable the pealed. multiplicious specifications after findings have been reached. proceedings. the prosecution to meet the exigencies of proof through trial counsel shall not file notice of appeal unless trial. the United States may not appeal an order or ruling that is. assault and disorderly conduct may be multiplicious if charges and specifications affected. A specification may be martial may not proceed. or fied information or to enforce such an order that has (iv) Prior punishment under Articles 13 or previously been issued by the appropriate authority. within 72 hours of the ruling or order to be ap- other specification. The decision whether to without undue delay. or excluded is substantial proof of a fact material in the one necessarily included therein. a finding of not Discussion guilty with respect to the charge or specification. if that offense was minor. this rule. See paragraph 1e of Part V for a (b) Procedure. (3) Notice of appeal. See Articles 13 and 15(f). military judge to issue a protective order sought by out trial of a deserter by a general court-martial the United States to prevent the disclosure of classi- convening authority who knew of the desertion. except (a) In general. The United States may also appeal a refusal by the (ii) a severance may be granted upon request II-98 .C. the ruling or order that is the subject of the appeal is automatically stayed and no session of the court-martial may proceed pending disposition by Rule 908. In a trial by a court-martial over that solely as to charges and specifications not af- which a military judge presides and in which a puni. 907(b)(2)(D)(iii) tablished by unconditional restoration to duty with. or an offense necessarily included in the other. purpose of delay and (if the order or ruling appealed Ordinarily. Appeal by the United States the Court of Criminal Appeals of the appeal. a specification should not be dismissed for multi. Due (4) Effect on the court-martial. If the Secretary concerned so prescribes. 72 hours after the ruling or order. 15 for the same offense. review.R. tion. to possible post-trial or tice to the military judge under subsection (b)(3) of appellate action with regard to the remaining specification. Trial counsel the disorderly conduct consists solely of the assault. proceed on remaining charges and specifications (2) Decision to appeal. the United States (A) Motions may be litigated. in the interest of justice. as is alleged in another specifi- cation. if the trial counsel (A) The specification is so defective that it requests a delay to determine whether to file notice substantially misled the accused. of all the parties. fected by the ruling or order: tive discharge may be adjudged. After an order or ruling which may be subject to an appeal by the United States.M. If the United States elects to Discussion appeal. or excludes evidence that is substantial proof of a fact material in the proceedings.M. See also shall certify that the appeal is not taken for the R. at any point in the proceedings with respect to a charge or specifica. except as to matters unaf- dismissed upon timely motion by the accused if: fected by the ruling or order. the trial counsel shall provide the military A specification is multiplicious with another if it alleges the same judge with written notice to this effect not later than offense. and appellate action. Such notice shall cation may also be multiplicious with another if they describe identify the ruling or order to be appealed and the substantially the same misconduct in two different ways. Upon written no- consideration must be given. or directs the (B) When trial on the merits has not begun. Trial counsel is entitled to judge finds that. is one which excludes evidence) that the evidence plicity before trial unless it clearly alleges the same offense.C. or that imposes (i) a severance may be granted upon request sanctions for nondisclosure of classified information. However. however. disclosure of classified information. in the discretion may appeal an order or ruling that terminates the of the military judge. definition of “minor” offenses. the court- (3) Permissible grounds. and should be authorized to do so by a person designated by the dismissed in the interest of justice. trial should no more than 72 hours under this subsection. A specifi. 1003(c)(1)(C). or amounts to. and the military of appeal under this rule. For example. or file notice of appeal under this rule shall be made (B) The specification is multiplicious with an. Secretary concerned. (1) Delay. It may be appropriate to dismiss the less serious of any proceeding.

