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Korean Grammar

Korean Grammar

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This boobs a reference grammar coveringmany as poets of modern standard Korean ra ilging from phonetics to syntax, and every

effort has been made to describe as simply and concisely as possible the linguistic facts of Korean as it is spoken in Seoul. Korea. The language' is set out in a. methodological and orderly manner. with marryexamples, and while the author has taken advantage of current ling-uistic theory and descriptive techniques, many.of his technical termsare introduced with explsnaticns and illustrations from English material for readers who are notfarnillar with the details of present-day llnguistlcs. The book will be useful not only to Ii ngu ists in general and specialists in Korean but also to studentsand general readers who are interested in .any aspect of the Korean language, now spoken by neariy64 million people. .
H. B. Lee is Professor of. Phonetics and Li nguistics, Seoul Nationa I University. Korea,

SCHOOL

OF OIHENTAL

AND

AFRICAN

STUDIES

Korean Grammar

Korean Grammar
HANSOL H. B. LEE
University

Professor 0/ Phonetics-and Linguistics and Director of Lang uage Research Institute,
Seoul National

OXFORD

UNIVERSITY 1989

PRESS

'mechanicat. electronic. Originally presented as the author'« ttiesis [doctoral: University-of Londonunder the-title: A sway oj KorWIIJ syntax. i. this is followed by a phonemic transcription and. Hansot H.Slem.. in revising and recasting it in a format suitable. Dow PL9!3 ISBNO-f9-7f3606-0 L ibrary 01 Congress Cataloging ill Publication 1936- Yi. Korean grammar: 1.ily Press. and to. with plenty of examples. Walton Street. Justine. Hansol Hyun Bok Lee . ill anyformor by (//1)' means./11. Apart from the revision and modification of the original thesis to make it suitable as a reference grammar rather than a purely academic work. 495. 11.1'46 f988 495.'''. University o] LOll do It. New York © Hanso! H. Skillend of the Department of the Far East. Gttildjord alld Killg's L.to syntax.I/brd is (TIrade mark of Oxford University Press Pubtisuea ill theUntted SI(J/es' by Oxford University Press. or otherwise. H. This book has been designed to bea reference grammar covering all aspects of modern standard Korean. London July. OxfOrd OX26DP Oxford New York Toronto BQm/my Cotcuu« Madras Karachi petuling Jaya $illgapOIe Hong Kong Tokyo Delhi Preface This is a revised and modified version of Illy thesis 'A Study of Korean Syntax'. ranging from phonetics. despite the inhibitions of oriental conventions. degree in General Linguistics and Phonetics. stored ill a retrievat S).I'. B.11 IJI' Biddles Lid. Korean language <Grammer: I.III w. work which she has put into preparing the manuscript for publication.Grammar . B. recording.forpublication. Selwol. Hyon-bak. for the constant encouragement and assistance that she gave him during his student days in London. Robins of the Department of Phonetics and Linguistics. Leo 1989 All rights reserved: No parr oj this publicatlon may be reproduced. Finally. While taking advantage of current linguistic theory and descriptive techniques. 1986 v. the author has. lowe especial thanks to Professor Skillend lor his warm friendship. without I he prior permissionof Oxford Universitv Press in Pubtication British Library Cala/oglJing Daia Lee. the author feels that mention should be made of the lasting debt that he owes to his wife. 0/ Oriemal and African Studies. when necessary to clarify an otherwise ambiguous structure. PL91!. ptiatocopying. 1.e.D. for their continued help and guidance in the course of writingthe thesis and later. Miss Diana Matias for the painstaking.7'5 8}-lJ027 {SBN 0-19-713rj06~O Set by !YIOf. The author also wishes to express his thanks to the Publications Committee of the School of Oriental and African Studies for accepting the manuscript of the book for publication and meeting the Full cost of production. Nairobi Dar es Sa/Mill Cape Melbourne Auckland TOIVII and ossociatedcomnaniesin Beirut Berlin lbadan Nicosia Q.Oxford Unil'er!. I only hope that the book will be useful not only to students and specialistsin the Korean language and linguistics but also to linguists in general. a change has also been made in the manner of presentation of Korean examples and materials: all Korean examples are given first in [he Korean orthography. Tille. Korean grammar. Many of the technical terms are introduced with explanations and illustrations from English material for those readers who are not assumed-to be familiar with the details of modern linguistics. a morphemic transcription . which was submitted to the University of London for the Ph. in the School of Oriental and African Studies (University of London). Korean Iangnoge f. the one used in the Republicof Korea. or transmiued.JII)'O'Korell Pllblh-lliiollS Prill ted and bound . I would like to record here my profound gratitude to Professor R.7'8-2 tu» . 1951nc/llder index. and Professor E. 'Schoo! oj Orientatund Africon Studies' IJibliogmpllY: p.11 Great 1.made every effort to describe grammatical points as simply and concisely as possible.

2.. J. 3.3. 2. 3.. Definition of Word 37 Ivpes of Words 38 Word Classes 39 Verb 39 Noun 40 Adjective 40 Adverb 4\ Panicle 4\ lnterjecuon 41 Sub-classes of Word Classes -12 Sub-classes of Verbs 42 Sub-classes or Nouns 50 3.7.4. 3. 3. J 0. 3. 2.l.3. 3. 3.3.3.'1. 3.1.3.3..2.5.6. 2.3. Su b-classes 0 I' Pan ides 65 3.4.1. Sub-classes or Adjectives 59 3.4.8.2.4. 1. 1.3.3.Contents Preface v A bbreviations xi L Introduction L I. 2..9.2.J.3. Th e.6.1 L Word and Word Classes Ji J.2.6. 3. l3 2.).1.4. 3. 2.4.1.4. Sub-classes or" Adverbs 61 3.5. J. Phonetics and Phonology 2. Korean Language 1. Sub-classes of 1nterjections 75 vii .2.-1. n 1.4. pass im I Writing System 2 The Type 0 f Korean described in t his Book The Scope and Method of Analysis 7 Phonetics and Phonology 10 The Korean Phonemes 10 Phonetic Description of Korean Phonemes The Syllable Structure 20 Syllable Quantity and Stress 21 Stress Group 23Juncture 27 Intonat ion 19 Imonemes Transcription 'q 6 10 Il. 2.

1.1. Sentence 7.2.1.3.2. Major and Minor Sentence 186 7. Passive Clause 161 6.3.1.2. Structure of the Verb 4. Structure of Major Sentence 187 1.1. Elliptical Type 193 7.5.5.2.1.6. Causative Clause 163 6.2.1.124 5.2. Propositive Sentence 191 7.5. Structure of the Verb Stem 77 4. Relational Phrase 145 5.1.2.1.2.5. Major Sentence 187 7.4. Adjunct 153 6.5.1. Final Endings 98 4.5.1.1. Verbal Phrase 122 5. Voice Suffix 84 4.3.3. Simple Sentences 192 7.1.2.1.4.1. Types of Non-Final Clause 169 6.3.4.1.2. Stem Classes 78 4. Predicate 149 6.viii Contents 76 Contents 6. Declarative Sentence 189 7.. Initiating Type 194 186 Bibliography Part I: Part II: Korean Linguistics General linguistics Index of Grammatical 195 203 Suffixes and Endings 209 Appendix: Index 213 VI. Major Sentence Categories 189 7. lnterrogative Sentence 189 7. Inflectional Endings 98 4..3. Rules on the Distribution of Auxiliary Verbs with other Verbs within Verbal Head 129 5. Equational Clause 160 . Adverbial Clause 177 ix IV.3.2.2. Simple and Compound Sentences 192 7.4.3.3.2. Concatenating Endings III V.1.2. 170 83 V II. Tense Suff-ixes 87 4. Transitive Clause 155 6.3. huransitive Clause 157 6.6.3. EXpansion of Verbal Phrase 142 5.4.3.1. Clause 148 148 6.1.4.3.3.2. Subject .3.3. Minor Sentences 193 7. Nominal Phrase Embedded in a Larger Nominal Phrase 121 5. Verb Suffixes and inflectional Endings 4. Elements of Clause 149 6.1.3.2.2.3.2.3.1. Exemplification of Verbal Head 131 5.3.4.1.4.2.4.3.3.2.2. Phrase 112 Nominal Phrase 112 5. Non-Final Endings 105 4. Definition of the Sentence 186 7.2. Humble Suffix 96 4. Adjectival Clause 173 6.3.2. Descriptive Clause 157 6.1.1. Types of Final Clause 155 6. Complement 152 6. Agent 153 6. Imperative Sentence 191 7.1. Honorific Sulft'l 87 4.1.5.4. Stem 77 4).2.2.3.1.2.1.2.2.2. Internal Structure.3.3.2.1.2.4.2.1.3.5.2. Nucleus of Verbal Head 125 5.4.2.3.2. Compound Sentences 192 7.2.3. Elements and Structure of Verbal Phrases 122 5.2. Final and Non-Final Clause 6.4. Nominal Clause 170 6. Elements within the Verb 76 4.3.2. Nominal Head 113 5.4. Satellite of Verbal Head 126 5. Classification of Auxiliary Verbsaccording to Concatenating Restrictions 128 5.1. Nominal Expansion 118 5.2.5.3.2. Object 152 6.1. Head of Verbal Phrase .1.3.of Non-Final Clause 6.152 6.

Adj. Ag. camp. Interjection/inrerjecrival intransitive mood modifying xi . Phonetics and Phonology (ii) Complement coordinator causative clause compound d. ad] . aux. adv. concat. Adjunct active Adj eeti ve/ad j eel ivai adjectival clause adjectival relational phrase Adverb/adverbial adverbial clause adverbial phrase Agent auxiliary am. conj.)ph.cL frntv. deriv. deie.lnf. ad] . final clause/non-final formative future Head honorific imperative inanimate inflectional clause intr. fut. md. adv. caus. mdf.ph. animate (i) Consonant in chapter II. infix. ina. H concatenating conj unctive descri pti ve declarative deictic derived/derivational ending Expansion hon. III terj'/i Iller j./adj. r. C c. d. irnper.c!. Exp.cl. Adv. decl./adv. end.Ab breviations A act.{re!.cl.

g. Vp. V. N. e. progr.g.)Sig suffix stem subordinate tense transitive (i) Vowel in chapter II. Vivo Vaux. presump. v-. Rei /rei. pasv. t. Vtr. and in a transcribed passage Post -vocalic/ post -conso na n tal form Form selected by vowel harmony stress marker in chapter n. num. sub. sfx.g.ind.pl.ani. /ne nala so' sig/ (ii) word boundary in morphophonemic transcription./n. St. ZIz . ph. 1:/ V/C-Jo I" 111 a/A prop.hon. N. S Sat./sat.num. N. space in transcribed passages phonemic transcription (i) phonetic transcription (ii) translation fill-in optionai. retros. ne nala s!.pL V. N. Abbreviations No un/nornina I Animate noun Inanimate noun Honorific noun Numeral noun Non-independent Plain noun Nominal Clause Nominal Phrase Nucleus numeral Object processive passive Particle phrase present prefix presumptive progressive propositive relational retrospecti ve Subject Satellite Symbols and notations 1I [ ] Abbreviations xiii noun NP Nuc.!pci. N. (S)P --> P or SP rewrite hypothetical or unreal form plus juncture within a transcribed passage (addition sign elsewhere) tentative juncture within a transcribed passage (comma elsewhere) terminal juncture in a transcribed passage (period elsewhere) Quantity (length) in chapter II.n. + o p. VP vc.hon.!nuc. Vintr.xii Nln N.zst. Phonetics and Phonology (ii) Verb/verbal Auxiliary Verb Copula Verb Descriptive Verb Processlve Verb Plain Verb Honorific Verb Intransitive Verb Transitive Verb Verbal Phrase voice Sentence tr. prfx. Pd. V. pres.d.d. e. Phonetics and Phonology. N. Phonetics and Phonology tone markers (i) stress group boundary in phonemic transcription.ina.el.e.

are strikingly alike in overall grammatical and syntactic patterns rather than ill lexis.S.A. Like other Altaic languages. we can assume that the Koreans tried to express themselves by Chinese characters as early as some time between the first and fourth century A. Martin (1966) has presented some lexical evidence relating Korean to Japanese. and of aU cu ltural activities including the press and broadcasti ng. However. Japan. from what record we have in Chinese.S. Hiiisiing Yi 1955). mainly in China. seem to share to a great extent the view put forward by Rarnstedt. It is the official language in Korea as well asthe medium of education from kindergarten to university Ievel. Lewin 1976). U. Aalto 1947) and the Dravidian theory (Hulbert 1906) are considered to be hardly convincing.D. A. there are some scholars who do not readily approve of the Altaic theory (Poppe 1955).1. Manchu.I INTRODUCTION 1. and the Korean language is therefore classified as a member of the Altaic family along with Tungus. Moreover. THE KOREAN l_ANGUAGE No one knows for certain how l. and U. Gleason seems to recognize the Korean language as forming a separate language family when he states that 'Korean comprises the Korean family and is somewhat distantly related to the Japanese family' (Gleason 1961. There have been several conflicting theories as to the origin of Korean and its affinity to other languages. 468. Ono 1955. 1957-66) now seems to be most widely accepted. The Korean language is spoken today by nearly 64 million Koreans.S. 479). H. the two leading Korean specialists working in the field of historicocomparative linguistics. (Seungbog Cho 1967. Korean and Japanese.R. The Indo-European theory (Eckardt 1966. Korean is predominantly agglutinative in morphological formations. There is yet another theory which attempts to relate Korean and Japanese (Kono 1944. pp. of whom about 60 million live in the Korean peninsula and the remaining 4 million abroad. Mongolian and Turkish (Sungnyong Yi 1954). .ong Korean has been spoken and we have yet to see the results of historico-comparative studies on the origin of the Korean language and its early development prior to the fifteenth century. The Altaic theory (Ramstedt 1949. However. Panghan Kim (1983) and Kimun Yi (1972). whose affinity has long been disputed.

Minsu Kim. In his preface to Hunminjongiirn. was a phonemic alphabet in its actual application.]- . promulgated 'Hunminjongiim' / hunminjsnim/.' The third characteristic of Hunrninjongiimis found in the spelling principle decreed by the king. i. which means literally 'The right sounds to leach the nation'." owing to the change in the phonological system.. Korean syllables which were phonetically similar to the characters used. according to which letters were to be combined. even though he did not actually use the term 'Phoneme' as against 'Phone' or 'Sound". the shape of the basic letters was modelled on the act ual shape of the articulatory organs involved in pronouncing the sounds represented by the letters. however. live basic letters were established and the twelve remaining consonant letters were derived by adding to each of the five basic letters one or more additional stroke or symbol which indicated other phonologically relevant phonetic features or different manners of articulation at homorganic points of articulation. the Korean alphabet of the fifteenth century may be defined as a phonemic alphabet based on phonetic principles and spelt syllabically. initial. 1963. [A or J].2. or rather transcribe. after years of research in collaboration with a group of eight scholars.. . 285-316 for Iurt her details of these leuers and their phonetic values. pp. they were used to represent. First. Inadequate or not. 1957. revised ed. Cf'. the letter . i. it was based on the articulatory phonetic theory. These two methods were often combined within a word. the . actually completed the alphabet in 1443 A.e. they were used to represent Korean morphemes or words which had translation equivalence to the original reference of the characters or Chinese loanwords. 1968. Ung Ho.2. That is to say. Chuhoe hunminjongicm ('Hunminiougfim AIIIlOHlICd'l. Sec pp. The Present Alphabet The present Korean alphabet or 24 letters or graphemes is essentially the same as that of the fifteenth century. Kllgop'yogipobiiiyoksaiok yon'gll ('An Historical Study of Korean pelling').e. the king stated as the reason for devising a new alphabet the inadequacy and inconvenience of the Chinese characters as a writing system for the Korean language. In other words..= n. Kimun Vi. Although it is not known exactly when the Koreans began to borrow Chinese characters. medial and final.1. And there is sufficient evidence (e. of which the stem was represented by the semantically equivalent Chinese morphemes and the suffix(es) by the phonetically equivalent Chinese characters. .). cr. as phonetic symbols. . etc. Hence Ihe name 'Hunminjongiim". to the nation. [g or k] represents the velar sound since it resembles the shape of the tongue blocking the 'throat'. < < p= m. as they are today. Hunminjongiim. Secondly. the use of the Chinese writing system as a means of transcribing Korean must have been most inadequate as well as inconvenient.... . For instance. etc.. who was a distinguished linguist himself.) that the king had completed some kind of preliminary phonological analysis of Korean according to a phonemic principle not far removed from that of modern linguistics. when they came to have their own alphabet. the fourth king of the Vi Dynasty.D. except that (i) four graphemes. T= u..D. the Koreans employed the Chinese characters in two different ways. I a newly-created Korean alphabet of 28 letters. WRlTlNG SYSTEM Chapter! 3 Koreans relied mainly on the Chinese writing system until the 15th century A. (ii) the shape of some graphemes has very slightly changed. this practice went on until 1446 AD. when Sejong /seJoJ]/. and (iii) most important of all.--= n With the three characteristics of Hunrninjongurn taken into consideration. arranged syllabically in such a way thai each syllable has a distinct geometrical shape. .2.Ii or ur] and I [i] were taken as basic and the eight remaining vowel letters were derived by different combinations of the three basic letters.) Secondly. The KOrean Alphabet Since Korean and Chinese were very different from each other in grammatical and phonological structure.. 285. First. the recognition of three positions. syllables like /rnag/ 'curtain' and /nun/ 'eye' would be arranged in actual writing as follows: Imag/ ~a: 0. into syllable blocks and not in a linear succession as in European languages. I- = a. For instance.2 Korean Grammar 1.[n] represents the lingual sound or dental/alveolar sound in modern terminology since It resembles the tongue touching 'the upper jaw'. "1 =g Inunl n u n '--rr- l-. The king. and still are. /(llgo iununnon ('Korean Phonology'. The eleven vowel letters were likewise formulated on the basis of phonetic observations.. upper teeth or teeth ridge. graphemes were. in accordance with the prescribed rule. the letter -. especially an inflectional word such as verb. (The first of these three basic letters has been discarded in the modern orthography.g. 1. 1. Apart from using Chinese as a foreign language.2. it is !lOW generally acknowledged to have been between the first and fourth centuries. . Hunminjongiim was unique in many respects and it certainly deserves to be more widely known and understood. In this manner the . are obsolete. of which three letters. but he tested it for three years before making it public. and the letter n [rn] represents the labial sound since it resembles the shape of the lips. in the syllable and the statements concerning the distribution of sounds at the three positions of a syllable. although formulated on a purely phonetic basis.

<.. It is. Igi . Robin~. ft. E Itl. Aspens of Pro. ina sense. By 'morphemic spelling pri nciple' is meant one whereby every word or morpheme is represented by its base form. For instance. 1. e lol + + + "" -" Igl Idl Ibl Ijl lsi velar plosive . thus standing in contrast to .. 1-12. J.li! alveolar l::: Eltl '9/kl < .. p. . _ !iI. not onlya phonetic alphabet based exclusively on detailed phonetic observations of the articulatory organs../g/. 2.. two semi-vowels and 19 consonants (cf. so/he AnalYSIS. (cf'. R: Firth. it represents II)/. < < M < < '" Ig/ Idl Ibl IJI lsi + + . Idl.f tteenthcentury Hunrninjongurn. however. The grapheme oal the syllable-initial position is phonetically nothing and therefore phonologically redundant. Syllable-finally. a pure vowel with which Ijl [orrnsa diphthong as illustrated by the following examples and those given in 1. 127-32. .7] Imogil 'mosquito' are pronounced the same and may thus be spelt alike in phonemic spelling. On the other hand. and the abstraction and assignment of prosodic features to and over the phonematic units on the other . ~ Ija/.. there arconly 20 graphemes.-101 or depending on the vowel following with which Iwl forms a diphthong: Iwal lwei lwei or lwei /wi/ _} < -11 < -1 < .2).. c IZera -1)/. The Korean Alphabet and the Prosodic Analysis The order in which the vowel and consonant graphemes are given is the one used widely in Korea. ""1/k/. o/m/. 127-52. c ld 7' rc " .A. Consonant Graphemes '--Inl. The Korean alphabet of24 graphemes currently in use is given below with the transcription symbols shown between slant bars after each grapheme.J < < < T . of which eight are vowels. Lyons. 1 jill.3..2. pp.. Vowel Graphemes (10) } la/. . pp. R. 7] I rna gil 'rnosq ui to'. lei. and for that matter. --'-./J/. a multidimensional approach characterized by the establishment of phonernatic units on the one hand. H. 194. _. but also a remarkably neat system composed of interrelated elements (letters).4 korean Grammar Semi-vowels Chapter [ 5 present spelling principle is morphemic (since the formulation in 1933 0 r 'The Unified Spelling System' by the Korean Language Research Society)..8..] /rnogi/ 'the neck' < mog 'neck' + i 'subject particle' and . The semi-vowel Ijl is represented by a stroke added 10. but in morphemic spelling.excluding the four vowel graphemes representing diphthongs. it is interesting to note the striking similarity between the manner in which the Korean alphabet is systematized and the theoretical tenet of the 'Prosodic Analysis" as initiated and developed by the London School. pp. T 101 101 101 lui lui lui + } 1] + + lal lei ] IiI lei Iii + + + II 1 ~ 11\1 . namely. . 2111. TPS. is not a haphazard collection of isolated letters. In particular.:f/p/. 1957.. The total num bel' of the Korean phonemes is 29.. 0 f the 19 consonant letters. "/ju/._..2.!t. 4): Ijel Ije/ 11 II < < Ijl + Ij! + II H lei 1£1 T lui The semi-vowel Iv. T lui. the word for 'neck' is given the shape ~ Imogl and it appeal'S in that shape in any environment.._ Ijo/. %/h/. as in the fifteenth century.. to an even greater extent. 1968. to Ijl and Iwl are somewhat peculiar in [heir graphemic representation. lsi. ~. bu·t it is used nowadays. whereas it had been mainly phonemic from the invention of the Korean alphabet in the fifteenth century until 1933.This can be exemplified by the Korean consonant letters.0/. the fol!owing 16 are chosen for the purposes of this discussion: Voiceless un asplraied Voiceless aspirated :>l: Voiceless giot tatized Voiced nasal 0/111/ '-/nl 1] II < < i IAI + } lal + Iii Iii bi-labial plosivc plosive 101 Ib/ Idl Ipl H~/PI n. . :. tl Ibl. J.!2. This discrepancy is resolved by representing the rune phonemes by digraphs or geminations: Vowels lei lei Consonants /kl It! Ipl IV lsi l" The current alphabet.11 "f~ 1/A/. 'S?unds and Prosodies'. to mark a syllable beginning with a vowel.. In/rod/KIIOIl 10 Theoreticot Linguistics.s than there are graphemes. IWAI ..2. as is already dear from the Korean spelling form. which thus gives rise to a situation 'in Which there are nine more phoneme..'! is represented graphemically either by -.

100-1.4. a phrase of one or more words.islOry of the Korean Language'). word. phrase. (iv) Chungcheong Province dialect. a phrase found in larger phrase. Z upward or downward. Kilgo sa ('. A_ K. represented as consisting of five phonernatic three prosodies as follows: tI fi:r 16 consonant letters can be described in prosodic terms as composed c pl:one~laiic units.6 post. 'Clause'.'glottal prosody'. 60-8. clause. . 1956. (lg/) '" (J J/) A h . the three prosodies as: h . h 7.(= '" It/) h(_ -. n . Halliday.1 Ik/) (= "-lei) ~ (='¥~(=M/s/) IC/) (lsi) The. (vi) Jeonla Province dialect and (vii) Jeju Province dialect. q C:. The unit 'Sentence'.Isl of (i) bi-labial. OF ANALYSIS 7 ». Hyonggyu Kim. 250-4_ II is 1. ( =. pp. with the prosody 'voiceless unaspirated' treated as an un~l~rked term automatically ascribable to the five phonernaric units. upon which an analysis of greater detail could be based. These units are hierarchically related in such a way that every unit.'nasal prosody'. c.lcl A/sl "9-/cl 1. the arrows pointing downward 'downward rank shift'. A thereby reducing the number of prosodies from four to three.H. q . except 'Morpheme' which can not be analysed into meaningful smaller units. 'Word' and 'Morpheme'. (ii) voiceless aspirated. (0 voiceless unaspirated.3.. SENTtENCEJ 1. and a sentence of one or more clauses. 17. Haas. however.aim of this book is to present a basic grammatical analysis. The intermediate units.g..(:. a word may bypass the level of phrase and occur as a clause or a constituent of a clause (upward rank shift). 1!H Ip/) ti n(_ 11 - '" /rn/) L. where the arrows in the centre represent the most common distribution. 'Categories of the Theory of Gra111IIIa r. The hierarchical relationship existing among the units does not preclude the possibility of rank shift. pp. and four prosodic features. The analysis can be simplified considerably by-symbolizing the phonernatic units by the 'voiceless unaspirated'ietters tI. (v) Gyeongsang Province dialect. (iii) Central dialect of Gyeonggi. 1 W. <" It!) ". Instead of regarding the linguistic units given above as analytically consisting of one or more units immediately below in rank. can be defined both analytically and synthetically. A. and the arrows by-passing a unit 'upward rank shift'. (iii) velar. pp. is located in the heart of the central dialect zone and the type of Korean described in this book is the one spoken in and around Seoul by educated people.. M. They are (i) Hamgyeong Province dialect. In/) Ik/) q . The grammatical units set up for the purposes of syntactic description are. the 16 consonant letters may be units and a zero or one of the (/b/) h ti{= n/p/) tI q(:. For instance. Gangweon and H wanghae Province. of standard Korean. each representing a different place of articulation. The total distributional relations holding among the five units may be diagrammatically set Out as shown below. often referred to as 'Standard Korean'.. 'Phrase'. 1954.P H R A S E~ '-. and (iv) voiced nasal. -. Chapter! THE SCOPE AND METHOD. '" (ld/) -. one can regard and define them synthetically' as units functioning within more inclusive units. will be excluded from such a synthetic definition since it is taken as the largest and most inclusive unit. a clause of one or more phrases. (iv) post-alveolar (affricate) and (v) alveolar (fricative).alveolar affricates alveolar fricatives These Korean Grammar 7. 'Sentence'. 1961. (II) alveolar. Thus a word consists of oneor more morphemes. The capital city. consists of one or more units immediately below. (iii) voiceless glcualized. or a clause may be embedded in a phrase structure (downward rank shift). I '--+--+-. Symbolizing by superscripts. 'On Denning Linguistic Units' TPS. viz. THE TYPE OF KOREAN DESCRfBED IN THIS BOOK CLAUSE~ There are seven main dialects' in Korea. Seoul. ='! >-.. c. in descending order of rank.'aspiration prosody'. the arrows returning to the same unit 'recursive rank shift'. a unit occurring as a constituent of an expanded structure of the same unit.0 be noted that Halliday docs nat recognize 'upward rank sllirt': . (ii) Pyeongan Province dialect.__ WORD t t t MORPHEME t . Iford. which correspond roughly to the respective administrative regions.

I Jo:-I 'to be good'.ta/ (v) 'is good. nac gibuni jo.lIel (< ii) 'of'.1-/na/ ']'.8 Korean Grammar (vi) --iE-0] i'J-0] _£_y y.ta/ 'is good' bypasses the level of phrase as a constituent (predicate) of the clause /nae gibuni jo:ta/'My mood is good.01 Ima:nil 'in plenty'.' for falls (lit. Word 7] t:. phrase and clause. .l 7]~0] ~cl /nae gibuni jo. /0-1 'to come. 'my mood is good').e.-1 (vii) Upward rank shift The word /jo.cl.1.. (ii) Clause (a) 7)C}2.pel....] l-dA-1 retros.md.Igibunl 'mood'.-T Ima:ni onil '[as it] falls in plenty' (c) 1.-] ~ /gidalidxri/ '[that I] have been wait ing for' ~ Inu:nl 'snow'..] I-nil non-final aclv.}2.i cj r for' /gidalidxn nu:nl 'the snow that 1 have been waiting (b) 'i'.sfx.. i. 'comes') Exp. _'L 1. 'snow'. 1:. The unit word is chosen to serve as the basic syntactic unit. 01 Iii subject.2. 'i'J-/ma:n-1 'to be plenty'. t:. * .2..end. 9 Examples (i) Sentence 7142. H..deriv. the syntactic description begins at the word level and proceeds through successively larger units..cl. feels fine' Morpheme 7]42. °1/il subject particle '('.. 01/-il adv...fol .]t:j /gidalidxn --iE-0] 'i'i01 nu:ni ma:ni .~ 2.. v. 7H-/gibun/'mood' ~t:. 1-111 adj.5'. 1..sfx .ta/ 'My mood is good.t/na/ 'I" -"-1 lei ( < ii) 'of'.' S p (iii) Phrase (a) 7] J:lr. fall'.-] lonil 'as it comes' -1. until senience is reached.-j /gidali-z' 'to wait for'. 2.} I-ta/ ( < -da) decl.-]"j /gidalidxn -Fc} in 'As the snow that [ have been waiting I feel fine (lit.] 71*0] nu:ni rna:ni ani. l.and the discussion of the unit morpheme is restricted to the morphology of verbs as it is directly relevant to Korean syntax.' and functions onil 'As the snow that J have been waiting for falls in plenty' (b) l-}S>.] 71 ~ /nae gibun/ 'my mood' (iv) In this book.5'_1.} /jo.end.ta/ Chapter J Downward rank shift The adjectival clause /gidalidxn/ functions as a word (adjective) the nominal phrase /gidalidxn nu:n/ 'the snow that I have been wailing for' in plenty.end. ~ Inu:nl 7] {!_.t.

