This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Is the statement sufficient?
Is x < 0?
1) xy
2
< 0
Odds & Evens
Answer: Yes, xy is odd
Odd numbers can be represented as 2m + 1 or 2n + 1, where m
and n are integers. (Think about why this is.) Multiplying two
numbers of this form together would yield 4nm + 2m + 2n + 1,
which is always odd; the 1
st
, 2
nd
, and 3
rd
terms are multiplied by 2
(or 4), so they are even, as is their sum. An even number plus one
is odd. Thus xy is odd.
More simply, we could just recall: an odd number times an odd
number is always odd.
When in doubt, try it out! Pick numbers to test properties.
ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide
Odds & Evens
Positives & Negatives
Answer: Sufficient
Any number, except for 0, raised to an even power will be
positive. If y were 0, the inequality would not be true, so we
know that y
2
, regardless of the sign of y, will be positive. For
xy
2
to be less than zero, that means that x must be negative.
The statement is sufficient.
ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide
Positives & Negatives
1 2
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
Simplify 6,300.
If both x and y are odd, is x
2
+ y odd?
Simplifying a Root
Answer: 30 7
Whenever simplifying an expression under the square root
sign, factor the expression. In this case, 6,300 = 2
2
× 3
2
× 5
2
×
7. For every pair under the square root sign, move one
outside the radical, and throw the other away:
2 2 2
2 3 5 7
becomes (2)(3)(5) 7 , or simply 30 7.
ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide
Roots
Odds & Evens
Answer: No, x
2
+ y is even
Odd numbers can be represented as 2m + 1 or 2n + 1, where m
and n are integers. (Think about why this is.) (2m + 1)
2
= 4m
2
+
4m + 1, and adding 2n + 1 would yield 4m
2
+ 4m + 2n + 2.
This is always even, since a 2 can be factored from all four
terms.
More simply, we could just recall: an odd number times an odd
number is always odd, and an odd plus an odd is always even.
When in doubt, try it out! Pick numbers to test properties.
ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide
Odds & Evens
3 4
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
If x is odd and y is even, is xy odd or
even?
Is the statement sufficient?
Is x < 0?
1)
<
13
0 x
Odds & Evens
Answer: xy is even
An odd number can be represented as 2m + 1, and an even
number can be represented as 2n, where m and n are integers.
(Think about why this is.) Multiplying 2m + 1 and 2n would yield
4mn +2n, which is always even, since 2 is a factor of both terms.
(Factor out the 2 to get 2(2mn + n), which shows that this number
will be even.)
More simply, we could just recall: an odd number times an even
number is always even.
When in doubt, try it out! Pick numbers to test properties.
ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide
Odds & Evens
Odd Roots
Answer: Sufficient
Don’t let the 13 confuse you; the only thing that matters is
that 13 is an odd number. Odd roots, as well as odd
exponents, preserve the sign of the number inside. If <
13
0 x ,
then x is also less than 0. The statement is sufficient.
ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide
Roots
5 6
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
Simplify
5
85
.
If both x and y are odd, is x – y odd?
Simplifying a Root
Answer: 17 5
When a square root lurks in the denominator, we can
rationalize the denominator by multiplying by the appropriate
form of 1 – in this case,
5
5
.
 
 
=


\ .
\ .
85 5 85 5
5 5 5
, and 85
divided by 5 is 17, so the simplest form is 17 5 .
ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide
Roots
Odds & Evens
Answer: No, x – y is even
Odd numbers can be represented as 2m + 1 or 2n + 1, where m
and n are integers. (Think about why this is.) Subtracting two
numbers of this form would yield (2n + 1) – (2m + 1), or just
2n – 2m, which is always even, since a 2 can be factored out
of the remaining terms (i.e., 2(n – m)).
More simply, we could just recall: an odd number minus an
odd number is always even.
When in doubt, try it out! Pick numbers to test properties.
ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide
Odds & Evens
7
8
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
Calculate (–1)
789
.
x is divisible by 42. Which of the following
numbers is definitely a factor of x
2
? (Choose
all that apply.)
a) 63 b) 33 c) 36 d) 8
Exponents
Answer: –1
Since (–1) × (–1) = 1, –1 raised to any even power is 1. If you
multiply by –1 one more time, you end up with –1, so –1
raised to any odd power will equal –1. 789 is an odd number,
so (–1)
789
= –1.
ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide
Exponents
Divisibility
Answer: a) 63 and c) 36
If x definitely has 2, 3 and 7 as factors, then when we square
x, we know that x
2
will have two 2s, two 3s and two 7s as
factors. 63 is 7 × 3 × 3, and 36 is 2 × 2 × 3 × 3. Using the
factor foundation rule, we can guarantee that all numbers that
solely use those factors are factors of x
2
. Both 63 and 36 use
only prime factors found in x
2
.
ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide
Divisibility & Primes
42
2 21
3 7
9 10
63
7 9
3 3
33
3 11
8
2 4
2 2
36
4 9
3 3 2 2
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
( )
5
5
n is always equal to which of the
following?
a) n
b) n
25
c) n
1/5
d) 1
If both x and y are even, is x – y
even?
Exponents & Roots
Answer: a) n
Try it:
( )
5
5
n is the same as
( )
1
5 5
n , which is equal to n, since
(n
a
)
b
= n
ab
, and 5 times 1/5 equals 1.
Alternatively,
( ) ( )( )( )( )( )
5
5 5 5 5 5 5
. n n n n n n n = =
You can try this out if you need convincing. Pick a few numbers and see
what happens!
ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide
Exponents & Roots
Odds & Evens
Answer: Yes, x – y is even
Even numbers can be represented as 2m or 2n, where m and n are
integers. (Think about why this is.) Subtracting two numbers of
this form would yield 2n – 2m, or 2(n – m), which has 2 as a
factor, so it is even.
More simply, we could just recall: an even number minus an
even number is always even.
When in doubt, try it out! Pick numbers to test properties.
ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide
Odds & Evens
11 12
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
Is the statement sufficient?
xy < 0. Is y < 0?
1) y
2
x > 0
If the units digit of an integer is 7,
then which one‐digit integers is it
definitely NOT divisible by?
Even Roots
Answer: Sufficient
If we know that xy < 0, then we know that x and y have
different signs – one must be positive and the other negative.
From the statement, we know that x must be positive,
because we are not allowed to take an even root of a negative
number. If x is positive, then y must be negative. The
answer to the question is yes, and the statement is sufficient.
ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide
Roots
Divisibility Rules
Answer: 2, 4, 5, 6, and 8
Integers that are divisible by 2, 4, 6, or 8 end in 2, 4, 6, 8, or 0;
those divisible by 5 end in 5 or 0.
As an exercise, try to provide examples of integers with a ones digit of 7
that are divisible by 1, 3, 7, and 9.
ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide
Divisibility & Primes
13 14
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
Calculate
5
4
16 .
Is the statement sufficient?
If x is divisible by y, is x/y odd?
1) x and y are both odd.
Fractional Exponents
Answer: 32
Using the rules of exponents,
( )
( )
= =
5
1
5 1
5 4
4 4
16 16 16 .
Since it is easier to calculate
1
4
16 than it is to calculate 16
5
, the
latter representation will be easier to simplify.
1
4
16 = 2, and 2
5
= 32.
ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide
Exponents
Odds and Evens
Answer: Sufficient
This question is tricky, because an odd divided by an odd can
yield an odd integer or a noninteger. However, the question
stem states that x is divisible by y. Therefore, x/y is an integer,
and the result must be odd.
ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide
Odds & Evens
15 16
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
If an integer that is divisible by 6 is
squared, then which (nonzero) one‐
digit integers is this squared result
definitely divisible by?
=
4 3
4 4 3
(6 )(50 )
(2 )(3 )(10 )
Divisibility
Answer: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 9
Call the original integer n. Since n is divisible by 6, we can say
n = 6m, where m is any integer. Squaring n yields n
2
= (6m)
2
=
36m
2
. Since 36 is divisible by 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 9, they are all
factors of n
2
as well.
Any combination of 5, 7, and/or 8 may also divide n
2
, but we can’t say
for sure whether they do without knowing what m is.
ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide
Divisibility & Primes
Simplifying Exponential Expressions
Answer: 5
3
Instead of multiplying out everything, look for ways to
reduce. On the top of the fraction, 6
4
can be separated into
(2
4
)(3
4
). This can be cancelled with the 2
4
and 3
4
on the
bottom of the fraction, so we are left with
3
3
50
10
, which can be
reduced to 5
3
. (Note that 5
3
= 125.)
ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide
Exponents
17 18
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
Simplify the following expression:
(4(6(8(9
0
))
1
)
‐1
)
2
If the ones digit of an integer is 0,
then which (nonzero) one‐digit
integers is the integer definitely NOT
divisible by?
Order of Operations
Answer: 1/144
PEMDAS dictates the order of operations to perform. We
must always calculate the innermost parentheses first, then
work our way outwards. Calculate 9
0
= 1 first; then 8
1
= 8.
Next we have (6(8))
–1
= 1/48.; then (4/48)
2
= 1/144.
It’s easy to remember PEMDAS with this saying: Please Excuse My Dear
Aunt Sally!
ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide
PEMDAS
Divisibility Rules
Answer: None
It could be divisible by any of the onedigit integers! (Except
for 0; dividing by 0 is always off limits.)
To verify, take any nonzero onedigit integer, multiply it by ten, and the
product will end in zero and be divisible by the original onedigit integer.
ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide
Divisibility & Primes
19 20
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
If x is even and y is odd, is
x
2
+ y
2
even or odd?
Given that y
7
< y
6
, describe all of the
possible values for y.
Odds & Evens
Answer: x
2
+ y
2
is odd
An even number can be represented as 2m, and an odd number
can be represented as 2n + 1, where m and n are integers. Squaring
the even number yields 4m
2
; the odd, 4n
2
+ 4n + 1. Adding these
together yields 4m
2
+ 4n
2
+ 4n + 1. The 1
st
3 terms all have 4 as a
factor, so their sum is even, and an even number plus 1 is odd.
More simply, we could just recall: an even number squared is
always even, an odd number squared is always odd, and an even
plus an odd is always odd.
When in doubt, try it out! Pick numbers to test properties.
ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide
Odds & Evens
Testing Positive and Negative Cases
Answer: y < 1, but not equal to 0 (alternatively, 0 < y < 1
or y < 0)
Think about various categories of numbers: if y were negative,
then y
7
would also be negative, while y
6
would be positive;
then y
7
< y
6
. If y = 0 or 1, then y
7
= y
6
, which is not acceptable.
When y is between 0 and 1, y
7
< y
6
, since y
7
would equal y
6
times some fraction between 0 and 1. Finally, when y > 1, y
7
>
y
6
.
ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide
Exponents
21 22
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
Is the statement sufficient?
The positive integer x is a prime
number. What is x?
1) x + 11 is a prime number.
Is the statement sufficient?
Is a < 0?
1) a
b
< 0
Prime Numbers
Answer: Sufficient
If you tested numbers to answer this question, you probably
figured out pretty quickly that 2 is a possible value of x. If
you continue to test numbers to make sure there are no other
possible values for x, you may notice a pattern emerging.
11 + 3 = 14, 11 + 5 = 16, 11 + 7 = 18, etc. 11 plus any
prime besides 2 will yield an even number. 2 is the only even
prime, because every other even number has 2 as a factor.
Therefore, x must equal 2. The statement is sufficient.
ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide
Divisibility & Primes
Exponents
Answer: Sufficient
In order for a
b
< 0, a must be negative. (This is equivalent to
saying that a < 0.)
If a were nonnegative, then the minimum value a
b
could take
would be 0, regardless of the value of b.
ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide
Exponents
23 24
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
Is the statement sufficient?
Is x/y even?
1) x and y are both even.
What is the greatest number of
primes that could be included in a set
composed of four consecutive
integers? Name the elements of the
set.
Odds & Evens
Answer: Insufficient
Even numbers can be represented as 2m or 2n, where m and n are
integers. (Think about why this is.) Dividing would give
(2n)/(2m), or just n/m. Not only can it not be determined
whether this result is even (e.g., x = 40 and y = 4) or odd
(e.g., x = 44 and y = 4), we cannot even determine that it will
be an integer! (e.g, x = 42 and y = 4.) The statement is
insufficient.
ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide
Odds & Evens
Prime Numbers
Answer: 3, in the set {2, 3, 4, 5}
Any set composed of four consecutive integers will contain
two even and two odd integers. Since 2 is the only even
integer that is prime, no such sets can have four primes, and
sets that do not contain 2 can have, at most, two primes. The
only set with three primes is {2, 3, 4, 5}.
Why isn’t {1, 2, 3, 4} acceptable as another solution to this question?
ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide
Divisibility & Primes
25 26
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
What is the greatest common factor
of 990 and 924?
x is divisible by 144. If
3
x is an
integer, then which of the following
is
3
x definitely divisible by? (Choose
all that apply)
a) 4 b) 8 c) 9 d) 12
Greatest Common Factor
Answer: 66
To find the Greatest Common Factor of 2 or more numbers,
you need to figure out all the factors they share in common.
In this case, 990 and 924 each have one 2, one 3 and one 11.
That means that the GCF will be 2 × 3 × 11, or 66.
ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide
Divisibility & Primes
Divisibility
Answer: a) 4 and d) 12
Remember that when we complete a prime box for a variable, that
variable could still have additional factors. For the cube root of a
number to be an integer, the original number must have 3 of each
prime factor, or some multiple of 3 (3, 6, 9, etc.). In this case, that
means the factors of x that we can’t see must include at least two
additional 2s and one additional 3. From this information, we can
definitively conclude that
3
x must have two 2s and one 3 as
factors. 4 and 12 are the only numbers in the list we can guarantee
are factors of
3
. x
ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide
Divisibility & Primes
990
2 495
3 165
3 55
5 11
924
2 462
2 231
3 77
7 11
27
28
144
2, 2, 2, 2,
3, 3
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
What is the only two‐digit number
that is both a perfect square and a
perfect cube?
Is the statement sufficient?
Is > x y ?
1) x – y > 0
Exponents & Roots
Answer: 64
We need a 2digit integer that is both a perfect square and a
perfect cube. This set includes all integers of the form m
3
= n
2
,
where both m and n are integers. Manipulating the equation
tells us that n = m
3/2
. Thus we can only choose integers for m
that will make n an integer—so m must be a perfect square.
The only perfect square that works is 4: 4
3
= 64, a 2digit
integer. 9 doesn’t work, because 9
3
= 729, a 3digit integer. 1
doesn’t work either, because 1
3
= 1, a 1digit integer.
ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide
Exponents & Roots
Testing Positive and Negative Cases
Answer: Insufficient
When variables are inside absolute values, a big unknown is
whether the variables are positive or negative. If x and y are
both positive, then the answer to the question will be yes.
But now suppose that x is 3 and y is –7. 3 – (–7) = 10. In
this case, the answer to the question is no. We have a yes
case and a no case. The statement is insufficient.
ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide
Positives & Negatives
29 30
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
Dinner cost $230 including a 15% tip.
How much was dinner without the
tip?
(10
4
)(0.000001) =
Percents
Answer: $200
If $230 includes the cost of the dinner plus an additional
15%, then it is 115% of the cost of the dinner, so 230 =
(115/100)x.
100 115 100
230
115 100 115
x
200 = x
ManhattanGMAT Fractions, Decimals & Percents Strategy Guide
Percents
Powers of 10
Answer: 0.01 or 10
2
An easy shortcut when dealing with powers of 10 is to simply
move the decimal over the same number of units as the
exponent. In this case, the exponent is 4, so we move the
decimal to the right 4 places. Alternatively, .000001 can be
rewritten as 10
6
, and (10
4
)(10
6
) = 10
2
.
ManhattanGMAT Fractions, Decimals & Percents Strategy Guide
Digits & Decimals
1 1
1 1 1
2
1 2
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
Which number is closest to 7% of 1,440?
a) 50
b) 75
c) 100
The original price of an iPhone® was
increased by 25%. A sale brought the
price of the iPhone® back down to its
original price. The sale reduced the
new price of the iPhone® by what
percent?
Benchmark Values
Answer: c) 100
We can save time by estimating. 1,440 is
approximately 1,400, which is 14 × 100. 7% of
(14)(100) = (7/100)(14)(100) = 7 × 14 = 98.
This is a slight underestimate, so answer choice
c) must be correct.
ManhattanGMAT Fractions, Decimals & Percents Strategy Guide
Percents
Percents
Answer: 20%
Start with a smart number. Assume the price of the
iPhone® is $100. 25% of 100 is 25, so the increased
price was $125. We know the sale then reduced the
price of the phone to its original price, $100, so the
sale reduced the price by $25, because 125 – 100 =
25. The percent decrease is the difference in prices
divided by the original price. 25/125 reduces to 1/5,
which is 20%.
ManhattanGMAT Fractions, Decimals & Percents Strategy Guide
Percents
3 4
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
Which fraction is greater in each
pair?
5
8
or
6
10
?
132
300
or
89
170
?
502 626
471 863 1
,
, ,
a) 3
b) 4
c) 5
d) 30
e) 35
Compare Fractions
Answer:
5
8
and
89
170
ManhattanGMAT Fractions, Decimals & Percents Strategy Guide
Fractions
Heavy Division Shortcut
Answer: a) 3
We are only asked for an approximate answer, so use the
heavy division shortcut.
1, 863, 471 18
3
626, 502 6
ManhattanGMAT Fractions, Decimals & Percents Strategy Guide
Digits & Decimals
For the first set of fractions, we
can cross multiply and compare
the numerators.
8
5
10
6
50 is greater than 48,
so
8
5
is greater.
For the second set of
fractions, estimate.
132
300
is
less than half, whereas
89
170
is
more than half.
89
170
is thus
larger.
50 48
5
6
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
A bag of jellybeans contains 4 flavors:
watermelon, cherry, orange and pear. 1/4 of
the jellybeans are watermelon, 1/3 are
cherry, 1/6 are orange, and the rest are pear.
What percent of the jellybeans are pear?
What is 35% of 120?
FDP Connections
Answer: 25%
First we need to find out what fraction of the jellybeans are
not pear flavored. We have to add the fractional amounts of
the other flavors. The common denominator is 12, so
3 4 2 9 3
12 12 12 12 4
. Thus,1 – 3/4 = 1/4 of the
jellybeans must be pear. 1/4 expressed as a percent is 25%.
ManhattanGMAT Fractions, Decimals & Percents Strategy Guide
FDP’s
Benchmark Values
Answer: 42
Although 35% of a number is not easy to find without some
calculation, 10% and 5% are usually easier.
35% = 3 × 10% + 5%
10% of 120 is 12 and 5% is half of 10%, so 5% of 120 is 6.
3 × (12) + 6 = 36 + 6 = 42
ManhattanGMAT Fractions, Decimals & Percents Strategy Guide
Percents
7 8
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
What is the units digit of (2
7
)(7
4
)(5
6
)?
Is the statement sufficient?
Last year, John earned a combined $150,000 from his
salary and bonus. This year, the amount he earned from
salary was the same percentage of his total earnings as it
was last year. How much was John’s salary this year?
1) Last year, John earned twice as much from his salary as
he did from his bonus.
Units Digit
Answer: 0
Although you could multiply everything out, that is too time
consuming. Notice that 2 × 5 = 10. That means the units
digit is 0. Anything multiplied by 0 is 0, so we know that the
units digit of the final product will be 0.
ManhattanGMAT Fractions, Decimals & Percents Strategy Guide
Digits & Decimals
Percents
Answer: Insufficient
We do have enough information to determine the amount
John earned from salary and from bonus last year. ($100,000
comes from salary and $50,000 from bonus.) But we are only
told that the same percentage of his total earnings this year
came from salary. Lacking the actual amount of salary,
bonus, or total earnings, we do not have enough information
to answer the question. The statement is insufficient.
ManhattanGMAT Fractions, Decimals & Percents Strategy Guide
Percents
9 10
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
21,267 is approximately what
percent of 10
6
?
a) 0.2%
b) 2%
c) 20%
Which of the following is closest to
23% of 41/60 of 240 rounded to the
nearest integer?
a) 24 b) 39 c) 52 d) 68
Benchmark Values
Answer: b) 2%
Use benchmark values to estimate. 10
6
= 1,000,000. Finding
1% is the same as dividing by 100, so 1% of 10
6
is 10
4
or
10,000. Since 21,267 is a little more than twice 10,000, so
21,267 is approximately 2% of 10
6
. You could also use heavy
division to estimate your answer:
6
21, 267 21, 267
2%
10 1, 000, 000
ManhattanGMAT Fractions, Decimals & Percents Strategy Guide
Percents
Estimation
Answer: b) 39
The answer choices are far apart, so we can save time by
estimating. 41/60 is close to 40/60, which is 2/3. 240 × 2/3
= 160. 23% is close to 25%. To calculate 25% of a number,
just divide by 4. 160/4 is 40. The best answer is b) 39.
ManhattanGMAT Fractions, Decimals & Percents Strategy Guide
FDP Strategy
11 12
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
3
4 2
(57)(10 )(0.001)
(10 )(10 )
Powers of 10
Answer: 0.57
First, change 0.001 to 10
3
. Now, combine the terms on the
top and the bottom.
(10
3
)(10
–3
) = 10
0
= 1
(10
4
)(10
–2
) = 10
2
We are left with
2
(57)(1)
(10 )
. To divide by 10
2
, just move the
decimal to the left 2 places. 57 becomes 0.57.
ManhattanGMAT Fractions, Decimals & Percents Strategy Guide
Digits & Decimals
Percents
Answer: Sufficient
Let’s label the revenue for 2006 as x and the revenue for 2007 as y.
From the question, we know that x + y = 700,000. From the statement,
we know that revenue dropped 25% from 2006 to 2007, which means
the revenue from 2007 is only 75% of the revenue for 2006. Thus
0.75x = y. We can substitute this into the original equation to find x +
(0.75x) = 700,000 and solve for x.
ManhattanGMAT Fractions, Decimals & Percents Strategy Guide
Percents
Is the statement sufficient?
The combined revenue for a company for
2006 and 2007 was $700,000. What percent
of the combined revenue was earned in
2006?
1) Revenue dropped 25% from 2006 to 2007.
13 14
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
The price of a television increased
from $180 to $216. What is the
percent increase in the price?
What percent of 1.5 × 10
7
is
4,500,000?
Percent Change
Answer: 20%
Percent change is equal to change divided by original value.
The change is 216 – 180 = $36. The original price is $180.
36/180 reduces to 1/5, which is the same as 20%.
ManhattanGMAT Fractions, Decimals & Percents Strategy Guide
Percents
Benchmark Values
Answer: 30%
1.5 × 10
7
=15,000,000. We can use benchmark values to
estimate. 10% of 15,000,000 is 1,500,000. This is too small.
But notice that 1,500,000 is 1/3 of 4,500,000, so if we triple
10% of 15,000,000, we’ll have our answer. Therefore,
4,500,000 is 30% of 1.5 × 10
7
.
ManhattanGMAT Fractions, Decimals & Percents Strategy Guide
Percents
15
16
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
Is the statement sufficient?
What is the units digit of 9
x
?
1) x is a prime number.
Last Digit
Answer: Insufficient
When trying to find the units digit of a number, ignore all the
other digits in a number. 9
1
= 9, 9² = 81, 9³ = 729, 9
4
= 6,561.
The units digit of 9 raised to the first four powers is 9, 1, 9, 1,
etc. We see that the pattern repeats: odd exponents yield a
units digits of 9, while even exponents yield a units digit of 1.
We know that x is prime. Although all other primes are odd,
2 is even. Thus we cannot determine the units digit, and the
statement is insufficient.
ManhattanGMAT Fractions, Decimals & Percents Strategy Guide
Digits & Decimals
Percents
Answer: 50%
When solving word problems involving percents, it’s usually
helpful to pick 100 as your starting value. If the price is
increased by 50%, the new price is $150. The sale reduces the
price to 75% of the original price. $100 is the original price,
so the sale reduces the price to $75. The question asks what
percent the sale price is of the increased price.
75/150 = 1/2 = 50%.
ManhattanGMAT Fractions, Decimals & Percents Strategy Guide
Percents
The price of a refrigerator is
increased by 50%. It then goes on
sale, with the new sale price equaling
75% of the original price. The sale
price is what percent of the
increased price?
17 18
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
Is the statement sufficient?
Carla earns a base salary of $30,000 plus 10% commission
on her total sales revenue exceeding $50,000. How much
did she make on commission this year?
1) If her total sales revenue had been 25% higher, her
commission would have been 20% higher.
Last Digit
Answer: 5
When solving for the units digit of a number, you can ignore
all the other digits.
5³ = 125. Drop the other digits and keep the 5.
7² = 49. Drop the other digits and keep the 9.
3² = 9. Keep the 9.
5 × 9 = 45. Keep the 5.
5 × 9 = 45.
The units digit is 5.
ManhattanGMAT Fractions, Decimals & Percents Strategy Guide
Digits & Decimals
FDP Connections
Answer: Sufficient.
First, label total commission c and total sales revenue r. The
key is to realize that we have 2 different ways to express the
relationship between our two variables. From the question,
we know that c = 0.1(r – 50,000). From the statement, we
know that 1.2c = 0.1(1.25r – 50,000). We know that we have
2 linear equations relating our 2 variables, so we will get one
unique solution.
For extra practice, what is the value of c and r?
ManhattanGMAT Fractions, Decimals & Percents Strategy Guide
FDP’s
What is the units digit of (5³)(7²)(3²)?
19 20
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
Factor:
x
2
– 11x + 30 = 0
For each of the following, could the answer
be an integer if x is an integer greater than 1?
a) x
10
+ x
–10
=
b) x
1/6
+ x
1/2
=
Factoring Quadratic Equations
Answer: (x – 5)(x – 6) = 0
Since the last sign is positive, set up 2 parentheses with the
sign of the middle term.
(x – )(x – )
Find two numbers that multiply to 30 and add to 11 and place
them in the parentheses.
(x – 5)(x – 6)
What values for x solve the equation?
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VICs Strategy Guide
Quadratic Equations
Fractional and Negative Exponents
Answer: a) No; b) Yes
a) No. x
–10
= 1/x
10
. For any x > 1, this won’t be an integer.
b) Yes. This is equivalent to
6
x x + , so if x has an integer
sixth root this will be an integer. For example, if x equals 64,
the sixth root of x is 2, and the square root is 8.
Any number with an integer sixth root will have an integer square root.
Why?
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VICs Strategy Guide
Exponential Equations
1 2
Is it possible to solve for a single value of x in
each of the following systems of equations?
a) 2x + 3y = 8 b) x
2
+ y – 17 = 0
2x – y = 0 y = 2x
c) 2x – 4y = 13
–6x + 12y = –39
What is the 25
th
term of this
sequence?
S
n
= S
n–1
– 10 and S
3
= 0.