C.M. or this rule as provided in R.C. special court-martial without a military judge. Capacity of the accused to stand which would authorize the imposition of pretrial trial by court-martial confinement under R. After the Court of Criminal Appeals and the record shall be authenticated in accordance has decided any appeal under Article 62. case is reviewed by the Court of Appeals for the peal.C. No person may be brought to trial by (c) Appellate proceedings.M.M. may certify a question to the Court of Appeals for R. request and in the discretion of the military judge. The military judge or the may petition for review by the Court of Appeals for Court of Criminal Appeals may direct that additional the Armed Forces. it. If the accused is notified orally on if preparation of the record has not been completed.C. whenever practicable. If the United States elects to file the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces or the an appeal. “military judge” does not include the president of a in determining whether the accused should be con.M. The per. decision by the Court of Criminal Appeals permits sel of that decision. R. the decision of the Court of Criminal Appeals tary judge under subsection (b)(3) of this rule. the record. Appellate (C) When trial on the merits has begun but has Government counsel shall diligently prosecute an not been completed. should consider the same factors Rule 909. If the Court of Criminal Appeals and notify the trial coun. the Court of Criminal Appeals may take action prepared. If the decision is adverse to the accused. 909(a) of the accused and when appropriate under R. Article 62 shall. the decision of the Court of Criminal Appeals. R.C. from a mental disease or defect rendering him or her II-99 . trial counsel promptly shall authority for appropriate action in accordance with notify the military judge and the other parties. trial promptly. (a) In general. inal Appeals. a party may. If the (9) Pretrial confinement of accused pending ap. trial coun. 1202. only with respect to matters of law. Such record shall be verbatim and com.C. fined pending the outcome of an appeal by the United States. court-martial if that person is presently suffering (1) Appellate counsel. and (i) shall apply nal Appeals. 1104(d) shall not apply to such additions. sented before appellate courts in proceedings under 906(b)(10). Armed Forces for review within 60 days orally on The matter forwarded shall include: a statement of the record at the court-martial or in accordance with the issues appealed. trial counsel shall forward by expeditious a summary of the evidence. the right to petition the Court of Appeals for the ernment designated by the Judge Advocate General.M. on that party’s appeal under this rule. it shall be filed directly with the Court of Supreme Court. 1203(d).C. the commander. Upon written notice to the mili. 1104(a). have priority (5) Record. An appeal under present further evidence on the merits. 305(h)(2)(B). 1204 and 1205 shall apply. the record of the proceedings or. or the Judge Advocate General parts of the proceeding be included in the record. and such other matters means a certificate that the accused was so notified as the Secretary concerned may prescribe. counsel shall promptly and by expeditious means the accused shall be notified of the decision and of forward the appeal to a representative of the Gov. the Armed Forces. plete to the extent necessary to resolve the issues (3) Action following decision of Court of Crimi- appealed. unless either court orders the Criminal Appeals. In determining an appeal under Article sel shall cause a record of the proceedings to be 62. appeal under subsection (3) above. time the United States files notice of its intent to (d) Military judge. to the Judge Advocate General. (h). R.M. 1103(g). If an accused is in pretrial confinement at the Armed Forces. the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces.C. The parties shall be repre. (2) Court of Criminal Appeals.C.M. Upon written notice to the military over all other proceedings before the Court of Crim- judge under subsection (b)(3) of this rule.M.M. If the United States elects be returned to the military judge or the convening not to file an appeal. R. it shall (8) Appeal not filed. the accused with R. in accordance with the rules of proceedings stayed. For purposes of this rule. who shall forward a son designated by the Judge Advocate General shall copy to the clerk of the Court of Appeals for the promptly decide whether to file the appeal with the Armed Forces when required by the Court. The parties shall be notified of (6) Forwarding. Unless the case is reviewed by that court. the court-martial may proceed as to the affected charges and specifications pending further review by (7) Appeal filed.

M. (f) Hospitalization of the accused. the military judge is not bound by the rules of evidence except Discussion with respect to privileges. Discussion martial convening authority does not concur. the judge shall report this (b) Presumption of capacity. If an inquiry pur.M. who shall commit the accused to the custody is established. including referral cooperate intelligently in the defense of the case. appropriate in accordance with R. the accused is subject to hospitaliza- ral concludes that an accused is suffering from a tion as provided in section 4246 of title 18. After referral. that Under section 4241(d) of title 18. the accused will attain the capacity to permit the trial to proceed (d) Determination after referral. of the Attorney General (c) Determination before referral. at the the charges to the general court-martial convening end of the period of hospitalization. If. mental disease or defect that renders him or her mentally incompetent to stand trial.M. but guilty disease or defect rendering him or her mentally in. However. accused’s mental condition. 706 conducted before or after refer. shall be excluded as provided by R.C. Trial may proceed unless it is es. United States Code. 707(c). tablished by a preponderance of the evidence that (1) In general. All periods of commitment judge shall conduct a hearing to determine the men.C. of a named lesser included offense. the military (g) Excludable delay.C. This additional period of military judge may conduct a hearing to determine time ends either when the accused’s mental condition is improved the mental capacity of the accused. 