10/. In order to distinguish speech sounds Of allophones from phonemes. B]/{l. AJ/sa!]1 'table' 7.tp' of 'pin' is a voiceless aspirated sound [ph]. S:J. but in any person's speech there are hundreds of speech sounds and the differences between them are not always important or significant. Phonology observes. the symbols standing for phonemes will be put between obliques and the phonetic symbols between sq uare brackets. Examples Io!I /bi/ 'rain' 111] lal. and not as two separate phonemes. Therefore thesound [bJ forms a separate phoneme Ibl. _!. r n the following sections a brief description of Korean phonology wi II be given first.1. THE KOREAN PHONEME.J. lllTlbinul 'soap'.-/cal/ 'salty'. 2. hi.[il 'street' 2. lill 'one' . the plosive sounds never have the function 0 r distinguishing different words in English. whereas they form a single phoneme in English as shownearlier. But phonetics does not tell us much about the function of these sounds.g.Chapter II II J1 PHONETICS 2. [b] forms yet another phoneme Ibl with [9].J Iboialil 'bundle' 1t /jal/ 'Well!'.1.g. "'] iiH/ihrl 'understanding' oJ-lmall 'horse'. and (iv) Suprasegmental phonemes. /pul/ 'grassand Ipull 'horn'. 'pin' : 'bin'.S Ibel 'hemp cloth' Btl Ib£1 'pear' .[ /gall '10 go'. At:E~ Isagwal 'apple'. ./sarn/ 'three' '.that as [p] occurs only after the [s) sound as in 'spin' and is [pi'] elsewhere./bisari/ 'expensive' "%~ /hc/ 'sun'. i. AND PHONOLOGY I'HONETICS AND PHONOlOGY The Korean phonemes are divided into the four different types: (i) Vowels./bu/ 'wealth' . in 'pin'.! 'shark'. 2. ol~ /ibal/ 'hairdressing'. til I1~/bipa/ 'lute' 'sucking'. 'spin' and 'bin' are different sounds. (ii) Consonants.o each other in that they both study sounds of a language. Phonology aims to systematize these speech sounds into a smaller number of significanr sound un its called 'Phonemes'. 'p' of 'spin' a voiceless unaspiratedsound [pI and 'b' of 'bin' a 'Voiced unaspirated sound [b]. e.e. and decides Ihat the two sounds [ph] and [pI are to be treated as members or 'Allophones' of the phoneme Ip/.l_ t4 2.2. phonet ics wil! tell us that the plosivesounds occurring. AJ/san/'mountain' AJo-j !sa!]!. lui. lei. 10 'foot'. Notice that the three speech sounds [ph). IAI.:r. 0 1l'J /ital/ 'separation' W /ial/ 'daughter'. [p] and [b] also OCCLlI" in Korean but are phonemicized differently: [ph] and lp] form two separate phonemes Ip/and fp/. B~~ /bacag/ 'closely' 7. OJ.2. C<l}7f} Ibakadl 'outside' '"'J/sall'flesh'../gil 'that' Io!} Ibal 'rope' i'. "iJ. followed by rharof Korean phonetics.}!saJa/'lion' ~ /cal/ 'to kick'.7t Igical 'train' -w.. (iii) Semi-vowels. ~ll Ibf:dall 'del ivery". ""}"H /saruj bye I 'refreshing' W fkal! 'colour'. 0] <>} lima/ 'forehead'. On the other hand.}/josa/'investigation' "¥1" /sal/ 'rice'.J Ig/.}/nall 'day'. Ibol 'wrapping cloth' .g. but they differ in their viewpoint and objective. e. Ibull 'fire'. 7].. z. It is phonology which does that. e. iii There are two major branches in the study of the sounds of a given language: Phonetics and Phonology.} Igagl 'angle' "'J/kal/'knife'. Consonants There are nineteen consonants: Ibl Ipl Ipl Iml Idl lsi It I Iii lsi Inl III 1]1 Icl IC/ Igi Ikl Ikl II)I Ihl Examples (a) Ibl (b) Ipl (c) Ipl Cd) (e) (j) (g) (h) (i) U) (kJ (I) (n) Idl It I It! Ijl lei IC/ Igi Ikl Ikl lsi '-l£ Iball "'.zJ. Vowels There are eight vowels: Iii.}y.[/pal/ 'l'f /pal/ 'it /dal/ ~ Ita1l (m) lsi (0) (P) (r) (s) 1111 Iml IIJI III (q) Inl The symbols here used to represent the Korean phonemes are those of the International Phonetic Associarion. For instance.1 0 I /gi!i/[gi rij'!ength'. instead of being an allophone of Ipl phoneme to which [pI belongs. 2.:!i!. the two speech sounds [ph) and [b] can occur in the same environment and distinguish pai rs of words. which is significarit and which is not. These two branches are related t. Phonetics is concerned with actual speech sounds as we pronounce and hear them.2. ¥ Igodl 'soon' '€" 'trouble'.. c:J libl 'mouth' 'arm'. o].~ lipall 'tooth' 'moon'.2.

j-:] 11\/ == ll\+ 1. wi th [he lips slightly Fi:/ == l'ill:] 1\1= [t\-! + ] /ot T'--'u 5' _= IguJol 'structure' /gu :Jo/'rescue' T .oll/jc/ 'Hey.zu/ = [LJ+] [' . Iwi/. I'e:! I'a:/= = ['~-:J ['a-:] /el = l~-l /a/ == [a-l rounded.-1/wi/ 'above. twice' [bc.ram] 'person' 4'!l A~ "J._nJJEIJ] 'competition' 7}-fj--. -'t-~fr luju/ 'milk' ""l7} /)1\]a( 'woman'.g. Cf. Vowels DESCRIPTION OF KOREAN PHONEMES The phonetic val ues of the vowels are described first by reference to [he I. /ju/.§f (jug/ 'six'. a phonologically long vowel is long if accompanied by a (strong)" stress. e. IDlj JpjtJ 'bone' . which combine with vowels to form the following diphthongs: Ije/. Vowel Quantity and Stress [J 13 There are two semi-vowels./ and the short one unmarked.!><glja'jUgjA:I]]ft)/ = (ja'ju:gjAI]JCIJ] 'free competition' The effect of stress on the syllable Quantity and Stress'. 12: A_ C Gimson. -r] /gwil 'ear' :11'. AnOutlhu: of Engilsh Phone/it" 1956. which are all rising diphthongs.. = lei [£-1. /wa/. 1f. ~-. lwei.i 7}lii]a/ 'chair'./budo. Ijc/. Jones. e. but it is short if unstressed.4. to the domain 0 f intonation. are phonologicaUy distinctive. which is also lexically irrelevant. mainly in the first or second syllable of words. 'double. pp.lam/ = l sa.!.3.. "1 ~ Igihwel 'opport unity' 9~!wd 'why'. /1 Stress is not phonologically distinctive in Korean and therefore belongs-along with pitch.2.1.)_ Jgwasil/ 'fruit'. .. 1962. ~ 011 / /n.oje/ 'Slave' . An tutreduction u» . ~ -"J-/bjllngwan/ 'entrance-hall' . which may be either rising or falling. PHONETIC 2. seaweed' /sal/ 'flesh' "'-/sa.nsa. i. 83-5. However.:] [/01 = [~+] ) [ u-:] . the long/short contrast of vowel quantity is usually not dist i ncr ive because thelexically shan vowels are pronou need just as long as the lexically long vowels. Jgi:m/ 'laver. there is /ii/. your' ~I-°Vhaje/ 'is white' oF/)al 'Look!'. Semi-vowels Korean Grammar Chapter 2.4.1. yes'./JA!)wIIJ11 'garden' _.tl!.A. D . The long vowel is marked by /. .'L/we:gugl 'foreign land'. / jA/. ~~~/honjagl 'engagement' ~ /jog/ 'swear.2. Ijo/.] cf. For those not familiar with the Cardinal Vowel quadrilateral.q/ /budon/ 'inequality'. by reference to vowel sounds occurring in ·01 her languages. by means of key words. The English vowel sounds referred to in the following sections are those of the British 'Received Pronunciation'] I'i:! = l' i. /ja/. Examples 011je/ 'example. Cardinal Vowel scale and then.u"i~/wAnsUi 'enemy'.. Suprasegmen[aJ Phonemes Two degrees of vowel quantity.] I'E:! == [·r-:] <0:/= / u:/= 1'1\:/ = Iii = n.nsararn] 'some person' 7J "y I' gjl\:t)JE:IJI = [' gj.3. top'.e. 'dissimilarity' 'immobility' ln Ihe open monosyllables pronounced in isolation. I/Je Pronunciation of English.!2 2. /]OI]gjO/ 'religion' . there is a regular correlation between vowelquantity and stress.].2. Ibcl 'ship. "3 ·1:J. /WAl: In addition to the /jl-inilial and /w/-initiaJ diphthongs listed above. quantity is discussed in 2. Thus.3. long and short../' we.l/ 'to live' [:Q-.. in actual speech. /j/ and Iw/. "~3L /bdoJ 'by boar' [hero] Ibc:lol 'twice as much/many' )l~ .. insult'..g..c/ 'displeasure' 4A.[' we. /bt:l.g.ilVbulkw.. p. P. AHf I 'sa.5 'Syllable 2. Igiml 'a surname' . boar' Ibcj . e.lam/ =. lwei. -'i'-]/dwiJ 'rear'. '+?-l/saiil 'dunks' 2.

! .I' ga:gog/'me!ody.] is similar to the English vowel occurring in the words 'key'. 101 is similar [0 the English vowel as in 'all'.g. /' ji.ge/ 'world' 2.1.. e. ~ll/' se:1 'rent'. by thevowel length. 'call'. business. work' AJ.1\11 l j~:nsl\ll 'speech' 2.1. e. occu rring in words llke 'box'. 2/' u:dkol 'to laugh and' ju:dl a traditional Korean game _j"i1_4. but the short lal is similar to the English vowel as in 'bateau'. e. e.gi/ 'story'. '1:l/ni 'lin! [ruurin] 'slow' I' gi:liml . SI\:I/ ['5. 'sea' etc" and usually pronounced tense. e. 2. 'luck' etc.3. etc.>.:1:1] 'New Year's Day'.~ j" /./'sAII ['sl\l] 'theory' 1d /' hx.g.n] 'old. worn out' <:1 "J I' jll:ns../' 2.4. conditioned. The unstressed short [oj is a lax vowel pronounced with a lower tongue position and weaker lip-rounding than for the stressed long l ' 0:.' 'get' etc" and pronounced tense. a nd is tense. t~} ba:ml 'chestnut' /' 2. vowel occurring in 'car'.' 'progress' 2.ccg/ 'policy' -'. lei [' e.» I' bu. lui [' u: 1 is simi la r to the Engl ish vowe I occu rri n gin 'SOLI p' .'-AJ /u ' sanl 'umbrella' -£./' he: bal]! 'liberation' A)-"lll' si. 011 /' e:l 'baby. 'cool' etc.j i/ 'unknown'. 7] z] /gi ' ja/ 'reporter' 2. i:] is tense and the short [i]lax. S.. 'father' etc.]. lal tH HJ.3. 'took' etc.. oJ. /' i:1/ 'affair..su/ 'pro lessor' -.3.5.1.ja/ 'han'.1.3.3.t j" 'tl I' b"JI [' 9. 'coc k' etc.7.!:::. o). hi This vowel has two distinctly different allophones for many speakers from Seoul..3.} /ba' dal 'sea' 'CUI'. In other words.3..] is similar in quality to the English vowel occurring in words like 'set'. of [' u. song' 01 'li I' i:ba!1 'hairdressing' lllc.nbo.\!1 [' bl\l] 'punishment' "ii.):1] 'bee' ..I' wc:gugl 'fore ign Iand' oj iI]/' I\Jel 'yesterday' -'117~1/'se. 'chat' etc" e. e. or LO the French vowel in At?'} I' sa. The Eng[' 0:] [' gur.rim] 'painting' di:1I l: dtu:I) 'field' o}o] . 'saretc..~ j' bo:muJ/ 'treasure' ./'si:l/'lhread'. e.1.1.6. The long 1'1\:1 ['~:J is similar to the English central vowel occurring in words like 'bird'.n/ [' hc.]. If I lish vowel. 'knock' erc.. The unstressed short [e] is a lax vowel with a higher tongue position than for the stressed long [' c. 'and pronounced tense. the English vowel.ce/i'debr'.1.1. Iii ['i:1 is like ['u:1 pronounced with spread lips.g. !' aidil/ I' aidiu I] 'chi ldren' . if. but care must be taken nor to round the lips when aiming at the Korean [i].] with the lip position of [' i:].g.g.3.8. and pronounced tense.1.. it is a vowel combining the tongue position. :±: I' sol 'cow' 2i. 7}-:¥. Notice that the English vowelis short and It must be lengthened to sound similar to the Korean [' e:].g.!i.s:. :2. ill almost every case. except that the Korean /11/ is not pronounced with rounded lips as.f/'i:Ja/ 'interest' 01 ~]/' mi. :&:)1' hwe:/ 'meeting' ~l-:ii.. ¥-. which is pronounced with a lower and advanced tongue position than for l i:J is similar to the English short lui occurring in 'put' . /: bo:dol 'report' "*" I ' odl 'd othes' ~ 2i. a:1 is like the English. The unstressed short [i1 is a Lax vowel pronounced with a lower and retracted tongue position than for the stressed long vowel [i:J. Iii Korean Grammar Chapter II ]5 [' i. '1U' b.14 2.g. child' ¢» 71/' je. The lOllg [.:1 is Iike the English vowel occurring in words such as 'cat' ./: gyo.2. 'heard' etc" but the short hi is close to I he English vowel occurring in 'cock'. Accordingly English people should be careful not to use the English vowel as in 'box' for the Korean short /0/.3.. I' c. is very di fferent in qual ity from the Korean /' 0:1 or 10/: the tongue position for the English vowel is much lower than for the Korean vowel. The unstressed short [eJ is a lax vowel pronounced with a lower and retracted tongue position than for the stressed long vowel [' e:]. The unstressed short [i]. The unstressed shan [u] is a lax vowel pronounced with a lower and advanced tongue position andweaker lip-rounding.g.

and consequenrly they sound very tense or hard compared [Q Ib. 'Syllable Structure').g. there are two other types of vowels'.g. these become fully voiced like the Engli: h /b.g. alveolar and velar plosives (a) In the initial position. e.. /b.} I' sinda/ [' suinda] 'to use or write' ~ ~ /' tigmjAIJI [' lWl]mjA1)] 'special order ~ t::r /' ]Agial /capjo/ [chaphjo] 'ticket' IsatalJ/ [sathalJ] 'sucar' ~:f.j Isadalil [ adari] 'ladder' AI~ IJigiml 'now'.. t. d. U Post-alveolar affricates 'l{ Iball 'foot'.' ['na:Ju1)egado:.] is dose to that of the unstressed shan vowel like lilt and the value of the stressed short vowel like [' i] is close to thai 0 f the stressed long vowel Like [. kl These consonants.i.1. 'Syllable Quantity and Stress'. gl Bi-Iabial.l-8.3. *HE ..2.ta] 71·_'i:. However.2. For further i I) formation aboui rhe vowel and consonant quantity. C.2.2.g. the Korean IJ. ~ c} I 'na. see 2. 7J /garj/ 'river' (b) Between 7~ '€" Idal! 'moon' voiced sounds. The long unstressed vowel such as [i:] occurs only immediately before a plus juncture or a tentative juncture. i. 11 and a vowel. are pronounced with con iderable tension in the articulatory organs. kl in French. t.oll (ii) oH. e.. "'J 7J IjA:l)gaml 'old man' {I /jib/ 7f I jam/ [jam] 'sleep' [jip '] 'house' . are pronounced with strong aspiration.3. These are lax consonants and are pronounced very lightly and softly. Consonants 2. which Occur only syllable-initially and never syllablefinally. This .5.} Ikal/ rk~al] 'knife' and never syllable- (i) Long unstressed vowel L. It does not occur syllable-finally. is because they represent extreme vowel qualities.g.1 .9.2.3. [' I:] and [i]. c. and the short Stressed vowel such as "i] occurs usually in the V position in the syllable structure (el) V C (see 2.4. but unlike the English affricates. which OCCur only syllable-initially finally.e.4. -"t[Otc. Examples 1.01 'tF t::} j'ma:imi '[She] is kind. [b. Chapter II of a syllable. ijtlJ/simbal)/'visit' ""1 7} Isinganl 'new publication'. e. e. g}.. 'dwenda/ 'You may go later.' [p'ul] 'horn' ~c~ /ibia/ [ipr'a] to wear' ij Ct IJ 1\ III tal [jxrnr'a] 'young' 2. In describing the phonetic ~ jib/ [jip '] 'house' t. c..e. 2.16 Korean Grammar (c) In the final position e.~-F.g. i. t.I.3. d. Ip.g. between vowels or /rn n 1].2. e.3. i.3. These are similar both in longue position and quality to the English affricates occurring in 'chin' and judge'. Long Unstressed Vowel and Short Stressed Vowel value of the Korean vowels in 2.3.juqegado.jo. g/.!. i.3. I). k'] or [p.' [' ma:wmi: + . '1 /gabatj / 'brief-case' .t/sigkal/ [sik khall 'kitchen <::) EJ / sxgtau/ [SAk' than] 'coal' 2. Chinese and Russian.]. 2. 'dwenda] + 'jo.g .'-l71- kni fe' kl The phonetic value of the unstressed long vowel like [i. 1 have dealt only with the long stressed and short unstressed vowels.. [p'. d.iceless affricate with little or no a piration in the initial position but hilly VOiced and unaspirated between voiced sounds. e. cl arc pronounced with spread lips. c.. g].!. These consonants.Imadl [mat'] 'taste' ~ 7~ /gugka/ [guk ' ka] 'nation' 2. 1'. [p+al] 'arm' [thaI] 'trou ble' Y. II).e. These consonants are very similar to the unaspirated /p. lial] I [r'aij] 'earth' 01 crt/ifal ¥ Ikuml [k'um] 'dream' [il'a] 'later' ~ /pul. g/.ta/ 3ft /pal/ 1l" Itall Short stressed vowel [' JAgla] 'to write down' ~ c.11 is 'a vo. these phonemes are pronounced with little or no aspiration. they are pronounced without 17 pi os ion. Tg. d.

-'. e.jIh£1ljAI [hejij«] 'mermaid' ~ Isonl [son] 'hand'. Sometimes it is accompanied by a slight aspiration.. 'king'. In/ A lveotar nasal Inl isI.2. though rarely.41/jugcel [j uk ' che] 'body' j Ih! is realiz.g. lsi.2.A} liiJal [iija]. unaspirated sound pronounced with a considerable tension in the articulatory organs and consequently it sounds very tense or hard compared to lsi. when followed by Iii or Ijl is palatalized.7. EjJ+ Iii sal 'doctor'.3. Elsewhere it is realized as [h]. e. Jdonl [don] 'money' "iC /rnun/ [rnun] 'door' 2.g.3. occurs only syllable-initially and sometimes. and sometimes as the VOIced [11] between voiced sounds.e./ban/ [ba!)] 'room' It I is a voiceless unaspirated sound pronounced with a considerable tension in the.5. e.g. 01°t limal 'forehead' ~ /jirn/ [jim] 'burden'. syllable-finally too when [he succeeding syllable begins with the same sound.c'a] 'fake' 'l'J Ii::aml [c'am] lime.2.3. II! Lateral and Flap The III phoneme has two allophones. ~ Isall [s'al] 'rice' . [harabxji] 'grandfather' "a:H Ih!:1 'sun'. ~. as th~ labio-vela} fricative [\:-']or ["\) before lui or Iw/..9. [I] and [el. I and as [n] el Se\\ II1el . Isiliml [s'irurrn] 'wrestling' 'tj.). '" /nim/ [jiirn] 'beloved i5111.Isi:]a1)I [si:Jal]] 'market' ..' lsi is a VOiceless.ed as the pal~taJ fricative [c. e./can/ [charJ] 'window' Like lsi. the palatal [r] before Iii Or I. e.g.Imull 'water'.<E IjA:njt!)1 Ua:njcIJ] 'war' syllable-initially and it does not Chapter 11 1:IJ ~ Ibisanl [bis'an] 'expensive' '5'1 oj lisSAI [is's'x] 'Is [he] there?' 19 lei is voiceless and trongly aspirated occur syllable-finally.2. IIJ/ Velar nasal 11)/ is like the 'ng' sound as in 'sing'.2. sl Alveolar fricative These arc both alveolar fricative sounds.. ~ /sul/ 'wine' ~? l.losul 'tide' i. For the . ¥}c} /cada.. 1J "J !simjaI]1 [sirnjajj] or [sjimjaij] 'heart' 2.1 lsi! [s'ji] 'seed' ~ r}Jsid!al [s'jit' t'a] 'to wash' 2.Isagl [s'ak 'J 'sprout' 1!. B Isinl -¥.g. This sound is similar to the English's' sound as in 'sun' .2. ~l/cal [eta] 'tea' ~ /ceg/ [chck'l'book' "01..' 7}¥} /ga.e. lsi is a lax sound which should be pronounced very softly. Is.g.j c] ISAgial [s'hk 'r'a] 'to rot' i'-<>I IsuI)A'.articulatory organs.ca/ ~otl:l-l A1 /halabxji/ [c'ada] 'salty' [ga. 'sack' etc.g.~ /busjxla/ [sjin] 'footwear' [busjxra] 'Break [it]. This consonant occurs only syllable-initially and never syllable-finally. [SUl]A] 'trout' IIJ! docs not occur after pause or a consonant.AIJl 'brother' ~ Ihigl [xuik 'J 'soil' '::1=-~!-!huhwanl [wuwan] or [wuwan] 'later trouble' 2.3.l before [il or 01. lsi. 1m! Bilabial nasal Iml = [rn]. Ih/ Glo{(al fricative Or Ij/. melody' 2. asthe velar fricative [x] be~ore [I].Ai iO.. a flapped '1". realized as..'. .IL IJidol Korean Grammar [jido] 'map' ~1.<J. Aj IsA:1J1 [Sd:lJ] 'surname' )JJ. l 2.e.}Isanl 'mountain'.8. It occurs only syllable-initially and never" yllablefinally.. e. [sj].1 O. i. space' -=ii-3:: /gogco/ (gok' c'o] 'tune.3. e. lsi is palatalized when followed by Iii ..18 /(). 'chair' "'lfiJ. e. :.g.. like lsi.. 71 ~~ /gica/ U~ichaJ'train' 4. e.-l.6.g.g.3. e. and consequently it sounds very hard or tense compared to IJI which is lax. "tl/hirnl [cim] 'strength' <>g IhjA1J1 [<.

] when stressed and [41 + I-) or unst ressecl. i.-/godl 'at once'.1. rigs 111 r re posiuon IS rest ncted: the following combInatIons are very infrequenr. lHE SYLLARLE STRUCTVRE The canonical form of the Korean phonological syllables may be represented by the following formula. . Cr lasJAsdal ere.. . ' . ' such as c which is usually 'my dream' unstressed.4. .."ljAr(h)am) 'shortcomings' 7J Igill ~ot~l IS01)ajil ilJ Iba!]1 'room' c] 2-J /dali/ x~~ Icalol 'calf" 'bridge' 'by car' Any vowel or.• long stress. and C. pronounced with the tip of the tongue slightly curled back.iJ. the initial consonant and C' the final consonant. a Ion. 0]1 lei 'child' 1./maillol 'to a village' 2. p. 73. and [r] between vowels and between a vowel and Ih!. 3.::. IU : ~ Isall 'rice'. where V stands for vowel. e. -'2. pronounced very short.g. IkAgcal 'Let's cut it ' lOll : .g.. -'l'_oj Ibw-. 7'}A Igamsal 'thanks'· Inl : A. and [ii]." . positions 01her than e.5.lId:l] lujul [~lj~IJ 'milk' or [~II\I] Iwr:1 [\1(:] 'why' Jf-<>1 ImwAI [m\IAl 'what' values of the second clement in the Ij/-init'ial and Iw/-initial Iii! may [i -) when The phonetic diphthongs is the same as that given in 2.~. e. the nucleus. [tiHiJ or [ur.: 2. Im/.dhaml [l.20 Korean Grammar Chapter 11 ~ny consOll~~lt _can fill the position 0 \\ hich can O~CUI only III non-post-pausal those Iollowing a pause. Kilgo 1III/IIIInOn (Korean Phonology').g.-/gug/'soup'.1 01 Igilil [giri] 'length' ± 2-1 Isolil [sari] 'sound' 7.. "'J /bad/ 'field' Ig/: '.At IsonJa/'grandson' 11)1 : . at t tere IS b . U· . l..JJj'-/·iimul The particle lei lsi lSi IJI lei It! + /jel !j£! IJ·al Ijol [ Ijul IjJ\1 is very common which in verbal 01 ~l/' i:iil [' j:lU + 1-] or [' i:i -] /ii! 'of' (cf. i. /g/..e. "'l IJAgl 'enemy' ~'/pjarnl 'cheek' 'i~Iji\:l)wi\n.. erween vowel quantity and stress and that a I . [I] occurs yllable-finallyand after another III.. e. -'{f/naii ['wi-mij]... oJ /i:1/ 'business' "'. Semi-vowels fjl and Iwl are Ii ke Iii and lui.3.c ..bl 'sideline' Idl : {. . '4 ?iI..:<J /jirn/ 'burden'.911 "Ii IbjA:1I [l?j~:n 'star'. ±. + IjAI sequence ~r'. 1968.8).l 'eternity' It was stated in discussing 'Vowel Quantity and Stress' (cf 'J 241) th I .3..~v~vleJ[' ~S/. e. 21 in the formula exept 11]1 and III positions. they are Examples Ib/: "fr Ibabl 'meal'..-+/nal 'I'.miJdal 'to push' []~~ 3!.4. sake of convenience re) is replaced by [r) elsewhere in this book.' . ['w+im~i] or [" ur.IjMJgug/ 'England' . b ut ns resseo. long vowel IS phonetIcally long rr it is accomp'tnied by a (str ") eXlea Y short ifu t d Thi .3..l·lsa1/ flesh'. However the diphthong be realised as [wi-l. was a true statement about the effect of stress on Ihe lUng Ho.rnu+] 'dissent' 'duty' is realized as lei .!l. The Korean [IJ is a clear and slightly retroflexed sound. Inl. IV . are only seven consonants can fill t he position Cr. I. ~Pg [gil] 'road' 01/dolmEI]il lcJolmcl)iJ 'stone' "1!!-2-] /palli/ [p'alli] 'quickly' . II]I and III. Id/. respectively. oJ ~+.J'J Isa!] I 'prize'. -. a rezular correl: ri bt . The elements in the brackets are optional: Korean syllable structure: (C') V (C') Examples (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 2./sol 'cow' °d-/all 'egg'. e.5. or [\.g~ liil -7-fi.1 ~f Igj. Ib TI here [~-].'.} Isanl 'mountain'. .e. suffixes .g."'iJ'.g. i. SYLLAI3L'E QUANT1TY AN!) STRESS ve cve: V CV 0] Iii 'this'..-tS'j kurn/ [IJa£ k'um] .. [I] :~~] Iml Idl It I + [.. diphthong can 1111 the position V but when Ci is present the occurrence of Some diphtho .. .