Basic Equations
Answer: a) Yes; b) No; c) No
a) Yes. We are given 2 linear equations. There are no xy
terms or x/y terms.
b) No. There is an x
2
term. Even if 2x is substituted into
the first equation for y, 17 isn’t a perfect square, so we should
expect the quadratic to have 2 distinct solutions.
c) No. The two equations are equivalent. The second
equation is just the first equation multiplied by –3.
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VICs Strategy Guide
Basic Equations
Linear Sequences
Answer: –220
First, we need to convert the recursive sequence definition
provided into a direct sequence formula. Each term is 10 less
than the previous one. Therefore S
n
= –10n + k, where k is
some constant that we must determine. Use S
3
to find a value
for k: 0 = –10(3) + k. Thus, k = 30, so S
n
= –10n + 30.
Now we plug in 25 for n: S
25
= –10(25) + 30 = –220.
Alternatively, we could plug in 0 for S
3
and find that
S
4
= –10, S
5
= –20, S
6
= –30, etc. Thus, S
25
= –220.
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VICs Strategy Guide
Formulas
3 4
Is the statement sufficient?
What are the solutions to the equation
x
2
+ kx – 10 = 0, where k is a constant?
(1) One of the solutions is –5.
Is the statement sufficient?
Is x > y?
(1) ax < ay
Factoring Quadratic Equations
Answer: Sufficient
If one solution is –5, we know one of the factors of the
quadratic expression is (x + 5). We now know the other
factor is (x – 2) because the two numbers in parentheses must
multiply to –10. Therefore the other solution is x = 2. The
statement is sufficient.
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VICs Strategy Guide
Quadratic Equations
Positives & Negatives
Answer: Insufficient
We do not know the sign of a, so we cannot simply divide by
a on both sides. We must consider two possible scenarios
when rephrasing statement (1). If a > 0, then we can divide
by a on both sides and x < y. However, if a < 0, after
dividing we flip the inequality sign and get x > y. The
statement is insufficient.
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VICs Strategy Guide
Inequalities
5
6
Solve for y:
y
2
+ 7y – 60 = 0
What is the value of x?
5
3x
= 5
7x‐4
Factoring Quadratic Equations
Answer: y = ÷12, 5
Since the last sign is negative, set up 2 parentheses with
opposite signs. (y + )(y – )
Find two numbers that multiply to 60 and subtract to 7:
12 × 5 = 60 12 – 5 = 7
Place the larger number in the parentheses with the same sign
as the middle term (+7y):
(y + 12)(y – 5) = 0
If y + 12 = 0, then y = ÷12. If y – 5 = 0, then y = 5.
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VICs Strategy Guide
Quadratic Equations
Same Base
Answer: 1
Since the bases are equal, we can simply set the exponents
equal to each other.
3x = 7x – 4
4 = 4x
1 = x
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VICs Strategy Guide
Exponential Equations
7 8
What is the minimum value of
f(x) = –5 + (x + 7)
2
, and at what value
of x does it occur?
What are all possible values of x?
x
2
– 27x + 50 = 0
Quadratic Functions
Answer: minimum value = ÷7, x = ÷5
The squared expression will always be nonnegative, so to
make f(x) as small as possible, make the squared expression as
small as possible – set it equal to zero. If x + 7 = 0, x = –7.
Once you have the x value, plug it back into the original
equation to solve for the minimum value. f(x) = –5 + (0)
2.
Therefore, the minimum value is –5.
Remember, f(x) and y are synonymous.
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VICs Strategy Guide
Functions
Factoring Quadratic Equations
Answer: x = 2 or 25
Since the last sign is positive, set up 2 parentheses with the
sign of the middle term.
(x – ) (x – )
Find two numbers that multiply to 50 and add to 27 and place
them in the parentheses.
(x – 2) (x – 25) = 0.
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VICs Strategy Guide
Quadratic Equations
9 10
Simplify:
–
7
b
≥ 4
Simplify:
a) 4
5
+ 4
5
+ 4
5
+ 4
5
b) xw + yw + zx + zy
Inequalities
Answer: b ≤ −28
To isolate b, multiply both sides by −7 and flip the direction
of the inequality sign.
When multiplying or dividing an inequality by a negative number,
remember to switch the direction of the inequality sign.
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VICs Strategy Guide
Inequalities
Factoring
Answer: a) 4
6
; b) (w + z)(x + y)
a) The greatest common factor is 4
5
.
4
5
(1 + 1 + 1 + 1) = 4
5
(4) = 4
6
.
Make sure to look for common terms that can be factored out of an
expression. Factoring is often a crucial step toward solving an equation.
b) Factor by grouping: (xw + yw) + (zx + zy) =
w(x + y) + z(x + y) = (w + z)(x + y).
If you have 4 expressions and 4 variables, look to factor by grouping.
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VICs Strategy Guide
Basic Equations
11 12
Solve for each of the following:
a) If
2
7 y
x
÷
=
, What is 2x + y?
b) If 5 2 = +r t , What is 3r + 6t?
Distribute:
(b + 7)(b – 10)
MADS Manipulations
Answer: a) 7; b) 75
a) Multiply both sides by 2 and add y to each
side.
2x + y = 7
b) Square both sides and multiply by 3.
6t + 3r = 75
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VICs Strategy Guide
Basic Equations
FOIL
Answer: b
2
− 3b − 70
Use FOIL – First, Outer, Inner, Last
(b)(b) + (b)(−10) + (7)(b) + (7)(−10)
b
2
– 10b + 7b – 70
b
2
– 3b – 70
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VICs Strategy Guide
Quadratic Equations
13 14
If 2 is one solution to the equation
x
2
– 9x + c = 0, where c is a constant,
what is the other solution?
What error has been made?
36
2
= x
36
2
= x
6 = x
Factoring Quadratic Equations
Answer: 7
Work backwards – even though we do not know the value of
c, since 2 is one solution, we know the factored form of the
quadratic is
(x – 2)(x − ?). We also know that the two numbers in
parentheses must add to −9. Therefore the factored form is
(x – 2)(x – 7) and the other solution is x = 7.
This problem can also be solved by plugging x = 2 into the original
equation and solving for c.
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VICs Strategy Guide
Quadratic Equations
Even Exponents
Answer:
Remember,
2
x x = . So after we take the square root of
both sides, we have 6 x = .
This gives two possibilities: x = 6 or x = −6.
Alternatively, simply recall that there are always two possible
solutions in exponential equations with an even exponent.
Thus when x
2
= 36, x = 6 or –6.
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VICs Strategy Guide
Exponential Equations
15 16
If c < 4, what is the range of possible
values of d for the equation
3c = −6d?
What are the roots of x
3
– x = 0?
Extreme Values
Answer: d > –2
We can actually replace c with its extreme value, which is “less
than 4.” The equation will read 3(less than 4) = −6d. So (less
than 12) = −6d. Divide by −6, and remember to flip the sign,
because we’re dividing by a negative. Thus we have (greater
than −2) = d.
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VICs Strategy Guide
Inequalities
Factoring
Answer: x = 0, −1, or 1
Factor the equation, since we already have 0 on one side:
x ( x
2
– 1 ) = 0
x ( x + 1) (x – 1) = 0
x = 0, −1, or 1.
The temptation is to move x to the other side and divide both sides by
x, leaving us with x
2
= 1. Avoid dividing away a variable unless you
know it does not equal 0.
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VICs Strategy Guide
Basic Equations
17 18
Consider the formula =
3
2
.
a
H
b
If a is doubled and b is increased by a factor
of 4, by what factor is H increased?
What is x? (Hint: Try a method other
than substitution)
x + y = 10
3x ÷ 5y = 6
Formulas with Unspecified Amounts
Answer: 2
The exponent of 3 on a means when we double a, the whole
formula gets multiplied by 2
3
, or 8. b has no exponent, but it
is in the denominator, so quadrupling it is the equivalent of
multiplying the formula by 1/4. Thus, H gets multiplied by 8
× 1/4 = 2.
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VICs Strategy Guide
Formulas
Solving by Combination
Answer: 7
One way to solve for a variable when you have two equations is to
combine the equations in a way that eliminates one variable. In this
case, we can multiply the first equation by 5, and then add it to the
second equation, giving us:
5x + 5y = 50
3x – 5y = 6
8x + 0y = 56 → x = 7
On the GMAT, combination is often faster than substitution.
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VICs Strategy Guide
Basic Equations
19
20
Is the statement sufficient?
Is xy < 25?
(1) x and y are both less than 5.
Solve for w:
2
2w
= 8
w ‐ 5
Extreme Values
Answer: Insufficient
We cannot simply multiply x < 5 and y < 5 to get xy < 25. If
x and y are both negative, xy could be greater than 25.
Example: (−10)(−4) = 40.
Could we multiply x > 5 and y > 5 to get xy > 25?
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VICs Strategy Guide
Inequalities
Same Base
Answer: w = 15
We must first obtain the same base on both sides. Convert
the 8 into a power of 2:
2
2w
= (2
3
)
w – 5
2
2w
= 2
3w – 15
Now that the bases are equal, we can set the exponents equal
to each other:
2w = 3w – 15 → w = 15.
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VICs Strategy Guide
Exponential Equations
21 22
Solve:
(x – 4)
2
= 49
The first few steps of a problem are shown. Finish
the problem and answer the question: what is x?
+ = ÷ 3 3 x x
+ = ÷
2
3 ( 3) x x
2
3 6 9 x x x + = ÷ +
2
0 7 6 x x = ÷ +
Taking the Square Root
Answer: x = 11 or –3
Do not multiply out (x – 4)
2
if there is a perfect square on
one side of the equation. Instead, take the square root of
both sides, and remember to place the side of the equation
containing the unknown in an absolute value. 4 7 x ÷ = .
Our two solutions to this equation are x – 4 = 7 and x – 4 =
−7. Solving these two equations gives us x = 11 and −3.
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VICs Strategy Guide
Quadratic Equations
Eliminating the Root
Answer: x = 6 (x does NOT equal 1!)
Although this equation can be simplified and factored into
(x − 6)(x − 1)=0, you need to be careful. When you square
an equation containing a variable, you may create extraneous
solutions. Potential answers need to be plugged back in to
the original equation and verified. 6 is a genuine solution, 1 is
not.
Try plugging 1 back into the original equation to verify that x cannot
equal 1.
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VICs Strategy Guide
Exponential Equations
23 24
What is x + y + z?
x + y = 8
x + z = 11
y + z = 7
Simplify:
( 2 + 3)( 2 − 3)(2 − 3)(2 + 3)
Solving by Combination
Answer: 13
There is often a faster method than solving for the value of each variable. In
this case, we can simply add all the equations together!
x + y = 8
x + z = 11
y + z = 7
2x + 2y + 2z = 26
x + y + z = 13
Remember, x + y + z is a “combo.” In this type of problem there is a good chance
you will not need to determine the individual values of the variables.
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VICs Strategy Guide
Basic Equations
Special Products
Answer: −7
Remember, (a + b)(a – b) = a
2
– b
2
.
Therefore, our expression is equal to:
(2 – 9) × (4 – 3) = (−7)(1) = −7
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VICs Strategy Guide
Quadratic Equations
25
26
Is the statement sufficient?
A group of rabbits multiplies at a constant rate. By
what factor does its population increase every day?
(1) The population grows from 200 to 5,000 in one
week.
Simplify:
a b
a b
÷
+
Population Growth
Answer: Sufficient
Remember, we just need to know that we can calculate the rate of
growth. They’ve given us the initial and final numbers of rabbits,
as well as the time span. That is enough to calculate the rate of
growth. For example, in 7 days, the population increases by a
factor of 5,000/200 = 25. In one day it increases by a factor of
7
25 . (We do not, however, need to actually do this calculation
on a Data Sufficiency question!)
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VICs Strategy Guide
Functions
Using the Conjugate
Answer: ÷ a b
Anytime there is a square root term in the denominator that is added to or
subtracted from another term we can multiply by the conjugate (the same
expression, but with the sign on the 2
nd
term flipped) to simplify:
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
 
÷ ÷
= = = ÷

÷ + ÷
+ ÷
\ .
a b a b a b a b
a b a b
a b
a b a b a b
a b a b
Alternatively, you could use the special product a
2
– b
2
= (a + b)(a – b) to solve.
In this case,
( )( )
÷ = + ÷ a b a b a b , and so the term + a b would
cancel from the top and bottom, leaving ÷ a b
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VICs Strategy
Guide
Quadratic Equations
27
28
Are the two statements sufficient
when combined?
What is x?
(1)
+
3
3 5
x
y z
= 8 (2) 6y + 10z = 18
Simplify:
3 + 2
3
Combo Problems
Answer: Sufficient
Divide the equation in (2) by 2 and get 3y + 5z = 9.
Substitute 9 for the denominator of the fraction in (1). This
leaves an equation with one variable, x.
Remember, when you see 3 variables and only 2 equations, you should
not automatically assume that you cannot solve for a particular value.
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VICs Strategy Guide
Basic Equations
Using the Conjugate
Answer: ÷ 6 3 3
To remove a square root from a denominator of the form a + b ,
multiply the fraction by
a b
a b
÷
÷
. The form is the same whether you are
dealing with numbers, variables, or a combination of the two.
( )
( )( )
÷
 
÷ ÷
= = =

+ ÷ ÷ + ÷
+ ÷
\ .
÷
= ÷
3 2 3
3 2 3 6 3 3
2 3 2 3 4 2 3 2 3 3
2 3 2 3
6 3 3
6 3 3.
1
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VICs Strategy Guide
Exponential Equations
29
30
Is the statement sufficient?
In a sequence of terms in which each term is
twenty‐three times the previous term, what
is the 11
th
term?
(1) The 19
th
term is 40.
How would you factor each of the
following expressions?
a) x
5
– x
3
b) 4
8
+ 4
9
+ 4
10
c) m
n−2
– 3m
n
+ 4m
n+1
Exponential Sequences
Answer: Sufficient
We could simply work backwards from the 19
th
term, dividing
each term by 23. S
18
= 40/23, S
17
= 40/23
2
, etc.
Generally, in a sequence, if you know the factor that each term is being
multiplied by, 23 in this case, and if you know just one term, it is
sufficient to solve for any other term in the sequence.
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VICs Strategy Guide
Sequences
Factoring
Answer:
a) The GCF is x
3
, the smaller power.
x
3
(x
2
– 1) = x
3
(x + 1)(x – 1).
b) The GCF is 4
8
. 4
8
(1 + 4
1
+ 4
2
) = 4
8
(21).
c) The smallest power of m is the GCF. Here it is m
n−2
:
m
n−2
(1 – 3m
2
+ 4m
3
).
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VICs Strategy Guide
Basic Equations
31
32
Set up an appropriate equation to describe
the given scenario:
The elasticity (e) of a material is directly
proportional to the square of its density (d)
and inversely proportional to the cube of its
mass (m).
Direct/Inverse Proportionality
Answer: =
2
3
kd
e
m
A constant k is used in expressions of direct or inverse proportionality.
e is directly proportional to d
2
, which means e = kd
2
. e is also inversely
proportional to m
3
, so e = k/m
3
. Putting these two equations together,
we get
2
3
.
kd
e
m
=
Note that k in the final equation must be the product of the k constants in the first
two equations, but since k could be any value, we can repeat the use of k for
simplicity.
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VICs Strategy Guide
Functions
33
34
Solve by picking numbers:
Bottle 1, with capacity x, is half full of water. Bottle
2, with capacity y, is one sixth full. If Bottle 2 is
three times the size of Bottle 1 and the contents of
Bottle 1 are emptied into Bottle 2, how many liters
of water, in terms of y, are in Bottle 2?
a)
1
2
y b)
1
6
y c)
2
3
y d)
1
3
y e)
5
6
y
Picking Numbers
Answer: d) 1/3 y
When problems involve many fractions and no specific
quantities, it is best to pick numbers that are multiples of all
the denominators in the problem. The least common
multiple of 6 and 2 is 6. Thus, let the capacity of Bottle 1 = 6
and the capacity of Bottle 2 = 18. Bottle 1 holds 3 liters and
bottle 2 holds 3 liters. Bottle 1 is dumped into Bottle 2,
which then contains 6 liters. Test each answer choice with y
= 18 and notice that d) is the solution, since
1
(18) 6.
3
=
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VIC’s Strategy Guide
VIC’s
33
Is the statement sufficient?
Given that x
2
– y
2
= 20, what is y?
(1) x + y = 5
Identify the error:
+ s s + 8! 2 8! 10 x implies that
s s 2 10. x
Special Products
Answer: Sufficient
Factor the special product. We know that (x + y)(x – y) = 20.
Since (x + y) = 5, (x – y) = 4. We have two linear equations,
so we know we can solve for x and y individually.
The equations are linear because there are no squared terms, no xy
terms, and no x/y terms. The solutions are x = 4.5, y = 0.5.
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VICs Strategy Guide
Quadratic Equations
Compound Inequalities
Answer: s s 2 10 is incorrect x
In a compound inequality, you must perform the same
operation to all 3 expressions, not just the outside expressions.
If you subtract 8! from all 3 expressions, you get
2 8! 10 x s ÷ s .
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VICs Strategy Guide
Inequalities
35 36
Is the statement sufficient?
Is xy < 0?
(1) xz > 0 and yz < 0
Factor:
2
9
x
− 25y
2
Positives & Negatives
Answer: Sufficient
xz > 0 means x and z have the same sign. yz < 0 means y and
z have opposite signs. Together, this means that x and y must
have opposite signs and consequently xy < 0.
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VICs Strategy Guide
Inequalities
Special Products
Answer:
  
+ ÷
 
\ .\ .
5 5
3 3
x x
y y
This expression is a slightly more complicated version of the
special product ÷ = + ÷
2 2
( )( ) a b a b a b . Notice that x
2
, 9, 25,
and y
2
are all perfect squares:
( )
    
÷ = ÷ = + ÷
  
\ . \ .\ .
2
2
2
2
25 5 5 5
9 3 3 3
x x x x
y y y y
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VICs Strategy Guide
Quadratic Equations
37
38
The first three terms of a linear
sequence are –2, 18, and 38. What is
the rule for this sequence?
If
20 10 ≤ ≤m
and ÷ s s 2 15 p , and m
and p are both integers, what is the
maximum possible value for m – p?
Linear Sequences
Answer:
Since the terms are increasing by 20, we know the rule is S
n
=
20n + k. Use any of the three given terms to solve for k:
S
2
= 20(2) + k 18 = 40 + k
k = −22
The rule is S
n
= 20n – 22.
Try solving for k using S
1
or S
3
and verify that you get the same value.
Could you express this sequence using a recursive definition?
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VICs Strategy Guide
Sequences
Extreme Values
Answer: 22
To maximize m – p, make m as large as possible and make p as
small as possible. m = 20 and p = −2. 20 − (−2) = 22.
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VICs Strategy Guide
Inequalities
39 40
Is the statement sufficient?
What are the solutions to
x
2
– 10x + b = 0?
1) The sum of the roots is 10.
Solve by picking numbers and
calculating a target:
What is the average of (x + y)
2
and (x – y)
2
?
a) 2x
2
– 2y
2
b) x
2
+4xy + y
2
c) x
2
+ y
2
Factoring Quadratic Equations
Answer: Insufficient
Since the middle term of the quadratic expression is −10x, we
know the factored form would take the form (x – a)(x – b),
where a + b = 10. Thus we already knew the sum of the
roots is equal to 10 before statement (1), so it is not enough
information.
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VICs Strategy Guide
Quadratic Equations
Picking Numbers
Answer: c)
Let’s pick x = 3 and y = 2.
(3 + 2)
2
= 25 and (3 – 2)
2
= 1, so the average is
25 1
13.
2
+
=
Now, let’s test each answer choice:
a) 2(3)
2
– 2(2)
2
= 10
b) (3)
2
+ 4(3)(2) + (2)
2
= 37
c) (3)
2
+ (2)
2
= 13
ManhattanGMAT Equations, Inequalities, & VICs Strategy Guide
VIC’s
41
42
Everyone in a certain office orders a cup of
coffee. The ratio of cappuccinos to lattes to
espressos ordered is 1:2:3. If there are 60
people in the office, how many cups of each
type of coffee were ordered?
The average of 177, 176, 189 and x is
180. What is x?
Unknown Multiplier
Answer: 10 cappuccinos, 20 lattes, 30 espressos
Using the unknown multiplier, we can set up the equation 1x
+ 2x + 3x = 60. Solving for x, we find that x = 10, and then
we can apply that multiple to each element in the proportion.
ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide
Ratios
Balancing Method
Answer: 178
A shortcut to dealing with averages is to focus on how much
above or below the average every number in the set is. Then,
we can “balance” this difference in the final term. In this
example, 177 is 3 below the average, 176 is 4 below the
average, and 189 is 9 above the average.
–3 –4 +9 = +2, so the fourth number must be 2 below the
average to balance it out. 178 is 2 below 180.
ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide
Statistics
1 2
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
Which is the correct expression?
The phone call pricing for a long distance company is as follows:
$5.00 for the first minute, and $0.15 for every additional minute.
After 10 minutes, the price drops to $0.10 per minute. How much
does a 17 minute phone call cost, in dollars?
a) 5 + 10(0.15) + 7(0.10)
b) 5(10) + 0.15 + 7(0.10)
c) 5 + 9(0.15) + 7(0.10)
In a round of miniature golf, the probability
that Jasper will get a hole in one is 1/13. The
probability that Cornelius will get a hole in
one is 1/12. What is the probability that
neither of them will get a hole in one on the
next hole?
Algebraic Translations
Answer: c) 5 + 9(0.15) + 7(0.10)
We know that the first minute costs $5.00. The next 9
minutes (not 10 – don’t forget to subtract out the first
minute!) will be charged at the rate of $0.15 per minute. After
that, the next 7 minutes will be charged at the rate of $0.10
per minute.
ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide
Algebraic Translations
Probability
Answer: 11/13
If Jasper has a 1/13 chance of getting a hole in one, that
means he has a 12/13 chance of not getting it. Similarly,
Cornelius has an 11/12 chance of not getting the hole in one.
Because we want the probability of Jasper not getting the hole
in one AND Cornelius not getting the hole in one, we
multiply the probabilities: × =
12 11 11
.
13 12 13
ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide
Probability
3
4
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
Which of the following changes to a set of at least 3
consecutive positive integers will result in a list
whose median and mean are different?
a) Every number in the list is tripled
b) Every number in the list has 12 added to it
c) Every number in the list is squared
Initially, the ratio of potbellied pigs to
carrots in a room had been 1:60. After
the potbellied pigs ate most of the
carrots, though, the new ratio was 3:1. If
there were 6 potbellied pigs in the room,
how many carrots did they eat, total?
Evenly Spaced Sets
Answer: c) every number in the list is squared
As long as a set of numbers is evenly spaced, its average will
equal its median. The changes described in answer choices a)
and b) would keep the numbers in the lists equally spaced.
Only answer choice c) would change the spacing.
ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide
Statistics
Ratios
Answer: 358 carrots
From the first ratio, we know that there were originally 360
carrots, since 1/60 = 6/360. The second ratio tells us that the
potbellied pigs only left 2 carrots uneaten, since 3/1 = 6/2.
We can calculate that 360 carrots – 2 uneaten carrots = 358
carrots.
ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide
Ratios
5 6
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
Sean is 15 years older than Eric. In 6 years
Sean will be twice as old as Eric. How old is
Eric?
a) 9
b) 14
c) 24
Is the statement sufficient?
Two sets, A and B, have the same number of
elements and the same median. Which set has the
higher average?
1) In Set A, 75% of the numbers are greater than or
equal to the median. In Set B, 50% of the numbers
are greater than or equal to the median.
Using the Answer Choices
Answer: a) 9
An alternative approach to setting up equations and solving for the
appropriate variable is to use the answer choices to help you. To
demonstrate using the right answer, we begin by assuming that Eric is 9.
From the first sentence, we know that Sean is 24. In 6 years, Eric will
be 15 and Sean will be 30. 30 is indeed 2 times 15, so we know that 9 is
the right answer.
For this type of question, using the answer choices is an alternate approach to setting
up the equations. To do very well on the GMAT, it’s important to know how to setup
and solve the algebra, but you should also have other tools available to you.
ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide
Algebraic Translations
Median and Mean
Answer: Insufficient
Although both sets have the same number of elements, it is
important to remember that the median only tells you the
middle number in the list. It tells you nothing about the
distribution of the other numbers in the list.
For added practice, create two pairs of sets A and B. In one set, have the average of A
be higher than the average of B. In the other, have the average of B be higher than the
average of A.
ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide
Statistics
7 8
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
Jeff, completed a 40 mile circuit around
the city. He jogged at a constant speed
of 5 mph, Then Jeff completed the same
circuit again, but this time he biked at a
constant speed of 20 mph. What was
Jeff’s average speed for the total trip?
Is the statement sufficient?
Eight participants in a psychology experiment are given different
amounts of money at the beginning of the experiment. Will the
average amount of money each participant has at the end of the
experiment be higher than, lower than, or equal to the average that
each participant had at the beginning of the experiment?
1) Half of the participants are asked to give 20% of the original
money back, while the other half are given an additional 25%.
Average Speed
Answer: 8 mph
To calculate average speed, you need the total distance traveled and the
total time spent traveling. The distance is straightforward. Jeff traveled
40 miles twice, for a total distance of 80 miles. If we divide distance by
speed, we find that it took him 40/5 = 8 hours to jog the circuit, while it
took him 40/20 = 2 hours on the bike, for a total time of 10 hours.
Finally, the average speed is the total distance divided by the total time:
=
80miles
8mph.
10hours
ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide
Rates & Work
Mean
Answer: Insufficient
It’s important to remember that the average does not give us any
information about any individual number in the set. We only know the
percent by which all the values were changed, but we don’t know the
distribution of the money among the participants. Without that
information, we have no way of knowing what effect those changes will
have on the average after the experiment. The statement is insufficient.
For added practice, assign sets of payouts to each of the participants that result in the
average amount increasing. Then, assign payouts that result in the average amount
decreasing.
ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide
Statistics
9 10
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
Greg and Liz are currently 350 miles
apart. They begin driving toward
each other, Greg driving 60 mph and
Liz driving 40 mph. How long will it
take until they meet?
Which is the correct expression for this problem?
8 students have been chosen to play for PCU’s inter‐collegiate
basketball team. If every person on the team has an equal chance of
starting, what is the probability that both Tom and Alex will start?
(Assume 5 starting positions)
a)
6!
3!3!
8!
5!3!
b)
× ×
× × × ×
6 5 4
8 7 6 5 4
c)
× × × ×
6!
3!3!
8 7 6 5 4
Combined Rates
Answer: 3.5 hours
When dealing with two objects moving toward each other, we
can simplify the calculations by adding the rates together. If
Greg is moving 60 mph and Liz is moving 40 mph, then
together they are traveling 100 miles per hour relative to one
another. At that speed, they will collectively travel 350 miles
in 3.5 hours, because T = (350 miles)/(100 mph) = 3.5.
ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide
Rates & Work
Combinatorics/Probability
Answer: a)
6!
3! 3!
8!
5! 3!