706 conducted before referral con. or when the pending charges against the or upon request of either party. tal capacity of the accused.R.C.C. the general mental condition has not so improved.C. the accused’s authority. action shall court-martial convening authority similarly concurs. If an inquiry pur. tody of the Attorney General. in determining whether there is a substantial probability ing referral of the charges to trial.M. (3) If the military judge finds the accused is in- competent to stand trial. An accused who suant to R. The mental capacity of the accused is an interlocutory question of fact.M. 707 shall be conducted in accordance with paragraph (e) of begin anew on the date the general court-martial this rule.M. then he or she shall commit the accused to the cus.M. the nature of the proceedings and to conduct or tion authorized under R. Pleas (2) Standard. 909(a) mentally incompetent to the extent that he or she is competent to the extent that he or she is unable to unable to understand the nature of the proceedings understand the nature of the proceedings or to con- against them or to conduct or cooperate intelligently duct or cooperate intelligently in the defense of the in the defense of the case. the convening authority Code. Any such hearing shall The 120-day time period under R. upon receipt of the charges. United States incompetent to stand trial. accused are dismissed.C. the accused may be hospitalized for an additional reasonable period of time. includ.M.C. (1) Nature of issue. A person is presumed finding to the general court-martial convening au- to have the capacity to stand trial unless the contrary thority. If that convening authority then the general court-martial convening authority concurs with the conclusion. If charges are dismissed solely due to the suant to R. the end of any period of commitment. case. not guilty to an offense as charged. (a) Alternatives. the initial period of hospitaliza- authority may take any action that he or she deems tion for an incompetent accused shall not exceed four months. Rule 910. 401. In making this determination. be taken in accordance with section 4246 of title 18. guilty with ex- II-100 . is found incompetent to stand trial under this rule cludes that an accused is suffering from a mental shall be hospitalized by the Attorney General as disease or defect that renders him or her mentally provided in section 4241(d) of title 18. If notified that the accused has recovered to before whom the charges are pending for disposition such an extent that he or she is able to understand may disagree with the conclusion and take any ac. See also R. of the charges to trial. If. 407. If the general court. An accused may plead as follows: the accused is presently suffering from a mental guilty. convening authority takes custody of the accused at (e) Incompetence determination hearing. 916(k). either sua sponte so that trial may proceed. he or she shall forward shall promptly take custody of the accused. the in the foreseeable future.

A plea of guilty may not be received as to an offense for which the death penalty may be Discussion adjudged by the court-martial. When the plea is to a named lesser included offense without the (2) In a general or special court-martial.M. See also subsection (g) of this rule. The elements of each offense to which the accused has pleaded guilty should be described to the accused. on further review or appeal. Part IV. and military judge and the consent of the Government.C. also inquire whether the accused’s willingness to II-101 . guilty. 910(d) ceptions. so that by plead- ment. See R. the following: or threats or of promises apart from a plea agree- (1) The nature of the offense to which the plea is ment under R. (5) That if the accused pleads guilty.M. if the use of exceptions and substitutions. the military judge should have which the accused is not represented by counsel. there will withdraw the plea of guilty. determining personally and inform the accused of. A plea of guilty does not prevent the introduction of evi. (d) Ensuring that the plea is voluntary. 1001(b)(4). that the accused has the right to be tried by a court- an accused may enter a conditional plea of guilty. See also subsection (e) of this rule. but guilty of the substitutions. concerning lesser included offenses. the mandatory minimum penalty. or. the defense counsel should accused is not represented by counsel. 705. In a general or special court-martial. or makes an irregular plea. the military judge shall address the accused by addressing the accused personally. record. not be a trial of any kind as to those offenses to cerned may prescribe who may consent for Govern. which the accused has so pleaded. martial. and in the presence of counsel. The military (c) Advice to accused. the accused’s answers may later be used against the accused in a Discussion prosecution for perjury or false statement. The Secretary con. An irregular plea includes pleas such as guilty without criminality Discussion or guilty to a charge but not guilty to all specifications there- The advice in subsection (5) is inapplicable in a court-martial in under.M. record as an appellate exhibit. not guilty.C. provided by law. and of the Government. to right to confront and cross-examine witnesses review of the adverse determination of any specified against the accused. or. after sented by counsel. either in support of the factual basis for the plea. on the the accused. if the accused is not repre- dence. Discussion See paragraph 2. the trial counsel may consent on behalf subsection (c)(3) of this Rule. R. in aggravation. If an accused judge will question the accused about the offenses to fails or refuses to plead. The military judge shall offered. if the the military judge shall enter a plea of not guilty for accused answers these questions under oath. if any. When a plea is ambiguous.C. (3) That the accused has the right to plead not (2) Conditional pleas. the accused shall be allowed to (4) That if the accused pleads guilty. if any. and. If the accused prevails on further crimination. that the ac- provide a written revised specification accurately reflecting the cused has the right to be represented by counsel at plea and request that the revised specification be included in the every stage of the proceedings. with or without substitutions. and the right against self-in- pretrial motion. irregular plea. unless otherwise prescribed by the Secretary ing guilty the accused waives the rights described in concerned. and that at such trial the accused has the reserving the right. a plea of guilty should not be accepted. findings are entered. not guilty of provided by law. and the maximum possible penalty the exceptions. With the approval of the guilty or to persist in that plea if already made. it clarified before proceeding further. which the accused has pleaded guilty. Before accepting a plea of judge shall not accept a plea of guilty without first. review or appeal. and determine that the plea is voluntary and not the result of force that the accused understands. A plea of guilty to a lesser in- cluded offense does not bar the prosecution from proceeding on Discussion the offense as charged. the military (b) Refusal to plead.