'A Study of Korean Intonation'. contributes to the lengthening of the syllable regardless of whether the syllable structure is (Ci)V: or (Ci)V:Cr. two. and serves as a basis for any serious discussion on Korean 'Rhythm' and 'Intonation'. :vhich longer than the preceding vowel. ~_£I' jx.} I' bam! ['!?am:] 'night' _2. then the vowel is phonetically long or more accurately half long and the syllable as a whole is longer than an unstressed syllable. e. Thus in .I' jx.dl 'one. e. as an important stepping stone for additional research in stress. (b) A stressed open syllable with a lexically long vo. the structure {Ci)VCr. 'Stress Group' is an important phonological unit. three' 'i0] i'-L--t 10' nilin na 'Ii ' cubkuna/ 'It is cold today.i.o-j ii}.Ia1 'gal 'Go sa fely ' !i~ On the other hand. transmission' cf. jsn. the stress affects the syllable as a whole. ~t!_£/' JAndol [. either by Ramstedt himself or other scholars.e.22 Korean Grammar Chapter II 23 lexically long vowel. 2.ndo/ [ja:ndo] 'fall' ~ t:~/' JAgtal [']Ak' . (e) The lengthening of a stressed syllable can be effected by a vowel or a consonant.!f. it cannot be a complete account or the overall effects of stress because the stress affects not only the lexically long vowels but also short vowels and consonants.:1 -'f-<>jo} /nxnmuxja. The following is a brier description ofthe effects or stress on the syllable quantity. (a) Similarly.' 'What about you?' .ngu] 'research' IolJ"? I' ba. 13'}l.-} % j) Iha' na "du.£.].ja:k' t'a] 'small' The observation of the lengthening of the final consonant in the stressed syllable of (0) V C! structure is by no means new. where the dot after [0] stands for 'hal r long'._:. G..g.lO:JOJ'support' I' A]'::. yes. I' ba:ml [' ba. usually to the overall quantity ~ I' bxl/ cf.e.~'el.A~ I' rno. and this depends partly on the syllable structure of the stressed syllable: (i) If a stressed syllable includes a lexically long vowel. quantity and ultimately 'Rhythm' of Korean. Thus in the word :>LA} I' mO:J31 l 1110:JaJ'mother and child' the stressed syllable I' mo:1 is longer than /ja/ which is unstressed. this important observation has not been developed any further. larger and hierarchically higher than the syllable.g. For further details concerning the stress group and various related problems sec also 3_10..' 1.t'a] 'to write down' cf.6. 'l~ Igi 'Lvm/ 'Of course. z.' e cf. is lengthened. and I' mol may be more accurately represented phoneticaJly as l rno. i.l 'se. .10.' ~ 7]' /' .i.is p!lOnetically longer than a stressed open syllable with a lexically short vowel./ is longer than I' mol.-] /nxn ' muxhagoinni/ 'What are you doing?' Two stress groups ~.ja] 'mother and son' ['l11o:JaJ 'cap.J+4aJ 010] I' /sa' dali/ [sa' da.g. J.:i? 911. However. The stress group is here defined as a strongly stressed syllable with or without preceding and/or following weakly stressed or unstressed syllablets). e.. a stress group may consist of one stressed syllable or one such syllable plus one or more unstressed syllable(s).ja] where I' mol is phonetically 'hat' in citation form is pronounced longer than IJa!.l/ l' 9a:l] 'bee' I >..1-6. the word .) ell' JA:gtal [.rn] 'chestnut' Hyun-Bok Lee..£4 I' moja/ [' mo. Examples One stress group -¥-<>j I'muAI 'What?' -!j!--<>jiL I' muxjn/ 'What?' '. (C')V:. 6 I-SO. In other words. r 91\1:] 'punishment' if the stressed syllable with a lexically short vowel has then it is the final consonant Cr. Rarnstedt mentioned this phenomenon in his Korean Grammar as far back as 1939. i~is the vowel which occurs long and thus.oJ At71 [[1 L-\-t--J Iwe "gabeagi tA' nani! 'Why are you leaving so suddenly?' Three stress groups "Ii I' bx. L--tc. bo. and thus contributes of the syllable.nor the vowel.3.ri] 'ladder' imi/ I'j:mij 'already' or /i mil li mi:j ql "-ll I' ne "ne/ 'Yes.l<S:_ ~7Jt Ina 'Iado .ja/ 5'. but unfortunately. . pp. (Ci)Y. halka/ '[Do you think] I can clo it?' . .jo/ ['(. In other words. It may also be called the 'Rhythmic Unit' insofar as it functions as a basic unit of Korean rhythm. ~. ~.::.-1 .:. A stressed syllable is phonetically longer than an ~mstressed syllable.ngu/ [' jo.do ) 'mission. hat' STRESS GROUP I I' mo.nson] 'broadcasting' (ii) If the stressed sylla·ble includes a lexically short vowel and is of (CI)V structure. 1964.:' /'si:]ol ['si:Jo] 'founder' 't! i'.naorj/ [' ba.A} l'moJal l mo.

1. nalsiga .g.24 ::J_ Korean Grammar . (a) Stress group ij. 2. 6.' .asx ha' nile gu '{imi . 10 '-nilin . In particular.y g 01 /gu 'Iimi/ 'the cloud' cf.1. But what is not known IS !lov. nalsiga "jo.asx lonilin .2. A stress group may include more than a word.2..t ~ 0t~Ct Igi' .asx ha ' nile gu ' lirnivbia/ hanile guIirnix..~ ~ oj! lila' nil~ 'in the sky' .2.2. 2. 'Adjunct' etc. [not that]!' 2. Number 'Jo:asl\ ha ' nile gu ' limi . 2. 3. (iii) Attitude.6.g. 2.i 'We oil -'j" :'i 01 iii c]. 'Object'.1. _2_.zj "H01 .6.WIlJl:IJi 'He came back as soon as that war ended.: many stress group.1.g.g.. Rules can be formulated whereby one may predict the possible number of stress groups in a sentence and the position of the stress wit hin a stress group.-"} oj -". 3.' ~ !Ill ~O:I lio' w£wasJ\I 'Why did you come again?' (c) Sf ress group of part of a word -% 2} /' mol "la/ 'You don't know [this]?' 0]-1-1 /' a .2) such as 'Subject' 'Predicate'. kinnaJa Chapter /I dola ' wadia/ 2. there is no cloud in the sky.1.bia/ The phonological unit 'Stress Group' and the grammatical unit 'Word' (cf'. is that so?' = (c) Faster tempo (two stress groups) 2.6.el.ss and become part of the preceding Or following stress group. the end of a non-final adverbial clause nearly al ways indicates the stress group boundary. Stress Group and Word The faster the Tempo of speech the fewer stress groups there tend [a be in a sentence.6. 2.!. Rules Governing/he of STress Number of Stress Groups and the Position own.2.5) occur usually as part of a stress group except in a very slow and emphatic speech when they can form a separate stress group on their (b) Stress group oj more than a word 0pJ Zl-it0 1 oj 71 'li c} /a ' cirnsinmuni ji\ "giiia/ 'The morning paper is here. 10' nilin "nalsiga ASP n f. nil 'No.tl-1-.>.g..1 0]::J_ ~ (b) Fast tempo (four stress groups) 10' nilin . or is analysed into one or more stress groupts) in spoken Korean. and (iv) Emphasis. e. which is usually the case. I) do not always correspond. x.2. 'fl~17~ I' nalsiga/ 'the weather' .6. (a) Slow tentpo (six stress groups) 10' nilin .2. six.6. Length of Sentence A long sentence including many words tends groups than a shorter one. if is usually the second syllable which carries the stress unless the first .2.asx ha ' nile gu Tirni 'A:btal 'As the weather is fine today.3. The number of syllables found in a stress group pronounced tempo varies From one to five or six.2.. Position of Stress within a Stress Group The Factors determining the position of stress within a stress group are (i) Syllable structure (ii) Lexically long vowel. although they lend to lose the stre. Factors (i) and (ii) are also important criteria for determining the stressed syllable of individual 'words. and it may consists of part of a word. nalsigajo. e. /' nalsi 'gal (ii) The elements of a clause (ef.3. e.6..bia/ Word ~l~~ d asxd 'j i\si\d 'iI go bl 'fl ve. seven' I' I' a gi']el 'Oh. nalsigajo.:r.1. J\:htal ASP at the normal 0/ Stress Groups in a Sentence There are several factors which determine the number of stress groups in a given sentence.2. e.jo. e. Grammat icai Factor (i) Particles (cr.' ~11I' nel 'Yes' Determining Factor If a stress group has the syllable structure (C)V (C)V(C) CV(C) C .~ -~ LO be broken into more stress ~~17]- ~ol.6.. a given sentence is to be analysed into and which svllable in a stress group is to be stressed. Syllable Structure (i) (IS It is clear by now that an utterance or a sentence consists of. Tempo 25 0/ Speech In the aboveexamples of two and three stress groups a space is used to indicate the boundary between two successive stress groups. tend to form a separate stress group in slow speech.

person' 013_"3 I' i:doljAI)/ 'Mr/Master ~~±.2.2. On the other hand. Altitude as Determining Factor The attitude' of a speaker. On the other hand. ISA' uldehagkjo/ 'Seoul University' 11 oj i!} /ji ' bxla/ 'Pick [it] up. structure seems to be not infrequent when they occur in isolation or in citation. in /abAJi + gabaije/ 'in Father's briefcase' it the syllable IJjl which is prolonged and the /gl after the plus juncture is realized as a voiceless sound [gl or [k'] whereas the Ibl in /gabane/ is now fully voiced [b].authoritative 1964.6.t~ -.2.2. For instance. if the same sequence is pronounced as /abxji gabaije/ with a break between IJil and /ga/.3.5«(1))./. e.friendly . For instance. 'A Study of Korean Intonation'.normal ." q {/' jl\:g1al p {. /nalsl/ 'weather' ancl Iguliml are chosen asthe words to be emphasized and accordingly stressed. 0.A}~ I' jAI]gugsa:lam/ 'Englishman' 0-"- I' 'il ~ Y c] I' cl'. is realized as a prolongation of the immediately preceding syllable on a rising or falling pitch.ll'.26 syllable stressed. the stress shl~ted to the last syllable of a stress group.one consisting of many syllables. in . Lexically Long Vowel This factor Determining has already been discussed in relation Factor' (cf. which is closely related to 'Intonation'. /' rnoja/ 'cap' (cf.g. whereas (he pitch contour associated with the syllable preceding the plus juncture is usually level.Al ~t ~ oj) -=r~ol ~ q /onilin ' nalsigajo.3. 2.\!~~I-¥-0. the stress may shi ft to the first syllable of a stress group to show a solemn authoritative attitude. 2. especially of a last stress group 111 a sentence indicates a warm and friendly attitude on I he part 0 f the speaker towards a listener.. .g. 2. e.\ssimnidal '[He] ate. to 'Syllable Structure as 2.g.Al-"if I' sa. the syllable /gal is prolonged a little and the phoneme Ibl after the plus juncture is realized as a voiceless plosive sound [b] or [p'].6. e. Emphasis as Determining Factor This factor is concerned with a long stress group. and accounts for the way in which the speaker places the stress ana word which he considers to be important within the stress group.1..I. I' jAgla1 'to write down' ja:lJmo/'foster mother' 'to be small' I' jarjmo/ 'sheep'S fleece' oJ '. grace' 71 /a' gil 'baby' -l'-oj /rnu ' AI 'what' oi pol L-) fA' mxni/ 'mother' -a:rt:t7} /ha daga/ 'while doing' _s:_ "-1-.7.asx hanile gu 'Iimi x. but it means 'In the father's briefcase'.2. precedi ng section).' 7}'l!l_~ /ga ' gesso/ 'Will you go?' 0t The forward shifting of the stress from the second syllable to the first in the words of (C)V CV(C) c.g. JUNCTURE of phonemes may have two different meanings depending on makes a short momentary break.4.I A sequence where one but . when it is pronounced as /abxjiga bane/ with a short break between Igal and Ibal.2.3.:-..' There .2. Le.~ ~ 'i¥j7} i'"0}. :.1 Terminal juncture /.' show clearly how thesyllable struct ure determines the /' The last two examples of the stress.bta/ 'As the weather is fine today. it is the firs! syllable which is stressed irrespective of the lexical vowel quantity of the first syllable. the sequence /abxjigabaqe/ translates 'Father in the room'.6. in which case the first syllable is Chapter II 27 e. The three junctures are established by the combined criteria of the phonetic features associated with the syllableimmediately preceding and following the junctures and the physical pause. position /0111' . Notice that /rno+ja/ is more frequent than f' rnoja/ even as a citation form.9).g.:H ~-.§:) "J-~ <. The tentative juncture /. which is. is realized as a slight prolongation of the immediately preceding syllable. Thus /a ' bxji/ and /a ' bt\jiga/ are phonetically realized as [a' bA:ji:] and [a' bA:Jiga:j respectively. e. which mayor may not be accompanied by a short momentary pause..]. I' bo:gwansol 'depository' Lee' (ii) If a stress group bas the struct ure (C) VCCV (C) CV(C) Coo.3.. may d~termine the stress position within a stress group.~ %. The pius juncture 1+1.-. Perhaps it is worth mentioning in passing that the pre-j unctural open syllable is the place where a lexically short vowel is realized as an unstressed long or half-long vowel (cf. lA' crsAI 'Why?' i li\cf_'sAI 'Why?' f' IIccsAI 'Why?' I .are three types of juncture in Korean: (i) (ii) (iii) Plus juncture 1+1 Tentative juncture 1. 2. has a lexically Korean Grammar long vowel.' g.. For instance. o-j·~ .{ /hi ' marjenal/ 'the day of hope' _. For example in /abxjiga + bane/ 'Father [is] in the room'. Such a break or pause is called 'Juncture.>:1 /do 'Iaji/ 'Chinese bellflower' :r_ l!115_ Ino 'Idol 'in song' .larn/ 'man.2. 1 i\:nJcbutAI 'Since when?' ITI/lgsimnidal '[He] is eating. usually accompanied by a pause longer than that of the plus juncture. _}o} /u ' al 'elegance. there is no cloud in the sky'. is See Hyun-Bok Lee...10. 2.

'dul. bwajo~ 'See if he's gone': I..e. ~ but they are not in the follow- o~:.phrase ... i. the plus junct ure 1+1 will be marked by the space given two consecutive stress groups.compound word sail 'barley and rice' .e.£. '.Z 'Did you read a newspaper this morning? (b) . terminal junctures and junctureless transition are illustrated below: It is to be noted that the plus juncture and tentative juncture are not always contrasti ve or distinctive.":]il 'a fool and Similarly. i.28 :1"-. clause.. two' may be j uncturally realized as dwenda.' I1A 'It'1 Jj.1 /' sankil/ 'mountain path' . "sinrnunbwanni./ ~ 2'It will work [only] when/if ~ Iha'na + 'dul. M Chapter II .. .:i!_ /ba ' bil + I.l 7~ clmay be having his mea) [now].. E_ ~l ~ Ibo "li + 'sail 'barley and rice' _!.' +1. 'mAgko'/ 'a fter eating' u] ~5'l. tentative. but not necessarily. 'idkcdia.' '[He] may be having his meal [now] . whether plus.g. "idkedta. usually.i /hana.l~l/ki' + bx 'ljAI 'Cut it off. in the following sentences Or l:l I' mxgko + "idkedia. tentative or terminal./'[Hej now on. 3(a) '{}-~ Ibabil (b) 7tO~ -'{l Ct 'dwenda. .1). the occurrence of one or the other depending on the tempo or speech or individual speech habit.J.edia.. every stress group is followed by a juncture.J 10' nil (+) acimsinmun. See Hyun-Bok Lee.' it away..l 'You must go.j ~ 29 + bAljAI 'Cut and throw btdjAI 'Cur ii off. and the rising or falling pitch contour associated with the syllable jmmediately preceding [he terminal juncture is more extensive than in the case or other junctures. Thecontrasts the plus. The terminal juncture occurs at the end of a sentence (cf.1 ~ Ibo "li + /bo lisal/ 'barley (grains)' 5!.l /ha ' na.' . ~ 0 /ganna. Thus iJ~\-+ ~-/ha' na 'dull 'one.7:1 AI I' ba.. a' cimsinrnun + I.' nAb"ljAI L117~ 71.]_ ~?. " . JiI.~ °Hl ~l ~':':J:l-1 10' nil. in the morning. longer than that 0 r the tentative juncture. 1964.<J). [he plus juncture and a junctureless transition a beggar' are distinctive in the 10' nil. The intonation system employed in this work is rile one set up by rile author elsewhere) for purposes not directly related to grammatical or syntactic I word which does not include a juncture.8. ct oj 111 aj IkinA 7~\. and the plus and tentative junctures occur usually within a sentence.' iiI-'-!· % you go/[are there]. 'mAgko. . ./ is always accompanied by a pause.compound word "1} <. phrase or word.0 2. The same is true of the contrast between the plus juncture and juncturcless transition.-:. dul. 'g. and the terminal juncture occurring at of a sentence and followed by the oblique will not be marked. .' 'Cur it off.!.z' '[He1 may be staying [there] after having often serves [. marking structures smaller than a sentence.' From between the end simplify (b) Li17} /nega ' gaja.] I:loJ poj Ikj' 'Have you read a morning 'bwanni.. 'bwanni.! paper today?' Cd) _'i. "mxgko <!:j2 + 'idk..l 'Did you read a paper 2(a) today.J I' san + gill 'mountain and path' . 'tHtr ~~ct his meal. Iganna + bwajo/ or /gannabwajo/ I think he s gone. a' cim. 'A Study of Korean lntonation'.phrase .:J_t!..0): /nega gaja( ~Ct + )1') Note that the juncture and the stress group boundary coincide. The terminal juncture 1. For example.1 ~ Ibo 'lisall 'barley (grains)' but they are not in ?to.bowa + I. 2..l 'Did/have you read this morning's * *1.!l c] j' rnxgko.' ~:.sinmunbwanni./ '[He] may be staying [there] after having his meal.' ~2 the plus and tentative i ng examples: juncture are distinctive.J% f!:i. 7. INTONATION The plus juncture distinguish e.-1 paper?!' ". :u~ 10' nilacirn.' a phrase from a compound Ibabil + I.. to the notation.H. Korean Grammar IkinA.

That is La say.' . I-gilejol 'Is that so!' (g) \tot 7)1--] 71~? 'Is it flying away?' Inala'gamnika/ (17) :J. Low Rise-Fall-Rise I Nnel 14.njaji . Low Fall-Rise I -ne/ 8.)lJ:l.:u. and the syllable at which a tune begins.. wejo/ 'Why?' ]1 description. dola .Ill] j"'wcl 'Why?' <::J ... kinnaja.8.. High Fall-Rise rne! Rising-Falling Tunes (d) . is strongly stressed. Low Fall I.(l7j-t-j 11. Chapter II I.8. Full Fall I xne/ 'Yes' Rising Times 4.:':: -'t!. the one before which the tonetic mark is placed. High Rise-Fall rnel Falling-Rising-Falling Tunes (e) .<§ 01 ::tt-I'A} {-ol ~q /ginin-jx. wadia/ '[He] returned as soon as the war ended. the following seventeen intonation tunes were originally abstracted on the basis of the contrastive altitudinal meanings which they carry. wfl 'Why?' I. High Rise I'nel 6.w£1 'Why?' 9. In the following diagrammatic representations of intonational tunes.e.30 Korean Grammar (0) 9ij !lJIJl. Low Fall-Rise-Fall Z. there are as many intonational tunes as there are stress groups in a sentence. (f) .that of an unstressed syllable. High Fall Fnel 'Yes' 3. Full Rise IlI1el Falling-Rising Times 1" 2. an intonational tune is realized over a stress group.Ill] /. and consequently.. ret/ling Times 1.gasibsijol 'Please go!' I.11 7j-. That IS to say. Low Level Tune I_uel 16. Mid Level TUlle I-n. 'Why are you going?' /wcgajo/ 9. Low Rise (b) 7HJ )\). i..el 17. two parallel lines indicate the upper and lower limit of the norma! voice range: = stands for the pitch of a stressed syllable and . uel 'Yes' 2.) 'Go?' 7} /'ga! /'palliga/ 'Go quickly'?' 7. I.. High Fail-Rise-Fall /: nel Rising-Falling-Rising Tunes I"" JnAIlJAganii 'Are you going first?" 13. High Level Tune rnel Every tune may be realized on one or more syllables. nel (c) 7~ 5. nel 12. High Rise-Fall-Rise rnel Level Times 15. Low Rise-Fall / ~ne/ 10.

when they are followed by a particle that begins with a vowel. because the same phenomenon is indicated in Korean orthography by an additional '5' letter called 'I. (e) Mid Level Except in certain contexts where a morphemic transcription is used to show the internal structure of grammatical forms more clearly. (j) Low Rise-Fall-Rise. This additional Idl is something that can not be explained in terms of these general rules. 'Someone is going.. i.e. the transcription system employed in thi book is a phonemic one whereas the Korean orthography is in principle morphemic or morphophonemic in {hat every morpheme or word is uniformly represented by its base form wherever it occurs. i..e. To derive a phonemic transcription from the Korean spelling (or a morphemic tran cription) one or more of rhe following rules must be applied. before the subject particle Iii. (e) High Rise-Fall. Synract ical contrasts follows: exhibited by intonernes may be exem plified as (a) Inioneme LF -l=-7} 7} /nuga.gko .32 Korean Grammar 2. function(s).':Q 'comb'. (e) High Fall-Rise. the 17 intonational tunes set lip according to the at titudinal functions are here reclassified into the foursyntactically relevant classes. (b) Full Fall.10. TRANSCRIPTION In relating intonation to grammar it has been found that not everyone of the 17 intonational tunes is grammatically distinctive. only four kinds of intonational contrast arc found to be syntactically relevant. (g) High Rise-Fall-Rise lntonerne L (Level): (iv) (a) Low Level. termed '1ntonemes' to stress the grammatical or symact ical. each having a distinct function as the phonological exponent of syntactic categories and relations. but must be dealt with individually as they occur.. Similarly.idia/ '[He] is eating. (e) Full Rise (d) Low Fall-Rise. For instance the Korean words for 'light' and 'comb' are both pronounced the ame..~<)l AI f:-' /saisiod/..01' are followed by a word that begins with a consonant: but they are spelr differently in the Korean orthography. and their membership are as follows: (i) 1ruonerne LF (Low Fail): Low Rise-Fall. (b) High Level. we have an extra phoneme lei I. The four intonation classes.' (e) lntoneme LF + lntoneme LF 1:1:J2 ~lt:j-/. the resultant form will be a correct phonemic transcription. or (0 the examples given in the Korean orthography. Accordingly.mt. Such cases of irregular change cannot be covered by the general rules listed here. ~'light'. or the grapheme's' as il is 'known to Korean scholars.e. edge' --.!l7t /riedka/ 'bank 0 r a stream' < /nc/ 'st ream' + /ga/ 'side. (b) Low Fall-Rise-Fall (ii) lntonerne HF (High Fall): all-Rise-Fall (a) High Fall..' 7~ 7~ /nuga gal 'Who is going?' (e) lntoneme R T7} (d) Intonerne L 7} /nuga 'gal 'Is anyone going?' + l ntonernc LF ~.. these words are phonernically represented as "'-)°J/bicil 'the light'.e.idia/ '[He) is [in the room] after meal (after having eaten]. the word lodanl is not the form that one would expect in the light of the general rules.2 °1t:). unless the particular example invol es an irregular morphophonemic change.. for the type of syntactic description made in this book. INTO EMES Chapter !I 33 2. For instance.I-!Mgko . (h) High Rise.ga/ (b) Intoneme HF L. In fact.' . whereas the change /gl to Ik/ is a straightforward case. e. /osan/.9. . Ibidl when they occur in isolation . I)! o]/bisii 'the comb'. (e) (0) Low Fall. i. i. II is therefore necessary to give some kind of rule whereby one can work out the phonemic transcription From the Korean spelling. (d) High (iii) lntonerne (a) R (Rise): Low Rise. /odan/ 'inside of clothes' ~ < lod/( < os) 'clothes' + lan/'inside' In the compound word /nedka/. The rules given below arc general and if we apply one or more of them iO the Korean orthography. rather than attitudinal. The most common type of irregular morphophonemic change is found in compound nouns. g '. Now the reason why the above two words are spelt differently in the Korean writingsystem even though they are pronounced the same in some contexts is because they are in fact pronounced di fferent Iy in some other conrexrs.

lsi when immediately sive consonant. bjAg 7. ilpda > lildal 'to recite' (> /Ilia/ cf.} '€.g. living' ~~r:.' ?=l. IU.dlalal 'ten countries' 7. 7} ~ > Ip/.!iI_ agbo -'8-711dobge >lJ-A] badji 'lJ. rule ~2 haltgo > Ihalgo/ 'to lick and' (> Ihalkol cr.·Jo:h- 'to be closed' (> /gibia/ cf.1 csn Ii > /cAllil I) 'a thousand leagues' 0. /k/. 10.' > /rnidso/ '[I) believe so.dodhida > /dacida/ ~ol gati > /gaci/' 'together' -E0l gudi > /guji. final (nlf)h + g/d/] > I(nlf)k. rule I) ~lAgipda > 5.' libkol /xbia/ * <'J koc > Ikodl 'flower' 6. rule I) 'to be good' + -go> /jo. rule ~t. b/d/g/j/s final word. Is > Ibl. rule 2) ~"11 anjge 3) > /arrge/ 'Sit down. 7J.:g'il cal gOI]> /calkojj / 'a ball to kick' sal .g. e. dlt> lei in the environment = hi/i.Ji > /gadji/ '[She] has gone. "J..J!_ gatgo > ~~711b/Isge > 'is the same and' (> /gadko/ cf. Verb stem ~~:J!. lei. e.g. Ie > Idl in the environment Igadgol IbAdgel .i!. rule 1) I) 35 I. rule 2) c].& 3. llslsl] Igabl 'price' Igibdal 'it~1(:].. e. e. 4. lei.AJA11sinse > /sinse/ 'let's put. e. wage' > /dagl 'chicken' 2.~ J"fmda > I]Amdal 'to be young' (> IJ~mial cf. rule 7) tiJ. rule 8) ~.." 'firmly' 12. 'g}r:-} calbda > /calda/ 'short' (> /calia/ cf'. rule 4) NA anjda > /ania/ 'to sit' « /anjia/ cf.i L. e. e. by a verb stem ending in mill 9. 'tl . lSi > /gamta/ 'to or Ib/lp/It/lg/lm/bs/n].34 Korean Grammar preceded Chapter tt by a plollAJ gas. (nlf)!. e.ilp]« > /Ilpca/ 'Let's recite' (> /Ibca/ rule 8) W-t:.'+~ 0/ sa.g.g. e.' (> Ian ICe/ cf. b/dlg > Im/. e. lei. /k/.l cj. Iii.' (> IbAclkel cf.J!_ ibgo > ":.' 'furt:} jalbda > /jalbia/ 'thin' (> /jalia/ cf.silsu > IsilSu/'mistake' > > 8. gamda 'li711 namge {j A} simja when preceded e."# buxk > IbuAgl 'kitchen' '. 1l]1 in the environment =m/n.} gA.'to be correct' + -]i > /olci/ .J-M]jAl]gUg nais! > I jM]glllJnalsil 'English weather' III in the environment =I cr. dlgl]ls > IU.CI#. 11/. rule 6 and ~± jslmso > I]Almso/ '[You are] young.~ bab mas> Ibammadl 7J L-ll gibne > /girnne/ '[She] 'appetite' « Ibammasl rule 5) is sewing.AJ4.g. lilli/tin} oJ "-J jtt:1 dat > I!'l /gali! > /galilpjxg/ 'a wall to cover' IjA:liall 'ten months' to come' ~r ~ -~- .g.Y/na > !gA:nllal 'Are you walking?' ~~ '". rule 7 and 2) ~Al gilgJi > Igilgeil '[Does he] scratch?' (> /gigci/ cf.I ib > /salcib/ 'a house to buy' . rule 1) 'Take off [shirt].AI.' > /badci/ '[I will] take [it].11> cn l-«. close' > /namke/ 'Stay behind.CIIt..g. d > IJI in the environment .'to be many' + -da > Ima:ntal fsAl 0111.g. rule 2) > libdal (> /ibia/ cf.nakda > Inagdal 'to catch [fish]' (> /nagta/ 'it sags> dalg cr.g. lsi when immediately preceded by a II/and by a Ill-final morpheme in many Sino-Korean words.gal nal > Igallall 'day of departure' 11.' > lsi meal 'Let's sow [seeds]. # salm > /sarn/ 'life..J- /balial/ 'development' gAljag /gxlcag/ 'masterpiece' .lam > /olsa.±- midso 'to wear and' 'to carryon the back' dal > ISA:giall 'three months' > /agpo/ 'musical note' > /dobke/ 'Help [him].j.lcl-£ mAJdA/ado > /rnxddxlado/ 'even jf [it) stops' (> ImAdL\lado/ cf. In/.feJ. Inl in the environment -Cllt. p/bs > Ibl in the environment 'il} gabs> -CIIt.' (> /jxmso/ by rule 7) 'iil t::-] sibsda > IA:bial 'to lack' « IA:bsta/ cf. klklgsllg > Igl in the environment -C/#. It!. 1(. cr.Abc/a> A-'J 'it SA:g '?_~. bldlgl. e.j. on [shoes). /bl/p > III or Ibl in the environment . (n If) c/.~ haltda > /halia/ 'to lick' (cf. rule 3) >lJcJ" baldat ~"* 7Jr:.kc/ 'i'ic~mainh.' .' (> /gadci/ cf. rule I) /sagl 'fee.g.jA:1 nata > Ij. t.g.i.rule I) :.laru/ '3 person > Im/.

g.st. example of this criterion is provided by verbs.sfx. e. + gwasil 'fruit' N. DEFINITION OF WORD Any form which exhibits the characteristics of (i) relative fixity of internal structure.dso/ 3. (i) The order 15. e.' > /rnisso/ (cf. + naga.Jo:h. no intra-morphemic interruption ble in normal speech. V as sentence predicate . is possi- Freedom of positional mobility Words have the maximum freedom of positional mobility in syntactic structures. be ill' + -ne > lalne/( > /alle/ cr. /pudkwasil/ 'unripe fruits' 'unripe' prfx.' < bis.1-:1(-<>11 7J'1. Except lor t he change in t he phonological shape which is due morphophonemic alterations. e. -=~"ll.' 'the one who is going' 7JOJ 'fJ cl- gami swibia V 'Going i easy. oj_::t:. which when appropriately inflected.$. (ii) by other forms or junctures noted.ganin sa. Verb stem final It + n/s > Idn/. in the following examples. + -nda inflx.lo:h.alh- 'to 'to + Ills> 11nl. Verb stem final th Korean Grammar 'il:1:11 alh~i::t:. For instance.g. andin *~'l.-] t.'to go out' V.-l z}"C} bisnaganda /binnaganda/ '[It] is goi ng astray. may function in many different syntactic positions. rule 10) be ill' + -so > lalsol (> /also/ cf.1.up of words cannot be altered I or the components rethe case of words comprising more than one morpheme.lam V Vas a nominal clause It is good if [you] go.' 10 .:} weguge gamnida V '[He] is goingabroad.. the of morphemes is also fixed. except as already no internal alteration or re-arrangement Also. d/! > lsi when followed by lsi. and (iii) independence is a word.'astray' prfx.' '(It) is good. rule I) III WORD AND WORD CLASSES 14. 37 .due/ (> IJo:n~cl "'.AJ pusgwasil < pus- '»)l..g. The best. /rnidso/ ~:Z.dso/ '(I) believe so.g. e.36 13.'to be good' + -50 > IJo:dsol (> /jo. /ls/.' V as a non-finn'! clause 7}~ ~t:l gamjsn jota V V as an adjectival clause 7}~ "-l-'iJ. rule I) > IJo:s501 (d.'to be good' + -ne > /j o. is possible.. arranged. rule 9) cr. (ii) freedom of positional rnobilit y in larger struct ures.±. rule 2) cf. Ids!. /jo. rule I) Relat ive fixity of internal structure internal make.