There are two tasks in this problem:
determine how many different combinations
there are of all the players (denominator) and
determine how many of those combinations
include two specific players (numerator). For
the total number of combinations, there are 8
people to choose from, and each person is
either starting or not starting. Thus there is one group of 5 and one
group of 3. To calculate how many combinations include both Tom
and Alex, we assume that they are on the team, and that means we are
now choosing among 6 people for the remaining 3 spots on the team,
while there are still 3 people not on the team.
ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide
Probability
11
12
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
5 people in a company earn an average
salary of $50,000. If 2 of the employees
earn an average of $65,000, what is the
average salary of the remaining 3
employees?
Solve using the “balancing” method
10 years ago Tina was half as old as Ron will
be 7 years from now. Which equation
correctly represents this relationship?
a) (1/2)(T – 10) = (R + 7)
b) (T – 10) = (1/2)(R + 7)
Balancing Method
Answer: $40,000
One approach to this problem is to balance the “overs” and
the “unders.” The 2 employees making $65,000 each make
$15,000 more than the mean, for a total of $30,000 over the
mean. That means the remaining 3 employees need to make
a combined $30,000 under the mean. Distribute that amount
evenly, and the remaining salaries average out to $10,000
below the mean, or $40,000.
ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide
Statistics
Algebraic Translations
Answer: b) (T – 10) = (1/2)(R + 7)
When translating sentences into equations, one of the easiest
mistakes to make is to put the multiplier in the wrong place.
Take the time to verify that it is where it should be. In this
case, if Tina’s age 10 years ago was half what Ron’s age will be
in 7 years, we need to multiply Ron’s age by 1/2 to make
them equal.
Don’t forget to use the parentheses!
ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide
Algebraic Translations
13
14
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
Jerry and Ross decide to have a footrace. They run
1,000 meters. Jerry runs 5 meters per second, and
Ross runs 4 meters per second. Halfway through
the race, Jerry realizes he is ahead and stops
running for one full minute before finishing the
race at the same speed. Who wins the race?
What is the average of 3,456, 3,463, 3,470,
3,477, and 3,484?
Rates & Work
Answer: Ross wins
First, calculate how long it will take Ross to finish the race. T
= D/R. T = (1,000 m)/(4m/s) = 250 s. To make the
calculations simpler for Jerry, add 60 seconds to the total time
to take into account the minute he spent not running. T =
(1,000 m)/(5 m/s) + 60 s = 260 s. Ross finishes the race in
less time.
ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide
Rates & Work
Evenly Spaced Sets
Answer: 3,470
Any time a list is composed of evenly spaced numbers, the
average will equal the median. In this case, all the numbers in
the list are spaced 7 units apart. The median is 3,470, and the
average is also 3,470.
ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide
Statistics
15 16
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
Is the statement sufficient?
6 girls are added to a class, bringing the ratio
of girls to boys to 1:1. How many students
are in the class?
1) The original ratio of girls to boys was 2:3.
Car A travels east at 60 mph. Car B is
45 miles behind Car A and also
travels east at 75 mph. How long will
it take Car B to catch up with Car A?
Unknown Multiplier
Answer: Sufficient
Begin with the unknown multiplier. If the original ratio of
boys to girls is 2:3, then the original number of girls is 2x and
the original number of boys is 3x. After 6 girls are added, the
new ratio is 1:1, so we can write the equation
+
=
2 6 1
3 1
x
x
.
Thus x = 6, and we can use that value to determine how
many students are in the class. The statement is sufficient.
ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide
Ratios
Combined Rates
Answer: 3 hours
When solving a combined rates problem with 2 objects
moving in the same direction, we can ignore their actual
speeds and focus only on the difference between their speeds.
Car B is going 15 mph faster than Car A. That means it will
catch up to Car A at a rate of 15 mph. Car B is currently 45
miles behind Car A, and R × T = D, so
(15 mph) × T = 45 miles. Solving for T gives us T = 3 hours.
ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide
Rates & Work
17 18
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
A shipping company charges 5 + 10/y
2
dollars per package
shipped by a customer over a given month, where y is the
number of packages shipped that month by the customer.
If a customer spends $51 one month on shipping, which
equation will correctly solve for the number of packages
shipped that month by the customer?
a) 5y + 10 = 51
b) 5 + 10/y = 51
c) 5y + 10/y = 51
Jeff can build a doghouse in 6 hours.
Kevin can build the same doghouse
in 3 hours. How long will it take
them, working together, to build 1
doghouse?
Algebraic Translations
Answer: c) 5y + 10/y = 51
We know that y represents the number of packages shipped
by the customer in the month, and 5 + 10/y
2
is the shipping
cost per package for that customer. Therefore, the product of
these two terms must equal 51:
(y)(5 + 10/y
2
) = 51
5y + 10/y = 51
For added practice, what is the value of y? Try choosing integers that make sense.
ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide
Algebraic Translations
Combined Work
Answer: 2 hours
Whenever you are told how long it takes a person to complete a task, a
great first step is to turn that information into a rate. In an R × T = W
equation, we can think of completing the task as doing 1 unit of work.
If it takes Jeff 6 hours to build the doghouse, then his rate is 1/6 of the
doghouse per hour. Similarly, Kevin’s rate of work is 1/3
of the
doghouse per hour. When we combine their rates (because they’re
working together), we see that they complete 1/2 of the doghouse every
hour, because 1/6 + 1/3 = 1/2. At that rate, they will complete the
doghouse in 2 hours.
ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide
Rates & Work
19 20
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
In the World’s Strongest Man competition, Olav
Gundersson managed to pull a truck a total
distance of 85 ft combined in two tries. On his
second try, he pulled the truck 10 ft more than half
the distance he pulled the truck on his first try.
How far did he pull the truck on his first try?
a) 45 ft b) 50 ft c) 55 ft d) 60 ft e) 65 ft
Is the statement sufficient?
John and Fawn, each drinking at a constant pace, can
finish a case of soda together in 12 hours. How fast
can John, drinking alone, finish the case?
1) It would take John 10 more hours to finish the case
drinking alone than it would for Fawn to finish the
case.
Using the Answer Choices
Answer: b) 50 ft
We can set this problem up and solve algebraically. We know that
the sum of the two tries equals 85 feet, and the second try is 10
more than half the first try. Let’s use x to represent the first try
and y to represent the second try:
x + y = 85
y = 10 + 0.5x
x + (10 + 0.5x) = 85
1.5x = 75
x = 50
ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide
Algebraic Translations
Combined Rates
Answer: Sufficient
The key to this problem is to realize that we have 3 variables, and 3
equations describing their relationships. The 3 variables are 1) the rate
at which John drinks, (r
1
) 2) the rate at which Fawn drinks, (r
2
) and 3)
the time it takes John to drink the case of soda (t). The 3 equations are:
1) r
1
+ r
2
= 1/12
2) r
1
× t = 1
3) r
2
× (t – 10) = 1
With 3 equations and 3 variables, we will be able to solve for unique
values for each variable. The statement is sufficient.
ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide
Rates & Work
21 22
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
Is the statement sufficient?
A bag contains ping pong balls, each with a number
written on it. The average of all the numbers is 50. Some
of the ping pong balls are removed. What is the average
of the numbers on the balls still remaining in the bag?
1) One third of the ping pong balls are removed from the
bag, and the average of the numbers written on those
balls is 20.
At a farmer’s market, one stall is selling mangos,
kumquats and rutabagas. The ratio of mangos
to kumquats is 5:4, and the ratio of kumquats to
rutabagas is 3:7. Which of the following could
be the number of kumquats?
a) 28 b) 36 c) 42 d) 49
Weighted Averages
Answer: Sufficient
Although we don’t know how many ping pong balls are in the bag,
we can modify the weighted averages formula to help us answer
this question. The weighted average equals the sum of the weights
times the data points, divided by the sum of the weights. Thus,
1 2
20
3 3
50.
1 2
3 3
x
   
+
 
\ . \ .
=
+
We can solve for x, which will equal the
average of the remaining numbers. The statement is sufficient.
ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide
Statistics
Ratios
Answer: b) 36
A common hidden constraint of word problems involving
ratios is that the actual number of items must be an integer.
For instance, it would not make sense in this context to have
5 1/3 mangos. The correct answer will be a multiple of both
4 and 3, based on the ratios involving kumquats.
For added practice, if there are 36 kumquats, how many mangos and
rutabagas are there?
ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide
Ratios
23 24
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
Is the following statement sufficient?
In 2006, John paid 4% state taxes on his gross
income. How much state tax did he pay in 2007?
1) The state tax increased to 5% of income in 2007,
and his gross income increased 20% in 2007.
Is the statement sufficient?
Train A and Train B are 500 miles apart and are
traveling towards each other at constant speeds.
They meet in 5 hours. How fast is Train A going?
1) If Train B were going twice as fast, the two trains
would meet in 4 hours.
Algebraic Translations
Answer: Insufficient
For these types of word problems, it is important to translate the
information into variables and try to write equations about the
variables/unknowns. In this problem, we can proceed as follows:
TaxRate
2006
= 4% , and the rephrased question is:
What is TaxRate
2007
× Income
2007
?
The statement tells us that TaxRate
2007
= 5% and that Income
2007
= 1.2 ×
Income
2006
, but we do not know the value of Income
2006
.
ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide
Algebraic Translations
Combined Rates
Answer: Sufficient
First, label the speed of Train A as R
A
and the speed of Train
B as R
B
. When dealing with objects moving towards each
other, we can add their rates, so
(R
A
+ R
B
) × (5 hrs) = 500 miles. From the statement, we
also know that (R
A
+ 2 R
B
) × (4 hrs) = 500 miles. We have
2 equations and 2 variables, so we can solve for the speed of
Train A (75 mph). The statement is sufficient.
ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide
Rates & Work
25 26
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
ZABD = ZDAB
What is the perimeter of
Triangle BCD?
Is the statement sufficient?
PR is the longest side.
Is PQR a right triangle?
1) The area of triangle PQR is 30.
Special Triangles
Answer: + 12 4 3
Because ZABD = ZDAB, side BD has length 8. Because
ZBDA is 120°, ZBDC is 60°, so triangle BCD is a 306090
triangle.
Side Ratio Length
CD x 4
BC x 3 4 3
BD 2x 8
ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide
Triangles & Diagonals
Area (Triangles)
Answer: Sufficient
Base and height of a triangle must be perpendicular to each
other. If PQR were a right triangle, side QR would be the
base and side PQ would be the height, and the area would be
½(5)(12) = 30. Thus, triangle PQR is a right triangle, and the
statement is sufficient.
If PQR were anything other than a right triangle, the height of
the triangle would be less than 12, and the area would be less
than 30.
ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide
Triangles & Diagonals
120°
D A
B
C 8
P
Q R
5
12
Note: Figure not drawn to scale
Note: Figure not drawn to scale
1
2
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
What is the area of a circle that has a
circumference of 14π?
The ratio of side PR to side PQ is 5:4.
What is the length of side QR?
Circles
Answer: 49π
The key to this problem is to find the radius, because the
radius is used to calculate both circumference and area.
C = 2πr, so 14π = 2πr. Therefore r = 7.
A = πr², so A = π(7)² = 49π
ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide
Circles & Cylinders
Right Triangles
Answer: 6
First, complete the ratio. 5/4 = 10/PQ. Side PQ has length
8. With two sides of a right triangle, you can use the
Pythagorean theorem to find the third side. In this case,
however, you should recognize that this triangle is a common
Pythagorean triplet—a 6810 triangle. Side QR has length 6.
ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide
Triangles & Diagonals
P
Q
R
10
Note: Figure not drawn to scale
3 4
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
A cylinder has a volume of 10π. If
the radius is doubled and the height
remains the same, what is the
volume of the new cylinder?
What is the surface area of a cube
with side length 5?
Volume (Cylinders)
Answer: 40π
V=πr²h, so 10π=πr²h. We are told the radius is doubled, so
the new radius is 2r. Replace r with 2r and the new equation
is V=π(2r)²h. The new volume is V=4 πr²h. Since we know
that πr²h=10π, we know that V = 4(10π) = 40π. Alternately,
try picking numbers for the cylinder that would produce an
initial volume of 10π; a height of 10 and a radius of 1 are
simplest. Double the radius and calculate the new volume.
ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide
Circles and Cylinders
Surface Area
Answer: 150
Surface area is the sum of all the areas of the faces of the
cube. The faces of a cube are all identical, so the surface area
is the area of one of the faces times 6, because a cube has 6
faces. The area of one face is A = length × width.
Therefore, surface area = 6 × 5 × 5 = 150.
ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide
Polygons
5 6
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
Is the statement
sufficient?
What is the area of triangle PQR?
1) PQ = QR
Note: Figure not drawn to scale
Is the statement sufficient?
What is the area of the circle?
1) ZPQR is a right angle
Right Triangles
Answer: Sufficient
Triangle OQR is a right triangle, and we have 2 sides, so either by using
the Pythagorean Theorem or by recognizing it as a 306090 triangle, we
can find the length of OQ, which is also the height of triangle PQR. If
PQ = QR, then ZOPQ = ZORQ. Additionally, we know that ZPOQ
= ZROQ = 90°. Therefore ZOQP = ZOQR, because when two
triangles have two angles in common, they must have common third
angles. Triangles OQR and OQP are thus similar triangles, and also
have identical side lengths. OP must equal 3, so we have the length of
the base as well as the height. We can calculate the area of triangle
PQR, so the statement is sufficient.
ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide
Triangles & Diagonals
Circles
Answer: Sufficient
If ZPQR is a right angle, then segment PR must be a
diameter of the circle. We can solve for the length of PR
using the Pythagorean Theorem, or by recognizing that
triangle PQR is a 345 triangle. If the diameter of the circle
is 5, then the radius is 2.5. We can solve for the area of the
circle using the formula A = tr
2
, so the statement is
sufficient.
ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide
Circles and Cylinders
Q
P R
O 3
6
P
Q
R
4
3
Note: Figure not drawn to scale
7 8
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
O is the center of the circle. The area
of the circle is 81π. What is the
length of line segment PR?
Note: Figure not drawn to scale
Is the statement sufficient?
What is Zy?
1) x = 70
Special Triangles
Answer: 9 2
If the area of the circle is 81π, then 81π = πr², so r = 9. OP
and OR are both radii, and so both have length 9. If triangle
OPR is a right triangle and has 2 sides with equal length, then
it is a 454590 triangle, and the ratio of the sides to the
hypotenuse is 1: 2 . Therefore, the length of PR is 9 2 .
ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide
Triangles & Diagonals
Parallel Lines
Answer: Insufficient
Don’t trust the picture! Although lines ℓ and m
appear to be parallel, nothing in the question tells us
that they are. Without knowing whether the lines are
parallel, we have no way to determine the value of y.
ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide
Lines & Angles
P R
O
y
x
ℓ
m
9 10
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
What is x?
Segment AD has length 15. What is
the area of rectangle BCDE?
Interior Angles
Answer: 110
◦
The sum of the interior angles of a polygon = (n – 2) × 180,
where n is the number of sides.
(6 – 2) × 180 = 720. Therefore, 5x + 170 = 720.
5x = 550, so x = 110.
ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide
Polygons
Area (Parallelograms)
Answer: 120
If BCDE is a rectangle, then BC = ED. ED must have a
length of 10, so AE has a length of 5. We can use the
Pythagorean Theorem to determine the length of BE, or
recognize that triangle ABE is a 51213 triangle. Segment
BE has a length of 12. Area of a rectangle is A = base ×
height = (10) × (12) = 120.
ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide
Polygons
170° x°
x°
x° x°
x°
B C
D A
13
E
10
Note: Figure not drawn to scale
Note: Figure not drawn to scale
11 12
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
An empty cylindrical swimming pool
has a height of 10 ft; its base has an
area of 15 ft². If water fills the pool
at a rate of 25 ft³ every 10 minutes,
how long will it take for the pool to
be filled?
What is the length of the main
diagonal of a rectangular solid with
sides of length 4, 4 and 2?
Volume (Cylinders)
Answer: 60 Minutes
V= πr²h. Therefore, V = (15 ft²)(10 ft) = 150 ft³. The pool
fills at a rate of 25 ft³ every 10 minutes, and since 25 × 6 =
150, we can proportionally apply this to the rate: 10 × 6 = 60
minutes.
ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide
Circles & Cylinders
“Deluxe” Pythagorean Theorem
Answer: 6
We could use the Pythagorean Theorem twice, or we can save
some time by using the “Deluxe” Pythagorean Theorem to
find the interior diagonal of a rectangular prism (a box): d² =
x² + y² + z².
So d² = 4² + 4² + 2² = 16 + 16 + 4 = 36, and d = 6.
ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide
Triangles and Diagonals
13
14
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
Is the statement sufficient?
What is the slope
of line ℓ?
1) Line ℓ goes through point (15, 6).
The diagonal of a rectangular
flowerbed is 15 2 feet. What is the
area of the flowerbed, if its length
and width are equal?
Slope of a Line
Answer: Sufficient
Although we cannot easily see the point (15, 6) on the grid
given in this problem, we know that two points define a line.
Because line ℓ goes through point (0, 3) and point (15, 6), we
can calculate the slope.
As an exercise, calculate the slope of line ℓ.
ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide
Coordinate Plane
Special Triangles
Answer: 225
If the length and width are equal, then the flowerbed is a
square, and the diagonal is the hypotenuse of a 454590
triangle. The ratio of the sides to the hypotenuse is 1: 2 .
If the hypotenuse is 15 2 , then the sides each have length
15, so the area is ℓ × w = (15) × (15) = 225.
ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide
Triangles & Diagonals
Note: Figure not drawn to scale
15 16
(0,3)
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
0
20
40
60
80
100
1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr
East
West
North
O is the center of the
circle. If minor arc PR has a length of
π, what is ZPOR?
O is the center of
the circle.
What is ZPRQ?
Sectors
Answer: 60°
To determine ZPOR, we first need to determine what
fraction of the circumference minor arc PR is. Circumference
is C = 2πr, so C = 2π(3) = 6π. π/6π = 1/6, so minor arc PR
is 1/6 of the circumference. That means ZPOR is 1/6 of
360°. ZPOR is 60°.
ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide
Circles and Cylinders
Inscribed Angles
Answer: 30°
First, we can calculate ZOPQ: since OP and OQ are the radii
of the circle, they must have equal length, which means the
opposite angles in triangle PQO must be equal. Therefore
ZOPQ = ZPQO = 60°. Since PR is a diameter of the circle,
triangle PQR must be a right triangle. Therefore, ZPRQ
equals 60°, so angle ZPRQ = 180°  90°  60° = 30°.
ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide
Circles and Cylinders
P
R
O
3
P
Q
R
O
60°
Note: Figure not drawn to scale
17 18
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
What is the distance between points
(0,0) and (4,3)?
What is the length of side SP?
Distance Formula
Answer: 5
One way to think of the distance formula is that it’s the square
root of the Pythagorean Theorem. The hypotenuse is the
distance, the difference in the xcoordinates is the horizontal leg
of the triangle, and the difference in the ycoordinates is the
vertical leg. In this case, the two legs of the triangle have lengths 4
and 3, respectively. This is a 345 triangle in disguise. The
hypotenuse of the triangle is 5.
ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide
Coordinate Plane
Pythagorean Triplets
Answer: 36
Although we can use the Pythagorean theorem, the numbers
are large, and the calculation will be timeconsuming.
Remember that multiples of Pythagorean triplets are also
Pythagorean triplets. This is a 345 triangle in disguise.
Every value has been multiplied by 9. 3 × 9 = 27 and 5 × 9
= 45. The value we’re missing is 4 × 9, which equals 36.
ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide
Triangles and Diagonals
S
T
P
27
45
Note: Figure not drawn to scale
(4,3)
(4,0) (0,0)
19 20
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
Which of these lines is perpendicular to the
line whose equation is y =
3
2
x + 6?
a) y =
2
3
x – 6
b) y =
3
2 ÷
x + 2
c) y =
2
3 ÷
x + 7
Is the statement sufficient?
Is point O the center of
the circle?
1) ZPOR = 58°
Perpendicular Lines
Answer: c) y =
÷3
2
x + 7
When determining what lines are perpendicular, there is only
one important piece of information – the slope. The slopes
of perpendicular lines are negative reciprocals. The slope of
the original line is 2/3, so the slope of a perpendicular line
will be –3/2. The slope of the line in answer choice c) is –
3/2.
ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide
Coordinate Plane
Inscribed Angles
Answer: Sufficient
ZPSR is an inscribed angle. If O were the center of the
circle, ZPOR would be a central angle and angle ZPOR
would be twice ZPSR. Because 58° is not twice 30°, we
know that point O cannot be the center of the circle. The
statement is sufficient.
ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide
Circles and Cylinders
P
R
S
Note: Figure not drawn to scale
O
30°
21 22
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
Two sides of a triangle have lengths 3
and 9. Which of the following could
be the length of the third side?
a) 6 b) 8 c) 13
In triangle ABC,
AB = 12, AB = AC, and
BD bisects AC. What is the area of
triangle BDC?
Third Side Rule
Answer: b) 8
In any given triangle, the lengths of any two sides must add
up to greater than the third side. Choice a) fails, because 3 +
6 is not greater than 9. Choice c) fails because 3 + 9 is not
greater than 13. Similarly you could apply the rule that in any
given triangle, the length of any side must be greater than the
difference of the other two.
ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide
Triangles and Diagonals
Area (Triangles)
Answer: 36
We know that AC has a length of 12, because it is equal to
AB. We know that DC has a length of 6, because BD bisects
AC. A= ½ (base) × (height), so A = ½ (6) × (12) = 36.
ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide
Triangles and Diagonals
A
B
C D
23 24
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
The circumference of
the smaller circle is 6π
and the circumference of
the larger circle is 16π. What is the
area of the shaded region?
Is the statement
sufficient?
O is the center of the circle.
PR is a diameter of the circle.
What is the length of line segment QR?
1) The length of minor arc PQ is 4π
Area (Circles)
Answer: 55π
To find the area of the shaded region, we need to find the area of
the entire figure and subtract the area of the smaller circle. The
area of the entire figure is the area of the larger circle. If the larger
circle has a circumference of 16π, then its radius is 8, because C =
2πr. The formula for area is A = πr², so A = π (8)² = 64π. Doing
the same calculations for the smaller circle, we find it has a radius
of 3 and an area of 9π. 64π – 9π = 55π.
ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide
Circles and Cylinders
Sectors
Answer: Sufficient
Note that since PR is the diameter, triangle PQR must be a right
triangle. Since ZPOQ is also a right angle, and 90° is 1/4 of 360°,
we know that minor arc PQ is 1/4 of the circumference. The
circumference of the circle is 4 × 4π = 16π. C = 2πr, so 16π =
2πr. Thus r = 8. Note that in triangle QOR, both OQ and OR
are radii, so they both have length 8. A right triangle with 2 equal
sides is a 454590 triangle, and so we know that the length of
segment QR is 8 2 . The statement is sufficient.
ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide
Circles and Cylinders
Q
O
R P
25
26
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
Is the statement
sufficient?
The area of square BCFE is 16. What is
the area of trapezoid ADFE?
1) The length of AD is 10.
Segment BE bisects segment AD. What is the
area of parallelogram ABCD?
Area (Trapezoids)
Answer: Sufficient
The area of a trapezoid is
+
 

\ .
1 2
2
b b
× (height), where b
1
and b
2
are the parallel bases of the trapezoid. We can determine the
height, because a square that has an area of 16 must have sides of
length 4, and BE is the height of the trapezoid. From the
statement, we know the average of the lengths of the parallel bases
is
+ 10 4
2
= 7, so the area is A = 7 × 4 = 28. The statement is
sufficient.
ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide
Polygons
Area (Parallelograms)
Answer: 24
The area of a parallelogram is A = base × height. If BC has
length 8, then AD also has length 8. If AD is the base, then
BE can be the height, because base and height must be
perpendicular. We are told BE bisects AD, so AE must have
length 4. We see then that triangle ABE is a 345 triangle in
disguise. BE has length 3, and the area is (8)(3) = 24.
ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide
Polygons
5
C
A E D
B
8
Note: Figure not drawn to scale
27 28
F E
A B C D
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
1 error
Identify the error:
Designed to accommodate only 20 million
tons of trash, the mayor proposed that the
landfill, overflowing with more than 35
million tons of trash, be expanded.
2 errors
Identify the errors:
Having considered the new District Attorney as
the city’s “white knight,” citizens of Newtown
were dismayed by the ever‐increasing
numbers of violent crimes.
Modifiers
This question is about modifiers. Notice that “Designed to
accommodate only 20 million tons of trash” does not have a subject.
Therefore, whatever it is that is “designed to accommodate only 20
million tons of trash” should come right after the comma. As this
sentence is written now, that’s the mayor—this doesn’t make sense.
(Note that the subjunctive is used correctly in this sentence: the mayor
proposed that the landfill be expanded).
One correction: The mayor proposed that the landfill, which was
designed to accommodate only 20 million tons of trash but is now
overflowing with more than 35 million tons, be expanded.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Modifiers
Idioms
This question is about idioms. “Considered as” is incorrect.
“Number of” is preferred to “numbers of.”
One Correction: Having considered the new District
Attorney the city’s “white knight,” citizens of Newtown were
dismayed by the everincreasing number of violent crimes.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Idioms
1 2
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
1 error
Identify the error:
The development of a new drug for the
treatment of a variety of nervous system
disorders indicate that the university’s
research funding is producing real results.
2 errors
Identify the errors:
I was at the circus for only half an hour when
the assailant struck; ever since the stabbing, I
am terribly afraid of clowns.
Subject Verb Agreement
This question is about subjectverb agreement. The verb
“indicate” disagrees with the singular subject “development.”
Note that this subject is separated from its verb by four
consecutive prepositional phrases. This is a good example of why
it is very important to match up every subjectverb pair rather than
to play it by ear!
Correct: The development of a new drug for the treatment of a
variety of nervous system disorders indicates that the university’s
research funding is producing real results.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
SubjectVerb Agreement
Verb Tense
This question is about verb tense. In the part of the sentence
before the semicolon, two things happen in the past, in a specific
timeline: I was at the circus, and the assailant struck. Being at the
circus is in “the past of the past,” necessitating the past perfect. “I
am terribly afraid” does not correctly express that the fear began in
the past and continues into the present; the present perfect is
called for here.
Correct: I had been at the circus for only half an hour when the
assailant struck; since the stabbing, I have been terribly afraid of
clowns.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Verb Tense
3 4
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
2 errors
Identify the errors:
He donated a kidney so his wife could live;
for making the incision, the doctors shaved
his stomach.
1 error
Identify the error:
I sent a card thanking my eighth‐grade
English teacher for teaching me about
grammar and inspiration to write.
Idioms
This question is about idioms. The first sentence is missing
the word “that” (the idiom “so that” indicates purpose). “For
making” is incorrect when “in order to make” is the intended
meaning.