an offense as charged. Discussion If the plea agreement contains any unclear or ambiguous terms. The parties shall inform the military See R. See subsection (d) of this rule. the military judge (3) Disclosure.C. ment. plea.C.M. but (3) Trial is by a special court-martial without a may still be able to adequately describe the offense based on military judge. Ordinarily. the accused. others. the accused must admit every element of the of. (2) Notice. the military judge should ordinarily defer informing the cepted if it does not comply with R. without a formal vote except when subsection (g)(2) tioning by the military judge. the military judge should (g) Findings. in trial before military judge alone the military judge If after findings but before the sentence is an- ordinarily shall not examine any sentence limitation nounced the accused makes a statement to the court- II-102 . The military judge shall inquire to defense counsel. 913(a). or trial counsel. 920(e). Discussion and R.M. Discussion the military judge should obtain clarification from the parties. the ele. 907(b)(2)(B). ensure: (e) Determining accuracy of plea.M. or accused may be unable to recall certain events in an offense.C. nounced the accused requests to withdraw a plea of tion with the plea to the attention of the military judge. and ing such inquiry of the accused as shall satisfy the (B) That the parties agree to the terms of the military judge that there is a factual basis for the agreement. See R. a representative of the con. Before the plea there is doubt about the accused’s understanding of any terms in is accepted. If plea at an Article 39(a) session unless: the statute of limitations would otherwise bar trial for the offense.R. the Secretary concerned. the agreement. The military judge should ask whether a plea agreement exists.C. agreement before the plea is accepted. The military (A) That the accused understands the agree- judge shall not accept a plea of guilty without mak. in which case the president of the witness statements or similar sources which the accused believes court-martial may enter findings based on the pleas to be true. Nevertheless the accused must be convinced of. The accused need not describe from personal recollection all (2) The plea is to a lesser included offense and the circumstances necessary to establish a factual basis for the the prosecution intends to proceed to trial on the plea. ments should be explained to the accused. Discussion (f) Plea agreement inquiry. The accused shall be questioned under oath about the offenses. Discussion (h) Later action. 705. If A plea of guilty must be in accord with the truth. provided that (2) Statements by accused inconsistent with plea. of the court-martial has been announced. the military judge should explain those terms to fense(s) to which the accused pleaded guilty. may as a matter of discretion permit the accused to itary judge shall require disclosure of the entire do so. The accused should remain at the counsel table during ques. and the accused or (4) Inquiry. members of the offenses to which the accused has pleaded guilty until after findings on the remaining offenses have been entered. of this rule applies. Findings based on a plea of guilty explain such a defense to the accused and should not accept the may be entered immediately upon acceptance of the plea unless the accused admits facts which negate the defense. Discussion. If a plea agreement exists. the mil. counsel have an ance of the plea but before the sentence is an- obligation to bring any agreements or understandings in connec. judge if a plea agreement exists.M. For example. paragraph 3. A plea agreement may not be ac. and able to describe all the facts necessary to establish guilt.C. guilty and substitute a plea of not guilty or a plea of guilty to a lesser included offense. If after accept- so inquire or the accused answers incorrectly. If any potential defense is raised by the accused’s account of the offense or by other matter presented to the military judge. Even if the military judge fails to (1) Withdrawal by the accused. vening authority. the military judge should not accept a plea of guilty to it without (1) Such action is not permitted by regulations of an affirmative waiver by the accused. If the accused has pleaded guilty to some offenses but not to (1) In general. 910(d) plead guilty results from prior discussions between contained in the agreement until after the sentence the convening authority.M.