. 1. ] TYPES OF WORDS There are two types of word: simple and compound.2. 4. Simple Word Every word which consists of a single free morpheme. is a simple word.<. l.6. The morpheme may be defined as a minimal meaningful form which cannot be further analysed into smaller units./ 'tree' 9 % jslim 'summer' *Ai!.g'ideal' < ism) 'ideal' N + JAg adj. Adjective [Adj.3.g. Verb [V] 2. the phonological criterion of stress is not consistently applicable in the definition of word since some words may have mare than one stress lor emphasis and sometimes lose the stress altogether when occurring in longer stretches of speech. Particle [Pc!.3). Noun [N] 3. e. 3. One of the components of a compound word may comprise a bound morpheme.1. 3.-}~ 11([111/.2.whereas a bound morpheme 5. 3. + salbab j(}i!H!i·O}Aj jalal17ogoji 'turtle-neck' <jala 'turtle' + mog 'neck' + -({Ii diminutive sfx.'unripe' prfx.g. Inierjection [Interj.3.-l·~~ napa/kod'iilOt'lling-glory' < napa! 'bugle' + kod 'flower' "t':J-sd/bab 'rice food' < sal 'rice' + bab 'rice [boiled] food' ~ ~ll} hebsalbab 'new rice food' < hcb.'new' prfx.only uninflected words.<t ja' donca 'car' ~<Cj7l"J. which rarely occuralone. as a sentence.Phonologicai Criterion for the DefinitionofWord .g.2.. Between a verb Stem and all inflectional ending verbs are the inflected words and the rest are the .liffjtiukolipul Veronica kiusiana < jAU 'fox' + kofi'tail.1. except adjectives and particles (cf'. The majority of compound words are composed of two free morphemes and those comprising three or more are very rare.l'.] 4. bon' ai 'the child whosaw ihe car' Every word which consists of more than one free morpheme and is uni nterrupted by a juncture at intermorphemic j unctions is a compound word. 39 or with another bound mor- (iii) Independenee All words may occur alone preceded and followed by the terminal juncture.3. in isolation. -+. Six main classes of words are set up for the subsequent syntactic description on the basis of syntactic and/or morphological criteria.1.<J-~ isw)J.1. e. i.1 c} gi/da '[It] is long..2.3.g. i.] 6. rice' < hci: 'new' + sa! 'rice' °1. ~~ jib 'house' N 'd71] M1JC'When?'N 7. with orwithout one or more bound morphemes. c. 3..e.5) is averb class WOrd..li.e.' + pul 'plant..2..' ~Fr7t :. 0 'Oh!' Inter].5) which usually occur weakly stressed or unstressed (2.. 3. They are: . -l" 'jA:ngu -r. Therefore tbe stress is only supplementary to the grammatical criteria given earlier. I.2.1.-vt:l so'Liga 'cam 'jota 'The sound is very good.] Of the six word classes. e. Compound Word Most words have a stress on one of the first two syllables when Liley occur as citation forms. ':'!. and have the potential of taking one when they occur in largercorrstructions. + 50100 'love' ~~ hcbsal 'new [crop].H he 'Sun' e} dal'moon' l. Adverb [Ad v. grass' ~ 'td o 1 donpAli 'money-making' < don 'money' + bill 'to earn' + -i norninalizing sfx.At%.3 and 3. 9"'f-!.i<Ht ~o}oj ja' dOlJcalif . Verb Every word which includes at least a stern and ail inflectional ending (cf.5).pussalat] 'calf love' < pus. "YaRD CLASSES However.deriv.sfx.J... ~~i ~l csncsnhi 'slowly' Adv.3. 3.: '€ "cingug« onin 'nul 'the day when a friend is coming' A%.<~ 3.38 Korean Grammar Chapter III never occurs except as part of a free morpheme pheme. 'research' xJ cingu 'friend' A~% SAul or ISA 'ull 'Seoul' T-S: gu' JO 'structure' tu' jE:'l) 'st ruggle' .3.2 .' V :.... with the exception of panicles (cf.. A free morpheme can occur on its own.

7..' 3<3.4. is a panicle class word. A particle never occurs on its own but always with oneof the words mentioned above. Every word which may occur (a) before a verb or another adverb a's a modifier.>.. AI :O<..' Hl_.3.tense + -til infix .(t~} I1Al11udo bisada '[It] is far too expensive.'to be' (cf. 3.::1. .I..' + -ai.35).honorific + -115.g. Adverb 41 may be found one or more stem-extending suffixes representing such grammatical categories <as 'voice' .' T--r-0l9i%\.3). (b) before a particle (d.9. Particle ·~t iO-l palfi Every word which may occur (a) before t he copula verb i. NQI. e. (d) a lter a clause ora sentence. + -/1 tense + -da inflx..3.-<.td 'Which one?' j uncrure (b) 0-] ~ '{1_ AI] Anise ad 'Which new clothes?' £Af han h s:» 1I10ja 'an old cap' * Every WOrd which may occu r (u) by itself preceded and followed by a terminal and (b) syntactically independent of other elements in a sentence.3). ~A) ~ . I arn lare.h'i-~I .g. (a) _"'-0 'Oh!' 'Splendid!' -. 'honorific'.?H jaju if naif: 'a Song Every word which occurs (a) after a noun. (c) before another noun.sL bright' (c) V.£ ~ cJ:C- 'tl7Jc} I1II1!fin 'Quickly..' .<9 gase gil]« 'Let's go.. when appropriately inflected. 'if E-":'~-L-I Jl} botgiomnik a ' Is [it] bright?' < balg. e.1 sentence pel 1. (o).. (a) "'H}ol t:} sa. 3.lense + -ibn ida inflx. Any noun except non-independent nouns (cf.end. Interjection "I] 0) o-l~ t\.} Sf ca 'a new car' 7J i slgan 'this time/hour' 7) sni g. 7. e.SL 1--1. Particles lorrn a small closed class.1 and 7.'\0 be + -io. is a noun class word.Q) &.end.4. telebi on sesatj bal]soT) 'television (c) :t.e-.2) may occur alone as a minor sentence (cf. may occur alone as a major type sentence (d.' of freedom' broadcast' ~c} III/indo honda '[She] is doing do .1 t ?lc} 'the whole world' (eI) ~c}AlSij gMl1jinin an/a '[ItJ is not black [although nin contrast it may be big].g. ~.pcl.: 5'lL11 aldasipi njjMine<'As you know.tJ t!-4 {fJu jal handa '[He] is doing very well.t. e. is an i nterjection word class. (b) after an ad verb.object marker [ill so quickly. (d) after an adjective (d. but verb stems alone are bound forms and can never occur without an inflectional ending.') before a terminal juncture as> a sentence.}-l--] kakonni '[Did] [you] cut [it]?' < kak.g.' :IIi} ~HJq· tokilit .3. (0) sipi conj. 3.3.st.' 1£-:--} satsal 3.' in anganda '[He] is notgoi ng far.'to cut' V. 'tense' and 'humble' (cf.g l.1. onda '[He] is coming. e.2.1. (a) .' oK'.-)4 bosiAsimnida '[She] has seen [it].AJ.!.g.3.3.g.g.end. Adjective Every word which exclusively precedes a nou n or another adjective adjective class word . 'i''.' < o.2.' gilj.40 Korean Grammar Chapter lfl 3.5.{n (b) '10 see' V.emphasis (c)cJl (d).' 'Gent 11'.' c} cam jota '[IL] is very good.:-c} semi nobta 'The mountain i-subject marker is high.' < bo+-si. is an adverb class word. The adjective class words do not normally occur and constitute a very small class... and (i. (e) a fter a verb. (b) before a particle.j.(1 old . 3.' iiI . ~IBl '<ll"J- '{{io.>.'to come' Vst.4. e. 3.4).'humble' + -bnika infix.llJ~ nUl:u iAsimnika 'Who (b) u~t::t~ bada 10 'to the sea' .'1-.'iT- was it?' (iJ) ~ ]aQadi'a '[I] caught a rabbit. 4. The majority of verbs.2).Iam ida '[He] is a man.1).end.g. is ·an alone (e) 7Pli .6.u :w ~ {}~l· ja! ganda '[He} is going well.

nij3ki- Verbs are either processive or descriptive depending on the following.sfx.1.2.4.is the the honorific counterpart of is.g.3. 'to grow' (b) as V.1. 5. jAgi onda 'Oh dear.d.>.'to be'. 'i':l:i:-L} aiga anninda 'The child is sitting down.} noli !Jagla 'The clay is bright. by the way?' . 'to be big' (a) as V. I verbsare divided into transitiveand int ransirive verbs depending on whether or riot they have! he potential of taking an object (d.l:l-cj.present tense s fx.3.p.' 3. bo.:1. present tense suffix. 'to be.4.1). All transitive verbs may lake an object but no intransirtve verb can take one. 3.3 are fu rther divided into sub-classes by further syntactic and morphological criteria.t°1 ~4 gininjsmla '[She] is young.2. hanilit bonda '[He] is looking at the sky. %01 c} dol ida '[This] is a stone. < ca. 0}o17} < anj.4. to exist' (ci)as v. SUB-CLASSES OF WORD Cl~\SSES 3. 4.g. Cf.1. Sub-classes oj Verbs Three different sub-classifications are required of verb-class words since the sub-classes yielded by one type of classification are more' relevant and COI1ducive to a simpler statement of certain grammatical relations than those yielded by another type of classification.pres.. as shown above. (c f.V. 'to be bright' (a) as V.t.d. 'to Slay' (b) as V.2-:'=- '. Transitive and Intransh ive Verbs As an alternative. Processive and Descriptive Verbs The copula verb is a descriptive verb which is always found preceded by a noun or a nom inal phrase (ef. express two different.'to be cold' + da. 'to be late' (a) as V.'to be bright' joh-) '10 be good' z~ ca.sit' + -nin.' 3.2.C-~ .nali cuda 'It is cold' (lit. transitive verbs lend themselves to passive voice formation but it is not possible with intransitive verbs.: c} nali baqninda 'The day is dawning.Ll.] dAnJi. + -da inflx.p. + -nin.' < jxlrn.' < batg.t 01 ~c. become bright' (0) as V.2).Vp. The transitive/intransitive dist inction of verbs is paralleled to a large extent by the distinction of passivity/non. 'The weather is cold 'J.1.end.4.passtvuy between them.3.'to be young.'to be big' '%J gil-'to be long' \j. (0 exist' (gesi.4 .d.p.t.1. 6. etc.4.' Verbs 3.) . ". Verb 3.pres.s lx.'to.3). + -da 'to see' 91 swi-'to rest' Examples ·6l~ ?l « anj-) 'to sit' % ~'8. .. 'to dawn.R aigu. whereas the descriptive verbs are inflected for neither mood and cannot be suffixed by the.' < balg.!i!. meanings according to whether they are used as processive or descriptive verbs.'to see' ". + -da ~<ll '. Sub-classes yielded by each of the three different classifications are the results of cross-classifications and not further S u b-classiftcations .e1.'to play' an- These verbs.'to be cold' etc.pres.classification.'to stay' (b) as V.1...lm.« balg. ki. Processive Verb ~ is7~jAj gesi- (cl) as V. .1"Copula The word classes set up in 3. + -da. e.'to be. 3. morphological characteristics: 1 he processive verbs may be inflected for the imperative and propositive moods (cf.p. there [he] comes!' 7 }-'-lj 7J sn]« gasejo cam 'When are you going.d. J.sfx.'to be young' + -da .d. There is only one copula verb: 01 i.1.1. 'to become late' (b) as V.42 (b) o}O] -rA171 Korean Grammar Chapter lfI Examples 43 <d . . e.' < bo+ "11.1.4 for correlai ion~ bei ween akernarive sub-classiflcanons of verbs.p. There are a few verbs which behave as bot h processive and descripti ve verbs: "* batg~.3~4) and suffixed by -n-/-nin.~11 f:.2.f W JO.!f.4. Descriptive ?~p..'to throw' 4-l:f Ju-'to give' nol.. 7.1.r. though related.

5.2.'to call' ''it dad. verbs are subdivided into 'Full' and 'Auxiliary' verbs. 'tl pal.'to sit'. 6. iijae anninda '[He] is silting on a chair.'[0 stand' 91 sllli.1.}L.'to read' '3:JJII:g.to try [doing]' 2.{J . and those under (iii) both prccessive and descriptive verbs.passive voice sfx.1. Honorific Verbs Plain Verbs The following is a list of the twenty one most common auxiliary verbs given under three different headi ngs: those listed under (i) are processive.3.'to be white' etc.'to press' . anj.'to be. depending on whether or not they can occur alone as a sentence (cr.'ro open' ~} jal.4. .l'%l' hajah.1.] asti.'to rest'.3).sfx.LO sleep' :»11 .' < an]. (ii) 'Post-nominal Auxiliary Verbs'.'1'0 cal'. bo.3).3. 3.sfx. ¥ 2 buli.1.'to eat' -?-!f-A1 ] II/I/I/si. but an honorific-suffixed plain verb is usually avoided if a corresponding honorific verb is available. mil- 'to push' ~?.5!.\I1i cegi! itjninda 'A boy is reading a book.' < ilg.i.:j ~ 01 °it JIII.1). 'Auxiliary verbs' are those that occur after a verb inflected in a concatenating form (cf. Full Verbs 3.J .3..] esi.'to be small' £50. + -da The hill is high.1.~ ssnseqi ccgi! ilgisinda ± '.sfx. Exa 111ples uJ. Examples of plain full verbs are: '}j ilg.4..44 Transitive Verbs ~ msg.2.'to be shallow' tI-]2.1.3.]igajabsusinda My father is dining.-<~o 1 .l. 1 hose under (ii) descriptive.J 1:-1· ab. A. A full verb call occur by itselfas a sentence but an auxiliary verb can not so occur unless it is preceded by a full verb or some other elemeru.aiga lnni 'Is there a child?' 3.(cr. Honorific verbs are those which express.hon.2)./.~ nuli. 4. the speaker's respect to the subject (d.".'to be high' i.~ dOJ)SEt]i l1ill1Jninda 'My brother is eating.-] rd ini gesini 'Is there an adult?' '. (i) Processive Auxiliary Verbs 1J--"r"1 jabslIsi. to exist' At Ja-· 'll is- 0:::) Inllg- I.2) to express the same kind of respect to the subject of a sentence as is shown by honorific verbs. + -n.'LO shoot' '!j-& '!:j l-]ri\gil IIIMJni 'Are you eating cake?' < msg» 'to eat' + -IIi inflx.{l1:. Honorific FilII Verbs There are only a few honorific full verbs and they are all paired by the corresponding plain verbs.end. Korean Grammar Chapter 111 Examples o}uj A17~ 45 -1".'to sit' + -nin.! 01 < '10 be high' + -da 'A teacher is reading a book. Plain Full Verbs All plain verbs can be suffixed by the honorific suffix -si-/-is. 'Post-nominal auxiliary verbs' occur only after a nominal phrase (cf. 7.'to do something as a favour' . Auxiliary Verbs 3. + -nin.' ilg.4.'to read' + -isi.Jl % ~i:: 1::bonj.sfx. Examples 21~}QI1 .prcs.4.5.' 1l] AII.'to throw' etc. '!:J 01 ~ 'sll-11Agi m skini 'Is cake bei ng eaten?' < uisg.2).3.. Examples tt-::g. + -da 3. Full Verbs and Auxiliary Verbs As a second alternative classification.1.'to eat' + -hi.t.2.pres. (iii) 'Post-adjectival Auxiliary Verbs' and (iv) 'Sentence Auxiliary Verbs'.4.~iE. ~ nop.JJ) -&. Verbs other than the honorific verbs are plain verbs. .3.end.. -'r JII.' < nop- j. 'Post-adjectival auxiliary verbs' only after an adjectival clause (cf.1 and 6.'to shut'.] SA.4.pl. + -da infix.pres..1.'to sell' etc.1.'to read' V.4. 6.3).3. 6. ~ r:} xndxgi nohia t. Both full and auxiliary verbs may be further subdivided into 'Honorific' and 'Plain' verbs. and 'Sentence auxiliary verbs' only a lter a final clause (cf.2. 3.' %~§o] oJ-e-°] °rO]7} qji:-r. in addition [0 I he lexical meanings. 4. Auxiliary Verbs There are four types of auxiliary verbs: 0) 'Auxiliary Verbs'. + -ni Intransitive Verbs ?}.3.1.

5. ve sentences 3.'to try doing.!f.negation.!i!. Descriptive the same kocijinda V 'The flower is failing.d.nsnin ga] i motanda=You cannot go.(a) 'to" go' as full verb (b) progression as auxiliary verb preceded Examples ~ol {.' V V.aux. (b) causative voice and processive verb formative when (b) 'to try [doing]' as auxiliary verb 'to throw' as full verb (b) '[doing something] completely' as auxiliary verb ~"" noh.aux.4. t:11 de.}na. (b) processive verb formative with the meaning 9.'to drink' is- (> lid-I) progressi ve tense verb is always preceded by a nominal clause formed with the suffix predicate is processivc. is worth [doing]" -1I1/-il11 whose ~%~ masi. 1 on paper is torn. 7~ verbs are identical 'to become' to future when and meaning.negation in irnperat ive and propositi Examples %"O]7} .(a) 'to wither or fall' as full verb (b) passive voice formative as auxiliary _IiI_ bo.d.' V intr. 'll is- (a) retention (b) progressive ::::1r.Ca) unintentional when preceded by a V.(> /rnota-Z) 47 4. 1tJ e] bAli.L. Post-nominal ~ o-j ~ 4 ]oljiga eijA Jinda '[A sheet if·&- 01-/0].' V Vaux.(a) 'to place or put down' 'as full verb (b) retention as auxiliary verb 7}. Vintr.1.p. *-6} mosha. The modifying particle (3. [toward a goal] from present or away from the speaker (b) near-completion 10.intr.'to read' + bo.progression [toward a goal] x] ji. (c) processive verb formative with the meaning 'progression -'* negation Further details concerning the syntactic functions of auxiliary verbs and examples will be round in the discussion of 'Verbal Phrases' (cf.repetition. (.j- by a V.fmtv. to wish to' (iii) i!Jl-l}.2.)j n c.'to tear' . .passive voice formative ~lc. but they are different e.retention.1. < kAk. mall or do may intervene between Jig and flo of jigtu: -.--l" mal.'to break' + Ji..'<:1 dwe.tr. continuation 6. 1110511([. preservation 15.3.1 sip. or to 3.! r. become' when preceded by a Yd.].g.progression.(a) causative voice formative when preceded by a V.progression. completion.1 bAli.' The most common post-nominal (i) ~1"5"~ jighoThis 'is likely 10.du.aux.] dili- the honorific counterpart of J 11- Ll-E 7~A] '* Chapter IiI ~c}. Vaux. Vd. Auxiliary Some auxiliary in distribution Verbs and Full Verbs Identical in Form in form to lul! verbs.' as ha517~ ~<>1 Auxiliary Verbs tense formative when preceded by a V.£) "5"~{~llnAgjm Jig(do)hada '[It] is worth eat ing (too).1. 8. 13.!i!.'to go'. 'fr~ mandil(ii) 17. b].' .negation 20.2.swega kAkAjinda The iron is broken.2. Vtr. 16.tr.s i!. x] (i. V. retention 12.2 V. .'[to do something] completely or thoroughly' 7.' Auxiliary Verbs auxiliary verbs are.' V 18.9).repetition 5. < ilg. vc. 14.completion. '[to be unable to]' 21.4. preceded ga.pasv.46 3.' V. -nin/in. ga.(a) passive voice formative when preceded by a V. formative V.(b) unintentional. o}l-] -s} aniha. /.J i.ga. .(a) 'to see' as full verb verb from PUS! to present or toward the iii '<'.3.1.2). "5"1-ha. cegi! boa/a 'Look at the book.p.} sulil masigo idja'[Hej is drinking wine. \. KQre(1fI Grammar . 5L 0.(a) progression by a V. completion. e.g.(a) speaker II.tL .o}4 Verbs :!!l{~ <>1 Processive and Descriptive 19.p. when preceded by a V. soh. T noh.aux. 5.4.o1-2~ cegit ifgA boala 'Try reading the book.'to want to.

on the one hancl.aux.2). These verbs occur -110 with -ninga (4.__.lk-o.3. bot manhabnida '[It] is worth seeing.3. The most common inflectional endings with which the sentence auxiliary verbs occur are: -Ct/-/I (4. man. '-- This verb is-always preceded by a nominal clause formed with the sulflX-gi. Correlations between A lternative Sub-classifications Correlations sifications (i) of Verbs two clas- lq 7t -~-":l'iitc:l. 'pretending to' V. CII.4. gasna boa /gannaboa/ '[He] is gone. As an alternative analysis. i5~Alp}2-} linin jOl](in)!J(lji mala 'Don't pretend to cry. Z}~i.4.and cligha-lceha. e.are identical ihe auxiliary verbs sip. !.d. nin/ln."'. 4.' 3.Hl1.5. e. are as follows: (i) ~::-·6l. (i) (ii) .f)ha-. Post-adjectival The common post-adjectival auxiliary verbs.p. mid the obje.d.3.'admission or recognition' of the action or event represented predicate ill the preceding nominal clause .' 7]-::': ~ i.i171:::§1l:t hiiginin hilda Auxiliary Verbs the 3. c.' thai [he] is going to leave.5 .11.' .2.aux. [I admit]. 3. -da (4. and bsnho: only after the one formed -II-il. by \ he Chapter ttt 49 The verbs jaqha.5.2. by rhefirst :&l-lI} I .~ % L-] c} apin c/lg(jl)hdibnida '[f] pretended to be ill.t ogido honda '[He] does come too.g . 'ltlooks like raining. 3. V.3.' '10 be only after a final interrogative clause formed (4.l11-&1 csgha-rceho- Processive ! (v_i) "!! -&} bsnha.1. Sentence A uxiliary Verbs Th e re are t 11'1'0 sen renee a ux iii a ry verbs: 3.1.3.1). or -nin 7J:. all post-adjectival clause auxiliary verbs may be treated as phrases consisting of the non-independent nounssuch as jal).]-C} ganin dishada '] I t] seems that [he] is going.g.?.' .3.~ t::} dacil ben (do)h csda '[I] was even nearly hurt.presumption.3. conjecture This occurs only a lter an adjectival if the predicate is processive.1.5..aux. can occur within the stem of the post-adjectival auxiliary verbs given above.. uJ'S-} nuinha- worth [doing]' an adjectival V.g. 'ii}c:} hiiginin hilda '[It] is white.V. i) and -.!.3.occur only a fter all adjectival clause formed with ~ninand -st/-in.2. clause formed with t This occurs e.'.4.4. only after he ending -II-il. Thus the example sentences may be rewritten as -2-715'_ ~~t ogido onda and .c! panicle /illil (ef. as a separate sub-class of the noun.g.and bo.48 (ii) Korean Grammar ha.5).2).d.)_ sip. Descriptive V --~ Transitive V Intransitive V lnt ransit i ve V .' 'tl -s]..3.g. gat dish ada '[It] seems (ii) dishoda '[It I seems that [hel has gone. and arc very restricted in inflection. in lorrn to This cccursonty clause formed with -II-if.1.biga (iv) (v) ".:\1'1 "d z] 1!b} jsnpilinga sipda /jxnpilinga sibia/ 'I suppose [it] is a pencil.o. The ha. do within the stem. ~_~OJ 0 .cI. haverb behaves as a processive or descriptive auxiliary verb accordi ng as to whether the predicate of the preceding nominal clause is processive or descriptive type. -II-il.' _<i>_71.1.g ha-rceh aand bsnha-.' before ha-.-J (iii) c].LS.' ~171:: 0. [ladmit].3.(cf. hil.'ro seem or appear' V.p.4.5.3.1.presumpt a uxiliary ion. I think.' The modifying particle.aux..verb in the examples above can be replaced by the same verb as occurs in! he nominal clause.3. b)I/'I.on theother..1. bAn etc. etc.V.~/ce.3.4.~ /alJha.t-C71· .aux.f. after an adjectival 01 b/lblwda ng 10' V. e..disha. e.1.l-c}gan clause lormed wi th -ri/-ln.2) can occur within the stem of the three verbsja.aux.aux.1 . This alternative analysis will involve the setting up of such words as jill].' .-l_ conject Lire bo. I. e.' -&L-] "-} usninga bobnida /unninga bornnida/ '! thin k [they] are laughing.g.p.io} j}l--l -:.4. Notice that the sentenceauxiliary verbs sip. all of which may include modifying panicle (/1). man or do occurs obligatorily .: -6lcc).bsbha- 'to be likely 10' Vd.U. man. and the modi fying particle nin.S.1).5.4. -bnida (4.'nearly [did]' V.5.2) or -Ikal-ilka (4.I).and the verb ha..1.and bo. cj\g!ce.1-2) may be set out as follows: V .I i (e r. 3.'pretcndi between the sub-classes or verbs yielded (cr.s:_ti):. and do.4.