One correction: He donated a kidney so that his wife could
live; to make the incision, the doctors shaved his stomach.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Idioms
Parallelism
This question is about parallelism. Elements in a list must be
parallel. “Teaching” and “inspiration” are not parallel. The
lack of parallelism in this sentence not only sounds bad, it
also creates an unintended meaning that the teacher taught
the speaker about his or her inspiration, an unlikely
occurrence.
Correct: I sent a card thanking my eighthgrade English
teacher for teaching me about grammar and inspiring me to
write.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Parallelism
5 6
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
1 error
Identify the error:
The term “red panda” is misleading; it is not a
true panda, but rather an unrelated rodent.
2 errors
Identify the errors:
My husband, along with my sons, regret to
inform you that neither of my sons are
planning to attend your son’s bar mitzvah.
Pronouns
The pronoun “it” certainly matches “the term” in number.
Unfortunately, however, “it” is meant to refer to the actual red
panda, not to the term “red panda.” The sentence is illogical.
Correct: The term “red panda” is misleading; the red panda is
not a true panda, but rather an unrelated rodent.
Remember the “Deadly Five” pronouns: it, its, they, them, and their. Each
time you see one of these pronouns on the GMAT, verify that the pronoun
has an antecedent that appears in the sentence, matches in number, and is
unambiguous and logical.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Pronouns
Subject Verb Agreement
This question is about subjectverb agreement. The verb “regret”
does not match the subject “My husband.” The phrase “along
with my sons” is not part of this subject. (The fact that this
phrase is in commas is also a clue that it is not part of the main
subject. A good rule of thumb is “There are no substitutes for
AND in making a compound plural subject.”) Also, the verb
“are” does not match the singular subject “neither” (note that “of
my sons” is a mere prepositional phrase).
Correct: My husband, along with my sons, regrets to inform you that
neither of my sons is planning to attend your son’s bar mitzvah.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Subject Verb Agreement
7 8
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
1 error
Identify the errors:
Of my two brothers, Salvatore is the most
intelligent. Of my three sisters, Julia is the
cleverest.
1 error
Identify the error:
Wearing the latest in streamlined, high‐tech
swimwear, eight records were broken in
speed swimming.
Quantity Expressions/Idioms
“More” is for comparing two things; “most” is for three or
more.
Correct: Between my two brothers, Salvatore is the more
intelligent. Of my three sisters, Julia is the cleverest.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Quantity Expressions/Idioms
Modifiers/Verb Voice
This question is about modifiers. Who was “wearing the latest in streamlined,
hightech swimwear”? These people, presumably swimmers, are never
mentioned. This creates a dangling modifier, and also implies nonsensically
that the records themselves were wearing hightech swimwear. Make sure that
your modifier modifies something that is actually mentioned in the sentence
(in noun form).
Additionally, the use of the passive voice (“were broken”) is inferior to the
active voice.
Correct: Wearing the latest in streamlined, hightech swimwear, the team
broke eight records in speed swimming.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Modifiers/Verb Voice
9 10
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
1 error
Identify the error:
The murder was an expressing of
longstanding tensions.
3 errors
Identify the errors:
If my mother did not attend the London
School of Economics, she might not meet my
father, and I might not have been here now.
Parallelism
This question is about parallelism. Concrete nouns (murder)
and simple gerunds (expressing) are not as parallel as they
could be.
Correct: The murder was an expression of longstanding
tensions.
Note that if the verb “to express” did not have a noun form (“expression”) we
could use a complex gerund, such as “the expressing of…” But, because the
word “expression” exists, it is preferred to a complex gerund.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Parallelism
Verb Tense
This question is about verb tense, specifically within “If…Then”
constructions. The speaker’s mother’s nonattendance at the London
School of Economics is a past hypothetical; it needs to occur before the
past tense in the “then” clause and thus must be in past perfect tense.
The present tense is inadequate in “might not meet”; certainly the
speaker’s parents know one another, making the meeting an action that
started in the past and continues into the present time. This requires a
present perfect construction. “Have been here now” is complex for no
good reason; the simple present tense is correct.
One correction: If my mother had not attended the London School of
Economics, she might not have met my father, and I might not be here
now.
ManhattanGMAT Answer Correction Strategy Guide
Verb Tense
11 12
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
1 error
Identify the error:
After the president of the college publicly
lamented the sharp drop in the value of its
endowment, the head of faculty suggested
that they initiate a fundraising campaign
immediately.
2 errors
Identify the errors:
Being the world’s top collector of empty vitamin
bottles, Mrs. Simpson has ten times as many
bottles in her robust and famous collection than
does Mr. Flanders, a mere hobbyist.
Pronouns
This question is about pronouns. The first pronoun “its” is a possessive
pronoun that refers back to the college. However, the “they” in the
second sentence lacks an antecedent. There is no plural subject that
appears earlier in the sentence. If we replace “they” with “it”, it is
unclear whether the pronoun “it” refers to the college or to the faculty,
which is a collective noun.
Correct: After the president of the college publicly lamented the sharp
drop in the value of its endowment, the head of faculty suggested that
the college initiate a fundraising campaign immediately.
Remember the “Deadly Five” pronouns: it, its, they, them, and their.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Pronouns
Idioms
This question is about idioms. “Being” is unnecessary and
should be eliminated. The second idiom being tested is “as
… as”; the current sentence incorrectly uses “as … than.”
Correct: The world’s top collector of empty vitamin bottles,
Mrs. Simpson has ten times as many bottles in her robust and
famous collection as does Mr. Flanders, a mere hobbyist.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Idioms
13 14
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
1 error
Identify the error:
Ritika was late to pick up her cat from the vet
after abandoning her broken‐down car on the
side of the road, a 1989 Peugeot.
1 error
Identify the error:
Calvin Coolidge, as well as Herbert Hoover,
are good examples of presidents who held to
the principles of laissez‐faire economics.
Modifiers
This question is about modifiers. The misplaced modifier “a
1989 Peugeot” should be modifying the car, but is actually
modifying the road.
One correction: Ritika was late to pick up her cat from the
vet after abandoning her brokendown car, a 1989 Peugeot,
on the side of the road. (Alternately, “abandoning her
brokendown 1989 Peugeot” would be even more concise).
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Modifiers
Subject Verb Agreement
This question is about subjectverb agreement. The subject of this
sentence is “Calvin Coolidge.” The phrase “as well as Herbert Hoover”
is not part of the subject. The fact that this phrase is in commas is also
a clue that it is not part of the main subject. A good rule of thumb here
is “There are no substitutes for AND in making a compound plural
subject.”
Correct: Calvin Coolidge, as well as Herbert Hoover, is a good example
of a president who held to the principles of laissezfaire economics.
OR: Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover are good examples of
presidents who held to the principles of laissezfaire economics.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Subject Verb Agreement
15
16
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
2 errors
Identify the errors:
She requires that all of her children are to
churn butter; resulting from this daily chore,
the children have formidable biceps.
2 errors
Identify the errors:
If I was the owner of our building, I would
demand, under threat of eviction, that you
should cease playing your djembe at all
hours.
Verb Mood/Idioms
This question is about verb mood and idioms. “Requires that
… are” is incorrect. This clause is in the subjunctive mood,
which uses the infinitive form of the verb without the “to” –
in this case, simply “churn.” “Resulting from” in the second
clause is also incorrect – the correct idiom is “as a result of.”
One correction:. She requires that all of her children churn
butter; as a result of this daily chore, the children have
formidable biceps.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Verb Mood/Idioms
Verb Mood
This question is about the subjunctive mood. “If…was” is never
correct (“If…would” is also incorrect). You must use the hypothetical
subjunctive mood: “If…were.” The command subjunctive is more
commonly tested on the GMAT and is found in the second part of the
sentence: “I would demand that you should cease.” “Demand that you
should” is incorrect on the GMAT. With “bossy verbs,” use the bare
form of the verb (the infinitive form of the verb without the “to”).
Correct: If I were the owner of our building, I would demand, under
threat of eviction, that you cease playing your djembe at all hours.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Verb Mood
17 18
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
3 errors
Identify the errors:
The committee told each of the disqualified
candidates that their official policies
prevented them from hiring them.
1 error
Identify the error:
The nation’s president would rather
misappropriate foreign aid than actually
attempting to help those in need.
Pronouns
This question is about pronouns. “Committee” is singular;
therefore, “their” and “them” do not match in number. “Each of
the disqualified candidates” is also singular (“each” is singular, and
“of the disqualified candidates” is simply a prepositional phrase);
therefore, the second “them” does not match in number.
Additionally, the use of “them” and “them” so close together is
ambiguous.
One correction: The committee told each of the disqualified
candidates that its official policies prevented it from hiring him or
her.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Pronouns
Parallelism
This question is about parallelism. Elements in the
construction “rather X than Y” must be parallel.
Correct: The nation’s president would rather misappropriate
foreign aid than actually attempt to help those in need.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Parallelism
19 20
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
4 errors
Identify the errors:
Joanne has the ability of walking on her
hands, also her twin sister Kimberly has the
ability to balance on a tightrope; I, however,
try to hide my ability for juggling, lest others
force me to demonstrate.
2 errors
Identify the errors:
Each of the athletes in the parade are
carrying their nation’s flag.
Idioms
This question is about idioms. “Ability of” and “ability for”
are both wrong. “Ability to” is correct, but “can” is more
concise and should be used where possible. Additionally, two
independent clauses cannot be joined with “also.”
One correction: Joanne can walk on her hands, and her twin
sister Kimberly can balance on a tightrope; I, however, try to
hide my ability to juggle, lest others force me to demonstrate.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Idioms
Subject Verb Agreement/Pronouns
This sentence has a subjectverb error and a pronoun error.
Although the sentence appears to be about athletes, the
subject is actually the pronoun “each,” which is singular.
Therefore the verb “are” and the pronoun “their” do not
match.
One correction: Each of the athletes in the parade is carrying
his or her nation’s flag.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Subject Verb Agreement/Pronouns
21 22
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
2 errors
Identify the errors:
The test was easy enough that I mastered it
after a simple brain transplant. The
transplant, however, was expensive to such a
degree that I had to take out a second
mortgage.
1 error
Identify the error:
The princess entered the spectacular
arranged ballroom as a well‐practiced band
paid her a musical tribute.
Idioms
This is a question about idioms. “Easy enough that” is
incorrect. “Enough” must be followed by an infinitive or the
preposition “for.” Additionally, “expensive to such a degree
as to” is incorrect and extremely wordy. It must be
structured “so expensive that…”
Correct:.The test was easy enough for me to master after a
simple brain transplant. The transplant, however, was so
expensive that I had to take out a second mortgage.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Idioms
Modifiers
This question is about adverbs (found under “Modifiers” in your SC
Strategy Guide). An adverb is needed to modify an adjective. That is, if
the ballroom were both spectacular and arranged, we would say “the
spectacular, arranged ballroom” – but that doesn’t make any sense. The
word “spectacular” modifies the way the ballroom was “arranged” and
should therefore be changed to “spectacularly.” On the other hand,
“wellpracticed band” is correct, by the same logic; the adverb “well”
modifies the adjective “practiced.”
Correct: The princess entered the spectacularly arranged ballroom as a
wellpracticed band paid her a musical tribute.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Modifiers
23 24
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
3 errors
Identify the errors:
My child has better hygiene than those of my
sister; neither of her boys ever seem to wash
their hands.
1 error
Identify the error:
Superintendent Jackson’s administration is
beginning to reform the school system, hiring
new administrators, an increase in security,
and overhauling the curriculum.
SubjectVerb Agreement/Pronouns
This question is about subjectverb agreement and pronouns.
The pronoun “those” seems to be referring back to “child.”
Since “child” is singular, this is incorrect. Additionally, since
“neither” is singular (“of her boys” is merely a prepositional
phrase), the verb “seem” and the pronoun “their” are both
incorrect.
Correct: My child has better hygiene than my sister’s children;
neither of her boys ever seems to wash his hands.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Subject Verb Agreement/Pronouns
Parallelism
This problem is about parallelism. The administration is
doing three things – hiring, increasing, and overhauling – all
under the umbrella of “is beginning to reform the school
system.” To fix the sentence, we must make each item in the
list match.
Correct: Superintendent Jackson’s administration is
beginning to reform the school system, hiring new
administrators, increasing security, and overhauling the
curriculum.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Parallelism
25
26
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
1 error
Identify the error:
The resort was advertised as a place where
singles can meet one another and that offers
an Olympic‐sized swimming pool.
2 errors
Identify the errors:
The iconoclastic fitness guru preaches three
main principles: eat five apples per day,
exercising before a two‐hour brunch, and
that you must burn calories by re‐enacting
action movies in your living room.
Parallelism
This question is about parallelism. Parallel clauses involving
relative pronouns should start with the same relative pronoun
(“where” and “that” do not match.)
One correction: The resort was advertised as a place where
singles can meet one another and where guests can swim in
an Olympicsized swimming pool.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Parallelism
Parallelism
This question is about parallelism. Elements in a list must be
parallel.
One correction: The iconoclastic fitness guru preaches three main
principles: eating five apples per day, exercising before a twohour
brunch, and burning calories by reenacting action movies in your
living room.
OR: The iconoclastic fitness guru preaches three main principles:
eat five apples per day, exercise before a twohour brunch, and burn
calories by reenacting action movies in your living room.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Parallelism
27 28
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
24 errors
Identify the errors:
Being a pacifist, Katrin was not only upset he
was being so militaristic, but, that he was
torturing the captives.
2 errors
Identify the errors:
The United States are such an enticing locale
to my wife’s family that my father‐in‐law has
decided to relocate their business to
Minneapolis.
Idioms
This question is about idioms. First, the word “being” is
usually suspect on the GMAT. The first “being” is definitely
suspect; it can easily be removed. The second “being,” which
is before an adjective, is okay – “being militaristic” is a correct
use of “being.” The second idiom tested in this sentence is
“not only X but also Y.” In this sentence, we have only “not
only X but Y.”
One correction: A pacifist, Katrin was upset not only that he
was being so militaristic but also that he was torturing the
captives.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Idioms
Subject Verb Agreement/Pronouns
This question is about subjectverb agreement and pronouns. The
United States, like all countries, is singular. “Family,” a collective noun,
is also singular. (Note: many collective nouns are considered plural in
British English, so if you are more familiar with British than American
English, you will have to adjust to this change for purposes of the
GMAT.)
One correction: The United States is such an enticing locale to my
wife’s family that my fatherinlaw has decided to relocate the family
business to Minneapolis. (Note: “relocate its business” is also an option,
but “the family business” is very precise and clear.)
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Subject Verb Agreement/Pronouns
29 30
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
2 errors
Identify the errors:
Mr. Kozlowski is no less talented a dancer as
Justin Timberlake; however, unlike with
Timberlake, Mr. Kozlowski lacks a certain
celebrity quality.
1 error
Identify the error:
Although her shyness was keeping Sofia from
asking Walter to dance, after consuming an
energy‐drink cocktail, she was able to do it.
Idioms/Comparisons
This question is about idioms and comparisons. “No less
talented as” is incorrect. It must be phrased “no less talented
than.” “Unlike with” is incorrect – the comparison of nouns
must only use the word “unlike.”
Correct:. Mr. Kozlowski is no less talented a dancer than
Justin Timberlake; however, unlike Timberlake, Mr.
Kozlowski lacks a certain celebrity quality.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Idioms/Comparisons
Pronouns
This question is about pronouns. Be very suspicious of
pronouns that appear late in a sentence. They often don’t
have a clear antecedent. “Do it” may only be used in a case
in which “it” actually refers to a noun, such as in the case
“Here is your assignment; I suggest that you do it.”
One correction: Although her shyness was keeping Sofia
from asking Walter to dance, after consuming an energydrink
cocktail, she was able to ask him. (Note: “…able to do so”
would also be an option here.)
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Pronouns
31 32
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
2 errors
Identify the errors:
Mastering Sanskrit is an often‐frustrating
journey where a student that is too impatient
is likely to become discouraged.
24 errors
Identify the errors:
Because Agent M was believed by Agent Q to
be trustworthy is the reason Agent Q allowed
Agent M the conducting of the top secret
mission alone.
Modifiers
This question is about modifiers, specifically those beginning
with the relative pronoun “where.” “Where” may only be
used to describe actual places. A “journey,” whether
metaphorical or literal, is not a place. Furthermore, people
may not be modified with “that” or “which”; only “who” is
correct.
One correction: Mastering Sanskrit is an oftenfrustrating
journey during which a student who is too impatient is likely
to become discouraged.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Modifiers
Idioms/Verb Voice
This question is about idioms and verb voice. “Because” and
“the reason” serve the same purpose here; to use both is
redundant and thus incorrect. “M was believed by Q” is
passive voice and therefore suspect; use the active voice
instead. “Allowed Agent M the conducting of” is
unidiomatic.
One correction: Because Agent Q believed that Agent M
was trustworthy, Agent Q allowed Agent M to conduct the
top secret mission alone.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Idioms/Verb Voice
33 34
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
3 errors
Identify the errors:
Since 1973, the record was broken eight
times because of technology that advanced
even more rapidly than commentators have
predicted.
2 errors
Identify the errors:
I intend not only to win but also break the
world record; my opponent is neither a threat
to me nor, quite frankly, intimidating to
anyone.
Verb Tense
This question is about verb tense. Using “since” necessitates the
present perfect (“has been broken”) to indicate an action that continues
to occur over time. Similarly, since records are still being broken,
technology is likely still advancing (thus we must use “has advanced”).
Because the commentators’ predictions occurred before the records
were broken and are no longer in effect, the present perfect (“have
predicted”) is incorrect – past perfect or simple past must be used.
One correction: Since 1973, the record has been broken eight times
because of technology that has advanced even more rapidly than
commentators had predicted (or simply “predicted”).
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Verb Tense
Parallelism
This question is about parallelism. Elements in a “not
only…but also” construction, as well as elements in a
“neither…nor” construction, must be parallel.
Correct: I intend not only to win but also to break the world
record; my opponent is neither threatening to me nor, quite
frankly, intimidating to anyone.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Parallelism
35 36
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
1 error
Identify the error:
On the commission is an expert in
neuroscience and three members of a team
that developed a promising new therapy for
Parkinson’s.
2 errors
Identify the errors:
Peter thinks he can swim fast like Michael
Phelps does; he has also claimed to be an
unrecognized world champion of sports like
sprinting and boxing.
Subject Verb Agreement
This question is about subjectverb agreement. Note that this
sentence has an inverted order: the verb “is” comes before the
compound plural subject, “an expert in neuroscience and three
members of a team.” Ignore the prepositional phrases and flip the
sentence (subject before verb) to spot the error: “An expert …
and three members … is on the commission.”
Correct: On the commission are an expert in neuroscience and
three members of a team that developed a promising new therapy
for Parkinson’s.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Subject Verb Agreement
Idioms/Comparisons
This question is about idioms and comparisons. “Like”
compares nouns; “as” compares verbs or clauses. The “like”
in the second sentence means “similar to but not
including”—clearly the speaker means to include sprinting
and boxing in the list of sports that Peter believes he has
mastered.
Correct: Peter thinks he can swim as fast as Michael Phelps
does; he has also claimed to be an unrecognized world
champion of such sports as sprinting and boxing.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Idioms/Comparisons
37 38
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
3 errors
Identify the errors:
Maribel proved herself deserving of the MVP
award in girls’ basketball, scored a record
number of goals, became the first female
player at the school to slam dunk in a
championship game, and inspired her
teammates immeasurably.
1 error
Identify the error:
Sandeep was told by his parents that if he
helped his brother Rajeev get an “A” in
trigonometry, he could go to the batting
cage.
Parallelism
This question is about parallelism. Elements in a list must be parallel.
However, here we have a case of superficial parallelism. How many
things did Maribel do? She did three things (scored, became, and
inspired) all under the umbrella of proving herself. Only the last three must
be parallel to one another, because they are subordinates to the main
verb, “proved,” and since they all describe “proved,” an “–ing” ending is
appropriate.
Correct: Maribel proved herself deserving of the MVP award in girls’
basketball, scoring a record number of goals, becoming the first female
player at the school to slam dunk in a championship game, and inspiring
her teammates immeasurably.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Parallelism
Pronouns
This question is about pronouns. Although it seems apparent
that a trip to the batting cages will be Sandeep’s reward for a
job well done, the “he” in the second part of the sentence
could be referring to his brother Rajeev. With no clear
antecedent, the pronoun is ambiguous, and therefore
incorrectly used.
Correct: Sandeep was told by his parents that if he helped his
brother Rajeev get an “A” in trigonometry, Sandeep could go
to the batting cage.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Pronouns
39 40
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
04 errors
Identify the errors:
My mother considers my vegetarianism as an
insult to her cooking – it seems like she is
obsessed with convincing me to try the rack
of lamb.
02 errors
Identify the errors:
Joe, who hasn’t showered in days, smells
bad—however, John, who is suffering from
nasal congestion, smells so badly that Joe’s
odor doesn’t bother him at all.
Idioms
This question is about idioms. “Consider X as Y” is incorrect
(the “as” is unnecessary). It should be “consider X Y.”
“Seems like” followed by a clause is incorrect. “Seems that”
or “seems as if” are both correct replacements.
Correct:. My mother considers my vegetarianism an insult to
her cooking  it seems as if she is obsessed with convincing
me to try the rack of lamb.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Idioms
Modifiers
This question is about adjectives and adverbs, and it’s a little
bit of a trick – however strange it may sound, this sentence is
perfectly correct. Joe, who hasn’t showered, smells bad. We
are modifying a noun (Joe), so we want an adjective. John,
who is stuffed up, smells badly. We are modifying a verb
(smells), so we want an adverb. Both uses are correct,
although they have very different meanings!
No correction.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Modifiers
41 42
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
25 errors
Identify the errors:
The highly‐advanced robot is proficient both in
Japanese and English – and there is an expectation
by us that the robot’s maker should produce the
new model only in limited quantities for
maintaining the product’s cachet.
2 errors
Identify the errors:
A number of my old classmates is coming to
the reunion, but the number of impediments
to my traveling to Arkansas next week are
quite large.
Idioms
This question is about idioms. In the construction “both X and Y,” X
and Y need to take the same form (in this sentence, the word “in” is in
the wrong place, thereby making X and Y unparallel.) “Expectation by”
is incorrect, and the word “should” is also incorrect. We must use
“expect that” and “will.” “For maintaining” is incorrect here; “in order
to maintain” is the intended meaning.
Correct:. The highlyadvanced robot is proficient in both Japanese and
English – and we expect that the robot’s maker will produce the new
model only in limited quantities in order to maintain the product’s
cachet.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Idioms
Subject Verb Agreement
This question is about subjectverb agreement. “A number
of” is an idiomatic expression that takes a plural verb. “The
number” is singular.
Correct: A number of my old classmates are coming to the
reunion, but the number of impediments to my traveling to
Arkansas next week is quite large.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Subject Verb Agreement
43 44
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
02 errors
Identify the error(s):
Alexander the Great remarked that
conquering foreign states couldn’t compare
to the vanquishing of his enemies at home.
2 errors
Identify the errors:
Us attending the conference is dependent on
our pilot receiving clearance to take off.
Parallelism
This question is about parallelism. Two items being
compared to one another must be parallel. “Conquering,” a
simple gerund, cannot be made parallel to “the vanquishing
of,” a complex gerund.
One correction: Alexander the Great remarked that
conquering foreign states couldn’t compare to vanquishing
his enemies at home.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Parallelism
Verb Tense
This question is about gerunds and verb tense. In this
sentence, “attending” and “receiving” are gerunds, and take
possessive nouns and pronouns, not direct objects.
Correct: Our attending the conference is dependent on our
pilot’s receiving clearance to take off.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Verb Tense
45 46
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
2 errors
Identify the errors:
Despite having studied French for ten years,
yet I cannot conjugate French verbs in any
tense but the present; my most recent report
card indicates me as an underachiever.
02 errors
Identify the errors:
Once you show her the ropes, Josephina’s
natural skill as a salesperson will allow her to
run the store by herself in no time.
Idioms
This question is about idioms. The words “despite” and “yet”
are redundant and therefore cannot be used. “Indicate as” is
also incorrect. We must use “indicate that.”
Correct: Despite having studied French for ten years, I cannot
conjugate French verbs in any tense but the present; my most
recent report card indicates that I am an underachiever. (Note
that “yet” has been eliminated).
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Idioms
Modifiers
This question is about modifiers and pronouns. “Once you
show her the ropes” is clearly about Josephina. However,
“Josephina” (the noun) never appears in the sentence.
“Josephina’s” is a possessive noun modifying “skill.” Thus,
the modifier and the pronouns “her” and “herself” are
wrong.
One correction: Once you show Josephina the ropes, her
natural skill as a salesperson will allow her to run the store by
herself in no time.
ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide
Modifiers
47 48
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
02 errors
Identify the error:
You can either increase your output or you
can seek work elsewhere.
02 errors
Identify the error:
Mr. Vega’s mother noticed that a button was
falling off his coat, so the coat was fixed by
her.
Parallelism
This question is about parallelism. Elements in an
“either…or” construction must be parallel. The first “you”
occurs prior to and is not part of the “either…or”
construction. This “you” already applies to both elements in
the construction, making the second “you” incorrect.
One correction: You can either increase your output or seek
work elsewhere.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Parallelism
Verb Voice
This question is about verb voice. When possible you should
keep verb voice consistent. The sentence begins in the active
voice “Mr. Vega’s mother noticed”, and then switches to the
passive voice “the coat was fixed by her” for no reason.
Active voice is preferred.
One correction: Mr. Vega’s mother noticed that a button
was falling off his coat, so she fixed the coat.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Verb Voice/Pronouns
49 50
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
2 errors
Identify the errors:
Timmy only expresses affection for his dog,
Lassie; as a result, Lassie only eats top‐shelf
dog food.
1 error
Identify the error:
The ubiquity of the personal music player
since the start of the millennium provides
users with a distraction on long commutes
and can now hold thousands of songs.
Idioms
This question is about idioms. “Only” should be placed just
before the word or words it is meant to modify. The first
sentence seems to be saying that the only thing Timmy ever
does is express his affection for Lassie. Similarly, the second
sentence seems to be saying that Lassie never does anything
other than eat topshelf dog food.
Correct:. Timmy expresses affection only for his dog, Lassie;
as a result, Lassie eats only topshelf dog food.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Idioms
Subject Verb Agreement
This question is about subjectverb agreement. The subject
“ubiquity” and the verb “provides” are both singular, so the pair
matches in number. However, a subjectverb pair must also be
logical. It is the personal music player, not the ubiquity, that
“provides users with a distraction on long commutes and can now
hold thousands of songs.”
One correction: The personal music player, ubiquitous since the
start of the millennium, provides users with a distraction on long
commutes and can now hold thousands of songs.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Subject Verb Agreement
51 52
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
02 errors
Identify the errors:
My boss is likely that she will take over the
eastern division, even though she asked for
the northern division.
02 errors
Identify the error:
A scant 150 words long, the Gettysburg
Address was written by Abraham Lincoln on
the train to Gettysburg; this fact was
discovered by Meg while doing research for
her book report.