who is the senior member.M. Except as provided in subsection (a)(2) received. 903(a)(1)(d)).C. and degrees (j) Waiver. If the military judge determines that the accused does not understand the material terms of the agreement. as a matter of right. When trial is by military judge alone.C. including. Challenge of selection of that the parties disagree as to such terms. age.M. As to summary courts-martial. even with announced the military judge shall inquire into any the permission of the military judge. R. (i) Record of proceedings. of this rule. 902. the following information: (A) Date of birth. examination and challenges of tary judge shall conform. R. or Rule 912. R. the court-martial of its meaning and effect a plea of not guilty shall is ordinarily assembled immediately after the members are sworn. (B) Sex. 1305. insofar as the objection relates (H) Past duty assignments. ordinarily assembled immediately following approval of the re- recusal of the military judge or disapproval of the request for trial quest for trial by military judge alone. years of education.C. previously examined by the military judge. it appears that the accused entered the Discussion plea improvidently or through lack of understanding When trial is by a court-martial with members. A verbatim record of the (C) Race. when available. After sentence is 903(a)(2)(d)). nounced.M. members. request trial by military judge alone or withdraw such a request previously approved (see Article 16. R. and the other members alternately Discussion to the president’s right and left according to rank. a summary of the explanation and replies shall be included in the (E) Home of record. a the point after which: substitution of the members and military mistrial will ordinarily be necessary. Assembly of the court-martial dence which is inconsistent with a plea of guilty on The military judge shall announce the assembly of which a finding is based. a plea of guilty which results in a finding of guilty waives any objection. record of trial. judge may no longer take place without good cause (see Article 29. see (F) Civilian and military education. 1103. (J) Date of rank. standing or permit the accused to withdraw the plea. In other special courts-martial. II-103 . or a plea of guilty is set aside. in trial with members. the accused may no longer. not previously raised. (1) Questionnaires. the military judge shall the court-martial. Rule 911.M. by military judge alone will ordinarily be necessary when a plea Assembly of the court-martial is significant because it marks is rejected or withdrawn after findings. the mili. Before trial the trial counsel may. guilty plea proceedings shall be made in cases in which a verbatim record is required under R. (3) Pretrial agreement inquiry. which the plea was made.C. following such inquiry. or if the membership of the court-martial When the accused withdraws a previously accepted plea for guilty changes.C. to the factual issue of guilt of the offense(s) to (I) Awards and decorations received. the members should be reseated accordingly. major areas of study. Discussion submit to each member written questions requesting See subsection (f)(3) of this rule. 912(a)(1)(K) martial. The members are ordinarily sworn at the first session at which be entered as to the affected charges and they appear. and number of dependents. and the accused may no longer request. R. the agreement to the accused’s under. name of school or institution. or presents evi. If. with the consent of the members Government. enlisted members (see Article 25(c)(1).C. as soon as all parties and personnel have been an- specifications. in testimony or otherwise. (a) Pretrial matters. 912). inquire into the providence of the plea. In a trial by military judge alone. the court-martial is ble time to prepare to proceed. whether or (G) Current unit to which assigned. If the rank of a member is changed. counsel should be given a reasona. or withdraw from a request parts of a pretrial agreement which were not for. and (K) Whether the member has acted as accuser. (D) Marital status and sex. The members are seated with the president. and shall upon request of the defense counsel. 505.M.M. in the center.

convening authority.C. Upon a motion under subsection tioning by a party. Each member’s re. a cer- depends on the circumstances. See R. For example. The trial counsel by the member. whichever is earlier. for example.M. would constitute improper aware of any ground for challenge against them. or 503(a)(2).M. how- ever. 501(a).M. defense begins or whether some other procedure will be followed Members are also improperly selected when.C. ing to whether grounds for challenge exist against a properly. II-104 . vening authority in the case. Any other party may also present evidence on the matter.C. Before the examination of members before they are questioned. This may expe- selection of members. as necessary. The military judge and each party may conduct additional questioning. Discussion so directs. ings requiring the presence of members until or legal officer or staff judge advocate for the con. 912(a)(1)(K) counsel. The military judge permit more informed exercise of challenges.C. when members are tain group or class is arbitrarily excluded from consideration as questioned individually outside the presence of other members. (b)(1) of this rule containing an offer of proof of Ordinarily the members should be asked whether they are matters which. A copy of any written proper or the military judge shall submit to the materials considered by the convening authority in members such additional questions by the parties as selecting the members detailed to the court-martial the military judge deems proper. Whether trial counsel will question all the members before the See R. approval of the military judge. have not already been placed under oath for the purpose of voir dire (see R. the military judge shall stay any proceed. Examination of the members is called “voir dire. after initial ques- (2) Procedure. including any written members which might disqualify them. 807(b)(2) Discussion (B)). members. sponses to the questions shall be written and signed (c) Stating grounds for challenge. member. shall state any ground for challenge for cause against any member of which the trial counsel is Discussion aware. investigating officer. Ordinarily. for good cause. if true. 1103(b)(2)(D)(iv) and (b)(3)(B).C. tion. Discussion Trial counsel ordinarily conducts an inquiry before the defense.R. A member may be shall be provided to any party upon request.M. 502(a)(1).” If the members (b) Challenge of selection of members. each party would ordinarily complete questioning that member before another member is questioned. not to disclose information in the presence of other entitled to present evidence. Failure to make a timely motion charges with a recommendation as to disposition. questioned individually or collectively. Any party may present evidence relat- determines that the members have been selected im. under subsection (d) of this rule begins. the moving party shall be dite further questioning. were not selected for detail as members need not be provided unless the military judge. they should be sworn (1) Motion. The members should be cautioned. The nature and scope of the examination of members is to stay the proceedings on the ground that members within the discretion of the military judge. counsel should discovered by the exercise of diligence. that party may move not be admissible or to argue the case. Using questionnaires before trial may expedite voir dire and may (d) Examination of members. In the latter event the military judge shall per- mit the parties to supplement the examination by such further inquiry as the military judge deems (2) Other materials. the military judge should permit counsel to personally question the members. 502(a) and 503(a) concerning selection of members. the grounds not purposely use voir dire to present factual matter which will therefor. except questioned outside the presence of other members that such materials pertaining solely to persons who when the military judge so directs.M. Members may be were selected improperly. If the military judge (e) Evidence. under this subsection shall waive the improper selec- Additional information may be requested with the tion unless it constitutes a violation of R. or at the The opportunity for voir dire should be used to obtain infor- next session after a party discovered or could have mation for the intelligent exercise of challenges. members are properly selected. If the questionnaire is marked or admitted as an exhibit at may permit the parties to conduct the examination of the court-martial it must be attached to or included in the record members or may personally conduct the examina- of trial. or has forwarded the (3) Waiver. materials considered by the convening authority in selecting the members.