50 or (ii) Transitive Intransitive V V --- Korean Grammar Chapter Iff 51 ~lses'three' ! Processive V Processive V Descriptive V All transitive verbs are processive.2.ltd/l/b 'eight' o}~ 0f* ahin ahob 'ninety nine' < ahin 'ninety' + ahob 'nine' one' AI''if sa:lam 'man.1.<r gica 'train'..g..mullin 'forty' 4J. e./ 'tl swihiu/swin 'fifty <>l1-'5:'. e.AJ. or conversely.4. (i) typically occur as an affirrnacinmiko 'How many [are by a classifier (ef. e. person'. As an alternative classification.. 04 o~ Every noun which may occur alone as a sentence is an independent majorityof Korean nouns belong to this sub-class. For numbers from one Korean numerals are now in usc.sam sib 'thirty' < sam 'three' + sib 'ten' A~. cit 'seven' Sino-Korean numerals pound numerals. nouns are divided into 'Animate' and 'Inanimate' nouns. 'Korean Numerals' and 'Sinohundred onward.sib 0 'fifteen' < sib 'ten' + 0 'five' °l-"J 2.2. Numerals Numerals riveanswer 'five' -::}jllg 'six' W.~ dasss 'five O:j )! JASIIS 'si x' ~-1-tr ilgob seven' O:j~.g. Korean Cardinal Numerals t}l. 'tl Jib 'house' &}* hanil'sky'.I.1). % mill 'water' Cardinal Numerals 71 .1.:ff. 3..4. idea' y etc. I. II!! beg 'hundred' CAn 't housand' uJ man 'ten thousand' ~ IIg 'one hundred million' other than those given above are in the form of com- are those independent nouns which to a question such as ~~ oJ l.2..j Al sa 'four' _2_ 0 AJ sam three' Among the independent nouns are distinguished the following funher subclasses: (i) Numerals.4. Sino-Korean ~ if'one' 0) i'two' gt: 'dog'.2.4.\lb 'eight' IjAdtdl oHi. 3.salai.il csn gu beg jug sib pal '1968' 01 ~ i sib < jug ._ i sib 0 'twenty five' < i sib 'twenty' + 0 'fi ve' _2_~Jj a beg 'five hundred' < 0 'five' + beg 'hundred' ~ ~ =N ">:!At jug beg cil sib sa 'six hundred and seventy four' 'six' + beg 'hundred' + cit'seven' + sib 'ten' + sa 'four' °. and (iv) Adverbial nouns. each being further divided into smaller sub-classes.1.4.! jlld.2..--'i1o. but descriptive verbs are all intransitive.4. ~~l.2.1.-J71} they]?' and (ii) may be immediately followed There are two sets of numerals in Korean: Korean Numerals'. (ii) Pronouns. z] setjgag 'thought.:ff. (iii) Interrogative nouns.-J. ill otol ai 'child' 3.2.1~:!T~-il. Sub-classes oj Nouns Noun class words are first sub-divided into '1ndependent'<and 'NonIndependent' Nouns.:>. 11: pal 'eight' T gil 'nine' 11 sib 'tell' . IIIj II.AJ. and as a second alternative classification.I ~ I A~ ::: sAI(h)in 'thirty' [J~. 3.-~ )10:1 hal/a 'eleven' < jlo:1 'ten' + hana % jll:! dill 'twelve' < j/l:l 'ten' + dL/I'two' -'-% c] ~ simul dasss 'twenty five' < simi! 'twenty' + daslls'live' O..!.j.1. The tJ) nes 'four' c}:.AJsa sib 'fourty' < sa 'four' + sib 'ten . processive verbs are either transitive or intransitive. 'love' . only Sino- 3.§ O.j'iii j sdin jM/"lb 'eighty eight' < j sdin 'eighty' + j. they are divided into 'Honorific' and 'Plain' nouns. At «J. Independent Nouns noun. 3.2.ahob 'nine' ".-} hana 'one' % dul 'two' ~ jll:f '[en' ~~ simul'twenty' 'twenty' < i 'two' + sib 'ten' -'J. but intransitive verbs are either processive or descriptive.2.jesun 'sixty' oJ ~ ilhin 'seventy' o~~ j sdin 'eighty' o}~ ahin 'ninety' The numerals [rom eleven onward up to ninety nine are in the form of compound numerals.g.

English are in fact very frequently expressed in Korean by nouns or noun phrases. which has the special ordinal form ~"'H CI1SCC /ci\dce/.AH~· jAdil 'they' (away from the speaker and the listener) of Korean and Sino-Korean Numerals The Korean numerals collocate usually with the pure Korean nouns and the Sino-Korean numerals with the nouns of Chinese origin in nominal phrases.5.4. + oJ 0 in ). +'i!C](~) uli(difj2'we' .' . 1<]) ::<1) ::.g. e. e! 'that' and JA 'that' and an appropriate noun. 6./j (/(Il)sin 'you' 53 3.l] jane 'you' "'c!.. 3. -dit is a derivational sufflix expressing 'more limn one'. 7.2. Pronouns fall into three categories of person depending on whether they refer to the speaker._ 'he. e.] j. Pronouns Independent nouns which cannot be preceded by a numeral or adjective {although an adjectival relational phrase (ef..52 Korean Grammar + sib 'ten' + pal 'eight' < if 'one' + c.) (%) nAhii(dil) 'you' .Ate·1] (%)Jane{dil) <you' .plain style . nor by a vocative particle (cf.11 .[esib 0] jei 'second' ". IIcalso occurs as a contraction oflw + ii 'of me.i.ll. say..J .j( ~) jAhii(di/) 'we' .~T~ simut duct: 't wenty second' (iii) Third Person Pronouns 0) i'thi.1. (cf'. 0) ~ i bun 'he.2.. she or this person' dasrs 'five' Korean num. Korean and Sino-Korean Ordinal Numerals The Koreanordinal numerals are formed by adding the ordinalizing suffix -ce to the Korean cardinal numerals except 'first'... Distribution 0 'fifteenth' ::4)3J-~ jepal sib 'eightieth . she or this person' gj bun) .II1sclj(niin) 'teacher' for 'you' (sometimes also 'he/she') and one of the deictic adjectives (cf. .~ .4.1.5 . . In each 0 r the fol.. 3.lei! 'first' ~jll1.1. see 3.'201 -) T JII btun he. t:}')! 'five persons' < 0 'five' Sino-Kor. 304. 2. The same rule applies 10· . i 'this'.4.2).4. ). By '!)O~-iruerrogative sentence' is meant 'declarative' 'j In petal ive' or 'propos.4.<j) "d.} J A. of the degree of politeness between [he speaker and the addressee.. and ua elscwbere.2.} jecil sib sa 'severn y rou rt h' J gidil 'they' (near the listener or out of sight) . + sal 'age' Kor... ». the panicle go and Ill' elsewhere.. e. 4. l lie occurs only before.low plain .o. The ahernanr form nt occurs before the subject particle ga (3. 5.I t: 3..>.} I til na/nt: I T A~ / A'] JAl.low formal tJl . that wo man' o]?.formal style % ¥jj du(J)2E:.] A} a 'she.i j.3. jAgAS 'that (thing)' . ). 'he.4.2.5. sheor person' 'he she or that person' o)'<l'.g.3. nuru. Typical examples are the noun A.}~ dasss satlam 'five people' so. lnterrogutive Nouns Nounswhose meanings vary according to whether they occur in interrogative or non-interrogative' sentences are interrogative nouns.g. live' sentence.9.J M)e. N. this man' 2-100J.4.(~ ('. she or that person '" A' 0] 01 i i 'he. N. + in 'person' Sino-KcH.~ gi gAS 'this (thing)' A·I~.ln'thousand' + gu 'nine' + beg 'hundred' + jug Chapter flJ 'six' (i) First Person Pronouns L.W nesce 'third' 'fourth' 'tenth' ~.l. For the di lference between gi and JA.s' The Sino-Korean ordinal numerals are formed by adding the ordinatizing prefix [e.c-] leil n s/ne' 'you' ..3.e.1). i. The first and second person pronouns may be further distinguished in respect.2.3.! i gAS 'this (thing)' .second' ' j!~ses('c r:H! ¥jj dasssce 'fifth' ~~ jll:fcf! I. "'~:t!.lel '1' (ii) Second Person Pronouns l.Ai 01 gi JII. paralleling to a large extent the different speech styles marked by the verbalinflections (cf.:z. .high plain toJ-~% dOI)sindii 'you' .to the Sino-Korean cardinal numerals.-'-if sslhin sa! 'thirty years of age' < sslhin 'thirty' KOJ_l1um. . my'. N. are 5 pronouns. ii being a panicle.hing(s) spoken about (I) First person pronouns. (ii) Second person pronouns and (iii) Third person pronouns.1.1.1.:} i namja 'he.2) . + se 'age' Sino-Kor.:z.J]£sib 'tenth' 3.1).4.tam 'man' Kor.g.3.2. the addressee or person(s)/t. num. e. < The pronouns of. N..3. '~PJ -111am sib se 'thirty years of age' < sam sib 'thirty' s Sino-Kor.4.2) or an adjectival clause (cf.3) may precede them).l) S. she' gi 0] ~ idi! 'these persons' ::J_ ~ oJ .3.

1.] ':de} onili inodta 'Today has passed.2.54 Korean Grammar Chapter III 55 lowing examples the first English meaning given is associated with the interrogative and the second with non-interrogative sentence.-1 nuga hcnni 'Who did it?' -T71·~r::} nuga hcdia 'Someone did it.2.namu jsssd gilu 'six trees' ~q] telebi han de 'a set of television' 7<1 J. an adjective or an adjectival phrase or clause are non-independent nouns.. that fact that one cats The noun noun.Je Examples 'who' 'what' 'how many' 'when' 'someone' 'something' 'a few.2.11'o(s) (e) ~ mjsc instance.-] ~ ~ ulie g sd 'ours.3. 7. NIJI! i a member of two different noun sub-classes: interrogative [I[Jd adverbial B:i-c ~ II1MJI1 . several' 'sometimes' "'}i1] mali . Examples "J-T7l '?ir::l jOl)Suga manta 3.fOOi dassd jal] 'five sheets of paper' (lit.' onil as subject (N).!f-u~i11 mal du mali 'two horses' (lit.2. 0] i 'person' ~ gllS'thing' ~ gas 'place' ~ jul 'ability'. an adjective.2..tnalisu /rnalisu/ 'number of animals' . They are mostly nouns of time and place. 41 OJ neil 'tomorrow' :J_ +. Post-Modifiers on-independent nouns which never occur unless they are preceded by an independent noun.! 1111. for the first time' 7·17] gsg! 'there' gljAke 'the day before yesterday' e. (a) -'r I -T-T nu/nugu' (b) -¥-<.::<J-"T'.] mjsdkelil sadci '[I] bought everal... <>)-i'!-1"T'. and when an i ndependent noun and a classifier co-occur. to a noun or a group of nouns. Classifier Non-independent nouns which typically follow a numeral or a numeral adjective (cr. 1111 occurs before (he parricle g(1 and IlIIglI elsewhere. 2 etc. Every classifier has reference. thing to eat. Cd) <d. For .'':! ct:g du gWMl 'two volumes of books' (lit. Examples 3.9_~o] L·ll 7} MIje2 etc. 6. 'plenty')'. as in a nominal phrase speti fying the quantity of the referent (thing) indicated by a noun. onil 'today' oJ:lJ] I'oje 'yesterday' 71~ jigim 'now' j'_ ~ <>J . 3.6) in the clause structure are adverbial nouns.' 1l ~7» ~ ~ mjt\l) '[head(s) of] animal' '{sheens) of] paper' '[volume(s) of] book(s)' '[number of] !fees' '[a set of] machines' '[inch] length' '(sack of] grain' '[number of] personts)' etc.2.jatjsu /jaijsu/ 'number of sheets of paper' 1:!4'.4. J.2. an adjectival phrase or clause or a nominal clause are post-modifiers. both syntactically and semantically. 'book two volumes') I . mali '[head(s) of] animal' refers to animal and is therefore used only with nouns that represent animals. 'paper five sheets') :ill -l'-. sometime' etc. 'e 7Jr::} neg« on if gone/a 'I am going today. 'when."n Examples . 'guess' U!1~ lemun 'reason' 'H ~ delo 'as.1) are classifiers.glV(lflSII /gwxnsu/ 'number of volumes of books' elC ..:41 I'on.!f- ~] ell til e.j -)!2lf. Non-Independent Nouns 'The number of sheets of paper is large (lit..1.2.:l~ 1:]] gilu de ~1 ci SMl1 -T-7} ~ 1.4.::<J-JalJ i:l gWAn .2.4.' onil as adjunct.4. Non-independent nouns are further divided into (i) 'Classifiers' and (ii) 'Post-Modifiers'.j 7] jl'ogi'here' All classifiers can combine nouns as follows: with the noun su 'number' to form compound ~l. like' L:!W I 'li0\] mankim/manei 'as (much) as' Nouns which are always preceded by an independent noun. our thing' in g sd 'that which eats.>i] ~i% csim '[at] first. Examples 4-. 'horse two heads') ~ 01 r::t <)HJ. they must agree.4.4.1{7.!711~.. 3.. 3.' 1/:1-] mjsdkrlil sanni 'How many did you buy'?' '. Adverbial Nouns Nouns which can function as adverbs Or as adjuncts (cf.

e. 3.4.4. Plain nouns are negatively defined as those which are not honorific nouns..:>:.J "'J"b' malsim 'word.:].Ji 'food. and inanimate nouns are those which colligate with e. the other allornerph. twoalternative classifications are necessitated by syntactic relations.o. 0] Korean Grammar Chapter 711gc'dog' If[ 57 iCe0] place' . tend to be in lexical concord with an honorific verb occurring in the predicate.-'1 IlII 'you' 'Q-f.3..(lA 'guess. to that between animate ai 'child' .2.2).g.>:}%~r jadouca 'motor 11 jib 'house' tlJ baI] 'room' ".4.' gafcu/ atadia 'I thought that he would go. The syntactical distinction of animate and inanimate nouns and inanimate objects referred corresponds closely to by nouns. in addition to lexical meanings.-11 ~q].' .] g:joilO} m sgi! manci msg sla 'Eat as much as you can. e. III11Anim'mother' 'grandfather' ..:±:l'!.g..1 malsim Jiryi .jifgilUf) god 'a pleasant ±. speech' '{} bab'fpod. she' 01 onin i'the one who is coming' -3::. Alternative Classifications of Nouns Honorific Nouns In addition to the sub-classification 01' nouns into the Independent and nonindependent nouns (d. (the fact) that with any of the three .T jstngu 'research' etc. Animate Animate nouns are those which colligate with ege 'to. il may be preceded by an adjectival clause formed .' 3. 7"i ~R1'c.l¥ JlIlJbu 'government' . ** ~~1:l ~ 'll.2.2. or associated with an object referred to. 'B haninim meal' 'god' (i) (ii) Animate andInanimate Nouns ~Ottl1'8 halabsnim Plain Nouns AJA~·'<1 SAn5£I]nim'teacher' nJ ia{7 'earth' 4: os 'clothes' 'it mal 'horse' AtaJ SahlI) 'love' All honorific nouns are paired Honorific and Plain Nouns and Inanimate Nouns ~..2. Honorific nouns express.. 4.' ~ 71-&- gi i 'that person.l absnim 'father' '.J.'.i god 'this place. adjectival clause endings (cf. They are: A~ '% ot»l o-J. ganinjllf aladia 'I thought that he was going.go] 'id7] !I~~ol1:! %L] c] do.:i:il"'l] hagkjo e 'to a school' < ai 'child' The post-rnodifierrv/ with the meaning 'capacity.3. ability' is preceded by an adjectival clause formed with the inflectional ending -II-it 'future/presumptive' (cf .4.o.. speech' sAI]ham 'name' '. 4. imankim jusibsio 'Give this much.' garqu! aladi« iI thought that he had gone. one of the two allomorphs of a particle showing 'direction'.' 1--1::: 1--1 ~l.' 1. ~} .1.5.1. 50 'cow' etc.:::!. by such nouns. Honorific and Plain Nouns Honorific nouns are those which.c} bolcul « jut] anda'l know how to see litl-' On the other hand. Inanimate Nouns "'J san o}* 'mountain' car' ~.1~~n. when occurring as subject or object of a sentence.2.56 J.l] hags£J] 'pupil' OJ7J ingan Honorific Nouns 'human beings' ~~ or 1 o ai 'cbild' -'tl.2).1] jil1.3.. 3. *~ 7J 7H::: oJ.A1Jl.S.' °1oJ% -"f--1l.ni lI:bki iemunissimnida 'This was because we had no money.2. toward'.2.3. meal' Animate Nouns 1.£ nsnin nil deto hcla 'You do as you please.j n:jl~'ilqCt soli temunimntda 'Jt is because of the sound.j! gt\S 'thing' '3»~t ahob 'nine' Examples o}o·1 <>11I] ai ege 'to a child' ? 71] oj] >'II g§: ege'to a dog' but AJcJl sane 'to a mountain' ~.£ 71· 0] c} nega bon delo ida 'This is as I saw it.llI haggjo 'school' . 3.mul 'water' 't! bll:! 'bee' o}o] etc. 'respect' to the person referred to.' ~%~j. he. here' -3::. plain nouns: by the corresponding Plain Nouns ~ mal 'word.3. when jut is used with the meaning .

3. glass' or 511/11 'sack'.1) or anindependenl noun. a plain verb with the honorific suffix -si-/-isi. which are numerous as compared to honorific nouns. 4. + -nda Plain nouns.. e. + -si- hon. especially human. is going to the market.4. the soldier being out »0'"01] ~J ·0 f Tol01 (Context: earshot.pl.(cf. Numeral Adjectives Numeral adjectives are those which are derived from the Korean numerals (cf. gunini baqe iSt\jo 'A soldier is in the room.3) as well as before an [independent] noun whereas other numeral adjective are positionally limited to the pre-nominal position.1. nAg ssm. an honorific noun occurring as subject or object tends to be used with an honorific verb or. but sometimes a plain inanimate noun also OCCurs with an honorific verb as in the following example. . in which case the verb in the sentence may be honori fie. if such a verb is nor available.4.laJ)e gasinda V. e..lg and n sg collocate with nouns such es ja» 'cup.lilil [absusinda N. c] ssnscnnim! -tl.g.hon. Of these numeral adjectives.58 -<j if} SM)iram ~*.hon. and (iv) 'Qualitative Adjectives'. 11:1dwe. 'i:l 01 -"J-oll 4 halabsnimi '[My] grandfather N.3.1.3. -f- ~'AE han du hagsE:1) N .2).' 7}AJ N. But as a rule.<l] agee t}j \l ab snim Korean Grammar 01% ilirn 'name' -~ mom 'body' o}lt] 7-] abllji'rather' -~v11.1-4) and occur before a classifier (cf.'to go' V. 3. home. das maf.sfx..l 0<1 Jl.hon. V./ssg and ne/n s/n sg is collocational: 51\ and f!A collocate with nouns such as mal 'unit of measure' or dwe 'unit of measure'.' gesi- 0t 'to be' V.4. du ·'[WO'. das andjAs occur only with such nouns as mal and dwe. < 0- 'to come' V. + -si- hou. AM 1 ~lA1ir ':lylJ 'lJ 'The teacher -~o}tlj -in han 'one' N.-iI se/sA/sAg'three' ~ll 1"-: ne/nx/nsg 'four' /1.. han 'one'.) to her mothercorning The lexical concord operating between the honorific nouns and the honorific verbs (cf.1. a daughter to her mother coming horne. and se and ne collocate with all other nouns. Examples '.hon. occur in principle in concord with plain verbs unless it is felt necessary. e. The numeral adjectives form a small sub-class of which the most common members are as follows: \l 0] 0 "'f--1f---'1l L]. s.g.--j :k das 'five' ~ jAS'six' ~ CAs'nrst' < ga. Examples 0}B-j 3.2.hon.3.3.2.ab snimi jumusinda '[My] father is sleepi ng. and with all other nouns the numeral noun dasss 'five' and JASAS 'six' are used. Sub-classes of Adjectives There are four sub-classes in the adjective class: (i) Numeral Adjectives'. SA dwe. slIg SAm.pl.) ?i_t~» han hagSE:l) 'one pupil' 'one or two pupil{s)' N -~. is having his meal.' osinda bi 'rain' N.2. is.1) is not as binding as some grammatical concords like 'Number' or 'Person' are in many European languages.4.4. se 'three' and fie 'four' are positionally freer than the rest and can occur before another adjective or an adjectival clause (cf. e.4.'to be' v. I1A mal. for reasons largely extra-linguistic. Examples The selection of one Or t heother of the three alternant forms of each of the two sets se/sr. 'coming').!i 'four kinds'.' jill.pl. nouns.' gunin 'soldier' N.hon.jAS dwe. 6. se ccg 'three books' lie ga. tl]7t _<LAJ t:} biga osinda 'Rain is falling (lit. n sg jan. SA mal. the soldier being within tl-o-j \l halm snim (Context: a daughter sight or earshot.-] halm sni 'grandmother' etc.hon.g.. -etc.sfx. (ii) 'Dcictic Adjectives (iii) 'Interrogative Adjectives'.pl. 3.g. + -nda Nouns standing in concord with honorific verbs (including plain verbs with the honorific suffix) are usually honorific animate..pl.1. 3. for the speaker to show respect to a person or an object referred to by the noun which he uses in his sentence.' gasinda -T du 'two' A-lll Ai /_. SAg jan. Chapter III 59 r'U 01 "J-ojl 7iJ A~_8_ gunini baqe gesisjo 'A soldier is in the room.

whole'.hi :l A~ 11 i.2). certain' adj. .2. (iii) ~ wen 'what kind or. (iii) 'Processive-Descriptive Adverbs'.(11).:! i ne 'these four young boys' Adjectives' <>l~/<>l'1'! Sf- Ani/Ailln 'which'. (iv) 'Interrogative Adverbs'. tl ~ gi han sa..j0r~ we adi/'the only son' ~ .l.J.<ti hA.3. -T. S1 we 'only. 'what work') did you do?' T-~ oJ.3). + han 'one' Adj.g. worn out' ~ on 'entire.4.N The numeral adjectives form 'Compound Numeral numeral or compound numeral (cf. N .han h s:n moja 'an old hat' .4. certain' (iv) O-]~.g. + du 'two' Adj. + ne 'four' Adj.60 tl ~Je .cl.!::. Examples (iii) . Sub-classes oj Adverbs According to the distributional restrictions of adverbs in relation to other words in the sentence. Interrogative Adjectives 61 adj. AlAn 'what sort of'.4.:ihan 'eleven' < jll:/ 'len' N.j. 3.1.(1 "-II J A jilgAltn nol e 'that pleasant song' adj.! .st: ad 'new clothes' '<ti Y7. 'to some place'). 3. i and gi can also occur as pronouns (d. % ~ 1:-1 musin iIi! hcdla 'You did something. certain.num. 'some.sesatj 'the whole world' on 9. 'some.g. 3. (ii) 'Descriptive Adverbs'.3. L-lljesun "II~ ne'sjxty four' < jesun 'sixty' N.':0. the following sub-classes are distinguished: 0) 'Processive Adverbs'.' o. each representing a different degree of 'Proximate/Remote' category from the others in relation to the speakerts) and listener(s).cl. 6. 5.3..I..4. gj 'that' (proximate to the Iistenerts) or absent lrom the scene of discourse) ~1lSf: 'new'.2. 'who are old') people' adj. Delctic adjectives can occur nor only before a noun but also before a numeral adjective. e.3.4. e.cI.... Qualitative adjectives are distributionally restricted to the pre-nominal positions only.(~ 'that' (remote from both the speaker(s) and the listenerfsj) JII The first two deictics.num.linsonjsn Adjectives which occur in the interrogative sentence with one meaning and in the non-interrogative with another are interrogative adjectives.-<>11 llY llr:} sn! gose ganni 'Where (lit.lam 'that one person' hall Adj.<1] '}] ~.4..4.num.2) or clause (d..<1] du sejib 'two new houses' N se ~ e 0] ni/gin i 'three old (lit. and the second to those which they have in the non-interrogative sentence.num.~ ~l Y musin ilil henni 'What (lit. lone' etc.nurn. Deictic Adjectives There are three deictic adjectives.3. Qualitative Adjectives Adjectives which are not members of any of the three sub-classes.nurn. a qualitative adjective (cf. 'some sort of' Examples o-j~ 01. N -"=-- . .num. 3.3. where the first English meanings refer to those which they have in the interrog-ative sentence. numeral. (v) 'Sentence Adverbs' and (vi) 'Conj unclive Adverbs'.cl. (i) (ii) 01 L-n <>l \:1 ::1::. 'which place') did [he] go?' Ani gose gadla 3.' 3.2. she'.4. These are such adjectives as are listed below.simul du 'twenty two' < simut 'twenty' N.»han jstmin Korean Grammar hagsfl) 'one young (lit. 'some.4) or an adjectival phrase (cf. AJI 01 -1l i Jib 'this house' N -:1:.~ with a -= mus in 'what'. deictic and interrogative adjectives" are qualitative adjectives. N I1. ~ tl jl1. and gi as a pronoun has the meaning 'he."I1 'old. (i) (ii) ~-= '[He] went somewhere (lit.l Sf sil N A}~ 7-j -&- 'that new thread' se Adj.4.oj] 7.4. . N -'f. 'who is young') pupil' Chapter III 3. 01 i 'this' (proximate to the speakerts) ::J.l). -X.

l:']-¥. ell t:J"6] ·l'lal 7]-.4.lal)]al hani 'Who 9Nwe 'why' in the interrogative sentence._tl 0] .) Adverbs which typically occur before a processive adverbs. v. clearly' as Adv.2.. There are r:Jj ~!"5] 3. so/sol 'softly.aju lmasimnika v.' V. ~'>'J.' V. 'definitely. 0}4- ~ l--lt:~ GJu himnida '[It] is completely 'i'-€oj ~. Processive-Descriptive verb are processive to what in the tradi- Chapter III Adverbs (Adv..-i. c} kiga dedanhi kida '[He] is extremely V.' Adv.<}'.62 Korean Grammar 3. 'very .}-iS] dcdanhi 'very. as Adv. 'by the way as you know/remember' In the non-interrogative sentence. . 01 ~bl1tllAke 'how' in the interrogative sentence.} balami solsol bunda v.p.' V.1.d.1.4.p.? 7}.]lrwagsilhi The wind blows gently. The processive adverbs correspond in general tional grammar are called the adverbs of manner.p. \. .. considerably' 71].3. [hej left for good?' white. 'somehow' in the non-i nterrogative sentence .p.4.p.4.d. -g-l--] c] ({. !(l_t:+ I17CU '[It] is very good.~·c}nAn/II manta There are too many.d."H~:lis] CilI1Cllllhi'slowly' 1i i.' as Adv. The descriptive adverbs correspond in general to the adverbs of degree in the traditional grammar. 11~~ 7}e. 7. JI1i1I]ninda '[She] eats very fast. TI~+ ~~loilT 7']7} meujo.p.} gaja!] 'most' ere. ~ .' v.:::1_9_l_.d.4. .4.ta V.4.' o}-.} jat gala 'Farewell!' V.' Examples or fairly much/many' <quite.] nuga ga. o~-.J 01 gipi'deeply' "it ~ ill/in <quickly' Adverbs which may behave both as the processive adverbs and the descriptive adverbs are processive-descriptive adverbs. p 'too .<J~ ~ = cLdedanhi palli Adv. Vp.' Adv.) Adverbs which may Occur either before (i) a descriptive verb or (ii) a processive adverb are descriptive adverbs. V.p.' ial iwinda '[He] runs very well.) 63 3.' Adverbs '[I] have eaten very much.ILl matnhi fI1AgilSimnida Adv.]-r. ~4 lIA11111 jodia '[She] slept too much. Examples 9~ .p. (lit.p..J-"6] saqdanhi 'remarkably ..l-rl-pr L-i -'f0]-9- 3.} we anOIJ({ 'Why doesn't [he) come?' Adv..n smugjp! jadia '[She] slept too soundly.' as Adv.p.' 3. greatly' 'extremely.5] gweruatjh! 'very much' as Adv.>r7~ -&}l_.d. nicely' 7.p. gently' fiol tnanhi 'in plenty' Examples 1t ja! 'well. u}'\t0] ~'€ if:-t:. '. 'Who most well does it?') .p. t. 'Has ell -% cam Examples u~+ meu ul~%y 'very' t. Vp. tall. Descriptive Adverbs {Adv. Processive Adverbs (Adv.p.2) are interrogative adverbs.d.4.<. very' '!:j pilg 'very../1i1/nU 'too much' as Adv .l:l. extremely' as Adv..p.d.p. definitelycompletely' 'very.d.d.. (lit. ":[cj jJal/i 'quickly' etc. Interrogative whose and non-interrogative two such adverbs: Adverbs vary according sentence 1£ meanings as they occur in the interrogative (cf'. fairly' as Adv. 'Go well') -"J-t:. . .4.'ijo-j Alfin ilg « 'Read [il] quickly.? aJII 'for good.p.p. Some processive-descriptive adverbs show slightly different meanings depending on whether Lhey are used as prccessive or descriptive adverbs..pd. v. does it best?' ..