Idioms
This question is about idioms. A person cannot be “likely
that”, only “likely to” (although “likely that” can precede a
clause, such as in “It is likely that it will rain”). Also, the
correct construction is “not X but Y” or “not X but rather
Y,” where X and Y must take the same form.
Correct:. My boss is likely to take over the eastern division,
even though she asked for the northern division.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Idioms
Verb Voice
This question is about the passive voice. The passive voice is used
twice here: “the Gettysburg Address was written by Abraham
Lincoln” and “This fact was discovered by me.” The use of the
passive voice in the first sentence is required because the modifier
“Coming in at a scant 150 words” modifies the Gettysburg
Address, not Lincoln. The second use of the passive voice,
however, is awkward and unnecessary.
Correct: A scant 150 words long, the Gettysburg Address was
written by Abraham Lincoln on the train to Gettysburg; Meg
discovered this fact while doing research for her book report.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Verb Voice
53 54
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
02 errors
Identify the errors:
Among the dog’s offenses are a refusal to eat
anything but expensive rib eye steak and a
penchant for attacking postal workers,
neighbors and relatives, including my nephew
and grandmother.
Parallelism
This question is about parallelism. The original sentence is correct as written.
There are actually three lists within this sentence, which could be outlined as
follows:
This Dog’s Offenses:
I. A refusal to eat
II. A penchant for attacking
a. Postal workers
c. Neighbors
b. Relatives
1. Nephew
2. Grandmother
No Correction.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Parallelism
55
02 errors
Identify the errors:
In spite of Charlie’s protest, his friends—
including his closest companion Rafael—
insisted that Charlie consider outside aid in
dealing with his eating disorder.
Pronouns
This question is about pronouns. It may seem awkward to
keep repeating “Charlie” throughout the sentence, rather than
using pronouns to refer to him. However, the first instance of
“Charlie” is in a possessive phrase, so it cannot act as an
antecedent. The use of “his” in the phrase “his friends” is okay,
because only possessive pronouns can refer to nouns that are
part of a possessive clause. The original sentence is correct!
No Correction.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide
Parallelism
56
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc. Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
Simplify 6,300.
If both x and y are odd, is x2 + y odd?
Simplifying a Root
Answer: 30 7 Whenever simplifying an expression under the square root sign, factor the expression. In this case, 6,300 = 22 32 52 7. For every pair under the square root sign, move one outside the radical, and throw the other away: becomes (2)(3)(5) 7 , or simply 30 7.
Odds & Evens
Answer: No, x2 + y is even
Odd numbers can be represented as 2m + 1 or 2n + 1, where m and n are integers. (Think about why this is.) (2m + 1)2 = 4m2 +
2 2 32 5 2 7
4m + 1, and adding 2n + 1 would yield 4m2 + 4m + 2n + 2. This is always even, since a 2 can be factored from all four terms.
More simply, we could just recall: an odd number times an odd number is always odd, and an odd plus an odd is always even.
When in doubt, try it out! Pick numbers to test properties.
ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide Odds & Evens 3
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide Roots
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
4
If x is odd and y is even, is xy odd or even?
Is the statement sufficient? Is x < 0? 1) 13 x 0
Odds & Evens
Answer: xy is even
An odd number can be represented as 2m + 1, and an even number can be represented as 2n, where m and n are integers. (Think about why this is.) Multiplying 2m + 1 and 2n would yield 4mn +2n, which is always even, since 2 is a factor of both terms. (Factor out the 2 to get 2(2mn + n), which shows that this number will be even.) More simply, we could just recall: an odd number times an even number is always even.
When in doubt, try it out! Pick numbers to test properties.
Odd Roots
Answer: Sufficient
Don’t let the 13 confuse you; the only thing that matters is that 13 is an odd number. Odd roots, as well as odd exponents, preserve the sign of the number inside. If 13 x 0 , then x is also less than 0. The statement is sufficient.
ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide Odds & Evens
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
5
ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide Roots
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
6
When in doubt.. ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide Roots Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. More simply. Odds & Evens Answer: No. (Think about why this is. which is always even. 5 If both x and y are odd. try it out! Pick numbers to test properties. since a 2 can be factored out of the remaining terms (i. where m and n are integers. so the simplest form is 17 5 . 5 5 5 5 divided by 5 is 17. Inc. Inc. x – y is even Odd numbers can be represented as 2m + 1 or 2n + 1. ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide Odds & Evens Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. we can rationalize the denominator by multiplying by the appropriate 5 85 5 85 5 . or just 2n – 2m. 2(n – m)). is x – y odd? Simplifying a Root Answer: 17 5 When a square root lurks in the denominator.) Subtracting two numbers of this form would yield (2n + 1) – (2m + 1). we could just recall: an odd number minus an odd number is always even. 7 8 .Simplify 85 .e. form of 1 – in this case. and 85 .
Both 63 and 36 use only prime factors found in x2. 9 ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide Divisibility & Primes Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. Using the factor foundation rule. so (–1)789 = –1. so –1 raised to any odd power will equal –1. –1 raised to any even power is 1. we know that x2 will have two 2s. ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide Exponents Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. you end up with –1. Answer: a) 63 and c) 36 Divisibility If x definitely has 2. and 36 is 2 × 2 × 3 × 3. then when we square x. two 3s and two 7s as factors. Which of the following numbers is definitely a factor of x2? (Choose all that apply. If you multiply by –1 one more time.Calculate (–1)789. Inc. 10 . 3 and 7 as factors. x is divisible by 42. 789 is an odd number. 63 is 7 × 3 × 3. Inc.) 42 21 2 a) 63 b) 33 c) 36 d) 8 63 7 9 3 33 11 4 36 9 2 8 4 3 7 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 Exponents Answer: –1 Since (–1) (–1) = 1. we can guarantee that all numbers that solely use those factors are factors of x2.
Alternatively. x – y is even 1 Odds & Evens Even numbers can be represented as 2m or 2n. When in doubt. is x – y even? Exponents & Roots Answer: a) n Try it: Answer: Yes. which has 2 as a factor. and 5 times 1/5 equals 1. 12 . where m and n are integers. or 2(n – m). (Think about why this is. try it out! Pick numbers to test properties. n n n n n n.) Subtracting two numbers of 5 n is the same as n 5 5 . ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide Exponents & Roots Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. since 5 (na)b = nab. so it is even. Inc. 5 n 5 5 5 5 5 5 You can try this out if you need convincing. More simply. 11 ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide Odds & Evens Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. Pick a few numbers and see what happens! this form would yield 2n – 2m. n is always equal to which of the 5 5 following? a) n b) n25 c) n1/5 d) 1 If both x and y are even. we could just recall: an even number minus an even number is always even. which is equal to n. Inc.
try to provide examples of integers with a ones digit of 7 that are divisible by 1. 7. The answer to the question is yes. 4. From the statement. Inc. Is y < 0? 1) y2 x > 0 If the units digit of an integer is 7. 6.Is the statement sufficient? xy < 0. 4. If x is positive. and the statement is sufficient. then y must be negative. or 0. those divisible by 5 end in 5 or 0. 6. because we are not allowed to take an even root of a negative number. As an exercise. we know that x must be positive. and 8 Divisibility Rules Integers that are divisible by 2. Inc. Answer: 2. 5. or 8 end in 2. and 9. 4. 3. then which one‐digit integers is it definitely NOT divisible by? Even Roots Answer: Sufficient If we know that xy < 0. ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide Roots Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. 13 ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide Divisibility & Primes Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. 8. then we know that x and y have different signs – one must be positive and the other negative. 14 . 6.
1 5 4 Since it is easier to calculate 16 4 than it is to calculate 165. because an odd divided by an odd can yield an odd integer or a noninteger. is x/y odd? 1) x and y are both odd.Calculate 16 4 . the question stem states that x is divisible by y. Inc. Therefore. and 25 = 32. However. 16 1 5 4 Odds and Evens Answer: Sufficient 165 1 4 16 1 . 15 ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide Odds & Evens Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide Exponents Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. the This question is tricky. 16 . and the result must be odd. Fractional Exponents Answer: 32 Using the rules of exponents. Inc. latter representation will be easier to simplify. 16 4 = 2. 5 Is the statement sufficient? If x is divisible by y. x/y is an integer.
6. look for ways to reduce. they are all factors of n2 as well. then which (nonzero) one‐ digit integers is this squared result definitely divisible by? (64 )(503 ) 4 4 3 (2 )(3 )(10 ) Divisibility Answer: 1. Squaring n yields n2 = (6m)2 = 36m2. and 9 Simplifying Exponential Expressions Answer: 53 Call the original integer n. and/or 8 may also divide n2. Any combination of 5.If an integer that is divisible by 6 is squared. 2. 2. 3. so we are left with reduced to 53. 6. Instead of multiplying out everything. 3. Since 36 is divisible by 1. Inc.) 503 . and 9. (Note that 53 = 125. 4. This can be cancelled with the 24 and 34 on the bottom of the fraction. we can say n = 6m. Inc. 64 can be separated into (24)(34). 17 ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide Exponents Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. but we can’t say for sure whether they do without knowing what m is. which can be 103 ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide Divisibility & Primes Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. Since n is divisible by 6. 18 . 7. On the top of the fraction. where m is any integer. 4.
then which (nonzero) one‐digit integers is the integer definitely NOT divisible by? Order of Operations Answer: 1/144 Answer: None Divisibility Rules It could be divisible by any of the onedigit integers! (Except for 0. It’s easy to remember PEMDAS with this saying: Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally! To verify. ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide PEMDAS Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. then 81 = 8. Calculate 90 = 1 first.Simplify the following expression: (4(6(8(90))1)‐1)2 If the ones digit of an integer is 0. then (4/48)2 = 1/144. multiply it by ten. Inc. dividing by 0 is always off limits. Next we have (6(8))–1 = 1/48. and the product will end in zero and be divisible by the original onedigit integer. Inc. We must always calculate the innermost parentheses first. then work our way outwards. take any nonzero onedigit integer.) PEMDAS dictates the order of operations to perform. 19 ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide Divisibility & Primes Copyright © 2009 MG Prep.. 20 .
when y > 1. where m and n are integers. is x2 + y2 even or odd? Given that y7 < y6. y7 > y6. which is not acceptable. ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide Odds & Evens Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. Odds & Evens Answer: x2 + y2 is odd An even number can be represented as 2m. then y7 < y6. and an even plus an odd is always odd. 4n2 + 4n + 1. but not equal to 0 (alternatively. while y6 would be positive. and an odd number can be represented as 2n + 1. describe all of the possible values for y. Finally. and an even number plus 1 is odd. Adding these together yields 4m2 + 4n2 + 4n + 1. Inc. Testing Positive and Negative Cases Answer: y < 1. so their sum is even. When y is between 0 and 1. Inc. 22 .If x is even and y is odd. an odd number squared is always odd. we could just recall: an even number squared is always even. the odd. try it out! Pick numbers to test properties. since y7 would equal y6 times some fraction between 0 and 1. then y7 = y6. If y = 0 or 1. 21 ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide Exponents Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. More simply. 0 < y < 1 or y < 0) Think about various categories of numbers: if y were negative. The 1st 3 terms all have 4 as a factor. When in doubt. then y7 would also be negative. Squaring the even number yields 4m2. y7 < y6.
2 is the only even prime. The statement is sufficient. If you continue to test numbers to make sure there are no other possible values for x. Is the statement sufficient? Is a < 0? 1) ab < 0 Prime Numbers Answer: Sufficient Answer: Sufficient Exponents In order for ab < 0. because every other even number has 2 as a factor. (This is equivalent to saying that a < 0. x must equal 2. 11 + 7 = 18. 23 ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide Exponents Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. 24 . regardless of the value of b. etc. Therefore. 11 + 3 = 14. you may notice a pattern emerging. If you tested numbers to answer this question.Is the statement sufficient? The positive integer x is a prime number. Inc. Inc. you probably figured out pretty quickly that 2 is a possible value of x. ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide Divisibility & Primes Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. What is x? 1) x + 11 is a prime number.) If a were nonnegative. then the minimum value ab could take would be 0. 11 plus any prime besides 2 will yield an even number. 11 + 5 = 16. a must be negative.
(Think about why this is.. 26 . we cannot even determine that it will be an integer! (e. 3. Since 2 is the only even integer that is prime. Inc. The only set with three primes is {2. Odds & Evens Answer: Insufficient Even numbers can be represented as 2m or 2n. 2.g.Is the statement sufficient? Is x/y even? 1) x and y are both even. or just n/m. 5}. 4} acceptable as another solution to this question? (2n)/(2m).) The statement is insufficient. 3. 4. x = 40 and y = 4) or odd (e..) Dividing would give Prime Numbers Answer: 3. and sets that do not contain 2 can have. in the set {2. Why isn’t {1. Not only can it not be determined whether this result is even (e. at most. x = 44 and y = 4). 5} Any set composed of four consecutive integers will contain two even and two odd integers. 25 ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide Divisibility & Primes Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide Odds & Evens Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. What is the greatest number of primes that could be included in a set composed of four consecutive integers? Name the elements of the set. 4. where m and n are integers. 3.g.g. Inc. no such sets can have four primes. two primes. x = 42 and y = 4.
we can definitively conclude that 3 x must have two 2s and one 3 as factors. ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide Divisibility & Primes Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. If 3 x is an integer. 4 and 12 are the only numbers in the list we can guarantee are factors of 3 x . 2. Inc. To find the Greatest Common Factor of 2 or more numbers. For the cube root of a number to be an integer. In this case. 9. that means the factors of x that we can’t see must include at least two additional 2s and one additional 3. 3 a) 4 b) 8 c) 9 d) 12 Greatest Common Factor Answer: 66 Answer: a) 4 and d) 12 Divisibility Remember that when we complete a prime box for a variable. 27 28 . Inc. From this information. In this case. That means that the GCF will be 2 × 3 × 11. one 3 and one 11. that variable could still have additional factors. you need to figure out all the factors they share in common.What is the greatest common factor of 990 and 924? 990 924 2 3 3 5 495 165 55 11 2 2 3 7 462 231 77 11 x is divisible by 144. ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide Divisibility & Primes Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. 6.). the original number must have 3 of each prime factor. 990 and 924 each have one 2. or some multiple of 3 (3. 2. then which of the following is 3 x definitely divisible by? (Choose 144 all that apply) 2. etc. or 66. 2. 3.
What is the only two‐digit number that is both a perfect square and a perfect cube?
Is the statement sufficient? Is x y ? 1) x – y > 0
Exponents & Roots
Answer: 64
Testing Positive and Negative Cases
Answer: Insufficient
We need a 2digit integer that is both a perfect square and a perfect cube. This set includes all integers of the form m3 = n2, where both m and n are integers. Manipulating the equation tells us that n = m3/2. Thus we can only choose integers for m that will make n an integer—so m must be a perfect square. The only perfect square that works is 4: 43 = 64, a 2digit integer. 9 doesn’t work, because 93 = 729, a 3digit integer. 1 doesn’t work either, because 13 = 1, a 1digit integer.
When variables are inside absolute values, a big unknown is whether the variables are positive or negative. If x and y are both positive, then the answer to the question will be yes. But now suppose that x is 3 and y is –7. 3 – (–7) = 10. In this case, the answer to the question is no. We have a yes case and a no case. The statement is insufficient.
ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide Exponents & Roots
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ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide Positives & Negatives
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Dinner cost $230 including a 15% tip. How much was dinner without the tip?
(10 4 )(0.000001) =
Percents
Answer: $200 If $230 includes the cost of the dinner plus an additional 15%, then it is 115% of the cost of the dinner, so 230 = (115/100)x.
100 115x 100 230 115 100 115
1 1 1 2 1 1
Powers of 10
Answer: 0.01 or 10 2 An easy shortcut when dealing with powers of 10 is to simply move the decimal over the same number of units as the exponent. In this case, the exponent is 4, so we move the decimal to the right 4 places. Alternatively, .000001 can be rewritten as 10 , and (10 )(10 ) = 10
6
200 = x
4
6
2
.
ManhattanGMAT Fractions, Decimals & Percents Strategy Guide Percents
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ManhattanGMAT Fractions, Decimals & Percents Strategy Guide Digits & Decimals
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Which number is closest to 7% of 1,440? a) 50 b) 75 c) 100
The original price of an iPhone® was increased by 25%. A sale brought the price of the iPhone® back down to its original price. The sale reduced the new price of the iPhone® by what percent?
Benchmark Values
Answer: c) 100 Answer: 20%
Percents
Start with a smart number. Assume the price of the iPhone® is $100. 25% of 100 is 25, so the increased price was $125. We know the sale then reduced the price of the phone to its original price, $100, so the sale reduced the price by $25, because 125 – 100 = 25. The percent decrease is the difference in prices divided by the original price. 25/125 reduces to 1/5, which is 20%.
ManhattanGMAT Fractions, Decimals & Percents Strategy Guide Percents
Copyright © 2009 MG Prep, Inc.
We can save time by estimating. 1,440 is approximately 1,400, which is 14 × 100. 7% of (14)(100) = (7/100)(14)(100) = 7 × 14 = 98. This is a slight underestimate, so answer choice c) must be correct.
ManhattanGMAT Fractions, Decimals & Percents Strategy Guide Percents
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4
Which fraction is greater in each pair? 1. whereas is 170 89 more than half. Decimals & Percents Strategy Guide Digits & Decimals Copyright © 2009 MG Prep.863.502 a) 3 b) 4 c) 5 d) 30 e) 35 5 6 132 89 or ? or ? 8 10 300 170 Compare Fractions Answer: Heavy Division Shortcut Answer: a) 3 We are only asked for an approximate answer. larger. 6 . so use the heavy division shortcut. estimate. Decimals & Percents Strategy Guide Fractions Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. 5 8 and 89 170 For the second set of For the first set of fractions. 1. is thus 170 fractions.502 6 ManhattanGMAT Fractions. we can cross multiply and compare the numerators. 8 132 is 300 89 less than half.863. Inc. so 5 is greater. 50 48 5 8 6 10 50 is greater than 48. 5 ManhattanGMAT Fractions. Inc.471 626.471 18 3 626.
Thus. Decimals & Percents Strategy Guide FDP’s Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. cherry. The common denominator is 12. and the rest are pear. 1/3 are cherry. What percent of the jellybeans are pear? What is 35% of 120? FDP Connections Answer: 25% Answer: 42 Benchmark Values Although 35% of a number is not easy to find without some calculation. 1/6 are orange. orange and pear. We have to add the fractional amounts of the other flavors. 10% and 5% are usually easier. ManhattanGMAT Fractions. Decimals & Percents Strategy Guide Percents Copyright © 2009 MG Prep.A bag of jellybeans contains 4 flavors: watermelon. 1/4 expressed as a percent is 25%. Inc. so 3 4 2 9 3 . 8 . Inc. so 5% of 120 is 6.1 – 3/4 = 1/4 of the 12 12 12 12 4 jellybeans must be pear. 1/4 of the jellybeans are watermelon. 7 ManhattanGMAT Fractions. 35% = 3 × 10% + 5% 10% of 120 is 12 and 5% is half of 10%. 3 × (12) + 6 = 36 + 6 = 42 First we need to find out what fraction of the jellybeans are not pear flavored.
Anything multiplied by 0 is 0.000 from his salary and bonus. Decimals & Percents Strategy Guide Digits & Decimals Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. so we know that the units digit of the final product will be 0. ManhattanGMAT Fractions. that is too timeconsuming. Inc. Decimals & Percents Strategy Guide Percents Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. That means the units digit is 0. Units Digit Answer: 0 Answer: Insufficient Percents We do have enough information to determine the amount John earned from salary and from bonus last year. or total earnings. This year.Is the statement sufficient? What is the units digit of (2 7 )(7 4 )(5 6 )? Last year. John earned twice as much from his salary as he did from his bonus. ($100. John earned a combined $150. 10 . Notice that 2 × 5 = 10. Although you could multiply everything out. we do not have enough information to answer the question. Inc. the amount he earned from salary was the same percentage of his total earnings as it was last year.000 comes from salary and $50. How much was John’s salary this year? 1) Last year. bonus.) But we are only told that the same percentage of his total earnings this year came from salary. 9 ManhattanGMAT Fractions.000 from bonus. The statement is insufficient. Lacking the actual amount of salary.
21.267 is approximately 2% of 106. 267 2% 6 10 1. To calculate 25% of a number. 240 × 2/3 = 160. which is 2/3. Decimals & Percents Strategy Guide Percents Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. 106 = 1. Since 21.000.267 is approximately what percent of 10 6 ? a) 0. 267 21.000. You could also use heavy division to estimate your answer: 21. Inc. so we can save time by estimating. just divide by 4.000.000. Inc. so 21. 23% is close to 25%. 41/60 is close to 40/60. The best answer is b) 39.2% b) 2% c) 20% Which of the following is closest to 23% of 41/60 of 240 rounded to the nearest integer? a) 24 b) 39 c) 52 d) 68 Benchmark Values Answer: b) 2% Answer: b) 39 Estimation Use benchmark values to estimate. ManhattanGMAT Fractions. so 1% of 106 is 104 or 10. Finding 1% is the same as dividing by 100. 11 ManhattanGMAT Fractions. Decimals & Percents Strategy Guide FDP Strategy Copyright © 2009 MG Prep.000 The answer choices are far apart. 12 . 160/4 is 40.000.267 is a little more than twice 10.
Thus 0.001) 4 2 (10 )(10 ) 3 The combined revenue for a company for 2006 and 2007 was $700. Inc. which means the revenue from 2007 is only 75% of the revenue for 2006. 57 becomes 0. 14 . We can substitute this into the original equation to find x + (0. 13 ManhattanGMAT Fractions.001 to 10 3 . (103)(10–3) = 100 = 1 (104)(10–2) = 102 (57)(1) . What percent of the combined revenue was earned in 2006? 1) Revenue dropped 25% from 2006 to 2007. ManhattanGMAT Fractions. Powers of 10 Answer: 0. Now. we know that x + y = 700. First.75x = y. Decimals & Percents Strategy Guide Digits & Decimals Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. Decimals & Percents Strategy Guide Percents Copyright © 2009 MG Prep.57 Percents Answer: Sufficient Let’s label the revenue for 2006 as x and the revenue for 2007 as y.57. change 0. From the statement. From the question.000 and solve for x.000. we know that revenue dropped 25% from 2006 to 2007. Inc. just move the We are left with 2 (10 ) decimal to the left 2 places. combine the terms on the top and the bottom.000.75x) = 700.Is the statement sufficient? (57)(10 )(0. To divide by 102.
Inc.000.500. Percent change is equal to change divided by original value. Inc. so if we triple 10% of 15.The price of a television increased from $180 to $216.000 is 30% of 1. What is the percent increase in the price? What percent of 1. The original price is $180.000. 16 .000. Decimals & Percents Strategy Guide Percents Copyright © 2009 MG Prep.500. The change is 216 – 180 = $36.000 is 1/3 of 4.5 × 107.500.5 × 107=15. We can use benchmark values to estimate.500. 10% of 15. 4.000. 36/180 reduces to 1/5.000.5 × 10 7 is 4.000? Percent Change Answer: 20% Answer: 30% Benchmark Values 1.000. we’ll have our answer. ManhattanGMAT Fractions. This is too small.000. 15 ManhattanGMAT Fractions. which is the same as 20%. But notice that 1. Therefore.500.000 is 1. Decimals & Percents Strategy Guide Percents Copyright © 2009 MG Prep.
75/150 = 1/2 = 50%. while even exponents yield a units digit of 1. $100 is the original price. etc. Inc. Although all other primes are odd. it’s usually helpful to pick 100 as your starting value. 9. and the statement is insufficient. ManhattanGMAT Fractions. Thus we cannot determine the units digit. The question asks what percent the sale price is of the increased price. 17 ManhattanGMAT Fractions. The price of a refrigerator is increased by 50%. 9³ = 729. When trying to find the units digit of a number. Decimals & Percents Strategy Guide Percents Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. We see that the pattern repeats: odd exponents yield a units digits of 9. 91 = 9. 18 . Inc. Decimals & Percents Strategy Guide Digits & Decimals Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. 1.Is the statement sufficient? What is the units digit of 9x? 1) x is a prime number. 9 4 = 6. so the sale reduces the price to $75. with the new sale price equaling 75% of the original price. If the price is increased by 50%. ignore all the other digits in a number. The units digit of 9 raised to the first four powers is 9. The sale price is what percent of the increased price? Last Digit Answer: Insufficient Answer: 50% Percents When solving word problems involving percents.561. 9² = 81. The sale reduces the price to 75% of the original price. 2 is even. the new price is $150. It then goes on sale. 1. We know that x is prime.
label total commission c and total sales revenue r. 7² = 49. 5 × 9 = 45. The units digit is 5. The key is to realize that we have 2 different ways to express the relationship between our two variables. 20 . Inc.000). her commission would have been 20% higher. We know that we have 2 linear equations relating our 2 variables. Keep the 5. 5 × 9 = 45. Drop the other digits and keep the 5. Decimals & Percents Strategy Guide FDP’s Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. How much did she make on commission this year? 1) If her total sales revenue had been 25% higher. we know that 1. From the question. Keep the 9.What is the units digit of (5³)(7²)(3²)? Is the statement sufficient? Carla earns a base salary of $30.000.000 plus 10% commission on her total sales revenue exceeding $50. we know that c = 0. so we will get one unique solution.25r – 50. you can ignore all the other digits.1(r – 50. 5³ = 125. Last Digit Answer: 5 Answer: Sufficient. FDP Connections First.000). For extra practice. 19 ManhattanGMAT Fractions.1(1.2c = 0. 3² = 9. Inc. From the statement. ManhattanGMAT Fractions. Decimals & Percents Strategy Guide Digits & Decimals Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. what is the value of c and r? When solving for the units digit of a number. Drop the other digits and keep the 9.
Any number with an integer sixth root will have an integer square root. b) Yes a) No.Factor: x2 – 11x + 30 = 0 For each of the following. and the square root is 8. This is equivalent to 6 x x . Inequalities. & VICs Strategy Guide Exponential Equations 2 . so if x has an integer sixth root this will be an integer. x–10 = 1/x10. For example. if x equals 64. this won’t be an integer. & VICs Strategy Guide Quadratic Equations 1 ManhattanGMAT Equations. the sixth root of x is 2. b) Yes. could the answer be an integer if x is an integer greater than 1? a) x10 + x–10 = b) x1/6 + x1/2 = Factoring Quadratic Equations Answer: (x – 5)(x – 6) = 0 Since the last sign is positive. (x – )(x – ) Find two numbers that multiply to 30 and add to 11 and place them in the parentheses. Why? ManhattanGMAT Equations. set up 2 parentheses with the sign of the middle term. For any x > 1. (x – 5)(x – 6) What values for x solve the equation? Fractional and Negative Exponents Answer: a) No. Inequalities.