(b). (A) Is not competent to serve as a member under (B) Other times. Membership of case. of this rule and the presentation of evidence. shall preclude further consideration of the challenge Discussion of that excused member upon later review. fairness. successfully challenged shall be excused. See also Mil. The military judge shall rule finally on each chal- thority or as the legal officer or staff judge advocate lenge. Each party shall be permitted to (E) Has acted as counsel for any party as to any make challenges outside the presence of the mem- offense charged. (1) Grounds. A member to the reviewing authority. Further. R. (g) Peremptory challenges. the to the convening authority. and impartiality. Notwithstanding the (L) Is in arrest or confinement. (4) Waiver. has participated as a member or upon later review. any challenges for cause before the defense counsel. Examples of matters which may be grounds for challenge under failure by the challenging party to exercise a per- subsection (N) are that the member: has a direct personal interest emptory challenge against any member shall consti- in the result of the trial. ber from further participation in the court-martial. Evid. resolve the matter. 606(b) when a member may be a witness. excusing the challenged mem- as to legality. A member shall be excused for on the matter.C. was a member of the court-martial which heard enlisted members in the same unit as the accused the case before. The party making a challenge shall state the (F) Has been an investigating officer as to any grounds for it. The grounds for challenge in subsec- sonal recommendation as to disposition. party knew of or could have discovered by the exer- unless it is established that this could not be cise of diligence the ground for challenge and failed avoided. counsel in the trial of a closely related case. (D) Will be a witness in the court-martial. or (c). or a witness in the case. and any other ground for challenge is waived if the (K) Is junior to the accused in grade or rank. bers. Any member so challenged II-105 . to raise it in a timely manner. When a challenge for cause has (N) Should not sit as a member in the interest of been denied the successful use of a peremptory chal- having the court-martial free from substantial doubt lenge by either party. Upon (1) Procedure. in the interest of as to the guilt or innocence of the accused as to any justice. Ordinarily the trial counsel shall enter offense charged. excuse a member against whom a challenge offense charged. (3) Procedure. or has an inelastic Discussion opinion concerning an appropriate sentence for the offenses charged. made at any other time during trial when it becomes (B) Has not been properly detailed as a member apparent that a ground for challenge may exist. examination of the member and presentation of evi- dence as may be necessary may be made in order to (C) Is an accuser as to any offense charged. the military judge may. (I) Has forwarded charges in the case with a per. (2) When made.M. absence of a challenge or waiver of a challenge by (M) Has informed or expressed a definite opinion the parties. member concerned shall be excused. if any. R. (A) Upon completion of examination. tion (f)(1)(A) of this rule may not be waived except that membership of enlisted members in the same (J) Upon a rehearing or new or other trial of the unit as the accused may be waived. has a decidedly friendly or hostile attitude toward a party. is closely related to the accused. When a challenge for cause is granted. a tute waiver of further consideration of the challenge counsel. Each party may challenge one completion of any examination under subsection (d) member peremptorily. each party shall state any challenges cause whenever it appears that the member: for cause it elects to make. for cause would lie. Such of the court-martial. The burden of (H) Will act in the same case as reviewing au. establishing that grounds for a challenge exist is thority or as the legal officer or staff judge advocate upon the party making the challenge. 912(g)(1) (f) Challenges and removal for cause. (G) Has acted in the same case as convening au. A challenge for cause may be Article 25(a).