4.' 7. n snin undotji bujokada 'In other words. Particle 'But I was disappointed. (vi) 'Conjunctive Particle'.""J-.. you lack exercise.6. sitmanh edia Particles are divided into the following nine sub-classes according to their syntactic functions: (i) 'Subject/Complement Particle'.64 I.4.4.--] -c.' ~--'~ 01 7} 0l-~ cj.: tonin 'or' -.subject or as complement Examples I-H-7} 'On top of that.7). 'My brother stomach is sick.::z.J_7.' 3. whether uttered by the same speaker or by someone else.dOI)scI)i bcga apida SI S2 ache.. furthermore' :J.' ~I-%oj -tt 1.'ll%t--lt:-J.1.1 Adverb (Advxanj.:r.' a:l.t} melody should be sung slowly and gracefully. on top of that' hamitmi« 'furthermore. a constanding at the beginning of a sentence is often marked phoa tentative juncture. (vii) 'Sentence Particle'..4. :J. 'This . for instance.-t gi/MUI 'but..' 'See England and France.' Lii'-L-~ S. in other words' Here and elsewhere the notation 'V/C-I'orm' is 10 be read: '01' the two alicrnant forms separated by ~1slam line.:z_a]. the first form occurs after a vowel-final form and the second form after a consonaru-Iina' form.Al nsdo 'l-t 50- <>1.-l5:. in contrast to that... In this case..!l_ c]7} 'And he left Seoul.-]- ~ DJ-~ Cl- nan in gil sna.}y 71~ jAI)guge A/like gatnnika are you getting to England?' . The most common conjunctive adverbs ~ct.. (iii) 'Agent Particle'.5I. why' a in spite of that' '[They] need some potatoes ~-E- 0]%1711 '~4.}c}gifigo.. sentence with a reference one.god 'namely.-<>1] 'How ~ "i011 III£' boadci 'You saw [it]. (v) 'Vocative Particle'.&% t-'j cl- nado . 9~ Korean Grammar Chapter Ill Examples ~~::Z_. Conjunctive Adverbs which cally comparable to a preceding junctive adverb nologically by are: particle marks a noun or a nominal phrase either as (cf.-1 ni 'by the way..5. and have a reference to a preceding sentence. ainin mogi maltadta 3. are sentence adverbs. Adv.r-e-'But the general 7~ISo gilAna.gininsAlili/IMUldia 'fI_8- 3./°1 ga/i VlC-form.) Adverbs which typically occur either at the beginning of a sentence or after the subject if there is one..::LcJ '. 01-2-~jA1)gUg giligo bullansslil 65 6J. A sentence adverb which occurs in a sentence is usually marked phonologically by a tentative juncture (cf.(H:l t+ jatjgunin gesog sawsdta 1-1-::::- .aj2 7J.::E 10 'and.IAke h ebogesimnida N N boola 'l will do [il] somehow.]2 __<f-o}i>}l1] ~-c-J0]: ~-c]igogin s/csshi gWgo uahag« bulf!Ja handa Adv. o}ol-:t:..' 01~~ AlAlii] :z.~ rll 'ii~i. Sentence Adverb (Adv. kept on fighting.5. (viii) 'Adjectival Particle' and (ix) 'Modifying Particle'. <'-11..nantuga nobla S tl~ 'The tree is high.' tonin boliga piljohamnida N however' .z. Like sentence adverbs.cj I-j gi/ltni'therefore' cii'-l.~l-.: Al%% .::E..:E:: ~·I. (iv) 'Adverbial Particle'.:z. il ske halsu isimnida 'Or you can do it this way. (ii) Object Particle'.e. r]l.-l L-I.it-% 0 1 -¥-~i."]2 -~-~~Al iilS!.) may occur (i) as a coordinator between two or more syntactiunits.5.-:iL gi/igo 'and' <afterward' . 6.4.. by the way. Sub-classes of Particles Examples .' .-} dnguna 'furthermore.. tonin.' 'My younger brother has a stomach (lit.2) of a clause: 7]. 3. 2. the child was thirsty.') I . are conjunctive adverbs.. _::r_. Subjecr/Compiement The subject/complement . or (ii) at the beginning of a.~ god.gatnja N or barley.4.~r.~ol IJJ-~C:t dsguna.' . 01-1. g« form occurs after a vowel-final noun ami i form after a consonant-final noun.1.' -'.

' uli hagkjoestl -e--'l1 ~iI"l-a t:} A:linke Japillttta Ag. ke These panicles occur also as Directive Particles' preceding 7-1 x] "11.'}<11 ~ ~ c. 3. oljl1]A-]egesA 'from' style of speech). S 'The director is coming.hon.4.pasv.4. 6.Ji! <>111.3.5] ':leI· goja niege m Ak/Mlla Ag. 1y] father is asleep.caus. jI_ 0Jo] <>11711 1£j -. e.' The directive particles can occur only after a noun or a nominal 1.3. 2.viege 'to a beggar' 9.1.' '[He] is painting the wall' (lit. V. e. (<>11) (els« 'at.5..4.]. . etc.pasv by/in V.4. 3. c] has won. 3.1) expresses respect shown by the speaker to the referent of a noun to which it is related.' Jl "Jo] "ll 71] ~ 01 ~ c] goja1]iege mAgi/ld/a Ag. The adverbial particles are further divided into (i) 'Directive Particles' and (ii) 'Quotative Particles' on the basis of their distribution.hon.g.' I (ef.2. V.animate). I e.3 and 3.1] ".g.' clothes were caught Ag.q 7] ~ c} cingu egess pjllnjiga wadla 'A letter came from my friend. V. s school '[He] was caught 3.aihante ipinda Ag. ExCl mples .1..-1 . from?' 2.5.2.' 'I eSA s noun representing a group.} tnune osi gAIIi/ldla Ag.3.2.~ _s>_ 1.1 4-~tIl.4. 011 101] rJl / ~:!-Ejll 1JI1 e/ege/hanre/ke'to. 'making a child to wear clothes.g.g.t<>11 dale 'to the moon' g. '[It] was eaten by a cat.-I-~ fi-11i! VIC-form.3.5. 't}t11 hante (a fter an ani male noun in the colloquial 1}11 (after an animate honorific noun).4). 3.' (lit. 'Where e. Adverbial Particle by an adult.5-6): 01] e (after an inanimate noun).~j::} bjllge cilil ipinda t 'tJ 'Ill 1.4.>J L-I c:]. toward'.4.1.g. 3.pasv.3.0.3.4.3): llljJ:l kes« . Object Panicle The object as 'Object' particle marks a noun or a nominal phrase immediately of a transitive clause (ef.5.4. kess is one of the two honorific particles.4. social or haggjo 'school'.5. [She) is dressing a child.5. the door.1 2-. usitjhcdla is sometimes used after an inanimate body or institution such as hwesa 'company' 4.') C>j o}l:l-] 'cl Till hi i"--:!].jc. from' /'1 0-18 01\ /.2) and honorific verbs (cr. (after N.caus. V. Agent Particle The agent particle marks a noun or a nominal phrase immediately as 'Agent' in a passive or causative clause (cf. A~"'J- 4:0] '[Her] 7J.~{] L_I t:l absnim kes» jumusimnida N.3 for the cliSlriblllion of these panicles.J·l Jt!.caus. ~Qjl ~l~ 'll. 'll-=r"'117-1j. Directive 'Did you shut the window?' Pa. V.3.' 0}o]-'.ticle phrase.}~ -Klitt:-} gicalit modtadia '[He] could not catch the train.0]1 A-I eSA.66 Korean Grammar Examples -ttoJl Chapter !II 67 There are TWO other particles occurring only as the main subject marker (c f. vn. Set 3.5.4. 'making the wall wear paint'. '[She] made a cat eat (it]. which.1): ii.i<}~ 'i!<V:L-] catji! dodanni 3.' 3.1) are adverbial particles.. 3.inanimate). like honorific nouns (cf. preceding Particles which may occur after a noun or a nominal phrase and with it constitute an adverbial relational phrase (ef.!-'711 lVal]ke 'to the king' (after N .4). 71ft.5. the other one being ke (cf.tr. 6..4.-1 sdies« oni are you coming e. 6. saJCI )11im kes« osimnida 1 N. "'11/1] ege (after an animate noun). 5. V.-1 'Our ~.

8.~.} paligamalegelo naila ganda (e) 1.4." '9!J. where it may occur 0) initially.. 4. or a terminal juncture in which case it can stand by itself as a minor sentence. 7.} ig ssil namulago '[We] call it "wood". e.:.J--t)'t::J.}:. e. walgwa 'with' VIC-form. a clause or sentence that ending go t6 in /a/).) VIC-form.I.:.y. A. e.g. 'a Iter' < . is smaller than Ihis.}El].j:>:} 2:. 69 The TT ·8JE11. why don't you go.' .. Bogdong?' ~*ol (=: a man's name) wsnbogi 'Wonbog!' .' (after N.It. . 3. or sentence and marks it as a quotation.~ to/ito 'to.!.4.ani.5 .j(l I E. ni 'ill:} JIIIJgt.. phrase.f<lll l cmune 'because (01)' < iemun 1£<>l] ape 'in front of' < ap + e ¥] "11 dwie 'behind). 7t2. 3.-H'..~"C}.dOIJSU '-"J -l'"ctj 'J.' ~.' '[He] promised he would school. 01: (iii) finally.2..l-~ '-"J'i?-0] <'.~hwejatjilo pobee 'Let's choose [him] as president.g.' 3. of any class..u:t c]7} 'A '!--!oJ]7l]. 9.2.' particles such as: '# ~. Vocative Particle A noun or a nominal phrase followed by a vocative particle is syntactically independent of other sentence elements in a sentence.8. and a vocative particleoccurri ng ina sentence agrees in speech st yle with the verb inflectional ending.2. ending in a vowel except a clause or sen- 0] ~~ l. e.j ~.g..!f-e}.68 4. 4 boda'than'.j-..on.g. 6.]. o/ka 'From by' as. boglo. £.j w1! c] jafJgwanilostI mathedia '(He) spoke as a minister.J.) VIC-form. why don't YOIl go?' ani 'by the way' Adv.£ han/eta 'to. which will be named 'Vocative Phrase'..)-2 ~y L} nanin caqsunilago hamnida 'My name is "Changsun" ([PeopJe] call me Changsun). e.qa..4. 0}1. with a child...5).. quorative particle appears in the following three shapes.I.g.5.J!.l].5).z. c l'y_l:} '7! !. najboda hwanhada 'It is brighter than daylight. e. 4 hagkjoe gagedlago ja gsok edia 'tl u}t!-ll] £. .] 013\'1i!J ~~~o} J/li CA/t.i': ~y is flying to a horse..~ r{}::i . in colloq uial style). whom Chapter III will it come?' (after N. VIC-form e..ani.<.£ 'ii·i!.).~ hantess 'from' Korean Grammar (after N.19. toward' (after N .g.U:i!). The construction N/NP + Vocative Particle'. "'. } £.]-.o~ namjuja'NamJu!' (= a girl's name) balgin data 'Bright moon!' . vocative panicles distinguish speech styles. gicalo ganda '[II am going by train. ~l J.g. oU o'UCila I J.2 lago (after arty quotation tence ending in /a/)..lir:l namulo mandilxdta 'They made it with wood:' :§._£ ¥. bj«: 1)il05" soma 1)h CSSAjO '(She) died of illness. wwn gani 'By the way.£..' o}01:4 ~c. Quorative Particles The quorative particle may occur a fter any stretch of speech as well as a word ('" a man's name) cingujA 'Dear friend!' . e. . Zero 'Dongsu!' Besides there are what rna)' be called.'2.]. egeio 'to. is often accompanied by a tentative juncture.2 "-1'-:':.} aiwa nonda '[She] is playing (in colloquial style).l:} ~ l:} iboda J Agio '[That] :?.~£. go (after ~:.:j7l-':'J. e.£M] /0511 /ilos» 'With..' e.]-7J-C. <ll].3...g. like'. 9. (ii) immediately after a sentenceadverb (d. :>:. e.. hago 'with' ~7"s ~~2 'Shall 01 0]:71 ~7Jt sungj/tI)hago ijagihalko we have a word with the policeman. in colloquial style).g. 'B oJoj giliun nimij s 'My dear!' (lit. I ... j)alliwa 'Bogdong.ini.. compound directive r~ll1.."%o~ ani weanganl bogfOlja 'By the way.ani.iL ~J-c. "tlc:.} "J-"§!lo-J.£:.5. come quickly!' o}Ll .4.' (a fter any quotation ending honda (b) 0142 ilago in a consonant).-}.' 'as. Just like the verb inflectional endings (cf. ~}.2..' 7] :5.dwi + e which are composed of nouns followed +e -*% particle like oj] by a directive e.~oJ7}J.:2&.ina.g .). toward' oil 71.::~.~ -~-?Jt nugu hautess 5.I.' (a) . if any. Bogdong. clause..' /01 Zero/i VIC-form (high plain or medium o:j I 01 o:j. by' (after N. 'Darling I miss. with.g.1.li1 hcbo« 'Try and do as he does..£ zj-1:].4. toward..1 loss /iios» 'as' (after N . I O.bogloqa..:~ c]. ~ I . i~~ cslem 7..jaI]ifo ixnanda '[She] is leaving for the station.J!.~ t1111r1W hantelo gala 'Go to your mummy. ~ot %4'. jlL /UA VIC-form (formal style) Examples o v/C~form (low plain style) style) 12 .g .}%o} ~ "J7}t-] all.ina.' l. e._E.).') o} .5'.

::z.2 /..5.4. Clausal Conjunctive Particles -2.g .' .+~:.f:.~ did.3). 01 []j ~~7} .R)o 'speech style modulator'. the present time reference for such verbs is expressed by the neutral tense (cf. 3.1).17} ~ 0] ui'<l!:+ *~ 1.1.' Bl_j.Jq·1JJ(~) -%·~l hega bicinda mantin] nali cubla Examples the sun is shin.}'li (~) ~ .'ll {9_ 01 5':1 'll . Nominal Conjunctive The nominal conjunctive more nouns or nominal ticles: Panicles between two or conjunctive par- particles occur as the coordinator phrases.7/] nih.A11I1 sipi 'as' 3.5..' 3. water and sky' Ad 5ft1li}.s:.1?-7t c1-4'-.\ 'You have grown old too!' ~HI.}-.. nu. 7. elevating such medium or high plain speech style to the level of low formal style.} ssnscqgwa A.. ·. ~ .. Examples .5.3..' - 3.cJ-ii} jinuagha. The processive verbs most commonly found in such a clause are: 'l£ al.. be aware of'.4.1 jusio 'Please show me a book or a newspaper.1. the child was ill.>.5.-11 z J t'~ J1medo nilgtlnne ssnsengwa Z 7JA] c.9) respectively.. 3. the nominal conjunctive particles occur between two or more nouns.. cegina sinmun il /)0).'to hear (of)'. 4-a.2. r am busy.2.)l ~ ~ .l-_. w% l-] t.5. Furthermore.7.·ol The nominal conjunctive particles.1). 4..3.'to be ignorant of'..' .'to know.. or as the subordinator between two final clauses. 2:::::. e..'to guess'. The particlejo occurs after a major sentence ending in a v~rb inflected with -01-/" -Ji or -gun of the medium speech style. Sentence Particle The particles which typically occur at the end of a sentence are sentence panicles.4.' The clausal conjunctive panicles occur as the subordinator between two final clauses (cf._. 4.>.::Lt'=! uliga gab~·ida gil]« 'LeL us go!' '[1] am leaving with a teacher. or -ne or -de of the high plain style (cf. moll. . and the modifying particle na/ina (cf.2 91 1:-}simpanhago ssnsuga datugo idla 1.4.1.ni 110ga Z (medium) io Z 'The snow is melting.s!. 6.t :::L t'~ noli cubsimnida gilj« 'What a cold day it is!' gi/j.i!~ :j.' ." .~/o]yna/ina VIC-form 'or' 'It is already 'Although late but Jet us go..5. it is cold.1-2).5..A1.1). Z (low formal) .5"il11nida 'man and animal' 'He became an MP but he was sad.j ~~ $~ 7J-OJ N gadla '[They] left with a teacher.J .g.6.. sailamgwa doumut i-4 "'lll-~ namuwa mulgwa hanil 'the tree. e. ~_ bo. and the directive particles and modifying particles occur only after a noun and are not followed by another noun but by words of other classes such as a verb or an adverb. There are two sentence particles: J coJ gif)A 'exclamator' • .i!1.4. CLC. 5'_. ':.] srI I.' rJ{]_ol .!d%l.3..1. but' . The particle giljJ\ occurs only after a major sentence (cf'.5. although identical in form to the directive panicles walgwa and hago (cf.]q imi nijssimnida man/in} gabsida .' V gaci lsnanda Adv.>.}.s. The conjunctive particles are divided into further sub-classes: (i) 'Nominal Conjunctive Panicles' and (ii) 'Clausal Conjunctive P ar tic Ics'. 'i:l.2.}l. are conjunctive panicles.6. There are three nominal The verbs thai may OCCur in the final clause preceding the particle sipi are limited to a few processive verbs and can be inflected for the low plain declarative mood only.:..4.AJ{t-% ~ a] ?~1.. the one ending in a verb inflected with a final ending (cf.1.ing.] 4 ginin tniniiwsni dwessimnida mCII1(in}-silpA.6.-o}.l-i'--4 xl) o]l-} 'The referee and a player are quarrelling.~ "J.%w .70 3. ~:...'to see'. arc. ] ssnsetjgwa hagstl) 'a teacher and a pupil' /. however. different from the latter in distriburion as well as in meaning. and after any minor sentence.1-1 r:.i]7} ~'t.. 4.1) and renders it exclamatory..4.}t~) mantin) 'although.... Conjunctive Particle Korean Grammar There are two such particle: Chapter III 71 The particles which occur either as the coordinator between two or more nouns or nominal phrases. ~ % 1-1 1:1-r~ (~) '<'101 7J.j-/])_~ wa/gl1la VIC-form 'and' "3"~2 liago 'and' t.'to feel or realize'. of which the first is in subordinate relation to the second.loll lIU ell janega aida sipi nan in bapine 'As you know.e.a. i.3.~Cl-A]~ O}0]7t o}~j:: dausini boadlasipi aiga ap ssso 'As you saw.~.

5.g.J 01 o}oj-E.l..4.£.1-8 are the members of the sub-class 'Modifying Particle'..' ango /anko/ 'sitting' coneat.2}.' S p *)~~. after the sentence elements like subject. The modifying particles modify or add certain meaning to the meaning of the preceding element. There is only one such panicle: 9.' L-~"l1 ill :: -? A] _s>_ naege nin jusio 'Give [it] to me (though not to others).2. '[He] speaks well (though not clearly)..!J]7}JL 41 <. object. Z (low formal) '[He] was going to the mountain.3.' Z (low formal) 't!~ lli "-fIJi.*i.IJL giman duji jo 'Why don't you stop it?' Z (medium) Z (low formal) o-j%~ JL nali sdubkun Z (medium) 0) Cnapter fll 3... t. 'This child does not like cheese. patti jo Adv.' -IJ-% ~ e] <.e. note 'song'. emphasis" contrast.II ~ _5l_ 1. silh sh e jo SOP ~~ 'lil:t mali! jalin honda SI S2 Adv. especially in women's speech. All modifying particles can occur immediately after a noun or a nominal phrase functioning as subject. :: /~ nin/ln VIC-form.:.e..A~ ~ <::! -'tl. form 2. 'i'£.5 .1).' o}% :: ~L-} giga rna/min JO:w '[She] is kind (though nor bright)' The particle)o may occur also within a sentence..ph.. i. 4.man 'only.mne jo 'There is no pencil.3) or even within a verb stem CcL 3.' ~.3. form .' 3. complement.5.] ii 'of.il.4.1.jega jo. nei! gap')o 'I willgo tomorrow.£ The particles which are not members of any of the sub-classes described in 3.e. Adjectival Particle L~DJ A noun O[ a nomi nal phrase followed by the adjectival particle is syntactically equivalent to an adjective. 'Quickly?' o mAoninda '[She) eats apples (not pears). 'Modifying Particle 9 73 . tiwenda 017} 01 ~ oj- 1f:l t:..:>:1.ll san ito gade }o Z (high plain) [as 1 remember].~"ll i>}<. e. n/lii jsnpi! 'your pencil' (lit..-1 CC1Jnmn o boni 'Are you reading books only (not newspapers)?' ig ssi jimman. 1. e.ll 7}./0] 1'0 'It is dark. mall and do can also occur a fter an adverb. .' S t:!j:: r] sagwanin ~cl.' Z (high plain) Z (low formal) 7~t·Il.c ~ 4 aniWJ1in sibia '[I] want to sit down (though I don't want to walk). ~ JL ceg jo 'Book?' N L-H::- {}t:} nanin ganda 'I am going (though you are not). jsnpili s.ll ~<>jiNJL iainin jo..4. 'Do you go only to a tea room (not elsewhere)?' ~1A] 'li.5. jnnpil 'pencil' 41 % cegii /1£)0I] 'the contents ofthe book' ceg 'book'. e.g. Examples 1. and the first three particles nin/ill. 5. or complement.3.' naege adverbial relational pel. cisililjo.l g. object.]- .. iwi}i man rna/age hajMlia '[I] just did not allow him to run (though I approved of other things)' lwiJi concat.' Sf: 'new'.!. an adverbial relational phrase (cr..12-) :. etc..4.} {!l:-} gotjil nt slliman cando 'LHe] kicks the ball only far enol accurately).72 :::ll1J Korean Grammar T7. .. solely'.' In'llli 'far' Ad v. 'pen of you') nil 'you'. a verb inflected with a concatenating ending (ef. occurs in the pre-nominal position. gogjo 'melody' C 'This becomes only a burden (nothing else).if3:: se noleii gogco 'the melody of the new song.ltlJol]oJ 7]-Ajj>__ dabatje man gasio adv. rl!.8.g.~2] 7}y I7Al11On gani 'Are you going alone?' S ::!. nejotj 'content' aH~] .

' E}At~ ~ !?. e. . Sub-classes of Interject ions Two sub-classes are recognized of the interjection word class on the basis of the presence or absence of reference to the preceding sentence. 10.~ 7)·}Hjanena ~ "'il 0rL.~ 2.xl .:: * e. 'yes' style) 'Yes' (plain style) giise 'welt. jsbosejo 'Hey. Cog.".} 5:..!.g.]jJI:/mjM]ina wanne S VIC-form 'As many as len people polli 'fast' Adv. pleasure or pity) g im [wm] or [111:J 'mm'.4. . 2. e. 1+ / L +'-] aido uni 'Is the child crying also?' S o 1~~l ~T. 1:17~ q}2.<} joca 'even.} gage 'YOLI go (though it is not satisfactory).g. Goodness!' 'One must see this film in particular..g.' with'. 'Every star seemed 5. in particular'. you!' 'Hello.' -".] C 1ft.' 92i. The 'Response Interjections' invol ve a reference to the preceding sentence and' I nrrod uctory Interjections' do not involve such a reference. 11.+-~ .g.} o}~ q halm sninin SI golcijoca S2 aosdia 'Granny even had a headache..015:. sneer) etc.!i!.g.] kaji'even. Response Interjections "til ne 'Yes' (formal 6.' o 4. now!' 9] swi 'Hush!' lJp~ colada tnasjsla <r} OF I ~~ ja/h]« 'Hey!' 'Have Some tea (for lack of anything o 92i.1 'ha ha' (laughter.q.£ do 0]. 01 L.l§lct.lmada nalil ban in did hajsdla S to gaze at me.' S fJ±101. each'.hlJ. e. jnbo better at the moment). from.4. Interject ions Ouchl. :J_'H gilc 'Even the light has gone out. as well'.g. jamallo/ijamatlo VIC-form 'as for.' 9. as [much/many) perhaps A i1 \.' %7J}A)\.}..0J-o~'tl-t::C} ijM]hwajama//o o kog boajahanda 3. e. e. -1l t:}swega jallado linda 'The iron can also be cut.1nigllSidif1.L I °li'-l-.' 3. ot-o}5'jo]"j:-oJ5'. lac/ali/ado for lack of anything .}£ VIC-form better.£. e.]5:.7. i>}'3. Korean Grammar 'also.' have come.. :>Jr:}apilodo ganda 'It goes forward too.-Hl.g.£. even though unsatisfactory'. [A Or X] er' (expression possibly' of hesi rat ion) him [/!lm] or [1{1m'!1] 'hum'. 3.!i!.5:.l] 'what!?' 1Tj "'l 111\17. ~~1 0-] A 7.Ji sabsida 'Let us buy anything.2. you!' etc.g.' apilo '(0 front' adv. 01 <>.' *" e. =l t:. 'Really is that so?' To-] I1TWA [mll'A or m.<~t.} mada ~.. -~-t:-l but« A}~ 4'.6.5'. as far as' . that's right'.l.} ije cugkudo honda 'Now [he] even plays football.j:12Ej. ~t:.rel.] 'first. ±. ... but JUS! initiate a new sentence. Introductory oj-a 'Ail!' o}oj-?. ~ if) [wo] or more commonly [wu lor [IiI] 'Yes.' jalla 'cutting' concat. JAl 'any.4.t:et bufkajl'nagadia S up to'. At J!l 'Well.aigu 'Oh!. 8. -c} .6.g. (expres ion of distaste.1 r:} tajalit pal/ida cinda o 'She types fast too.1.Ju}c} I..ph. A1 /01 ~ AI dinJilidirlji <>1 ~ ~ oj.74 3. too. no matter what'.q bjs.g.6. form 'every.'1f~ -Ef . '71-. presumably. Chapter [II 75 as'. beginning _li_ o}!!} sajinbut s boala 'Look at the photo o first.} no/ina VIC-form 'even though unsatisfactory. ~[J-l L. ..

' < Jab. stem and inflectional ending are the obligatory elements.' < Jab.pasvvc.2.sfx.2. and its maximal form may comprise all six elements.'to push' Genera! Linguistics. e. very'. (b) voice suffix and (c) infleclional ending. + infix.g.. Prefixed Simple Stem The prefixed simple stern consists of a verb root and a member or the dosed set of class-maintaining' derivational prefixes.+ -si.'to catch' V. Robins.+ dwe..1 . In its minimal form a verb may consist of a stem and inflectional ending.2. (iv) 'Tense Sufflx (es)'.pas! t..'to sleep' 'to eat' W )011- 'to be good' etc.st. (iv) AJ%] -'-l·~ <>i)apisiASIl '[He] has been caught.+ did.] si-'deep.. of which the following are iJ lustra t j ve. 4. H.-'dcep blue' < si- + pAI!lh. voicesuffix.'to stamp On' (ii) ~. + -. (iii) ~'3'l5d. + -1\ -?! ~ jidbab. < . + -A. ' Simple stems comprise only one verb roor and (he majority 'Of verb.S'.sfx.t. 4.g.' < Job. and some simple sterns may be preced ed by a mem bero f the dosed set of prefixes.. honori fie suffix. p. humble suffix or inflectional ending.g.1.'to play' ~ l71!1g- _<t. 7} ga. 258. 4.'to trample down' < Jis.'10 go' ~ not.of. I. (i) (i1) ::go} [abo 'Catch [in .:<.1. violently'. 6. (i) ::» < jab.'early'.2. All other elements found bel ween the stem and the inflectional ending are optional elements. JAS- 'secretly'.+ -17i.. 0.+ .tJ ~ -/I sipllfi. -0 infix.+ -11/. ~~ (v) (v) ~*J -'-lSi ~.A} ja.1 ~ cimil..+ -:J'ges. oldwe. I. The verb root is that part of the verb stem which is nOI subject 10 a further morphemic analysis.sfx. ELEMENTS WITHIN THE VERB The elements that are found within the verb are (i) 'Verb Stem'.+ -l1i.'to be precocious' ci.. i. and inflectional endings determine various syntactic functions of verbs with which they are found or external distributions of a clause in which such verbs occur as predicate. + -sao.15. (iii) 'Honorific Suffix'.2.e.'u p. 1964.end. to well up' < ci.'blue' (iv) {. L 1.sfx.humble sfx.'to push up. 76 . (v) 'Humble Suffi.STRUCTURE IV OF THE VERB Chapter TV 77 4. Verb stems and voice suffixes determine different types of predicate (cf. + -si-hon. I). + -bnida inflx. e. cannot be divided into smaller meaningful units.g. Of these six: elements. (ii) 'Voice Suffix'. 1 R.'to become' 7.s fx.g.+ mil. by virtue of which verbs playa role of central importance in Korean syntax. upward' . STEM The stem of a verb is defined 'as that element which is found first in the verb structure and followed by any of the five elements.+ balb. 'ti'llo-J jabas» '(He] has caught (it].1) and consequently different types of clause (cf'. 4.''+-3~ 1:l Japisi!ldkdaomnido Y '[He] may have been captured. e. C.1.stemsare simple. tense suffix. (iii) . Structure of the Verb Stem Verb stems are either simple or compound. jts- 'at random. i.'to hear' + -II. The elements directly relevant to syntactic structures and funotions are (a) verb stem.end.'to overhear' < jss.% [sdlid.3.o-J < jopi!lS{\ '[He] has been caught' Jab.g..'to come' . ~. e.01.pas! t. one never occurring without the ather. Simple Stems This chapter deals with the internal structure of verb with a special emphasis on inflection.1.sfx. 6.+ -05.end. e.e.pasvvc.x' and (vi) 'Inflectional Ending' OCCUrring in that order.