Alternatively. Inequalities. we need to convert the recursive sequence definition provided into a direct sequence formula. Basic Equations Answer: a) Yes. so we should expect the quadratic to have 2 distinct solutions. Answer: –220 Linear Sequences First. k = 30. ManhattanGMAT Equations. c) No. There are no xy terms or x/y terms. we could plug in 0 for S3 and find that S4 = –10. The two equations are equivalent. & VICs Strategy Guide Formulas 4 . b) No. There is an x2 term. where k is some constant that we must determine. Even if 2x is substituted into the first equation for y. Inequalities. c) No a) Yes. S6 = –30. S25 = –220. Therefore Sn = –10n + k. etc. Each term is 10 less than the previous one. The second equation is just the first equation multiplied by –3. Use S3 to find a value for k: 0 = –10(3) + k. S5 = –20. Thus. so Sn = –10n + 30. 17 isn’t a perfect square.Is it possible to solve for a single value of x in each of the following systems of equations? a) 2x + 3y = 8 b) x2 + y – 17 = 0 2x – y = 0 y = 2x c) 2x – 4y = 13 –6x + 12y = –39 What is the 25th term of this sequence? Sn = Sn–1 – 10 and S3 = 0. b) No. & VICs Strategy Guide Basic Equations 3 ManhattanGMAT Equations. Thus. Now we plug in 25 for n: S25 = –10(25) + 30 = –220. We are given 2 linear equations.
Is the statement sufficient? Is x > y? (1) ax < ay Factoring Quadratic Equations Answer: Sufficient If one solution is –5.Is the statement sufficient? What are the solutions to the equation x2 + kx – 10 = 0. after dividing we flip the inequality sign and get x > y. ManhattanGMAT Equations. if a < 0. Inequalities. then we can divide by a on both sides and x < y. Answer: Insufficient Positives & Negatives We do not know the sign of a. we know one of the factors of the quadratic expression is (x + 5). The statement is sufficient. We now know the other factor is (x – 2) because the two numbers in parentheses must multiply to –10. Inequalities. However. & VICs Strategy Guide Inequalities 6 . Therefore the other solution is x = 2. If a > 0. We must consider two possible scenarios when rephrasing statement (1). where k is a constant? (1) One of the solutions is –5. & VICs Strategy Guide Quadratic Equations 5 ManhattanGMAT Equations. so we cannot simply divide by a on both sides. The statement is insufficient.
we can simply set the exponents equal to each other. (y + )(y – ) Find two numbers that multiply to 60 and subtract to 7: 12 × 5 = 60 12 – 5 = 7 Place the larger number in the parentheses with the same sign as the middle term (+7y): (y + 12)(y – 5) = 0 If y + 12 = 0. set up 2 parentheses with opposite signs. & VICs Strategy Guide Exponential Equations 8 . Inequalities. & VICs Strategy Guide Quadratic Equations Same Base Answer: 1 Since the bases are equal. then y = 12. Inequalities. If y – 5 = 0. 5 Since the last sign is negative. 3x = 7x – 4 4 = 4x 1=x 7 ManhattanGMAT Equations. ManhattanGMAT Equations.Solve for y: y2 + 7y – 60 = 0 What is the value of x? 53x = 57x‐4 Factoring Quadratic Equations Answer: y = 12. then y = 5.
What is the minimum value of f(x) = –5 + (x + 7)2. x = –7. Inequalities. & VICs Strategy Guide Functions 9 ManhattanGMAT Equations. the minimum value is –5. make the squared expression as small as possible – set it equal to zero. If x + 7 = 0. Inequalities. Remember. so to make f(x) as small as possible. f(x) and y are synonymous. and at what value of x does it occur? What are all possible values of x? x2 – 27x + 50 = 0 Quadratic Functions Answer: minimum value = 7. x = 5 The squared expression will always be nonnegative. plug it back into the original equation to solve for the minimum value. ManhattanGMAT Equations. f(x) = –5 + (0)2. & VICs Strategy Guide Quadratic Equations 10 . (x – 2) (x – 25) = 0. (x – ) (x – ) Find two numbers that multiply to 50 and add to 27 and place them in the parentheses. Once you have the x value. set up 2 parentheses with the sign of the middle term. Factoring Quadratic Equations Answer: x = 2 or 25 Since the last sign is positive. Therefore.
Inequalities. & VICs Strategy Guide Inequalities 11 ManhattanGMAT Equations. b) (w + z)(x + y) a) The greatest common factor is 45.Simplify: b – ≥ 4 7 Simplify: a) 45 + 45 + 45 + 45 b) xw + yw + zx + zy Inequalities Answer: b ≤ −28 To isolate b. remember to switch the direction of the inequality sign. Factoring Answer: a) 46. look to factor by grouping. Inequalities. & VICs Strategy Guide Basic Equations 12 . When multiplying or dividing an inequality by a negative number. Make sure to look for common terms that can be factored out of an expression. ManhattanGMAT Equations. b) Factor by grouping: (xw + yw) + (zx + zy) = w(x + y) + z(x + y) = (w + z)(x + y). multiply both sides by −7 and flip the direction of the inequality sign. 45(1 + 1 + 1 + 1) = 45(4) = 46. Factoring is often a crucial step toward solving an equation. If you have 4 expressions and 4 variables.
Inequalities. What is 3r + 6t? 7y . & VICs Strategy Guide Basic Equations 13 ManhattanGMAT Equations. Last (b)(b) + (b)(−10) + (7)(b) + (7)(−10) b2 – 10b + 7b – 70 b2 – 3b – 70 FOIL ManhattanGMAT Equations.Solve for each of the following: a) If x b) If 2t r 5 . Outer. 2x + y = 7 b) Square both sides and multiply by 3. 6t + 3r = 75 Answer: b2 − 3b − 70 Use FOIL – First. b) 75 a) Multiply both sides by 2 and add y to each side. Inner. What is 2x + y? 2 Distribute: (b + 7)(b – 10) MADS Manipulations Answer: a) 7. & VICs Strategy Guide Quadratic Equations 14 . Inequalities.
Inequalities.If 2 is one solution to the equation x2 – 9x + c = 0. Therefore the factored form is (x – 2)(x – 7) and the other solution is x = 7. & VICs Strategy Guide Exponential Equations 16 . where c is a constant. Inequalities. we know the factored form of the quadratic is (x – 2)(x − ?). x 2 x . we have x 6 . This gives two possibilities: x = 6 or x = −6. Even Exponents Answer: Remember. So after we take the square root of both sides. what is the other solution? What error has been made? x 2 36 x2 36 x 6 Factoring Quadratic Equations Answer: 7 Work backwards – even though we do not know the value of c. This problem can also be solved by plugging x = 2 into the original equation and solving for c. & VICs Strategy Guide Quadratic Equations 15 ManhattanGMAT Equations. We also know that the two numbers in parentheses must add to −9. since 2 is one solution. Thus when x2 = 36. Alternatively. ManhattanGMAT Equations. x = 6 or –6. simply recall that there are always two possible solutions in exponential equations with an even exponent.
and remember to flip the sign. Divide by −6. since we already have 0 on one side: x ( x2 – 1 ) = 0 x ( x + 1) (x – 1) = 0 x = 0. Thus we have (greater than −2) = d. −1. Answer: x = 0. leaving us with x2 = 1. So (less than 12) = −6d. & VICs Strategy Guide Inequalities 17 ManhattanGMAT Equations. which is “less than 4. The temptation is to move x to the other side and divide both sides by x. & VICs Strategy Guide Basic Equations 18 . what is the range of possible values of d for the equation 3c = −6d? What are the roots of x3 – x = 0? Extreme Values Answer: d > –2 We can actually replace c with its extreme value. Inequalities. or 1 Factoring Factor the equation. ManhattanGMAT Equations. because we’re dividing by a negative.” The equation will read 3(less than 4) = −6d. −1. Inequalities. or 1.If c < 4. Avoid dividing away a variable unless you know it does not equal 0.
Answer: 7 Solving by Combination One way to solve for a variable when you have two equations is to combine the equations in a way that eliminates one variable. Thus. & VICs Strategy Guide Basic Equations 20 . b If a is doubled and b is increased by a factor of 4. so quadrupling it is the equivalent of multiplying the formula by 1/4. & VICs Strategy Guide Formulas 19 ManhattanGMAT Equations. and then add it to the second equation. Inequalities. H gets multiplied by 8 × 1/4 = 2. but it is in the denominator. giving us: 5x + 5y = 50 3x – 5y = 6 8x + 0y = 56 → x = 7 On the GMAT. we can multiply the first equation by 5. the whole formula gets multiplied by 23. ManhattanGMAT Equations.2a 3 Consider the formula H . or 8. b has no exponent. Inequalities. In this case. by what factor is H increased? What is x? (Hint: Try a method other than substitution) x + y = 10 3x 5y = 6 Formulas with Unspecified Amounts Answer: 2 The exponent of 3 on a means when we double a. combination is often faster than substitution.
Convert the 8 into a power of 2: 22w = (23)w – 5 22w = 23w – 15 Could we multiply x > 5 and y > 5 to get xy > 25? Now that the bases are equal. & VICs Strategy Guide Exponential Equations 22 . If x and y are both negative. Inequalities. Example: (−10)(−4) = 40. we can set the exponents equal to each other: 2w = 3w – 15 → w = 15. xy could be greater than 25. Solve for w: 22w = 8w ‐ 5 Extreme Values Answer: Insufficient We cannot simply multiply x < 5 and y < 5 to get xy < 25. Inequalities. ManhattanGMAT Equations.Is the statement sufficient? Is xy < 25? (1) x and y are both less than 5. & VICs Strategy Guide Inequalities 21 ManhattanGMAT Equations. Answer: w = 15 Same Base We must first obtain the same base on both sides.
& VICs Strategy Guide Quadratic Equations 23 ManhattanGMAT Equations. Try plugging 1 back into the original equation to verify that x cannot equal 1.Solve: (x – 4)2 = 49 The first few steps of a problem are shown. Eliminating the Root Answer: x = 6 (x does NOT equal 1!) Although this equation can be simplified and factored into (x − 6)(x − 1)=0. x 4 7 . When you square an equation containing a variable. you may create extraneous solutions. 1 is not. Inequalities. and remember to place the side of the equation containing the unknown in an absolute value. Our two solutions to this equation are x – 4 = 7 and x – 4 = −7. Potential answers need to be plugged back in to the original equation and verified. take the square root of both sides. Inequalities. ManhattanGMAT Equations. Solving these two equations gives us x = 11 and −3. Finish the problem and answer the question: what is x? x 3 x 3 x 3 (x 3)2 x 3 x2 6x 9 0 x2 7x 6 Taking the Square Root Answer: x = 11 or –3 Do not multiply out (x – 4)2 if there is a perfect square on one side of the equation. you need to be careful. Instead. & VICs Strategy Guide Exponential Equations 24 . 6 is a genuine solution.
What is x + y + z? x + y = 8 x + z = 11 y + z = 7 Simplify: ( 2 + 3)( 2 − 3)(2 − 3 )(2 + 3 ) Solving by Combination Answer: 13 There is often a faster method than solving for the value of each variable. Therefore. Inequalities. we can simply add all the equations together! =8 x + y x + z = 11 y +z=7 2x + 2y + 2z = 26 x + y + z = 13 Remember. x + y + z is a “combo. Inequalities. our expression is equal to: (2 – 9) × (4 – 3) = (−7)(1) = −7 ManhattanGMAT Equations. In this case. & VICs Strategy Guide Basic Equations 25 ManhattanGMAT Equations. & VICs Strategy Guide Quadratic Equations 26 . (a + b)(a – b) = a2 – b2. Special Products Answer: −7 Remember.” In this type of problem there is a good chance you will not need to determine the individual values of the variables.
and so the term a b a b would cancel from the top and bottom.000 in one week. That is enough to calculate the rate of growth. Inequalities. we just need to know that we can calculate the rate of growth. need to actually do this calculation on a Data Sufficiency question!) Alternatively. Population Growth Answer: Sufficient Remember. In this case. the population increases by a factor of 5. you could use the special product a2 – b2 = (a + b)(a – b) to solve. In one day it increases by a factor of Using the Conjugate Answer: a b Anytime there is a square root term in the denominator that is added to or subtracted from another term we can multiply by the conjugate (the same expression. For example. a b a b a b .000/200 = 25. & VICs Strategy Guide Quadratic Equations 28 . They’ve given us the initial and final numbers of rabbits. & VICs Strategy Guide Functions 27 ManhattanGMAT Equations. By what factor does its population increase every day? Simplify: ab a b (1) The population grows from 200 to 5. in 7 days. but with the sign on the 2nd term flipped) to simplify: a b a b a b a b a b a b a b a b a b a b a b a b 7 25 . (We do not. Inequalities. leaving ManhattanGMAT Equations. as well as the time span.Is the statement sufficient? A group of rabbits multiplies at a constant rate. however.
The form is the same whether you are a b dealing with numbers. 1 ManhattanGMAT Equations. variables. Using the Conjugate Answer: 6 3 3 To remove a square root from a denominator of the form a + b . you should not automatically assume that you cannot solve for a particular value. Remember. a b multiply the fraction by . Inequalities.Are the two statements sufficient when combined? Simplify: 3 2+ 3 What is x? (1) 3x = 8 (2) 6y + 10z = 18 3y 5z Combo Problems Answer: Sufficient Divide the equation in (2) by 2 and get 3y + 5z = 9. This leaves an equation with one variable. Inequalities. x. & VICs Strategy Guide Exponential Equations 29 30 . Substitute 9 for the denominator of the fraction in (1). or a combination of the two. & VICs Strategy Guide Basic Equations ManhattanGMAT Equations. 3 2 3 3 2 3 63 3 2 32 3 2 3 2 3 4 2 3 2 33 63 3 6 3 3. when you see 3 variables and only 2 equations.
& VICs Strategy Guide Basic Equations 32 . dividing each term by 23. S18 = 40/23. S17 = 40/232. & VICs Strategy Guide Sequences 31 ManhattanGMAT Equations. and if you know just one term. Inequalities. a) x5 – x3 b) 48 + 49 + 410 c) mn−2 – 3mn + 4mn+1 Exponential Sequences Answer: Sufficient We could simply work backwards from the 19th term.Is the statement sufficient? In a sequence of terms in which each term is twenty‐three times the previous term. b) The GCF is 48. x3(x2 – 1) = x3(x + 1)(x – 1). if you know the factor that each term is being multiplied by. the smaller power. Generally. in a sequence. ManhattanGMAT Equations. Here it is mn−2: mn−2(1 – 3m2 + 4m3). 23 in this case. 48(1 + 41 + 42) = 48(21). Inequalities. it is sufficient to solve for any other term in the sequence. etc. Factoring Answer: a) The GCF is x3. c) The smallest power of m is the GCF. what is the 11th term? How would you factor each of the following expressions? (1) The 19th term is 40.
in terms of y. 3 ManhattanGMAT Equations. which then contains 6 liters. & VIC’s Strategy Guide VIC’s Direct/Inverse Proportionality kd 2 Answer: e 3 m A constant k is used in expressions of direct or inverse proportionality. kd 2 we get e 3 . 33 33 ManhattanGMAT Equations.Solve by picking numbers: Bottle 1. Bottle 2. Thus. Test each answer choice with y 1 = 18 and notice that d) is the solution. e is also inversely proportional to m3. is one sixth full. with capacity x. how many liters of water. Bottle 1 is dumped into Bottle 2. If Bottle 2 is three times the size of Bottle 1 and the contents of Bottle 1 are emptied into Bottle 2. is half full of water. it is best to pick numbers that are multiples of all the denominators in the problem. let the capacity of Bottle 1 = 6 and the capacity of Bottle 2 = 18. since (18) 6. so e = k/m3. but since k could be any value. which means e = kd2. Bottle 1 holds 3 liters and bottle 2 holds 3 liters. Picking Numbers Answer: d) 1/3 y When problems involve many fractions and no specific quantities. The least common multiple of 6 and 2 is 6. Putting these two equations together. m Note that k in the final equation must be the product of the k constants in the first two equations. with capacity y. e is directly proportional to d2 . are in Bottle 2? 1 1 2 1 5 a) y b) y c) y d) y e) y 2 6 3 3 6 Set up an appropriate equation to describe the given scenario: The elasticity (e) of a material is directly proportional to the square of its density (d) and inversely proportional to the cube of its mass (m). Inequalities. Inequalities. we can repeat the use of k for simplicity. & VICs Strategy Guide Functions 34 .
you get 2 x 8! 10 . If you subtract 8! from all 3 expressions. We have two linear equations.5. Inequalities. Special Products Answer: Sufficient Compound Inequalities Answer: 2 x 10 is incorrect Factor the special product. you must perform the same operation to all 3 expressions. and no x/y terms. In a compound inequality. The equations are linear because there are no squared terms. & VICs Strategy Guide Quadratic Equations 35 ManhattanGMAT Equations. what is y? (1) x + y = 5 Identify the error: 8! 2 x 8! 10 implies that 2 x 10. Inequalities. ManhattanGMAT Equations. y = 0. & VICs Strategy Guide Inequalities 36 . (x – y) = 4. no xy terms. not just the outside expressions. The solutions are x = 4.Is the statement sufficient? Given that x2 – y2 = 20. so we know we can solve for x and y individually.5. Since (x + y) = 5. We know that (x + y)(x – y) = 20.
& VICs Strategy Guide Inequalities 37 ManhattanGMAT Equations. and y2 are all perfect squares: x2 2 x x x 25 y 2 5 y 5 y 5 y 9 3 3 3 2 ManhattanGMAT Equations.Is the statement sufficient? Is xy < 0? (1) xz > 0 and yz < 0 Factor: x2 − 25y2 9 Positives & Negatives Answer: Sufficient xz > 0 means x and z have the same sign. 9. Inequalities. 25. Inequalities. & VICs Strategy Guide Quadratic Equations 38 . x x Answer: 5 y 5 y 3 3 Special Products This expression is a slightly more complicated version of the special product a 2 b 2 ( a b )( a b ) . Notice that x2. yz < 0 means y and z have opposite signs. Together. this means that x and y must have opposite signs and consequently xy < 0.
What is the rule for this sequence? 20 If 10 ≤m ≤ and 2 p 15 . make m as large as possible and make p as small as possible. & VICs Strategy Guide Sequences 39 ManhattanGMAT Equations. and m and p are both integers. The rule is Sn = 20n – 22. we know the rule is Sn = 20n + k. m = 20 and p = −2. 20 − (−2) = 22. & VICs Strategy Guide Inequalities 40 . Use any of the three given terms to solve for k: S2 = 20(2) + k k = −22 18 = 40 + k To maximize m – p. Could you express this sequence using a recursive definition? ManhattanGMAT Equations. Inequalities. Inequalities.The first three terms of a linear sequence are –2. Try solving for k using S1 or S3 and verify that you get the same value. and 38. 18. what is the maximum possible value for m – p? Linear Sequences Answer: Answer: 22 Extreme Values Since the terms are increasing by 20.
& VICs Strategy Guide VIC’s 42 . Inequalities. we know the factored form would take the form (x – a)(x – b). & VICs Strategy Guide Quadratic Equations 41 ManhattanGMAT Equations. Inequalities. where a + b = 10. a) 2x2 – 2y2 b) x2 +4xy + y2 c) x2 + y2 Factoring Quadratic Equations Answer: Insufficient Answer: c) Picking Numbers Let’s pick x = 3 and y = 2. Thus we already knew the sum of the roots is equal to 10 before statement (1). (3 + 2)2 = 25 and (3 – 2)2 = 1. so the average is Now. Since the middle term of the quadratic expression is −10x. let’s test each answer choice: a) 2(3)2 – 2(2)2 = 10 b) (3)2 + 4(3)(2) + (2)2 = 37 c) (3)2 + (2)2 = 13 25 1 13. so it is not enough information. 2 ManhattanGMAT Equations.Is the statement sufficient? Solve by picking numbers and calculating a target: What are the solutions to x2 – 10x + b = 0? What is the average of (x + y)2 and (x – y)2 ? 1) The sum of the roots is 10.
What is x? Unknown Multiplier Answer: 10 cappuccinos. The ratio of cappuccinos to lattes to espressos ordered is 1:2:3. 2 . 178 is 2 below 180. Inc. –3 –4 +9 = +2. Then. we find that x = 10. Solving for x. we can set up the equation 1x + 2x + 3x = 60. ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide Ratios Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. Inc. In this example. and 189 is 9 above the average. and then we can apply that multiple to each element in the proportion. how many cups of each type of coffee were ordered? The average of 177. 30 espressos Using the unknown multiplier. so the fourth number must be 2 below the average to balance it out. 176. 20 lattes. Answer: 178 Balancing Method A shortcut to dealing with averages is to focus on how much above or below the average every number in the set is. 189 and x is 180. 1 ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide Statistics Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. we can “balance” this difference in the final term. If there are 60 people in the office. 177 is 3 below the average.Everyone in a certain office orders a cup of coffee. 176 is 4 below the average.
15) + 7(0. What is the probability that neither of them will get a hole in one on the next hole? Algebraic Translations Answer: c) 5 + 9(0. we 12 11 11 . After that.10) b) 5(10) + 0.15 per minute. in dollars? a) 5 + 10(0.10 per minute. Answer: 11/13 Probability If Jasper has a 1/13 chance of getting a hole in one. the price drops to $0. multiply the probabilities: 13 12 13 ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide Algebraic Translations Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. Because we want the probability of Jasper not getting the hole in one AND Cornelius not getting the hole in one.10) We know that the first minute costs $5. Inc.10) In a round of miniature golf. Cornelius has an 11/12 chance of not getting the hole in one.00 for the first minute. the next 7 minutes will be charged at the rate of $0.15) + 7(0. The probability that Cornelius will get a hole in one is 1/12.00. the probability that Jasper will get a hole in one is 1/13.15 for every additional minute.Which is the correct expression? The phone call pricing for a long distance company is as follows: $5. After 10 minutes.10) c) 5 + 9(0. 3 ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide Probability Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. and $0. Similarly. that means he has a 12/13 chance of not getting it. Inc. 4 .15) + 7(0.10 per minute.15 + 7(0. The next 9 minutes (not 10 – don’t forget to subtract out the first minute!) will be charged at the rate of $0. How much does a 17 minute phone call cost.
ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide Statistics Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. its average will equal its median. 5 ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide Ratios Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. If there were 6 potbellied pigs in the room. The changes described in answer choices a) and b) would keep the numbers in the lists equally spaced. since 1/60 = 6/360. though. Answer: 358 carrots Ratios From the first ratio. Inc.Which of the following changes to a set of at least 3 consecutive positive integers will result in a list whose median and mean are different? a) Every number in the list is tripled b) Every number in the list has 12 added to it c) Every number in the list is squared Initially. total? Evenly Spaced Sets Answer: c) every number in the list is squared As long as a set of numbers is evenly spaced. 6 . we know that there were originally 360 carrots. Only answer choice c) would change the spacing. since 3/1 = 6/2. The second ratio tells us that the potbellied pigs only left 2 carrots uneaten. the new ratio was 3:1. We can calculate that 360 carrots – 2 uneaten carrots = 358 carrots. Inc. the ratio of potbellied pigs to carrots in a room had been 1:60. After the potbellied pigs ate most of the carrots. how many carrots did they eat.
Median and Mean Answer: Insufficient Although both sets have the same number of elements. Eric will be 15 and Sean will be 30. create two pairs of sets A and B. 30 is indeed 2 times 15. In Set B. It tells you nothing about the distribution of the other numbers in the list. In the other. so we know that 9 is the right answer. How old is Eric? Is the statement sufficient? a) 9 b) 14 c) 24 Two sets. but you should also have other tools available to you. Inc. In one set.Sean is 15 years older than Eric. ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide Algebraic Translations Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. using the answer choices is an alternate approach to setting up the equations. To do very well on the GMAT. it’s important to know how to setup and solve the algebra. 7 ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide Statistics Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. In 6 years. have the average of A be higher than the average of B. In 6 years Sean will be twice as old as Eric. Which set has the higher average? 1) In Set A. have the average of B be higher than the average of A. 75% of the numbers are greater than or equal to the median. For this type of question. it is important to remember that the median only tells you the middle number in the list. we begin by assuming that Eric is 9. Using the Answer Choices Answer: a) 9 An alternative approach to setting up equations and solving for the appropriate variable is to use the answer choices to help you. 8 . A and B. we know that Sean is 24. 50% of the numbers are greater than or equal to the median. have the same number of elements and the same median. For added practice. To demonstrate using the right answer. From the first sentence. Inc.
What was Jeff’s average speed for the total trip? Is the statement sufficient? Eight participants in a psychology experiment are given different amounts of money at the beginning of the experiment. 9 ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide Statistics Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. or equal to the average that each participant had at the beginning of the experiment? 1) Half of the participants are asked to give 20% of the original money back. while it took him 40/20 = 2 hours on the bike. lower than. ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide Rates & Work Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. Without that information. assign sets of payouts to each of the participants that result in the average amount increasing. assign payouts that result in the average amount decreasing. completed a 40 mile circuit around the city. but we don’t know the distribution of the money among the participants. while the other half are given an additional 25%. We only know the percent by which all the values were changed. Inc. 10hours Mean Answer: Insufficient It’s important to remember that the average does not give us any information about any individual number in the set.Jeff. Will the average amount of money each participant has at the end of the experiment be higher than. The distance is straightforward. the average speed is the total distance divided by the total time: 80miles 8 mph. Finally. but this time he biked at a constant speed of 20 mph. 10 . we find that it took him 40/5 = 8 hours to jog the circuit. The statement is insufficient. for a total distance of 80 miles. you need the total distance traveled and the total time spent traveling. If we divide distance by speed. For added practice. Jeff traveled 40 miles twice. Then Jeff completed the same circuit again. He jogged at a constant speed of 5 mph. we have no way of knowing what effect those changes will have on the average after the experiment. Average Speed Answer: 8 mph To calculate average speed. Inc. for a total time of 10 hours. Then.
Inc. For the total number of combinations.5 hours. then together they are traveling 100 miles per hour relative to one another. and each person is either starting or not starting. 6! 3!3! Answer: a) 8! 5!3! ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide Rates & Work Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. If Greg is moving 60 mph and Liz is moving 40 mph.Greg and Liz are currently 350 miles apart. 12 .5 hours When dealing with two objects moving toward each other. what is the probability that both Tom and Alex will start? (Assume 5 starting positions) 6! 6! 6 5 4 3!3! a) 3!3! b) c) 8! 8 7 6 5 4 8 7 6 5 4 5!3! Combined Rates Answer: 3. while there are still 3 people not on the team. because T = (350 miles)/(100 mph) = 3. Inc. Combinatorics/Probability There are two tasks in this problem: determine how many different combinations there are of all the players (denominator) and determine how many of those combinations include two specific players (numerator). Thus there is one group of 5 and one group of 3. there are 8 people to choose from. 11 ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide Probability Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. and that means we are now choosing among 6 people for the remaining 3 spots on the team. they will collectively travel 350 miles in 3. Greg driving 60 mph and Liz driving 40 mph. we assume that they are on the team. How long will it take until they meet? Which is the correct expression for this problem? 8 students have been chosen to play for PCU’s inter‐collegiate basketball team. we can simplify the calculations by adding the rates together. They begin driving toward each other.5. At that speed. To calculate how many combinations include both Tom and Alex. If every person on the team has an equal chance of starting.