J.M. 28 M. But (2) Witness. United States v. Generally. 79 (1986). this subsection shall bar the exercise of a previously “investigating officer” includes any person who has unexercised peremptory challenge against a member investigated charges under R. Moore. The military judge may and the convening authority notified so that new members may be detailed. the record. 112 S. no reason is necessary for a peremptory challenge. “witness” see Batson v. including written declarations made by affidavit or otherwise. 805(d) concerning give such preliminary instructions as may be appro- other procedures when new members are detailed. 1991).C. Discussion. for purposes of deciding the challenge. nothing in (3) Investigating officer. See also R. (1) Military judge. and upon secret written ballot in closed session. 405 and any per- newly detailed under R. However. when enlisted members Rule 913.M. challenged member shall not be present at the closed Exceptions to the rule requiring the military judge to defer informing the members of an accused’s prior pleas of guilty session at which the challenge is decided.M. Kentucky 476 U. sel shall enter any peremptory challenge before the (i) Definitions. For purposes of this rule. the procedures in this rule shall apply. A tie vote include cases in which the accused has specifically requested. 505(c)(2)(B). authenticated an official record or other writing introduced in tary judge may. prior pleas of guilty and cases in which a plea of guilty was to a tions as may be necessary to resolve the challenge. 101 (C. (2) Waiver. ent and one is challenged. The mili. the next senior member shall act as president cause has been completed. the military judge should ordinarily defer informing the members of the offenses to which the accused pleaded guilty (h) Special courts-martial without a military judge. 33 M. defense. unexcused members except the challenged member shall participate.Ct. “military judge” does not include the president of a Discussion special court-martial without a military judge. 501) or. priate. any purpose. Failure to exercise a peremptory chal.S. until after the findings on the remaining contested In a special court-martial without a military judge.J. from the waiver. but a peremptory challenge may not be made after the presentation of evidence before the members has begun. For purposes of this rule.C.C. offenses have been entered. Curtis. 910(g). procedures to be followed in the court-martial.R. or otherwise personally has conducted an investigation of the general matter involving the of- Discussion fenses charged. When only three members are pres- II-106 . Discussion lenge when properly called upon to do so shall For example. the proceedings should be adjourned (a) Preliminary instructions. inquiry.C. Ordinarily the trial coun. even if son who as counsel for a member of a court of presentation of evidence on the merits has begun.A. the president shall give such instruc.J. anyone whose declaration is received in evidence for United States v. 920(e). grant relief evidence is a witness. that the military judge instruct the members of the Before closing.M. and all the specification.C. the remaining two may cise a peremptory challenge before the examination decide the challenge. When the president is chal- of members and determination of any challenges for lenged. 505. 366 (C. except that challenges shall be made in the presence of the Discussion members and a ruling on any challenge for cause Preliminary instructions may include a description of the duties of shall be decided by a majority vote of the members members. 912(g)(1) shall be excused. For purpose of this rule. 1177 includes one who testifies at a court-martial and (1992).M. a person who by certificate has attested or otherwise waive the right to make such a challenge. When the membership of the court-martial has been reduced below a quorum (see R. denied.A. for good cause shown. If mixed pleas have been entered. lesser included offense within the contested offense charged in Each challenge shall be decided separately. 380 (C. No party may be required to exer. The other appropriate matters. Santiago-Davilla.C. 26 M.M.A. 1989). the fraction of enlisted members has been merits reduced below one-third. Presentation of the case on the have been requested. 1988). cert.M. Discussion and R.M. See R. paragraph 3.C.C. on on a challenge disqualifies the member challenged. See R.M.M.M. United States v.

diagrams. as clothing. circumstances. and the military judge. first referred to in the proceedings and should be included in the tation of evidence has begun. before the presentation of evidence for the de. shall be made part of the record. See Mil. 807(b)(1)(B). but may point out partic- (E) Additional rebuttal evidence in the discre. if military. 614. or sketches of the place or item (2) Taking testimony. or and may. followed by any questioning by the military judge and members. 611 concerning control by A view or inspection should be permitted only in extraordinary the military judge over the order of proceedings.C. If ted. and marks or wounds on a person’s body. when documentary evidence is used. it is impracticable to attach an item of real evidence to the record. a legible copy or accurate extract should be included in the record. The testimony of witnesses viewed. All documentary and real evidence (except marks or wounds Counsel should be permitted to try the case and present the II-107 . Evid. members (if any). Evid. dia- be offered which they believe in good faith will be available and gram. pointed or referred should be clearly identified for the record. exclude the evi- full name and address. in the interest of justice. Each party may make one on a person’s body) should be marked for identification when opening statement to the court-martial before presen.C. When a witness points to Counsel should confine their remarks to evidence they expect to or otherwise refers to certain parts of a map. objected to by a party except in extraordinary circumstances. R. When offered Discussion evidence would be subject to exclusion upon objec- tion. 801(a) and Mil. the military judge. the (B) Presentation of evidence for the defense. and statement made at the view or inspection by the (F) Presentation of evidence requested by the escort. fense. shall be taken orally in open session. R. or any member military judge or members. and unit. After a witness is sworn. The military judge should not exclude evidence which is not 611. (3) Views and inspections. if these are otherwise admissible. review. 