Iboal frequently than the diphthongized forms.3* gAmbulg.2).'to come and go' < 0.SA/a 'Write!' >3.2. Compound Siems stems consist of two verb roots.l boasimnida '[IJ have seen it.t.ga.'to go' Examples c1!::. 4.'to go' .2.2. Stem Classes + I-AI> IgjA/ 'to crawl' + I-a I > Ibwal 'to see' + I-AI> IJwA/'to give' and l.'to be dark red' < gAm. li..'to come' + ga.' < bo..'greedily.or la/-initial suffixes or ending. IgiA/..'dark' + bulg.1.\I-initial suffix or ending: 7J. ~ ~ \. Jibe ganda '[1] am: goi ng home.1. 4.'to stick' + jab. appear in the iles allornorphs when followed by an I.'to use or write' etc.!i!.1.2.'10 arrive or reach' -¥-~ puti. si- Mj 2.1.2.' Ibo-! IJll-1 The compound .t.'to use or write' "*15:..2.2.'to give' etc. ..1!.2.lui\1 tend to occur more Verb stems are classified into two major classes on the phonological basis: 'V-Stems' and 'C-Slerns'.'to leak' 'to dawn' Examples ~ 50.'to float' .1. however. except the two Ii-final stems (cf.'to crawl' ~ JU.sfx.2. The following two /i-final stems appear in the allorriorphs comprising additional 11/ when followed by an IA/-initial suffix or ending: an 01~ iii.:::il sigo 'writing' 4.' ga- < go.!t..'to catch' etc. If/variable V-Stems In more careful speech. + -/1- t.2.+ -0 infix. irrespective of the suffixes or endings that may follow.2. The classification of verb stems into V-stems and C-stems makes it possible to make an economic statement about the way in which various suffixes are added to stems.end.!i!.1..::r ~ jarngi. irrationally'.'to grow.'to be blue' .2. ki. 4.2..cf.2.1. ssdo 'even if [you] write' > ~~I 'to count' se.2. sdi gao 'Where are you going?' 7J--i).2.1. Iii + It. 7).. Variable V-Slons The variable V-stems involve various changes in morphemic shape as follows: 4._ ii. + ibnid« inflx. The V-stems end in a vowel and theC-sterns in a cons·onan.'reel' ~1l' bUIJab. ""1 ~ CAI11Ag- 'to eat greedily' < CII- + I11Ag- 4.'to grab' < but.1.y. Diphthongization Chapter IV 'to eat' etc.1.j.'i'.1.'to see' "11 se. The morphological make-up of the invariable V-srerns does no! vary. 79 (vi) ~~ ell.end. V-Stems 4. 4.78 Korean Grammar e. + -da inflx.'to look after < bo. 4.2. And each of the 1\\10 major Classes is further divided into' Invariable' and 'Variable' sub-classes depending on whether the morphemic forms of stems are invariable or variable when combining with various verbal suffixes or inflectional endings.! > IjAI lui + IAI > IWAI 101 + lal > Iwal Examples /gi-. to be big' a.2.'to observe _2_7l oga. i-dropping Stems All i-final stems.+ -a5.. stem vowels Iii lo! and /u/ are frequently reduced to semi-vowels as shown below when they are followed by an IA/. In colloquial speech specially of fast tempo. v-fina! SIems + -sla + -sdo o-J t:-J 11 <il] < 7~.2. bo.1..'to lear open' 3.'to shoot' 7] gi.'to see' + salpi.end. ~lLl bosotpi.1:.'to lock' 11.2. si.2. sio 'Please write!' »-.2.2.sfx.g..2.

£.1 E_ ci ti.4 .:lJ'i5l jill)ha-'to 'to be soft' decide' etc.jib.2. AJ ~Ns. jlll)haj AClolJAl)h edo 'Even if [1] decide [on it].. ~ bulimjsn 'if [you] call [me]' < buli.2.past t.'not La know'.'to be small' etc..2.1.'to wear' A~ JAg.1....r.80 Examples Korean Grammar Chapter IV 81 cf.3).+ -sdo (> jAlJlu:do) The verb stem dwe..2.+ -A(> he) {}. the a allornorphof (see 4. to say' '(0 pass' <j '3l jrcnha- camha. .+ -ga 4.sfx.::-1 A~ buff lISA 'call [him] and' buii.} buff Ala 'Call [him]. 4.lb.2. Ib/ or 10/: 7J. and the coalesced form c in colloquial language.'to hang' .ga:l. 'E! g. p.:1.2. 4.2) is used: _2..past t.2.5. 'to be fast' Jf-R buli.dial '[They] arrived < iii.. lsi.. thus givi ng rise to he.Slems The variable Cvsrerns invol ve various changes in shape as follows: The verb stem ha-'to do.'to draw (water)'.2. 1f.or haj-final verbs is A-form according tnt he rule of vowel harmony (cr..' reach there.2.'to eat' '!..'9. pugo 'drawing' < pu. pu.' Examples ~lha-~-6} <to do. 4. u-dropping The II-dropping stems appear in the u-less allomorphs when followed by an IA/~initial suffix or ending.2.0.' If the last vowel in the verb stem iso or a.2..'i nat- PJ.'to plough' ~ a:/.'to cut' hili.. Examples %c12. However the full form Itaj.2.'to be nice or pretty' tonha- .'to take off..2.2.}<. + -da . for instance.. to say' and all other verb stems ending in ha.'to be early' "l~ SJlk.2. Variable C.3.+ -itS.'to become' also has the coalesced form dwe for dwes in colloquial language. r [there). I-dropping Steins 2 by a suffix oran All I-final verb stems appear in the {-Jes$ allomorphs when they arc followed ending which begins with In/.0.')l_ ~ ~1~ ~ 01 the a/« form !f-_§:. -@:c} molla.1. C-Stems 4.::1 itit« 'on arriving' < iti.2.'10 sow' 'tI ib.occurring before a/A -initial suffixes or endings.+ -.. and the form that oceu rs after the haj.t1 c} / ~9J 4 comhojssda/camh esda '[She] was nice. I-doubling Siems in ll-f'inal allomorphs when '6}"'l/"8N hajAlhc'Doand' < haj.mal- '10 fly' 'to roll or stop' '?t pal.'to divide' 01_g_ ili.. etc.'to pierce' 71· 2 ga/i.sdo 'even if [you] draw [water]' cf.g moli.. '5.+ -sla llj.. to undress' '¥}E_ ~ E_ 1Ill}2 na! i.di:llilil.'to flow' pat].+ -11$.+ -misn ~ ~7J~ ig ssll i:ljilka 'Will [he] tear (his?' /. Examples of!c]. . sim.' < JAT)haj.' < cr.'to know' 7J.. 4.la 'Draw!' < pi.<171 oj1 olE. ol'S. + -da (> camh esdm . Invariable C-Sfems in shape in cornbini ng with Some /i-final stems appear initial suffix or endi ng: L.have the allornorph ha].p. ~. is used more often in a slow and formal style of speech as well.' < cumha]..3. bone for bones 'to send'.'to ca rry' cali. and similar coalescences occur in.2.lS. as in written language..sgie ilimjsn 'When [you] Siems {} .2.'to call' .l"'l 5.L2.'to sell' etc.2.sfx.l q Sili/ simni 'Are you sowi ng seeds?' :'3i!.:la.. o lR 'li q iIi! A!. jAggun 'The house is small.~ 2 followed by an .+ -M:\ 01.. There is only one verb of this type: :!f. The sequence ajr: of ha]« sometimes coalesces into e.2.+ -sla < buli. ha-Slem 4.2 .2.'to mix' Examples ~. A/- The invariable C-stems do not involve any change various suffixes or endings: ·~l:iJ-'to tear' '!l mJig... 4.1.

as these are relevant to all suffixes and inflectional endings.~ mulimjsn 'If [he] asks' < mud%.2. -~.t1 jiil« 'in order to build' < jis.9..+ -bnida o}. jisninda '[He] is building [it]. the following general points may be made at the outset.e.is ac: 0 the allomorph a of a/» is used (and the Korean spelling adapted accordingly): iI-7{/. and if the vowel before the -b-/-u. the following ending (initially C-form) is automatically replaced by the V-form since the stem is no longer a C-final stem. In connection with the discussion of verb suffixes and inflectional endings in the succeeding sections and subsec[ions.J. a.'to be better'.2.'i'.'to walk' % III IId.'to ask' 711] 4.+ -sla %. VERB SUFFIXES AND [NFLECTlONAl ENDINGS occurring when followed by a "'J.bnida '[ll how.2..82 Examples Korean Grammar 4.' < ail.£1-1./is.c]. b-final Stems o}1-j a:ni 'Do you know?' < atl. VIC-form There are some suffixes and inflectional endings which have two phonologically conditioned forms or allornorphs.'to mend or darn' etc.'to build' gis.+ -0 d.'to lie down'.. 1.1.2 a:fgo 'understanding' < a:/.'to stir' '(0 Some s-final verb stems appear in the s-less allornorphs lowed by a V-initial suffix or ending: [you] help' < dob..sfx.3.' < dob..muddotog 'So that [he} asks' + imJIIIl .hon. s-dropping SIems when they are fol- Some b-final stems have !I-final allomorphs or ending: ~ flub. dob.+ -5.[.2. the One occurring after a stem or a stem plus suffixes ending in a vowel.2..+ -ado 4.9.+ -imjsr: 'Because [you] help [me]' < dob- + -inika x -31.2.:-bus 'to pour' Notice that when tile slemdob. sid.} cf.'to hear' ~ grcd. is-fina! Siems Some d-final sterns have the I-final allornorphs V-initial suffix or ending: ~ did.' lf the s-less allornorph ends in the vowel CI.5:..2.'to grill' 7J gib. < jis.IiAla 'Build lit].£gt dowa etc.+ -ni of.::i1.gakab.' ?l At jis]« 'Let us build [it). i.+ -go "lor'£' a:lado 'though [1] know' < a:l.3.a.' < a:/.. Following the description of verb stems in 4.J L].2. 0...}o} naa 4.k edad- 'to understand or realize' A. All such two-form suffixes or inflectional endings will be represented by the notation 'VIC-form'.:5"connect" ~ JA:S.'to load' ere.+ -imjsn > dou.+ -it« :AJ01Al ji ss« 'building and' < jis.2. T . cf. and the other after a stem or a stem plus suffixes ending in a consonant.-1 -nil-ini VIC-form Examples %""1 i4 mul sla cr.' < dob.'to help' 7}'{f gakob.+ -mjsn.dob.2 dobgo 'helping' < dob.3) is used: 'J!·nas.'to lie down'. ntudgo 'asking' %~} IIIUdJCI 'Let us ask! %.!{.4. Examples 5'-1-~ doumjsn 'If .+ -n!« 71.2.-dob.go ~'Al dobj: '[1] will help.o '[I] know.-1 TJ} dounika ~ .-:.+ -se When forms beginning with a/II are added to verb stems with au-final allomorph.'to draw or mark [a line]' ~'f. Examples AI012.j5L asio 'Do you know?' < a:{.2.2.'to be near'.2.is realized as dou-.2.' ?!1=. -. 'Ask!' < mud.'to be near' ~. which stands for 'PostVocalic Form' and 'Post-Consonantal Forni' as in Y 12.'to help' 7t77t5!} gakawa .+ .if gub. the a allomorph of the e/« form (sec 4.'flilu WII. /III is regularly contracted to HIli: W nub. verb suffixes and inflectional endings are discussed in this section.+ -ji %~ll dobse 'Let us help. . Chapter IV 83 occurring before a V-initial suffix + -0 ~IL. L.+ -i\S1I .

1.after stems ending 7J7J gamgi- c and nil.'to be coveted' < asp.(iv) -hi.'to wind' + -gi0.1 and footnote there).'to 4:3. non-stern elements and (J v) some examples.'to empty' < bi.3. is now not only very restricted but also rather loose in application in modern Korean. alA-form "lt~J killi- . with the exception of the copula verb [: 'to be'.'to be chased' < coc.3).(/I<ocil) 'to be inserted' < 1<0J.'to keep vigil' (lit. j. The category of vowel harmony. The causative voice suffix may be found with any type of active verb stem.'to be earned' < bA:l.l. a-form occurs when the preceding vowel is Ia! or 10/.. 1ol14.'to be empty' + -1/AI1+ seu.3"] dadhi. passive or causative. 3. believed to have been extensive and regularly observed in the fifteenthcentury Korean. e. lui. 1 S.+ -. <::l -.+ -sdo -((1.+ -sdo < haj. the selection of which is conditioned not by the VIC-form contrast of the preceding element but by the type of vowel found in the preceding syllable. details concerning each element are given as follows: (i) its membership.'10 cover' + -i-& 0 I hulti. is found with the verb stem at a time.after stems ending in b.g.jabala <. Voice Sui!fix The voice is a three-term system: 'Active Voice'. /jabxla/ 'Catch it!' is just as common as I}abalal.4.e.} hajsla 'Do it. IiI or Ijl.4) the 0}2t I o-J z] -ala/ssla.+ -l1i V-form AJ. the active voice is unmarked. i. /7. 'Passive Voice' and 'Causative Voice'. The only exception to this vowel harmony rule is the past tense suffix -as-I-lls-..84 Korean Grammar e.i>] kOjlri.1S. lei.(/b(w)e-I. 4.'to be called' < bull.- (iv) -gi.!'1-J boni As [1] see [it]' < bo. Vforrns and C-forms.'to be heard' < did-rail.!:l o-J cr m/lgll/a 'Catch it. (vi) -1I.-I-/1u-..'to insert' stems + -lIiand after (iii) -li.after stems ending in p. The passive and causative voice suffixes are mutually exclusive and only one voice suffix. designated '(II II-form'. which is always followed by r.2. Ib[o]-I or Ibi-/) (ii) -lIi. and II-form when the preceding vowel is 1/\/. Thus. k. Chapter IV 4.-form and not a-form (cf.g.g. lei. e. The passive voice suffix is found only with a transitive verb stem and has four phonologically conditioned allomorphs: (i) -i-.2.'to close' + -hi- l"!J -6"1 msghi.'to be piled up' < sah. and I badsdo/ 'even if you receive it' as I badado/.'to snatch' + -si*7] cocgi.'to be hackled' < 11Ult.'to carry [on the back]' + -hi'i'!:-. Passive Voice Suffix 85 where -J1i is the V-form and -ini the C-form.g. (iii) -gi. processive (both transiti ve and intransiti ve) or descriptive.gam. 'to cause dawn to break') < S(:- 'to dawn' + -1{- .'to chase' + -si'10 be wound' ~7] kinhg]: (lkinki-/) 'to be disconnected' < kinh. (i) -1I- a Iter stems ending in i or c.1. Of these three.3"1 sbhi. (v) -li-.>.'to be closed' < dad.1.'to see' + -i.1.) b clti.2. e. and has the following phonologically conditioned allornorphs: (i) -/'/-. d. (iii) any restriction with other < . I. 1. 0 f the two forms of a two-form suffix or inflectional ending. 50. g.'to call' + -/i~~c.2. (i) -i.' ~ nOlI soassdo '[He] shot ii}9 c. is a tendency nowadays to lise the A-form rather than a-form even after the lal vowel. haisssdo '[He] did [it] but' -as-r-s>.2.2.JoFl. (ii) -i-. In colloquial speech there. (ii) any restrictions on its distribution with verb stems.3). to be drawn' < kil· 'LO draw' + -li~ i!. Iii. 2. Causative disconnect' + -si- Voice Suffix 4.to be carried [on the back]' < sb.'to be eaten' < m sg. 'ito] dspi.+ -AS.1 ot£.}7) angi-'to be embraced' < all.'to embrace' + -st!<I~ '?J7] peasgi'to be snatched' < pras. (4.and (iv) -gi-.g.'[0 be seen' < bo.'to hear' + -liin 111.2. (ii) -hi-.g.'to break' + -i"'J oJ sahi. e.' 'Eat it.after I-final stems and I-doubling d-final stems (cf. r~ e. by vowel harmony rules.5.'to hackle' + -i'i'loJ kAki.~1-] jabini 'As [1] grab [it]' < Jab.J dilli. 4. as explained earlier (cf.g.2.'to eat' + -hi¥.+ + -sdo < JU.3.biu.'to be broken' < k/lk.'to pile up' + -1_lie] boi. '!. e. (iii) -/i.+ -ini C-form IL is to be noted that some particles also have two phonologically conditioned forms.3.' 'll: I ~ alA-fofm but' < ? ~o-J £ Jt! IISM}O' [He] gave [it] but' ii}':l.'to earn' + -/i~ e] buill. al s-form SOme suffixes and inflectional endings have two different forms or allomar-phs. and the passive and causative voice are marked by relevant voice suffixes. In the following discussion of suffixes and inflectional endings.

'to put on [shoes]' + -gi~ 71 lidgi.'to graze' + -gi· 0..2. those active verb stems lacking the suffix-derived passive or causative counterparts can still have the passive/causative voice formed to some extent by means of auxiliary verbs in a phrasal form (cr.4..g.(rQ-9-) majhi-rmajhu.' .pasv.1.' or '[He] shows (it).}-'.3.pasv.t:} iisaga hwanjali! sallisissda u. to eat' < I71l1g.2. In actual constructions.1).sfx.'to cause to graze Or pluck' < lid./-nill(a) neutral and present tense VIC-form. e.'to leave behind. e. e. .'to be correct' + -hi-/-hu~"51 I *+(~-'i'-) IliJhi-/niJhu.1.'to cause [someone] to put on [shoes]' < sin. as well as rneani ngs.g.01 cui.' ~ ~ l:-tllbhil1da '[It] is carried on [he back.past t.'to stay [idle]' + -l1i- Not all active verb stems can be suffixed by the passive and/or causative voice suffixes. which already have the honorific element built into them (cr.2.!t 'U c} /cegi! boinda/ '[He] shows a book. occurring with one of these homophonous passi ve/causati ve suffixes are indistinctive as to passivity/causativity when they occur alone.86 (ii) in g. .4).'to capture' + -hi. however. e.'to cause to decay' < slIg. transitive verb stems in particular.vc. 4 singinda '[Shoes] are put on. < jab.1 hilli.45.3.'to show' Korean Grammar -i. or after those ending < bo.'to clothe' < ib. 19 and after some g-final stems.} 01 ~{"t"] A1~ da tjsini jabhisimj sn 'If you are captured.'to cause to undertake' < mol. However.4.3. I.!t oJ /csgi boinda/ 'The book is seen.' < ut» 'to pick up' + -isi.3.1.-'>JA1_2_ jibisibsio 'Please pick [it] up.caus.2. t:t -hi. some d-final stems (cf.A] ::J.'to see' + -i-9.+ -nda 10. to dance' < cu. which may be found with any verb stem or a verb stem plus a voice suffix.3. to remain' < nam. Honorific Suffix There is only one honorific suffix.'to make (vi) -hi·/-huftow or drop' < hili. e. j!_ 'D cj.. + -si. Tense Suffixes + -.'to wear' + -hi'f~.'to undertake' + ·gi~ 71 bssgi. -si-/-isi. 3. since passive verbs occur without an object whereas causative verbs occur with one or more objects (cf. c."to eat' m. voice suffixes. 7~. 4.'to slow down' < fli].. and consequently there are many active stems which are not paired by the passive and/or causative counterparts formed with relevant..vc. to make .'to live' + -li.'to dance + -ilij 0] m sg]: 'to feed. . 4.'to widen' < n slb.2.1. their voice status is easily determined by the presence or absence of objectts).'to fly [something] < nat.g.AJ c] gasinda '[He] is going. -hi-.and -li-. The class meaning of the honorific suffix is the 'Respect' shown by the speaker to the subject of a clause or sentence in which it occurs.g.'to be slow' + -hi-I-huIt is noted that some causative and passive voice suffixes are identical in form. with the exception of the honorific verb stems. Consequently some active verb stems.to cry' + -li7d c] gAI/i.' or '[She] makes [someone] carry (someone] on the back.caus.1.' '<!'i:!J:.boinda '[It] is seen.3). 5.' .after stems ending in a vowel other than Chapter IV 87 i..-] n slbhi. 4. S.'to fly' + -li% "-I ulli. 3. + -da There are four basic tense suffixes and one retrospective tense suffix: (i) Basic Tense Suffixes Zero (b) -11.+ -bsio 4. A good dictionary should give full details of such verbs.} nallinda '[It] is flown...2.'to cause . -i-..2.after stems ending in b. .' < sal.' .'to gel [something] correct' < m(u.'to make cry' < ul.e..'to cause to lie idle' < mug.' or '[He] flies it. d.'togo' + -51.}/jolJiga nal/indo/'The paper is flown.oYl ~ 'lt7] namgi. e.after I-final stems.'to flow' + -li- after j-final stems.' _qjA}7} 'The doctor has saved a patient.'to remain' + -stAJ71 singi.[7] maigi.'to undress' + -gi(iv) ~"o] ~ %-°17~ ~~c.g. and some 'il-"-l nalli.'to decay' + -hi~i.pasv. 'it '2 Lt /JolJiljl na/linda/ '[He] flies the paper. n.5-6). i.+ -mj sn ~A}~ 1tc1..'to make to undress' < bss. -gi.g.'to be wide' ~i'1 ilghi.2. 6.sfx.caus.!-"5] I ~3f.2.' + -hi- (v) -li.g.sfx.3. e. 'lJ '6] ibhi.' AJ7J + -i- (iii) -gi. [0 make . + -si?'J2.2.' < ga.] mughi.2.' or '[She] makes [someone] put on shoes.g.after sterns ending in e.!t 0] boi. I. oYl 0] .V/C~[orm.'to make to read' < ilg-'to read' + -hi~ %] ssghi.'to make walk' < gll:d-'to walk' + -Ii· ~ 2. present tense .3) I-doubling stems (cf.

g.jA:lsie jada '[IJ sleep/slept at ten. VIC-form. Tense System The category of tense in Korean falls into two major types.g.may be reduplicated and/or combined with the future tense suffix -ge.3. is either simple or compound according to the manner in which it is formed.' *c-} bomi oasda 'Spring came/has _2_ 1-1 bomi oni 'Is spring coming?' 4. past perfect tense past presumptive tense past perfect presumptive (e) Past Perfect tense (f) Past Presumptive Tense (g) Past Perfect Presumptive Retrospective Tense cept The retrospective suffix -di-r-d»: may combine with any tense suffixes exthe present tense suffix -n-/-nin-. e. in [he interrogative sentence.1. 7}cJ.' %01 %<>1 Retrospective %<>1 % 01 -11l-<>1 -&"C~ bomi onda 'Spring comes.3. The direct tense. Zero tense suffix: -n-/-n1'l1- . It should be noted that all processive verbs are listed in Korean dictionaries in the neutral tense form. etc. refers to [he actual time of the action or event denoted by verbs..r:]. lhe retrospective tense refers always to a past event as reflected by the speaker and. Restrictions on (he distribution of the tense suffixes with verb stems and other suffixes will be described in the relevant Sections dealing with the tense system. All compound tenses are constructed with the auxiliary verb is. Tense _2__kl t'.. Direct Tense come.1 "'1 on < ga. and by auxiliary verb construction at the syntactic (phrase) level.1. Korean tense is constructed in £. It is morphologically unmarked and its occurrence is restricted to processive verbs suffixed by -da 'declarative mood ending of the low plain speech style' (cr. Present Present Tense V/C.kida 'to be big'. e.3.3.5. 7~"Cj. ~ c.1. VIC-form..33.1.1sges- VIC-form.2.'[0 go' + -da Aj-ej.1.2).1. or simply 'Tense' Tor short.3. by suffixation at the word level.1. The complete system of Korean tense is set out below to serve as a point of reference for later discussion.3.I\.i. by the addressee.4. 'Direct Tense' and 'Retrospective Tense'.1. Tense (a) Present Progressive Retrospective (b) Future Progressive Retrospective (c) Past Progressive Presumptive Retrospective Direct Tense -l1} <>1 4.' ". Simple Tense 4.1.} bomi od sla 'Spring came [1 remember].O different ways and represented at two different levels. The simple tense is formed with the tense suffixes and the compound tense is constructed with an auxiliary verb. Neutral Tense Tense.bomi obdika 'Was spring coming [as you recall]?' r.3.1. future past tense tense Chapter IV Direct Tense Simple Tense Compound (a) Present 89 (ii) Retrospective (e) -di-r-d»: Tense Suffix Tense Progressive The past tense suffix -as-/-r.1.~to give the compound tense suffixes as follows: (f) (a) (b) (e) (d) Neutral Tense Present Tense Past Tense Future Tense Tense Tense (b) Past Progressive (c) Future Progressive (d) Past Progressive Presumptive -asAS'-/-ASAS- (g) -aSgd-/-.1.form.3.' < ja- 'to sleep' + -da 4.' ~r.' %1:-1711.1.J. ~he neutral tense lacks any lime reference and is used exclusively in such special styles as monologue. diary. On the other hand. 4. In other words.mngda 'to eat'.1). 3_. 'if e~ ma/gda'lo be clear'.3. Simple Tense (a) Present Retrospective Tense (b) PaSl Retrospective Tense ((') Future Retrospective Tense (d) Past Presumptive Retrospective Compound Tense Tense Tense Tense.g. 4. poetry.g. etc.3.1.-1 cj. [J] go/went.bomi oasd sla 'Spring had come [I remember].'progressive tense formative' and are all progressive tenses.1.3.88 (c) -as-/-Ai(d) -geS- Korean Grammar a/II-form. e. gada 'to go'. e.s. at the time of utterance. etc. direct or retrospective. 4. whereas all descriptive verbs are listed in the present tense form (cf.1sges(II) aSJ\sges-/-tl5'.gada 'to go.