000. Inc. Take the time to verify that it is where it should be.” The 2 employees making $65. 14 . for a total of $30. what is the average salary of the remaining 3 employees? Solve using the “balancing” method 10 years ago Tina was half as old as Ron will be 7 years from now.000.000. if Tina’s age 10 years ago was half what Ron’s age will be in 7 years. If 2 of the employees earn an average of $65. and the remaining salaries average out to $10.5 people in a company earn an average salary of $50. In this case. Which equation correctly represents this relationship? a) (1/2)(T – 10) = (R + 7) b) (T – 10) = (1/2)(R + 7) Balancing Method Answer: $40.000 each make $15.000 below the mean.000 under the mean. Distribute that amount evenly. or $40. Algebraic Translations Answer: b) (T – 10) = (1/2)(R + 7) When translating sentences into equations.000 more than the mean.000 over the mean. Inc. one of the easiest mistakes to make is to put the multiplier in the wrong place. Don’t forget to use the parentheses! ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide Statistics Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. we need to multiply Ron’s age by 1/2 to make them equal.000 One approach to this problem is to balance the “overs” and the “unders. That means the remaining 3 employees need to make a combined $30. 13 ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide Algebraic Translations Copyright © 2009 MG Prep.
ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide Rates & Work Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. Inc.470 Evenly Spaced Sets Any time a list is composed of evenly spaced numbers. To make the calculations simpler for Jerry. Jerry realizes he is ahead and stops running for one full minute before finishing the race at the same speed. They run 1. all the numbers in the list are spaced 7 units apart.477. T = (1.Jerry and Ross decide to have a footrace. 3. and Ross runs 4 meters per second. calculate how long it will take Ross to finish the race. Answer: 3.470. Ross finishes the race in less time. 16 . and 3. The median is 3.484? Rates & Work Answer: Ross wins First. In this case. the average will equal the median.470.000 meters. and the average is also 3.470.463. Jerry runs 5 meters per second.000 m)/(4m/s) = 250 s. 15 ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide Statistics Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. Inc. T = D/R. 3. Halfway through the race.456. T = (1. Who wins the race? What is the average of 3.000 m)/(5 m/s) + 60 s = 260 s. add 60 seconds to the total time to take into account the minute he spent not running. 3.
17 ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide Rates & Work Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. so we can write the equation 3x 1 Thus x = 6. and R × T = D. ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide Ratios Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. the 2x 6 1 . Car B is 45 miles behind Car A and also travels east at 75 mph. How long will it take Car B to catch up with Car A? Unknown Multiplier Answer: Sufficient Begin with the unknown multiplier. then the original number of girls is 2x and the original number of boys is 3x. Car A travels east at 60 mph. new ratio is 1:1. After 6 girls are added. The statement is sufficient. 18 . we can ignore their actual speeds and focus only on the difference between their speeds. bringing the ratio of girls to boys to 1:1. Answer: 3 hours Combined Rates When solving a combined rates problem with 2 objects moving in the same direction. Inc. If the original ratio of boys to girls is 2:3. Car B is going 15 mph faster than Car A. How many students are in the class? 1) The original ratio of girls to boys was 2:3. That means it will catch up to Car A at a rate of 15 mph. and we can use that value to determine how many students are in the class. Inc. Car B is currently 45 miles behind Car A.Is the statement sufficient? 6 girls are added to a class. so (15 mph) × T = 45 miles. Solving for T gives us T = 3 hours.
Similarly. Kevin’s rate of work is 1/3 of the doghouse per hour. because 1/6 + 1/3 = 1/2. If it takes Jeff 6 hours to build the doghouse. 19 ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide Rates & Work Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. to build 1 doghouse? Algebraic Translations Answer: c) 5y + 10/y = 51 We know that y represents the number of packages shipped by the customer in the month. Therefore. Inc. we see that they complete 1/2 of the doghouse every hour. How long will it take them. the product of these two terms must equal 51: (y)(5 + 10/y2) = 51 5y + 10/y = 51 For added practice. and 5 + 10/y2 is the shipping cost per package for that customer. Inc. When we combine their rates (because they’re working together). a great first step is to turn that information into a rate. then his rate is 1/6 of the doghouse per hour. what is the value of y? Try choosing integers that make sense.A shipping company charges 5 + 10/y dollars per package shipped by a customer over a given month. which equation will correctly solve for the number of packages shipped that month by the customer? a) 5y + 10 = 51 b) 5 + 10/y = 51 c) 5y + 10/y = 51 2 Jeff can build a doghouse in 6 hours. they will complete the doghouse in 2 hours. If a customer spends $51 one month on shipping. where y is the number of packages shipped that month by the customer. ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide Algebraic Translations Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. we can think of completing the task as doing 1 unit of work. At that rate. working together. In an R T = W equation. 20 . Combined Work Answer: 2 hours Whenever you are told how long it takes a person to complete a task. Kevin can build the same doghouse in 3 hours.
drinking alone. Let’s use x to represent the first try and y to represent the second try: x + y = 85 y = 10 + 0. finish the case? 1) It would take John 10 more hours to finish the case drinking alone than it would for Fawn to finish the case. (r 1 ) 2) the rate at which Fawn drinks. On his second try. each drinking at a constant pace. Combined Rates Answer: Sufficient The key to this problem is to realize that we have 3 variables. he pulled the truck 10 ft more than half the distance he pulled the truck on his first try. 21 22 .5x x + (10 + 0. Olav Gundersson managed to pull a truck a total distance of 85 ft combined in two tries. can finish a case of soda together in 12 hours. The statement is sufficient. How far did he pull the truck on his first try? a) 45 ft b) 50 ft c) 55 ft d) 60 ft e) 65 ft Is the statement sufficient? John and Fawn. Inc. and 3 equations describing their relationships. How fast can John. Inc.5x) = 85 1.In the World’s Strongest Man competition. (r 2 ) and 3) the time it takes John to drink the case of soda (t). The 3 equations are: 1) r 1 + r 2 = 1/12 2) r 1 t = 1 3) r 2 (t – 10) = 1 With 3 equations and 3 variables. and the second try is 10 more than half the first try. ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide Rates & Work Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. We know that the sum of the two tries equals 85 feet.5x = 75 x = 50 ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide Algebraic Translations Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. we will be able to solve for unique values for each variable. Using the Answer Choices Answer: b) 50 ft We can set this problem up and solve algebraically. The 3 variables are 1) the rate at which John drinks.
What is the average of the numbers on the balls still remaining in the bag? 1) One third of the ping pong balls are removed from the bag. Some of the ping pong balls are removed. Inc. The weighted average equals the sum of the weights times the data points. The ratio of mangos to kumquats is 5:4. Which of the following could be the number of kumquats? a) 28 b) 36 c) 42 d) 49 Weighted Averages Answer: Sufficient Although we don’t know how many ping pong balls are in the bag. 24 . Inc. At a farmer’s market. ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide Statistics Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. which will equal the 1 2 3 3 average of the remaining numbers. For instance. For added practice. based on the ratios involving kumquats. one stall is selling mangos. Thus. kumquats and rutabagas. The correct answer will be a multiple of both 4 and 3. Ratios Answer: b) 36 A common hidden constraint of word problems involving ratios is that the actual number of items must be an integer. divided by the sum of the weights.Is the statement sufficient? A bag contains ping pong balls. it would not make sense in this context to have 5 1/3 mangos. if there are 36 kumquats. and the average of the numbers written on those balls is 20. The average of all the numbers is 50. We can solve for x. and the ratio of kumquats to rutabagas is 3:7. 1 2 20 x 3 3 50. how many mangos and rutabagas are there? 23 ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide Ratios Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. The statement is sufficient. each with a number written on it. we can modify the weighted averages formula to help us answer this question.
Is the statement sufficient? Train A and Train B are 500 miles apart and are traveling towards each other at constant speeds. and his gross income increased 20% in 2007. ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide Algebraic Translations Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. How fast is Train A going? 1) If Train B were going twice as fast. 26 . Inc.2 Income2006. When dealing with objects moving towards each other. We have 2 equations and 2 variables. From the statement. we can proceed as follows: TaxRate2006 = 4% . In this problem. we also know that (R A + 2 R B ) × (4 hrs) = 500 miles. so we can solve for the speed of Train A (75 mph). They meet in 5 hours. but we do not know the value of Income2006. label the speed of Train A as R A and the speed of Train B as R B . Combined Rates Answer: Sufficient First. How much state tax did he pay in 2007? 1) The state tax increased to 5% of income in 2007. so (R A + R B ) × (5 hrs) = 500 miles. it is important to translate the information into variables and try to write equations about the variables/unknowns. The statement is sufficient. John paid 4% state taxes on his gross income. and the rephrased question is: What is TaxRate2007 Income2007? The statement tells us that TaxRate2007 = 5% and that Income2007 = 1. 25 ManhattanGMAT Word Translations Strategy Guide Rates & Work Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. the two trains would meet in 4 hours.Is the following statement sufficient? In 2006. Algebraic Translations Answer: Insufficient For these types of word problems. Inc. we can add their rates.
and the area would be less than 30. and the area would be ½(5)(12) = 30. triangle PQR is a right triangle. Because BDA is 120°. Inc. side QR would be the base and side PQ would be the height. side BD has length 8. 2 . Note: Figure not drawn to scale Is PQR a right triangle? 5 R 1) The area of triangle PQR is 30. Inc. and the statement is sufficient. Thus. If PQR were anything other than a right triangle.B P ABD = DAB 120° 12 C D 8 A Note: Figure not drawn to scale What is the perimeter of Triangle BCD? Is the statement sufficient? Q PR is the longest side. Special Triangles Answer: 12 4 3 Because ABD = DAB. so triangle BCD is a 306090 triangle. Side CD BC BD Ratio x x 3 2x Length 4 4 3 8 Area (Triangles) Answer: Sufficient Base and height of a triangle must be perpendicular to each other. BDC is 60°. If PQR were a right triangle. 1 ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide Triangles & Diagonals Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide Triangles & Diagonals Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. the height of the triangle would be less than 12.
Inc. ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide Circles & Cylinders Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. so A = π(7)² = 49π Answer: 6 Right Triangles First. Side QR has length 6. A = πr². because the radius is used to calculate both circumference and area. 4 . With two sides of a right triangle. you can use the Pythagorean theorem to find the third side. however. 3 ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide Triangles & Diagonals Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. complete the ratio. What is the length of side QR? Circles Answer: 49π The key to this problem is to find the radius. In this case. Side PQ has length 8.P 10 What is the area of a circle that has a circumference of 14π? Q R Note: Figure not drawn to scale The ratio of side PR to side PQ is 5:4. so 14π = 2πr. you should recognize that this triangle is a common Pythagorean triplet—a 6810 triangle. 5/4 = 10/PQ. C = 2πr. Therefore r = 7. Inc.
try picking numbers for the cylinder that would produce an initial volume of 10π. so the surface area is the area of one of the faces times 6. The area of one face is A = length × width. We are told the radius is doubled. Therefore. we know that V = 4(10π) = 40π. ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide Circles and Cylinders Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. Replace r with 2r and the new equation is V=π(2r)²h. 6 . so 10π=πr²h. Double the radius and calculate the new volume. Since we know that πr²h=10π. a height of 10 and a radius of 1 are simplest. Inc. because a cube has 6 faces. The new volume is V=4 πr²h. so the new radius is 2r. 5 ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide Polygons Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. what is the volume of the new cylinder? What is the surface area of a cube with side length 5? Volume (Cylinders) Answer: 40π V=πr²h. Inc. If the radius is doubled and the height remains the same. surface area = 6 × 5 × 5 = 150. A cylinder has a volume of 10π. Alternately. Answer: 150 Surface Area Surface area is the sum of all the areas of the faces of the cube. The faces of a cube are all identical.
then the radius is 2.Q Q Is the statement sufficient? Note: Figure not drawn to scale 6 P 3 4 R P O 3 R Is the statement sufficient? Note: Figure not drawn to scale What is the area of triangle PQR? 1) PQ = QR What is the area of the circle? 1) PQR is a right angle Right Triangles Answer: Sufficient Triangle OQR is a right triangle. Triangles OQR and OQP are thus similar triangles. and we have 2 sides. then OPQ = ORQ. or by recognizing that triangle PQR is a 345 triangle. we know that POQ = ROQ = 90. so either by using the Pythagorean Theorem or by recognizing it as a 306090 triangle. ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide Triangles & Diagonals Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. they must have common third angles. so the statement is sufficient. 7 ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide Circles and Cylinders Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. because when two triangles have two angles in common. We can solve for the area of the circle using the formula A = r2. so we have the length of the base as well as the height. which is also the height of triangle PQR.5. Additionally. so the statement is sufficient. Inc. If the diameter of the circle is 5. and also have identical side lengths. Inc. we can find the length of OQ. 8 . If PQ = QR. Circles Answer: Sufficient If PQR is a right angle. Therefore OQP = OQR. OP must equal 3. We can calculate the area of triangle PQR. then segment PR must be a diameter of the circle. We can solve for the length of PR using the Pythagorean Theorem.
10 . Don’t trust the picture! Although lines ℓ and m appear to be parallel. If triangle OPR is a right triangle and has 2 sides with equal length. nothing in the question tells us that they are. OP and OR are both radii. Without knowing whether the lines are parallel. so r = 9. then 81π = πr². The area of the circle is 81π. Inc. and so both have length 9. 9 ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide Lines & Angles Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. Inc. then it is a 454590 triangle. Therefore. ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide Triangles & Diagonals Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. and the ratio of the sides to the hypotenuse is 1: 2 . the length of PR is 9 2 . What is the length of line segment PR? x Is the statement sufficient? What is y? 1) x = 70 Special Triangles Answer: 9 Parallel Lines Answer: Insufficient 2 If the area of the circle is 81π. we have no way to determine the value of y.P R Note: Figure not drawn to scale ℓ m y O O is the center of the circle.
so AE has a length of 5.10 170 x x x x 13 B C What is x? x Note: Figure not drawn to scale A E D Note: Figure not drawn to scale Segment AD has length 15. (6 – 2) × 180 = 720. ED must have a length of 10. What is the area of rectangle BCDE? Interior Angles Answer: 110◦ The sum of the interior angles of a polygon = (n – 2) × 180. ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide Polygons Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. 12 . 5x = 550. where n is the number of sides. 11 ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide Polygons Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. Segment BE has a length of 12. Area of a rectangle is A = base × height = (10) × (12) = 120. or recognize that triangle ABE is a 51213 triangle. then BC = ED. We can use the Pythagorean Theorem to determine the length of BE. Inc. 5x + 170 = 720. Answer: 120 Area (Parallelograms) If BCDE is a rectangle. Therefore. so x = 110. Inc.
4 and 2? Volume (Cylinders) Answer: 60 Minutes V= πr²h. its base has an area of 15 ft². or we can save some time by using the “Deluxe” Pythagorean Theorem to find the interior diagonal of a rectangular prism (a box): d² = x² + y² + z². V = (15 ft²)(10 ft) = 150 ft³. So d² = 4² + 4² + 2² = 16 + 16 + 4 = 36. Inc.An empty cylindrical swimming pool has a height of 10 ft. Answer: 6 “Deluxe” Pythagorean Theorem We could use the Pythagorean Theorem twice. and d = 6. ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide Circles & Cylinders Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. how long will it take for the pool to be filled? What is the length of the main diagonal of a rectangular solid with sides of length 4. The pool fills at a rate of 25 ft³ every 10 minutes. 13 ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide Triangles and Diagonals Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. Inc. 14 . If water fills the pool at a rate of 25 ft³ every 10 minutes. we can proportionally apply this to the rate: 10 × 6 = 60 minutes. Therefore. and since 25 × 6 = 150.
6). we know that two points define a line.Is the statement sufficient? (0. Answer: 225 Special Triangles If the length and width are equal. The ratio of the sides to the hypotenuse is 1: 2 . calculate the slope of line ℓ. 3) and point (15. then the sides each have length 15. Because line ℓ goes through point (0. and the diagonal is the hypotenuse of a 454590 triangle. 6). If the hypotenuse is 15 2 . 6) on the grid given in this problem. then the flowerbed is a square. 16 .3) What is the slope of line ℓ? Note: Figure not drawn to scale 1) Line ℓ goes through point (15. What is the area of the flowerbed. we can calculate the slope. if its length and width are equal? Slope of a Line Answer: Sufficient Although we cannot easily see the point (15. ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide Coordinate Plane Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. Inc. The diagonal of a rectangular flowerbed is 15 2 feet. As an exercise. 15 ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide Triangles & Diagonals Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. Inc. so the area is ℓ × w = (15) × (15) = 225.
POR is 60°. triangle PQR must be a right triangle. Circumference is C = 2πr. so minor arc PR is 1/6 of the circumference. which means the opposite angles in triangle PQO must be equal.90° . Inc. Therefore OPQ = PQO = 60°. What is PRQ? P O R Note: Figure not drawn to scale Sectors Answer: 60° To determine POR. they must have equal length. so C = 2π(3) = 6π. PRQ equals 60°. ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide Circles and Cylinders Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. what is POR? 80 60 40 20 0 East West North 1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr O is the center of the circle. Since PR is a diameter of the circle. we can calculate OPQ: since OP and OQ are the radii of the circle. That means POR is 1/6 of 360°. If minor arc PR has a length of π. 18 . Inc.60° = 30°. so angle PRQ = 180° .R Q 60° 100 O P 3 O is the center of the circle. Therefore. 17 ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide Circles and Cylinders Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. we first need to determine what fraction of the circumference minor arc PR is. Answer: 30° Inscribed Angles First. π/6π = 1/6.
Answer: 5 (0. Inc.0) and (4. Inc.0) One way to think of the distance formula is that it’s the square root of the Pythagorean Theorem. respectively. the numbers are large. the two legs of the triangle have lengths 4 and 3.T 27 45 What is the distance between points (0. The value we’re missing is 4 × 9. the difference in the xcoordinates is the horizontal leg of the triangle.0) (4. Remember that multiples of Pythagorean triplets are also Pythagorean triplets. The hypotenuse of the triangle is 5. The hypotenuse is the distance. ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide Coordinate Plane Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. Every value has been multiplied by 9. and the difference in the ycoordinates is the vertical leg. and the calculation will be timeconsuming.3) Pythagorean Triplets Answer: 36 Although we can use the Pythagorean theorem. which equals 36. 3 × 9 = 27 and 5 × 9 = 45. 20 . 19 ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide Triangles and Diagonals Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. In this case. This is a 345 triangle in disguise.3)? S P Note: Figure not drawn to scale What is the length of side SP? Distance Formula (4. This is a 345 triangle in disguise.
so the slope of a perpendicular line will be –3/2. there is only one important piece of information – the slope. Because 58° is not twice 30°. ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide Coordinate Plane Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. If O were the center of the circle. Inc. we know that point O cannot be the center of the circle. Inc. The slope of the line in answer choice c) is – 3/2. The slopes of perpendicular lines are negative reciprocals. Answer: Sufficient Inscribed Angles PSR is an inscribed angle. 21 ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide Circles and Cylinders Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. POR would be a central angle and angle POR would be twice PSR. The statement is sufficient.P Which of these lines is perpendicular to the line whose equation is y = 2 3 x + 6? a) y = 32 x – 6 c) y = 32 x + 7 b) y = 23 x + 2 Is the statement sufficient? Is point O the center of the circle? 1) POR = 58° 30° S R O Note: Figure not drawn to scale Perpendicular Lines Answer: c) y = 32 x + 7 When determining what lines are perpendicular. The slope of the original line is 2/3. 22 .
We know that DC has a length of 6. Which of the following could be the length of the third side? a) 6 b) 8 c) 13 In triangle ABC. Choice c) fails because 3 + 9 is not greater than 13. ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide Triangles and Diagonals Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. 23 ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide Triangles and Diagonals Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. because 3 + 6 is not greater than 9. Choice a) fails. Answer: 36 Area (Triangles) We know that AC has a length of 12. 24 .B Two sides of a triangle have lengths 3 and 9. A= ½ (base) × (height). What is the area of triangle BDC? C Third Side Rule Answer: b) 8 In any given triangle. and A BD bisects AC. the length of any side must be greater than the difference of the other two. so A = ½ (6) × (12) = 36. because it is equal to AB. the lengths of any two sides must add up to greater than the third side. because BD bisects AC. Similarly you could apply the rule that in any given triangle. AB = AC. D AB = 12. Inc. Inc.
The formula for area is A = πr². The area of the entire figure is the area of the larger circle. What is the area of the shaded region? Is the statement sufficient? P O R O is the center of the circle. Thus r = 8. Inc. If the larger circle has a circumference of 16π. C = 2πr. so 16π = 2πr. A right triangle with 2 equal sides is a 454590 triangle. 64π – 9π = 55π. Since POQ is also a right angle. 26 . The statement is sufficient. PR is a diameter of the circle. we know that minor arc PQ is 1/4 of the circumference. Inc. we find it has a radius of 3 and an area of 9π. 25 ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide Circles and Cylinders Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. Note that in triangle QOR. Sectors Answer: Sufficient Note that since PR is the diameter. so A = π (8)² = 64π. because C = 2πr. both OQ and OR are radii. What is the length of line segment QR? 1) The length of minor arc PQ is 4π Area (Circles) Answer: 55π To find the area of the shaded region. so they both have length 8. Doing the same calculations for the smaller circle. The circumference of the circle is 4 × 4π = 16π. and 90 is 1/4 of 360. triangle PQR must be a right triangle. then its radius is 8. and so we know that the length of segment QR is 8 2 . ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide Circles and Cylinders Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. we need to find the area of the entire figure and subtract the area of the smaller circle.Q The circumference of the smaller circle is 6π and the circumference of the larger circle is 16π.
If BC has length 8. and BE is the height of the trapezoid.B A B C D 5 8 C Is the statement sufficient? E F The area of square BCFE is 16. and the area is (8)(3) = 24. We are told BE bisects AD. We can determine the height. What is the area of trapezoid ADFE? A E D Note: Figure not drawn to scale Segment BE bisects segment AD. so the area is A = 7 × 4 = 28. From the statement. where b 1 and b 2 2 Area (Parallelograms) Answer: 24 The area of a parallelogram is A = base × height. Inc. because a square that has an area of 16 must have sides of length 4. Inc. Area (Trapezoids) Answer: Sufficient The area of a trapezoid is b1 b2 × (height). are the parallel bases of the trapezoid. we know the average of the lengths of the parallel bases 10 4 = 7. because base and height must be perpendicular. We see then that triangle ABE is a 345 triangle in disguise. If AD is the base. so AE must have length 4. ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide Polygons Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. then AD also has length 8. 27 ManhattanGMAT Geometry Strategy Guide Polygons Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. What is the area of parallelogram ABCD? 1) The length of AD is 10. then BE can be the height. 28 . The statement is is 2 sufficient. BE has length 3.
that’s the mayor—this doesn’t make sense. be expanded.” citizens of Newtown were dismayed by the ever‐increasing numbers of violent crimes. “Considered as” is incorrect.” One Correction: Having considered the new District Attorney the city’s “white knight. 1 ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Idioms Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. which was designed to accommodate only 20 million tons of trash but is now overflowing with more than 35 million tons. (Note that the subjunctive is used correctly in this sentence: the mayor proposed that the landfill be expanded).1 error Identify the error: Designed to accommodate only 20 million tons of trash.” citizens of Newtown were dismayed by the everincreasing number of violent crimes. the mayor proposed that the landfill. Inc. 2 . Modifiers This question is about modifiers. As this sentence is written now. “Number of” is preferred to “numbers of. 2 errors Identify the errors: Having considered the new District Attorney as the city’s “white knight. ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Modifiers Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. be expanded. One correction: The mayor proposed that the landfill. Therefore. whatever it is that is “designed to accommodate only 20 million tons of trash” should come right after the comma. Notice that “Designed to accommodate only 20 million tons of trash” does not have a subject. Idioms This question is about idioms. overflowing with more than 35 million tons of trash. Inc.
” Note that this subject is separated from its verb by four consecutive prepositional phrases.” necessitating the past perfect. In the part of the sentence before the semicolon. since the stabbing. ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide SubjectVerb Agreement Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. I have been terribly afraid of clowns. in a specific timeline: I was at the circus. two things happen in the past. the present perfect is called for here. 3 ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Verb Tense Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. “I am terribly afraid” does not correctly express that the fear began in the past and continues into the present. 2 errors Identify the errors: I was at the circus for only half an hour when the assailant struck. Subject Verb Agreement This question is about subjectverb agreement. Being at the circus is in “the past of the past. I am terribly afraid of clowns.1 error Identify the error: The development of a new drug for the treatment of a variety of nervous system disorders indicate that the university’s research funding is producing real results. This is a good example of why it is very important to match up every subjectverb pair rather than to play it by ear! Correct: The development of a new drug for the treatment of a variety of nervous system disorders indicates that the university’s research funding is producing real results. Inc. ever since the stabbing. Inc. and the assailant struck. The verb “indicate” disagrees with the singular subject “development. Verb Tense This question is about verb tense. Correct: I had been at the circus for only half an hour when the assailant struck. 4 .
5 ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Parallelism Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. Correct: I sent a card thanking my eighthgrade English teacher for teaching me about grammar and inspiring me to write. Parallelism This question is about parallelism. 1 error Identify the error: I sent a card thanking my eighth‐grade English teacher for teaching me about grammar and inspiration to write. “Teaching” and “inspiration” are not parallel. the doctors shaved his stomach. for making the incision. ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Idioms Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. an unlikely occurrence. it also creates an unintended meaning that the teacher taught the speaker about his or her inspiration. the doctors shaved his stomach. to make the incision. 6 . Elements in a list must be parallel. One correction: He donated a kidney so that his wife could live. “For making” is incorrect when “in order to make” is the intended meaning. The first sentence is missing the word “that” (the idiom “so that” indicates purpose). Idioms This question is about idioms. The lack of parallelism in this sentence not only sounds bad. Inc.2 errors Identify the errors: He donated a kidney so his wife could live. Inc.
not to the term “red panda. but rather an unrelated rodent.” The sentence is illogical. 2 errors Identify the errors: My husband. Inc. the red panda is not a true panda. Correct: My husband. “it” is meant to refer to the actual red panda. regret to inform you that neither of my sons are planning to attend your son’s bar mitzvah. along with my sons. 7 ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Subject Verb Agreement Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. Remember the “Deadly Five” pronouns: it. A good rule of thumb is “There are no substitutes for AND in making a compound plural subject. (The fact that this phrase is in commas is also a clue that it is not part of the main subject. Inc. the verb “are” does not match the singular subject “neither” (note that “of my sons” is a mere prepositional phrase).1 error Identify the error: The term “red panda” is misleading. its. Subject Verb Agreement This question is about subjectverb agreement. Unfortunately. Pronouns The pronoun “it” certainly matches “the term” in number. and their. verify that the pronoun has an antecedent that appears in the sentence. regrets to inform you that neither of my sons is planning to attend your son’s bar mitzvah.” The phrase “along with my sons” is not part of this subject.”) Also. along with my sons. Each time you see one of these pronouns on the GMAT. ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Pronouns Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. Correct: The term “red panda” is misleading. matches in number. but rather an unrelated rodent. it is not a true panda. however. 8 . and is unambiguous and logical. they. them. The verb “regret” does not match the subject “My husband.