913(c)(4) (b) Opening statements. (1) Order of presentation. as a matter of discretion. photographs. Each party shall have full opportunity to present evidence. followed by cross- examination of the witness by the opposing party. the military judge may. either by marking the exhibit or by an accurate description of the witness’ actions with regard to the exhibit. “Real evidence” include physical objects. The fact that a view or inspection has been made does not necessarily preclude the introduction in evidence of photographs. 1103(b)(2)(C). Evid. R.M. chart. Such a view or inspection shall take place only in the presence of all parties. 603. if civilian). or other exhibit. See R. rank. or other means so that it may be considered on martial at other times. weapons. maps. See R. (c) Presentation of evidence. (c). military judge to escort the court-martial. The party calling the witness dence without an objection by a party.M. Such per- (D) Presentation of defense evidence in son shall perform the duties of escort under oath. as a matter of discre- Each witness must testify under oath. the place to which the witness admissible and a brief statement of the issues in the case. Similarly. The escort shall not testify. Ordinarily the follow. discretion. R. bring the matter to the attention of the parties identified for the record (full name. photograph.M.M. permit the court- (A) Presentation of evidence for the martial to view or inspect premises or a place or an prosecution. Mil. ular features prescribed by the military judge. surrebuttal. Redirect and Discussion re-cross-examination are conducted as necessary. (4) Evidence subject to exclusion. conducts direct examination of the witness. such to make its statement after the prosecution has res. The military judge ing sequence shall be followed: may.C. The defense may elect record of trial whether admitted in evidence or not.C. permit the parties to address the court. Discussion Discussion See R. A person (C) Presentation of prosecution evidence in familiar with the scene may be designated by the rebuttal. Any tion of the military judge. as a matter of the item should be clearly and accurately described by testimony. the witness should be tion. The military judge may. if the document cannot be attached to the record (as in the case of an Discussion original official record or a large map). unless other- wise provided in this Manual. a party. article or object.

and shall order that the tion outside the courtroom. matter of discretion. electrical.M. mechanical. equipment operators. or other recording or a transcription there- This rule does not apply to investigations under Article 32. with such material excised. statement. If the (a) Motion for production. 103. II-108 . be delivered (2) Attendance at the remote location shall be to the moving party. Any portion of a statement that limited to the child. shall order the party who called the disregarded by the trier of fact and that the trial witness to produce. ness has testified. Production of statements of tion of the statement and preparation for its use in the trial.M. A child shall be allowed to testify out of the presence of the accused after the (c) Production of excised statement. R.C. After a witness other other party elects not to comply with an order to than the accused has testified on direct examination. and. 505. (3) A statement. is signed or otherwise adopted or approved by the witness. Evid. any statement of the witness that re- comply. R. shall be made available to the reviewing See also Mil. 913(c)(4) evidence without unnecessary interference by the military judge. or a transcription thereof. of. The military judge may. counsel for each side (not in- is withheld from an accused over objection shall be cluding an accused pro se). statement made by the witness that is recorded con- Counsel should anticipate legitimate demands for statements temporaneously with the making of the oral state- under this and similar rules and avoid delays in the proceedings ment and contained in a stenolineart. delivery of the statement to the moving party. a “statement” of counsel. the following the military judge.R. Discussion (2) A substantially verbatim recital of an oral See also R. permit a party to reopen its case (d) Recess for examination of the statement. the military judge may recess the trial for the examina- Rule 914. for examination and use by the proceed. Upon after it has rested. deliver a statement to the moving party. such as an attendant for the child. Use of remote live testimony of a concerning which the witness has testified. At a minimum. R. witnesses (e) Remedy for failure to produce statement. however taken or recorded. conviction. or As to procedures for certain government information as to which a privilege is asserted. (b) Production of entire statement. if it is the trial counsel who elects not to moving party. (a) General procedures. The contains matter that does not relate to the subject procedure used to take such testimony will be deter- matter concerning which the witness has testified. mined by the military judge based upon the exigen- the military judge shall order that it be delivered to cies of the situation. on motion of a party who did not judge shall order that the testimony of the witness be call the witness. Evid. or. and that is: (1) In the case of a witness called by the trial (f) Definition. by voluntary disclosure before arraignment. made by the witness to a Fed- eral grand jury. in the event of a other persons. in the possession of the United States. as a statement. the military the military judge. 611(d)(3) have been satisfied.C. 506. or a witness means: (2) In the case of a witness called by the defense. 701 (Discovery). If the party military judge has determined that the requirements who called the witness claims that the statement of Mil. Upon inspection. the military procedures shall be observed: judge shall excise the portions of the statement that do not relate to the subject matter concerning which (1) The witness shall testify from a remote loca- the witness has testified. Evid. see Mil. If the entire con- tents of the statement relate to the subject matter Rule 914A. authorities f