10 . Additionally. presumably swimmers.1 error Identify the errors: Of my two brothers. Of my three sisters. Salvatore is the most intelligent. ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Quantity Expressions/Idioms Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. are never mentioned. Salvatore is the more intelligent. Julia is the cleverest. the use of the passive voice (“were broken”) is inferior to the active voice. high‐tech swimwear. “most” is for three or more. Correct: Between my two brothers. Of my three sisters. 1 error Identify the error: Wearing the latest in streamlined. Inc. Who was “wearing the latest in streamlined. Inc. hightech swimwear. Modifiers/Verb Voice This question is about modifiers. 9 ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Modifiers/Verb Voice Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. Correct: Wearing the latest in streamlined. Quantity Expressions/Idioms “More” is for comparing two things. the team broke eight records in speed swimming. Julia is the cleverest. hightech swimwear”? These people. Make sure that your modifier modifies something that is actually mentioned in the sentence (in noun form). eight records were broken in speed swimming. This creates a dangling modifier. and also implies nonsensically that the records themselves were wearing hightech swimwear.
making the meeting an action that started in the past and continues into the present time. Note that if the verb “to express” did not have a noun form (“expression”) we could use a complex gerund. One correction: If my mother had not attended the London School of Economics. ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Parallelism Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. The speaker’s mother’s nonattendance at the London School of Economics is a past hypothetical. Parallelism This question is about parallelism. This requires a present perfect construction. ManhattanGMAT Answer Correction Strategy Guide Verb Tense Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. certainly the speaker’s parents know one another. she might not meet my father. 3 errors Identify the errors: If my mother did not attend the London School of Economics. Inc. “Have been here now” is complex for no good reason. Verb Tense This question is about verb tense. she might not have met my father. such as “the expressing of…” But. Concrete nouns (murder) and simple gerunds (expressing) are not as parallel as they could be. The present tense is inadequate in “might not meet”. because the word “expression” exists. Inc. and I might not have been here now. the simple present tense is correct.1 error Identify the error: The murder was an expressing of longstanding tensions. it is preferred to a complex gerund. it needs to occur before the past tense in the “then” clause and thus must be in past perfect tense. 11 12 . Correct: The murder was an expression of longstanding tensions. specifically within “If…Then” constructions. and I might not be here now.
Flanders. Correct: After the president of the college publicly lamented the sharp drop in the value of its endowment. Remember the “Deadly Five” pronouns: it. Simpson has ten times as many bottles in her robust and famous collection as does Mr. them. Inc. and their. Simpson has ten times as many bottles in her robust and famous collection than does Mr. 2 errors Identify the errors: Being the world’s top collector of empty vitamin bottles. The first pronoun “its” is a possessive pronoun that refers back to the college. they. There is no plural subject that appears earlier in the sentence. the head of faculty suggested that the college initiate a fundraising campaign immediately. a mere hobbyist. a mere hobbyist. the “they” in the second sentence lacks an antecedent.1 error Identify the error: After the president of the college publicly lamented the sharp drop in the value of its endowment. Mrs. The second idiom being tested is “as … as”. ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Pronouns Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. the current sentence incorrectly uses “as … than. “Being” is unnecessary and should be eliminated. Idioms This question is about idioms.” Correct: The world’s top collector of empty vitamin bottles. Mrs. Inc. it is unclear whether the pronoun “it” refers to the college or to the faculty. which is a collective noun. If we replace “they” with “it”. Flanders. Pronouns This question is about pronouns. the head of faculty suggested that they initiate a fundraising campaign immediately. 13 ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Idioms Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. However. 14 . its.
is a good example of a president who held to the principles of laissezfaire economics. as well as Herbert Hoover. OR: Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover are good examples of presidents who held to the principles of laissezfaire economics. ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Modifiers Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. One correction: Ritika was late to pick up her cat from the vet after abandoning her brokendown car.1 error Identify the error: Ritika was late to pick up her cat from the vet after abandoning her broken‐down car on the side of the road. are good examples of presidents who held to the principles of laissez‐faire economics. Inc. A good rule of thumb here is “There are no substitutes for AND in making a compound plural subject. The fact that this phrase is in commas is also a clue that it is not part of the main subject. Subject Verb Agreement This question is about subjectverb agreement.” Correct: Calvin Coolidge. “abandoning her brokendown 1989 Peugeot” would be even more concise). a 1989 Peugeot.” The phrase “as well as Herbert Hoover” is not part of the subject. 1 error Identify the error: Calvin Coolidge. The misplaced modifier “a 1989 Peugeot” should be modifying the car. The subject of this sentence is “Calvin Coolidge. (Alternately. as well as Herbert Hoover. 15 ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Subject Verb Agreement Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. Inc. but is actually modifying the road. a 1989 Peugeot. on the side of the road. Modifiers This question is about modifiers. 16 .
You must use the hypothetical subjunctive mood: “If…were. 18 . I would demand. under threat of eviction.” The command subjunctive is more commonly tested on the GMAT and is found in the second part of the sentence: “I would demand that you should cease. Correct: If I were the owner of our building. I would demand.” “Resulting from” in the second clause is also incorrect – the correct idiom is “as a result of. With “bossy verbs.” use the bare form of the verb (the infinitive form of the verb without the “to”). the children have formidable biceps. under threat of eviction.” “Demand that you should” is incorrect on the GMAT. “If…was” is never correct (“If…would” is also incorrect). that you should cease playing your djembe at all hours.2 errors Identify the errors: She requires that all of her children are to churn butter. the children have formidable biceps. Verb Mood/Idioms This question is about verb mood and idioms. “Requires that … are” is incorrect. 17 ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Verb Mood Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. Inc. Verb Mood This question is about the subjunctive mood. 2 errors Identify the errors: If I was the owner of our building.” One correction:. Inc. She requires that all of her children churn butter. This clause is in the subjunctive mood. ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Verb Mood/Idioms Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. that you cease playing your djembe at all hours. which uses the infinitive form of the verb without the “to” – in this case. as a result of this daily chore. simply “churn. resulting from this daily chore.
the use of “them” and “them” so close together is ambiguous. therefore. “Each of the disqualified candidates” is also singular (“each” is singular. Inc. “their” and “them” do not match in number. therefore. Pronouns This question is about pronouns.3 errors Identify the errors: The committee told each of the disqualified candidates that their official policies prevented them from hiring them. 19 ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Parallelism Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. Parallelism This question is about parallelism. “Committee” is singular. One correction: The committee told each of the disqualified candidates that its official policies prevented it from hiring him or her. Inc. the second “them” does not match in number. Elements in the construction “rather X than Y” must be parallel. Correct: The nation’s president would rather misappropriate foreign aid than actually attempt to help those in need. 1 error Identify the error: The nation’s president would rather misappropriate foreign aid than actually attempting to help those in need. and “of the disqualified candidates” is simply a prepositional phrase). 20 . Additionally. ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Pronouns Copyright © 2009 MG Prep.
Although the sentence appears to be about athletes. One correction: Each of the athletes in the parade is carrying his or her nation’s flag. however. two independent clauses cannot be joined with “also. try to hide my ability to juggle. 21 ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Subject Verb Agreement/Pronouns Copyright © 2009 MG Prep.” One correction: Joanne can walk on her hands. “Ability of” and “ability for” are both wrong. Subject Verb Agreement/Pronouns This sentence has a subjectverb error and a pronoun error.” which is singular. I. however. lest others force me to demonstrate. I.4 errors Identify the errors: Joanne has the ability of walking on her hands. 22 . the subject is actually the pronoun “each. lest others force me to demonstrate. 2 errors Identify the errors: Each of the athletes in the parade are carrying their nation’s flag. Inc. Idioms This question is about idioms. Therefore the verb “are” and the pronoun “their” do not match. and her twin sister Kimberly can balance on a tightrope. but “can” is more concise and should be used where possible. “Ability to” is correct. also her twin sister Kimberly has the ability to balance on a tightrope. try to hide my ability for juggling. ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Idioms Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. Additionally. Inc.
2 errors
Identify the errors: The test was easy enough that I mastered it after a simple brain transplant. The transplant, however, was expensive to such a degree that I had to take out a second mortgage.
1 error
Identify the error: The princess entered the spectacular arranged ballroom as a well‐practiced band paid her a musical tribute.
Idioms
This is a question about idioms. “Easy enough that” is incorrect. “Enough” must be followed by an infinitive or the preposition “for.” Additionally, “expensive to such a degree as to” is incorrect and extremely wordy. It must be structured “so expensive that…” Correct:.The test was easy enough for me to master after a simple brain transplant. The transplant, however, was so expensive that I had to take out a second mortgage.
Modifiers
This question is about adverbs (found under “Modifiers” in your SC Strategy Guide). An adverb is needed to modify an adjective. That is, if the ballroom were both spectacular and arranged, we would say “the spectacular, arranged ballroom” – but that doesn’t make any sense. The word “spectacular” modifies the way the ballroom was “arranged” and should therefore be changed to “spectacularly.” On the other hand, “wellpracticed band” is correct, by the same logic; the adverb “well” modifies the adjective “practiced.” Correct: The princess entered the spectacularly arranged ballroom as a wellpracticed band paid her a musical tribute.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Idioms
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ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Modifiers
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3 errors
Identify the errors: My child has better hygiene than those of my sister; neither of her boys ever seem to wash their hands.
1 error
Identify the error: Superintendent Jackson’s administration is beginning to reform the school system, hiring new administrators, an increase in security, and overhauling the curriculum.
SubjectVerb Agreement/Pronouns
This question is about subjectverb agreement and pronouns. The pronoun “those” seems to be referring back to “child.” Since “child” is singular, this is incorrect. Additionally, since “neither” is singular (“of her boys” is merely a prepositional phrase), the verb “seem” and the pronoun “their” are both incorrect. Correct: My child has better hygiene than my sister’s children; neither of her boys ever seems to wash his hands.
Parallelism
This problem is about parallelism. The administration is doing three things – hiring, increasing, and overhauling – all under the umbrella of “is beginning to reform the school system.” To fix the sentence, we must make each item in the list match. Correct: Superintendent Jackson’s administration is beginning to reform the school system, hiring new administrators, increasing security, and overhauling the curriculum.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Subject Verb Agreement/Pronouns
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ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Parallelism
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1 error
Identify the error: The resort was advertised as a place where singles can meet one another and that offers an Olympic‐sized swimming pool.
2 errors
Identify the errors: The iconoclastic fitness guru preaches three main principles: eat five apples per day, exercising before a two‐hour brunch, and that you must burn calories by re‐enacting action movies in your living room.
Parallelism
This question is about parallelism. Parallel clauses involving relative pronouns should start with the same relative pronoun (“where” and “that” do not match.) One correction: The resort was advertised as a place where singles can meet one another and where guests can swim in an Olympicsized swimming pool.
Parallelism
This question is about parallelism. Elements in a list must be parallel. One correction: The iconoclastic fitness guru preaches three main principles: eating five apples per day, exercising before a twohour brunch, and burning calories by reenacting action movies in your living room. OR: The iconoclastic fitness guru preaches three main principles: eat five apples per day, exercise before a twohour brunch, and burn calories by reenacting action movies in your living room.
ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Parallelism
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ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Parallelism
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First. so if you are more familiar with British than American English.” a collective noun. but “the family business” is very precise and clear. like all countries. the word “being” is usually suspect on the GMAT. (Note: “relocate its business” is also an option. Inc. is singular. 2 errors Identify the errors: The United States are such an enticing locale to my wife’s family that my father‐in‐law has decided to relocate their business to Minneapolis. The second “being. Idioms This question is about idioms. Subject Verb Agreement/Pronouns This question is about subjectverb agreement and pronouns.” The second idiom tested in this sentence is “not only X but also Y. 30 . it can easily be removed. (Note: many collective nouns are considered plural in British English.24 errors Identify the errors: Being a pacifist. Katrin was upset not only that he was being so militaristic but also that he was torturing the captives. that he was torturing the captives.) 29 ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Subject Verb Agreement/Pronouns Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. you will have to adjust to this change for purposes of the GMAT. is also singular.” In this sentence. Inc. Katrin was not only upset he was being so militaristic. The United States.” One correction: A pacifist. but. is okay – “being militaristic” is a correct use of “being.” which is before an adjective.) One correction: The United States is such an enticing locale to my wife’s family that my fatherinlaw has decided to relocate the family business to Minneapolis. “Family. we have only “not only X but Y. ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Idioms Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. The first “being” is definitely suspect.
Kozlowski is no less talented a dancer than Justin Timberlake. “No less talented as” is incorrect. Kozlowski is no less talented a dancer as Justin Timberlake. however. Inc. after consuming an energydrink cocktail. It must be phrased “no less talented than.2 errors Identify the errors: Mr. (Note: “…able to do so” would also be an option here. “Do it” may only be used in a case in which “it” actually refers to a noun. unlike with Timberlake. Mr. Pronouns This question is about pronouns. such as in the case “Here is your assignment. she was able to ask him. I suggest that you do it.” One correction: Although her shyness was keeping Sofia from asking Walter to dance.” “Unlike with” is incorrect – the comparison of nouns must only use the word “unlike. however. Mr.) ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Idioms/Comparisons Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. Inc. 1 error Identify the error: Although her shyness was keeping Sofia from asking Walter to dance. after consuming an energy‐drink cocktail. Mr.” Correct:. Be very suspicious of pronouns that appear late in a sentence. Kozlowski lacks a certain celebrity quality. Idioms/Comparisons This question is about idioms and comparisons. Kozlowski lacks a certain celebrity quality. unlike Timberlake. 32 . she was able to do it. 31 ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Pronouns Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. They often don’t have a clear antecedent.
A “journey. use the active voice instead. people may not be modified with “that” or “which”. 33 ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Idioms/Verb Voice Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. “Allowed Agent M the conducting of” is unidiomatic. Modifiers This question is about modifiers. specifically those beginning with the relative pronoun “where. Furthermore.” whether metaphorical or literal. is not a place. only “who” is correct.2 errors Identify the errors: Mastering Sanskrit is an often‐frustrating journey where a student that is too impatient is likely to become discouraged. Idioms/Verb Voice This question is about idioms and verb voice. Inc. One correction: Because Agent Q believed that Agent M was trustworthy. to use both is redundant and thus incorrect. 34 . ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Modifiers Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. One correction: Mastering Sanskrit is an oftenfrustrating journey during which a student who is too impatient is likely to become discouraged. Agent Q allowed Agent M to conduct the top secret mission alone. “Because” and “the reason” serve the same purpose here.” “Where” may only be used to describe actual places. Inc. 24 errors Identify the errors: Because Agent M was believed by Agent Q to be trustworthy is the reason Agent Q allowed Agent M the conducting of the top secret mission alone. “M was believed by Q” is passive voice and therefore suspect.
Inc. Correct: I intend not only to win but also to break the world record. my opponent is neither threatening to me nor. Similarly. my opponent is neither a threat to me nor. intimidating to anyone. 35 ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Parallelism Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Verb Tense Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. quite frankly. One correction: Since 1973. Inc. the record was broken eight times because of technology that advanced even more rapidly than commentators have predicted. Verb Tense This question is about verb tense. Parallelism This question is about parallelism. intimidating to anyone. the present perfect (“have predicted”) is incorrect – past perfect or simple past must be used. since records are still being broken. technology is likely still advancing (thus we must use “has advanced”). quite frankly. Using “since” necessitates the present perfect (“has been broken”) to indicate an action that continues to occur over time. must be parallel. 2 errors Identify the errors: I intend not only to win but also break the world record.3 errors Identify the errors: Since 1973. Elements in a “not only…but also” construction. as well as elements in a “neither…nor” construction. the record has been broken eight times because of technology that has advanced even more rapidly than commentators had predicted (or simply “predicted”). 36 . Because the commentators’ predictions occurred before the records were broken and are no longer in effect.
Inc. Inc.1 error Identify the error: On the commission is an expert in neuroscience and three members of a team that developed a promising new therapy for Parkinson’s. he has also claimed to be an unrecognized world champion of such sports as sprinting and boxing.” Ignore the prepositional phrases and flip the sentence (subject before verb) to spot the error: “An expert … and three members … is on the commission.” Correct: On the commission are an expert in neuroscience and three members of a team that developed a promising new therapy for Parkinson’s. 2 errors Identify the errors: Peter thinks he can swim fast like Michael Phelps does. Note that this sentence has an inverted order: the verb “is” comes before the compound plural subject. ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Subject Verb Agreement Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. Idioms/Comparisons This question is about idioms and comparisons. he has also claimed to be an unrecognized world champion of sports like sprinting and boxing. Correct: Peter thinks he can swim as fast as Michael Phelps does. “as” compares verbs or clauses. “an expert in neuroscience and three members of a team. Subject Verb Agreement This question is about subjectverb agreement. “Like” compares nouns. 37 ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Idioms/Comparisons Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. The “like” in the second sentence means “similar to but not including”—clearly the speaker means to include sprinting and boxing in the list of sports that Peter believes he has mastered. 38 .
Correct: Sandeep was told by his parents that if he helped his brother Rajeev get an “A” in trigonometry.” and since they all describe “proved. With no clear antecedent. and inspired her teammates immeasurably. the “he” in the second part of the sentence could be referring to his brother Rajeev. he could go to the batting cage. Although it seems apparent that a trip to the batting cages will be Sandeep’s reward for a job well done. Correct: Maribel proved herself deserving of the MVP award in girls’ basketball. became the first female player at the school to slam dunk in a championship game. Pronouns This question is about pronouns. scoring a record number of goals. Only the last three must be parallel to one another. here we have a case of superficial parallelism. Maribel proved herself deserving of the MVP award in girls’ basketball.” an “–ing” ending is appropriate. and inspiring her teammates immeasurably. 39 ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Pronouns Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. “proved. 40 . ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Parallelism Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. because they are subordinates to the main verb. Elements in a list must be parallel. However. the pronoun is ambiguous. How many things did Maribel do? She did three things (scored. becoming the first female player at the school to slam dunk in a championship game. and therefore incorrectly used. Inc. scored a record number of goals. became. and inspired) all under the umbrella of proving herself. Sandeep could go to the batting cage. Inc.3 errors Identify the errors: 1 error Identify the error: Sandeep was told by his parents that if he helped his brother Rajeev get an “A” in trigonometry. Parallelism This question is about parallelism.
We are modifying a noun (Joe). smells badly. Idioms This question is about idioms. although they have very different meanings! No correction. so we want an adverb.” “Seems like” followed by a clause is incorrect. smells bad. John. who is suffering from nasal congestion. “Seems that” or “seems as if” are both correct replacements. and it’s a little bit of a trick – however strange it may sound. We are modifying a verb (smells). Joe. Inc. who hasn’t showered. It should be “consider X Y. John. smells bad—however.04 errors Identify the errors: My mother considers my vegetarianism as an insult to her cooking – it seems like she is obsessed with convincing me to try the rack of lamb. who is stuffed up. Modifiers This question is about adjectives and adverbs. 41 ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Modifiers Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. who hasn’t showered in days. My mother considers my vegetarianism an insult to her cooking . 02 errors Identify the errors: Joe. 42 . Both uses are correct. smells so badly that Joe’s odor doesn’t bother him at all.it seems as if she is obsessed with convincing me to try the rack of lamb. Inc. “Consider X as Y” is incorrect (the “as” is unnecessary). so we want an adjective. Correct:. this sentence is perfectly correct. ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Idioms Copyright © 2009 MG Prep.
25 errors Identify the errors: The highly‐advanced robot is proficient both in Japanese and English – and there is an expectation by us that the robot’s maker should produce the new model only in limited quantities for maintaining the product’s cachet. The highlyadvanced robot is proficient in both Japanese and English – and we expect that the robot’s maker will produce the new model only in limited quantities in order to maintain the product’s cachet. In the construction “both X and Y. Inc. “The number” is singular. Inc.) “Expectation by” is incorrect. the word “in” is in the wrong place.” “For maintaining” is incorrect here. Subject Verb Agreement This question is about subjectverb agreement. and the word “should” is also incorrect. “A number of” is an idiomatic expression that takes a plural verb. “in order to maintain” is the intended meaning. 43 ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Subject Verb Agreement Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. We must use “expect that” and “will. Idioms This question is about idioms. Correct: A number of my old classmates are coming to the reunion. 2 errors Identify the errors: A number of my old classmates is coming to the reunion. 44 . but the number of impediments to my traveling to Arkansas next week is quite large. thereby making X and Y unparallel. ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Idioms Copyright © 2009 MG Prep.” X and Y need to take the same form (in this sentence. but the number of impediments to my traveling to Arkansas next week are quite large. Correct:.
One correction: Alexander the Great remarked that conquering foreign states couldn’t compare to vanquishing his enemies at home. Parallelism This question is about parallelism. cannot be made parallel to “the vanquishing of.” a complex gerund.” a simple gerund. 2 errors Identify the errors: Us attending the conference is dependent on our pilot receiving clearance to take off. Two items being compared to one another must be parallel. Verb Tense This question is about gerunds and verb tense. “attending” and “receiving” are gerunds. and take possessive nouns and pronouns. not direct objects. 46 . ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Parallelism Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. Inc. In this sentence. “Conquering. Inc. Correct: Our attending the conference is dependent on our pilot’s receiving clearance to take off. 45 ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Verb Tense Copyright © 2009 MG Prep.02 errors Identify the error(s): Alexander the Great remarked that conquering foreign states couldn’t compare to the vanquishing of his enemies at home.
” Correct: Despite having studied French for ten years. Inc. my most recent report card indicates that I am an underachiever. her natural skill as a salesperson will allow her to run the store by herself in no time. I cannot conjugate French verbs in any tense but the present. the modifier and the pronouns “her” and “herself” are wrong. my most recent report card indicates me as an underachiever. The words “despite” and “yet” are redundant and therefore cannot be used. However. “Once you show her the ropes” is clearly about Josephina. Idioms This question is about idioms. “Josephina” (the noun) never appears in the sentence. ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Idioms Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. We must use “indicate that. “Josephina’s” is a possessive noun modifying “skill. “Indicate as” is also incorrect. yet I cannot conjugate French verbs in any tense but the present. (Note that “yet” has been eliminated). Modifiers This question is about modifiers and pronouns. Josephina’s natural skill as a salesperson will allow her to run the store by herself in no time. 02 errors Identify the errors: Once you show her the ropes. One correction: Once you show Josephina the ropes. Inc. 47 ManhattanGMAT Number Properties Strategy Guide Modifiers Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. 48 .” Thus.2 errors Identify the errors: Despite having studied French for ten years.
Identify the error: You can either increase your output or you can seek work elsewhere. When possible you should keep verb voice consistent. and then switches to the passive voice “the coat was fixed by her” for no reason. This “you” already applies to both elements in the construction. 50 . Vega’s mother noticed that a button was falling off his coat. One correction: You can either increase your output or seek work elsewhere. Vega’s mother noticed that a button was falling off his coat. Parallelism This question is about parallelism.02 errors 02 errors Identify the error: Mr. Inc. Active voice is preferred. ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Verb Voice/Pronouns 49 Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. One correction: Mr. Inc. so the coat was fixed by her. ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Parallelism Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. Vega’s mother noticed”. Verb Voice This question is about verb voice. making the second “you” incorrect. The first “you” occurs prior to and is not part of the “either…or” construction. Elements in an “either…or” construction must be parallel. The sentence begins in the active voice “Mr. so she fixed the coat.
Similarly. ubiquitous since the start of the millennium. It is the personal music player. Lassie only eats top‐shelf dog food. not the ubiquity. “Only” should be placed just before the word or words it is meant to modify. ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Idioms Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. provides users with a distraction on long commutes and can now hold thousands of songs. Inc. 52 . 51 ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Subject Verb Agreement Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. The subject “ubiquity” and the verb “provides” are both singular. Idioms This question is about idioms. the second sentence seems to be saying that Lassie never does anything other than eat topshelf dog food. Lassie. Lassie eats only topshelf dog food. as a result. that “provides users with a distraction on long commutes and can now hold thousands of songs.2 errors Identify the errors: Timmy only expresses affection for his dog.” One correction: The personal music player. However. Timmy expresses affection only for his dog. Lassie. so the pair matches in number. Inc. Correct:. 1 error Identify the error: The ubiquity of the personal music player since the start of the millennium provides users with a distraction on long commutes and can now hold thousands of songs. The first sentence seems to be saying that the only thing Timmy ever does is express his affection for Lassie. a subjectverb pair must also be logical. Subject Verb Agreement This question is about subjectverb agreement. as a result.
02 errors Identify the errors: My boss is likely that she will take over the eastern division. 54 . Inc. The passive voice is used twice here: “the Gettysburg Address was written by Abraham Lincoln” and “This fact was discovered by me.” The use of the passive voice in the first sentence is required because the modifier “Coming in at a scant 150 words” modifies the Gettysburg Address. My boss is likely to take over the eastern division. Verb Voice This question is about the passive voice. the Gettysburg Address was written by Abraham Lincoln on the train to Gettysburg. 53 ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Verb Voice Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. Idioms This question is about idioms. Meg discovered this fact while doing research for her book report. Correct:. only “likely to” (although “likely that” can precede a clause. this fact was discovered by Meg while doing research for her book report. Correct: A scant 150 words long.” where X and Y must take the same form. even though she asked for the northern division. A person cannot be “likely that”. not Lincoln. Also. such as in “It is likely that it will rain”). the Gettysburg Address was written by Abraham Lincoln on the train to Gettysburg. Inc. even though she asked for the northern division. is awkward and unnecessary. however. the correct construction is “not X but Y” or “not X but rather Y. The second use of the passive voice. 02 errors Identify the error: A scant 150 words long. ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Idioms Copyright © 2009 MG Prep.
including my nephew and grandmother. Pronouns This question is about pronouns. the first instance of “Charlie” is in a possessive phrase. Inc. 02 errors Identify the errors: In spite of Charlie’s protest. because only possessive pronouns can refer to nouns that are part of a possessive clause. The original sentence is correct! No Correction. Postal workers c. Inc. Neighbors b. There are actually three lists within this sentence.02 errors Identify the errors: Among the dog’s offenses are a refusal to eat anything but expensive rib eye steak and a penchant for attacking postal workers. A refusal to eat II. However. It may seem awkward to keep repeating “Charlie” throughout the sentence. ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Parallelism Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. Grandmother No Correction. Relatives 1. 56 . A penchant for attacking a. so it cannot act as an antecedent. Nephew 2. The original sentence is correct as written. neighbors and relatives. his friends— including his closest companion Rafael— insisted that Charlie consider outside aid in dealing with his eating disorder. The use of “his” in the phrase “his friends” is okay. rather than using pronouns to refer to him. Parallelism This question is about parallelism. 55 ManhattanGMAT Sentence Correction Strategy Guide Parallelism Copyright © 2009 MG Prep. which could be outlined as follows: This Dog’s Offenses: I.
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