1.} <>:1:: c] sagwalil-msgninda '[He] is eating an apple.' cf. continuation to the present time of the past event.<>1] ~lAhanguge gasda '[He} has gone to Korea (and is there now).] l:.3.'to be warm' + Zero + -sibnida '5}:. [the completion of an action or event at] a time earlier than some past time.' 0}~-l~]7l . (a) Past-Past ~~ <>11 ~~ Ut!~) ~ 0liT~lA (<>'lAll) 01 ~01 *~.+ -da t. datjsinditi gidaligeso 'Will you wait [for it]?' 41 oJ.] ~_2.' < 0.e.l-j c} neil t snabnida 'I am leaving tomorrow. alA-form The past perfect tense refers to «(1) 'remote past' or 'past-past'..9. when the verb involved is processive or descriptive. (ii) all descriptive verbs as well as those processive verbs occurring.!i!. i.and represents (a) 'simple past'. Past Tense Past tense suffix: -asl-A5-.4. The present tense has present time reference.' . 01 ~. only when accompanied by an adj unct of past time reference..+ -da A}::i!1--.3.17} nega hageso '1 will do it.' oJ ~ --rt%yc} iii! hesibnida=) have done the work."l~~ halm sniga god osigesda 'Granny might come soon..' < dsb.1. e.' < pul]: 'to be blue' + Zero + -da A~ 7} ~c} sega unda 'The bird is singing. q 1:]. either expressed or implied.90 Korean Grammar 4.e.3h! oJl .s cj..g.-l q sinmunil boasibnida 'I have seen the paper.' A 1!1 % q ~r u liga 11ei f sagest bn ida 'We will buy [it} tomorrow. when accompanied by an adjunct of future time.form The past tense is formed with the past tense suffix -as-I-I>. (b) Presumptive Present or Future -¥ _2_.hanguge gasssda (b) Present Perfect ~~ ~ . e. aiit.!i!.' (l>}e)ikocib/.1. 0}~-1~17} _'(_~t:-}aJASiga osjssda 'Uncle has come {and is here now}.~yq §:1l%t-Jq (jAnen) gili jobasda 'The road was narrow (before).3. _2.) present perfect.3.2.1.e.-] r:-} gibuni jonisigesibnida 'You may be feeling fine.' c].3. with processive verbs if unaccompanied by an adjunct of past time reference. (b) 'simple past' with descriptive verbs.1. e.3. e. <>11 ~ ~ % q cj.:. with an inflectional ending other than -da form the present tense with Zero. i..tl {l-t.tl c] ajssig« osjss ssda 'Uncle had come (and is not here now). ~.:..-] q jagnjsne boasibnida '[I] saw it last year. itt. (b) presumptive (a) Intentive Future Y17~ ~~~_2_ present or future otherwise.. :tl-%l.-] nega m sggesn! 'Will you eat it?' "'J-AJ ~ 01 7] etc.g.'to eat' +-nin.1. completion of an action or event in the past.is also a future tense suffix representing 'intentive future' but it is restricted in distribution compared to the suffix -ges-.<t7} ~ ~ :. i...' -ti/iti.. always with descriptive verbs but..5.' < ul.' '~H} ~ '.:.' '[He) had gone/has been to Korea (and is here now).'to sing' + -n.g.1.11 '.. 4.A] 10 o}i 'I wi II come again.-"1 :.~%l.' 1:1] 7~ "'l1!ll..~ babilll1AgAsibnida '[He} has had his supper [and is full]. in which case it is similar ro the past tense except that it is somewhat more emphatic than the latter.'to drink' + -11.'to COllie' + -Zero + -ji ::L 7} The future tense is formed with the future tense suffix -ges-. with processive verbs.' .and with processive verbs it may indicate 'present progressive' or. and represents (a) 'intentive future' when it occurs in the declarative sentence with a first per- son pronoun as subject or in the interrogative sentence with a second person pronoun as subject./fgA. (I:.' < masi. ifuJ1--J7} 4..1c} bame mukilida 'I'll bind it at night' 4.nanitipulida The sky is blue. Future Tense Future Tense Suffix: -ges- Chapter IV 9J The present tense is formed in two different ways according to the type of verbs and inflectional endings involved: (i) processive verbs occurring with -da ending form the present tense with the present tense suffix -n-r-nin-.gicaga mjgesibnika 'Is the train going to be late?' 71-£.+ -da 'it 01 'i~~y c} nali dsbsibnida 'It is warm. B.' < Inl[g. sna.'to leave' + Zero + -bnida.g. it has future time reference. Past Petfect Tense Past perfect tense suffix: -asAS-I-ASAS-.g.' 71 ..H ~ ~on ii}a] c] nei! halida "1 will do it tomorrow' ~-~.' ~.3.c.1. e.01 w. %~ u}B c] giga mulit masinda '[He] drinks water.~ibnida Al'-d-~'6jl 'This flower was red (yesterday)..' < .£.' 0J~ jinandale iIi! hesibnida '[1] did the work last month.' cf.5..1..J1 'lJ lIl"-'.haggjoe n ijgesibnida 'You/he may be late for school. (a) Simple Past l.

a/A-form J %0] The past presumptive tense has the same time referenceas the past tense but in addition it expresses presumption: (ti) 'past presumptive'. for details).sfx.Dj ~}1i9:l ~%I-I r::~ mobsi j. L117~ 5l:.' cf.' of.. 5.t.3.past t.ibnida 'He may have had his supper. i-0J % 'Cl-~.t. + -da (b) Present Perfect Presumptive .£ 7."il-2- !:-I :QRi. . e.3:3.d 1-!1.o.:l.1.-"1I::l9:l1l r::j.92 Korean Grammar Chapter IV 93 'iJ ~ %l--rt ~ ~ 1-] J.] 'iJ.!l%1.sfx. Ii i>Hl.-]c} idaliga J linen ill d IIgi / AS /J.hJ ~-~ sinmunil bO:"jAsgdibnida 'You may have seen the paper.' (b) Simple Pas! Presumptive ll. 'I will be readinga ~~r::l.3. (a) Past Presumptive W L·Hl.lhasjAsASibnida '[Mother] had been very worried (not now).1.nen)gilijobasgdda 'The road may have been narrow (before).] ~. (b) 'present perfect presumptive'.1..3.' {HI The past perfect presumptive tense has t he same time reference as the past perfect tense but in addition it cxpressestpresumption': (a) past-past presumptive and (b) simple past presumptive.ibn ida 'This bridge might have been longer before.3..!l%1.3.' (C>j.g.+ babillllAgASge!.3.-J '[You] might have seen it last year. Ll] 7} :.4.1. Past Progressive Tense Vst.sib.' 1~ J::H:l5'i All/uili cam d« WIISAS.. Tense Vst. o~"J~ isda i.+ past t.ljl) 0] ~%ol ~-0~%l-l'Ct (i\.fo I'm B.:2:...1. ~ q.r- ~4 acimit msggo isda '[Hejis having breakfast.1.1..2.+ fut.2.2.' + Zero t.2 'ti.1.ncga cegii ilgo isgesda book. I might have gone too.' 'U"~ ~ :tl7.l rnobsi jMll1j.d.sL A]l..sgeS.sfx.' + -go is< + ~2 pres .1.' n t:} i}'.1.s·-I-II:~ ssges-. Past Presumptive Past presumptive ten-se suffix: Tense 01 'C~eI7~ AJ. The compound tense is possible only verbal phrases (cf.} (p.1. % J!J: 7. +-go is.3.2).3.6.'t 11 ~l y + 1:+ 4. 4..d7..' ~-.1.sfx.'\11 ~ ~2 SlI ffix: -a5·:isge. %).3.nida 'This bridge was longer before. 1-] r::1· mobsi j tll1lf1jllhasjAsibnida '[Mother] has been worried.1 muii cam dllw/lsASgesJi 'The water may have been very hot.-] c} jinandate iii! hesgesibnida '[He] might have done the work last month.3..' 'itoJl oJ. hanguge gas!lS'gdda '[He] might have gone to Korea. e.3. + -go ~ol The first person pronouns never occur with the past presumptive tense unless there is in the same sentence a non-finaladverbial clause such as the one ending in -mj 1111 'i f'.] 1:.l:~q nega gasunjsn.' .1.' .1.' ~~ 0]1 The four compound tenses.li 'The water had been/was very hot.-J idaliga gi]Anetl dll gi/lIsy..~::\:10 .!lL~ GjASiga osjAfiASgesda 'Uncle might have come.sfx.5gesibnida '[Mother] might have been worried..le)ikacibulgASgesibnida 'This flower may have been red (yesterday).' 4..r::}muli cam dswssda 'The water was very hot. are formed by of a verb inflected with the concatenating is-..' Tense are all progressive tenses.lmnjAhasjllstI. 4.1/1i ~ -asges-I-J\.~ jqgnjl\l1e boasgdihnida 4.1.3. nadogasgesda 'If you had gone.aJ.1.2.. Compound (~o:rr) ~l"l ~~:.2.1 oJ1:C c'1 7d_ 5'i %1.3.!l1l-t. Like the future tense.' iSAtJi < is· + -I\S.2.1. which two-verb verbal phrases consisting ending -go and the auxiliary verb with processive verbs or processive ~':U~+yJ.1.g.' 4.. 1.7.2. the future progressive tense represents' "intentive furure"progressive' and '''presumptive present or future" progressive' (see 'Future Tense'. e.g. + -ji Future Progressive 4.' -.::L:>I. (a) Past-past Presumptive OlA~-I<]7~ 01 c} ~17t (b) Simple Past ~ 0 . Present Progressive Tense Y.\1 nutni ago iSlIsji 'It was snowing. Past Perfect Presumptive Past per feet presurn pti ve tense Tense a 11\.

1 ~ ~ ~ 1::1c] sihabi sijagdwessgesibdida 'The match might have start. being separated by -ib.3.g.ed II thought]. Such discontinuity also occurs between other tense suffixes and the retrospective suffix when they co-occur with -ib-.2.:i % 1:.l~ lit 1ft to.5. the future tense suffix -ges.t.>:J <.1. can occur with the past retrospective tense.II1Aliga caiba JiASibdida '[His] hair had become short [1 recall].1.' rg-o] .gido iwigesibdida '[He] would run too [I thought].+ -ilSges.:7':?-:d:tJ. called 'Retrospective Endings'.3. formed by adding to verb stems with the future tense suffix -ges.3.g.4.2. 95 'ti M] + -go is~ + "8"} 2.3. e. by the listener.".' 4.1. ~ '.>:J-0l '. there are four inflectional endings which represent the retrospective tense.1.in the declarative and interrogative mood of the low plain speech style (cf 4.d ~. There are four simple and three compound retrospective tenses. 6.1.Li jibikldi 'Was the house large.~ t:.j.' i'.1. e.4.3. e. e.' %01 5\l-~ 1:i] muli cagesde 'Water might be cold [1 thought).1.5.sfx. ~)!l As shown by the second example above... 4.st.~ L] cr I11Aliga catbibdida '[His] hair was short :r [1 recall].3.t.3). -de.'high formal speech style'. Tense '* Korean Grammar Chapter IV 71 7c1]7} ~.2.' A1 ~ 0] A] ~5. Future Retrospective Tense The retrospective tense is formed by adding to verbs inflected with a direct tense suffix ·the retrospective tense suffix. 5. Present Retrospective Tense Tense The future retrospective tense.past presump.1.2.1.2.' The past presumptive retrospective tense.1.1.3.2 and 5.2.2-3). formed by adding to verb stems with the past tense suffix either the retrospective suffix or one of the retrospective endings. refers to tile presumption of an even! in the past or past-future. Past Retrospective The past retrospective tense.3.' iSASgesibnida < is.g.' o}ol ~ 0] ~~fI.g.] aiditi sawASgesdi 'Might they have fought each other [as you recall]?' .3.3.1. if it occurs in the interrogative sentence. cf.3.~Ll~~ biga ogesd sla 'It looked like raining [I recall].3. will be taken as forming part of the retrospective tense system along with the retrospective tense suffixes proper.] L} dali balgibdida 'The moon was bright [1 remember].5.2.1. [as you recall]?' Tense 4.3. of which there are two allomorphs -di-Z-d s-. u-] i!l7} 'i:!"o} . past presump.94 o. 0] 3.either the retrospective tense suffix or one of the retrospective endings.3.2.1.1. e.£.g. Past Presumptive Retrospective Tense The present retrospective tense.3. a descriptive verb which has formed a processive verbal phrase with a processive verb formative.2. 4.2.1 at doni A:bSAsgesd Ala '[He] might have been short of money [1 thought]. refers to a past event as recollected by the speaker or.(cf.J ~ ~~ 9_2 ~ ~ j A qgug i/o ogo isgesda '[He] may be on his way to England.L1'* bA/J.2.1. Therefore.are discontinuous.3. 0] ~.3.:! han.' '[She] might have been ringing.*%1:.' 4. these four inflectional endings.3.1-2) as well as in the adjectival and adverbial clause (cf.1.4..l-~: :d 1ft~ q 4 jll:nlnvafil hago iSASgesibnida + -ibnida aJ i!J7} Pi rq 7]- 9i % c1 c] *mAliga calbssibdida ~ .3. or oneof the retrospective endings.2.1..3.2).. 4.3.3.' %t:J L).sfx. gigega gOjar]i nasd sla 'The machine was already out of order [as I recall].g. .3. c.and the retrospective tensesuffix -di. e. Besides the retrospective tense suffix -di-r-ds-. Simple Retrospective 4.4. refers to a past-past event as recollected by the speaker or the listener. 0}017} %L14 aiga uld sk: 'The child cried [I remember).2. Retrospective Tense However. 4.. and -d sn of the interrogative mood of the low plain style (cf. either the retrospective suffix.1).1.1.]t:j.g. 4. refers to a presumptive past-past event as recollected by the speaker or listener. formed by adding 10 verb stems with the past presumptive.1.1 . and -di. -di.' "t!A~ 01 . the auxiliary verb Ji. ~ AJ:§.1. formed by adding to verb stems with the Zero present tense suffix either -(Ii-/-dll.occurs only in the declarative and interrogative mood of the high formal speech style (cf.2. They ese -de/sdsnde of the declarative mood of the high plain style CcL4.or one of the retrospective endings. JA:nJcIJi kitnasdsn 'Was the war over [as you recall]?' Descriptive verbs do not occur with the past retrospective tense.ili malgesdsn 0] 'Would the sky be clear [you thought]?' IoI]7} :J.1) and -d s. Compound The compound Retrospective Tense retrospective tense is formed by adding to the direct com- . 4.g.5. Past Progressive Presumptive v.

except for the present tense suffix -n-J-nin-. however.3..4. -11([.1.g.of (a) and (b) may be preceded by [he -tH-"C~ iil-. There are three compound retrospective tenses..2) and the humble suffix.2.-ssaon! 'as [you] have spoilt the book' 4. goijbuti! hugo isgesdilla '[He] might have been studying.to] ~}-}Lic} nali caobnida 'It is (very) cold.3.4.1.' <>Jt:-] ~_ 7}Aj %1.or one of the retrospective endings.] . Humble Suffix The humble suffix has the effect of lowering the status of the speaker against Ihe addressee. though hardly used nowadays in normal speech.and/or a tense suffix..g.sgesdi 'Might (he) have had been going to the theatre [as you remember]?' ~~ 4.(cf'.+-a~-saob- The future progressive retrospective tense. e. thereby increasing the degree of respect shown by the former toward the latter to a greater extent than is possible by means of the high or low formal speech style alone. koci bulgsaob. The sentence paJ'lidcjo is compulsory the humble suffix.bhisi .B. and -o-/-io. [Context: a child speaking to his friends.1. .2.g.hon.sfx. Future Progressive Retrospective Tense (d) .]2 9.. not infrequently employed in religious services as well as in the literary language. And of course the respect shown by the humble suffix is the result of degradation of the speaker's stat us agai nst the add ressee(s).. -naika. Present Progressive Retrospective Tense S: /.. both employed to express the speaker's respect.g. 4.of (c) and (d) cannot be preceded by the honorific suffix unless a tense suffix is found bel ween them simultaneously.:U. but -sao.2 :tl '. e.96 Korean Grammar four different allomorphs cally. formed by adding the retrospective suffix or a retrospective ending to the past progressive presurnptive tense. 4.2.:) 01 ~"'J c~ ssnsctjninti osinda .d'./.. e. [I thought): ~§~. ~~ VIC-form: before inflectional endings -bnida.1 'The teacher is coming. The humble suffix appears in honorific suffix -si-/-isi.3.g.and -saob. -mj sn.2 _~~ cl 4. -ji(jo).' -s. -mjs.3.€ i.2.1.1.:. refers to a past progressive presumptive event as recollected by the speaker or the addressee.1). is.9.2.ISiobsoSA 'Please give us rain!' ¥ 0] *AH-:AI. whereas the humble suffix directs it to the addressee.' ~AJ-oJl 71-2 ~~~cJgjgja1Je gago is.~ c·l cl. :!i!. (a) Chapter [V conditioned both phonologically 97 and morphologi- pound tense either the retrospective suffix -di-r-ds. e.3.tt:~z] jo/]il -saoCform: before the same inflectional endings as listed in (a) r 4.2. are different from One another in thai the honorific suffix directs the speaker's respect to the subject of a sentence..fijo 'Flowers are red. when the inlleci ional cndiugs-e and ·Ji arc preceded by .. I -go. 4. -dslado (c) /..0- The present progressive retrospective tense. e... e..}~ cigo isdsla '[They] were ringing a bell [I recall).3.saona 'although you have forgotten' ~ ~ t:i 'tl i>j/'l ~"".1 ~""'l_2_L-I.1..!r__ -0-/-. Past Progressive Presumptive Retrospective Tense The past progressive presumptive retrospect ive tense.' ~2.3. refers to a past-past progressive presumptive event as recollected by the speaker or the addressee.}!r__\_-j cegil thll. refers to a past progressive event as recollected by the speaker.}2 ~$q jsmhwalil hago isgesdi 'Might [she] have been telephoning [as you recall].' 0}0]7} ~]2 ~ cj alga lwigo isd sn 'Was the child jumping around [as you recall)?' 7. formed by adding the retrospective suffix or a retrospective ending to the present progressive tense (cf.lI.2. -atjo)' (b) % /2-% -ob-/-iobVIC-form: before inflectional endings -naida.3.A~ '. Difference between Honorific and Humble Suffix The honorific suffix -si-r-isi.1. The humble suffix.1 . formed by adding the retrospective suffix or a retrospective ending to the future progressive tense.dali! bogo iSJlSgesdJI!a '[She] might have had been looking at the moon [l thought].and -ob-Z-iob. .1.g.IjisiAi.2.3.' c~ C-form: before inflectional endings -naida and -naika Any of these forms may occur immediately after a verb stem or a stem plus a voice suffix.klbilil ntijA. -SOSII.0 ]1J} sdilo gasiobnaika 'Where are you going?' ll]~ t-Il ~ T-Al-~-±. -ni.

an archaic form.) %1-]4 geli! coctsiibnida 'They are chasing a dog. banii gibnida 'The night is long.A] c] -bsida/Jbsido tI /.1. hasibsio 'Please do [it1 quick ly.form in turn in the following sections.. consist Of an ordered sequence of three.]-01'4 -noid«.>.the one with a concatenating ending asa concatenating form in! he verbal phrase structure (cf'. 4.3.All imperative mood endings of any SPeech style cannot Occur with a tense suffix except the Zero present tense (d. 5."1 ~ 1.i %/.-].3.2. declarative or propositive mood s fx.5. (ii) 'Non-Final Endings'.] -n iA] -sic] -di(c) Lj.by the final endings. by younger people to their elders. showing respect for both the subject and the addressee (mistress).hleh they enable verbs to perform..-de volltive sfx..1.' [Context a child speaking to his teacher..3. 'The teacher is coming.]-"'..-1 7} -bnikal-(5) ibn iko VIC-form (b) t.~O j\/I"Je osiASnaika'When l.I "* 7J q r::J.' q~}j (AJ %t.1 ~}1Pl.) .5. These three classes ..I ~.3.1. (ii)'Low Formal'.. and (iii) 'Concatenating Endings'.5...1..3.] ~"':I"i:l 0] 5'_A]~-'-I1:t halmsnimi osiobnida 'The grandmother is coming.] The humble suffix is similar in function to the high and low formal speech style lnflecrional endings as they both show the speaker's respect to the addressee.3).of suffix combine to give the following inflectional 1.' -si.l7~ did he come?' 7J. retrospective sfx...2 . and by people O~10'Ncr social status to those of a higher one.<hum ble sfx.1. and . 01 The /sl in the declarative and interrogative -(:.1 _1. They are (i) 'Final Endings'.god Itlnagesnaida '[II will leave soon! 4.3..)ibnika is optional.-bnida/sibnida 'l} I-~t.1.-}o]7J} -naiku. '~i.sfx. The imperative mood ending -bsio occurs almost always preceded by the honorific suffix -si-r-isi..]q I -&q 1::j.]1:j.5.hon. Chapter IV interrogative mood sfx.sfx.. 4.siq 0J-%y'7} wc anobnika 'Why is [he] no! coming?' ~ (Al %YZl} gili job{s)ibniktl'[s the road narrow?' 'i:! 111 9_-.sfx: indicative mood sfx.' [Context: a child speaking to an adult.]1:+ I C. (iii) 'High Plain'.i n conversation between strangers..humble sfx. Inflectional Endings The inflectional endings which are the last elements occurring within the verb are grouped into three di fferent categories on the basis of the syntactic functions w. [Context: a servant speaking to her mistress.-) %y c] -bnidal-(s)ibnida form VIC-form to the literary 1.1.2.98 Korean Grammar ot 0]7j. cf.5'~ palli iij-.1.-1 '4 aiga gaobnida The child is going. (i) 'High Formal'.1. Final Endings Five speech styles. I. -naida in 4.. (b) 1. e.1..5.' ~ Ii1-l J! L} 0] c.1).5.<:U- ~2-1l/..j. Declarative Mood Endings (a) (b) 101 '1..' -0. It is used on formal occasions.-J c] ssnscnnim! osibnida VIC-form VIC-form VlC.3. are distingui~hed . High Forma/Style The high formal style is the most polite form ofspeech whereby the speaker expresses respect toward the addresseefs).' hanaman jibisibslo 'Please take only one.g. 4. 4. Examples . -bsio/sibsio 8 1:1 '-] 99 endings: VIC-form AJ -"]"i:l 0] 5'_'1lt.1. -0.'.1.' -si. Imperative Mood Endings -(si}bsiol-(isi)bsio VIC-form mood endings -tsnbnida and I 'E. An archaic style and religious service whose use is restricted Examples tj}01 71\% (_. imperative mood sfx..5. Interrogative MODd Endings (a) ].2. 4.suffixes.-b-/-ib- high formal style.1. and in each speech style four kinds of mood.]. A verbinflected with a final ending can function as the predicate of a final clause.7~-'\. the one with a non-final ending as the predicate of a non-final clause.'hon.~bnikal-ib/1ika 11 /.-] 7j.3.1.' .which are: (a) 10l These inflectional endings will be discussed 4. All inflectional endings of the high formal styles except -naida and -naika. (IV) 'Low Plain' arid (v) 'Medium' styles.

.{~II .1 A) _2. Interrogative _9_ 15!.5.:::::-so C-forrn (after stems with Zero t.2__2_ JOlJilil anjibio 'Are you not going to pick up the paper?' AJ-0] ~s_ saI]i jllgso 'Is the table small?' Like the imperative mood endings..11-ne (b) '" .e.3.' yourself (lit.1 L} 2-1'11 ).2.1. Intoneme LF or HF.4.1. can not occur with a tense suffix except the 2c]'0 present tense.' Mood Endings 4.1.:: -so C-forrn (b) 4.3.' -T'-Bol -gul] s interjectival (always OCcurs with a processive verb) Examples -E 01 '+3:.5. and is used by older people to younger. paralleling other mood endings already described.sfx.100 Korean Grammar Chapter lV 101 4. of the low represent- Imperative sentences formed with one of the imperative mood endings are not always distinguishable from declarative sentences formed with one 0 f the homophonous declarative mood endings.' (a) !:L I ::!. 4.] csncsnhi bobsida 'Let us see [itlslowly. Propositive Mood Endings There is no pro positive mood ending for the low formal style.5. whereas are The high plain style is lower and less polite than the low formal style. without the honorific uffix -si-r-isi-.1. although identical in form to those of the declarative mood. Declarative Mood Endings (a) 0 I ~_<t -ol-io VIC-form (after stems with Zero t.3. However imperative sentences. IL is the style most often used between equals and by superiors to people of lower status.1.sfx.2.3.2.) These endings. Declarative Mood Endings (al 1.± IISII diso 'Help IJ}~ cll. 'take quickly'). 4.g.g.1 -de (retrospective ending) (d) ". ell 'ld u:i \. thoughcharacterized by the same type of intonation as declarative sentences are.g.) preceded by a non-Zero t.)± muli malgso 'Water is clear.'L nado hatju! ao '1 know how to do [it] too. e.5.. are often distinguished from the latter by (a) a higher and more abrupt pitch contour and (b) a stronger tress associated with them.2.2.2.1.5.' clo hagutj» 'Do as you please.1.2.1. VIC-form (prorni (c) ]:. Interrogative sentences formed with one Ihe interrogative mood endi ngs are characterized by lntcneme R.' 'i!.3. Low Formal St yle The low formal style is lower and consequently less polite than the hizh formal style._5L -ol-io VIC-form T~ -guljtl (with processive verb stems only) 4.l. Propositive Mood Endings -bsidaribsida VIC-form ~ol~- 'l!- {l. The high formal propo itive mood ending -bsida/sibsida.1.3.!L -o/sio VIC-form .J and 7. However.g.3. when ir <>lA~ E. e. irrespective of speech style. 7.' mulsbobsida ~ol~Fr-~ dali t ssgutj» 'The moon has risen. High Plain Style 4.3. as well as all other lower styles. e. and by people of higher social status to those of a lower one .3. imperative ~ -so (b) Mood Endings :<J 11 %1 :.! ~il -d snde (retrospective ending) sive) Dr declarative sentences formed with one of the declarative mood endings characterized by Intoneme LF or HF (cr.1. -'T-£j~ ii}A] i'_ Juiilil 4.1. {f 7~·q}1OJl ~ oj *A1 t:. i.sfx. differ from the latter intonationally.5.3. those Formal style.gat! gilisibsida 'Let us draw [it] together.5. e.1. may be treated as the exponent of the low formal propositive mood. all pro po itive mood endings.' !. Unlike the inflectional endings of the high formal style..£ '5Fi'-ti maimd hasio 'Be careful.sungjstjnante 'Let's ask the policeman.3.5.2.g ~ll-lIIsel-imse. ir is hardly used by children. are single morphemes ing both the categories of speech style and mood simultaneously..3.3. 'i£~ o}.' r:l. neil i1IJ1(1sio 'Are you leaving tomorrow?' .2).£0] ::J_ *).4.

~ pJ -€5'l ~7. male or female. / ~7} (e) -e7l'\'i~] -ninga (after V.t-I] -ge.' "i}~l -rei .' Of the first three endings. Mood Endings Mood Ending 0] ~l 41 A] Ije swige 'Rest now.form only when il combines with the present tense Suffix.g.l-(j}/ila boasna 'When did you see?' oi:'::. .p. must be preceded by a non-Zero tense suffix when occurring with processive verb stems.ro] o]~l (d) ~ J7} 1%'71.sfx. Imperative .~ All igllSi catbin]a 'Which one is short?' -!j!-<. PropositiveMood Ending All -se. Declarative (0) (b) ± 2-]7j- At--] jani 'Are you sleeping?' '--r-'::. g (c) o} I _Q. and is not preceded by any tense suffix except Zero.') ' ~:Fr1--J' rt/ldo kssguna 'You have grown up too!' "[:j T-'--!' nal! dsbgun« 'ltis hot!' 7H::-i'-I.sfx.5.3.3.. 4.102 pronouns Korean Grammar Chapter IV 103 Verbs with the ending-mse/-imse can have as their subject the first person only. 4.1...' ~I] 7} (b) '-. Inrerj ecti val endings sucbas o]ir -ila (after a noun) (after-a verb) may also be listed under this headi ng. used by adults to children.u} -ma/slma VIC-form.}'--IAI/Je VIC-form .' ~1l&1 5'. -ni is more colloquial ami more used between close friends than -nin]a or -nja/nn]a.' r n 4..1.:i "'] 7}cil gibhi jAli gade '[She] went there in a hurry [I recall].p.4.71. only) ~} 01 :. e.1.1.t.. The interjectival ending -guna.5. and indicate 'future promise' or 'intention' by the speaker.sinmunit ilgAsninga 'Did you read the newspaper?' ~.' ca hanjan hase'Let us have a cup of lea.g. The ending -guna takes -nin.: .5.' nega hejumse '1 will do it for you.j ~~ 01 fJ..>.1.7Jl ncljs age 'Come down.s.-!a (fou nd only with -dlo-._f pulin]« 'Is it blue?' o.71.5. but 1)0 such restriction applies when it occurs with descriptive verb stems..1. e. [I remember].' ¥. which is used usually by adults in talking to youngsters.3. and it is also the standard style of written Korean.3. -mse/simse (d. (lit.' (e)L}! .' '}).:j ~il u« 1Sd«nde '[He] was Iyi ng In bed [I remember].E .1. after Yd.} ijeganingulJo '(You) are going now!' and ~e]c. '1 will buy and come.3. ~ 0] ¥.._1. Interrogative Mood Endings (0) Like. na '1'.-tko/-ilka ~ '.5.g.2. (d) cJ I t:1] I \! -dil-de/-dAn retrospective ending 4. e.3.e.AnigAS! Johinga'Which one is good?' ..!~ '6-tcJ mWASJI hodi 'What did [he] do [as you recall]?' x-?-i!{} i5}'i:! noteiit had sn 'Did [she] sing [as you recall]?' Mood Endings 4..1.. etc.g.3.lAI]mal ut ssili:« 'Has she really cried (I wonder]?' 4.uncertainty A}_"-_"} nega saoma 'I will buy [it] .between children. ]il_ ~l] A] OJ-Al] boneji x~ ~1!- -. 4. I.3. 4.3.\. i.2.5..:.2.4.IG (after V. ret ros. only) '--l. only) -ngae-ing« VIC-form (after Vel. prornissive (d) -rY- -guna inrerjectival °r"r 't!LIl7} il~ EJ_ w-'ll °1~il aj« anboine '[It] is totally out of sight..3.0] ~L~ 2-~ kocigobdsla 'The flower was pretty. which expresses emotions 0 [various kinds on the pari of the speaker. Imperative Mood Endings (a) oPe} ! "·]2. uli 'We'. e.5.-t -I.r ~ ~1 71. -ma/iima can have as the subject the first person pronouns only. between intimate friends. e.. Interrogative «(I) 1. Lf -nja/sinja VlC-forlll.f -erla/-Ala q -da alA-form "'I.4.3..'--t.!J..3. -mse/iimse is no! found with any tense suffix except the Zero t.5. Low Plain Style The low plain style is the lowest style of speech in Korean.g. soliga nan inja 'Is there any sound?' -¥-~\.3.p.1.sH] mase 'Let us not send [it].rJ q koci pinda The flower is blooming ._F-ninjaafter V.1).4.7].) (b) 71· at -gllla .3.1 -ni (b) -'::.4.

:<} caJja 'Let's find fit].5. e. e. apart from the context of situation which is usually the only clue leading to the distinction of imperative and propositive mood.£.5. 4. Any restriction on the occurrence of tense suffixes wit h the non-final endings will be noted in the relevant sections..:\ g 'i5}c:ji!..5.3.' z] ulido /1£1)/1 gaa 'Let LIS go down too: OJ-O]7~ {':.5. but not always.' LIS -ai-A a/II-form LlI ~ ~-olA} neil bucija 'Let post [it] tomorrow.0] Ti'-7~ ::<J guduga jal T 7} ~:d o-! Jl nuga jil{J\st\ jo ~ol maja The shoes fir me well.5.2. (c) ~ -gun interjectival The ending -gun. ~ "1 [a! /\SA mAgII ania jo 'Please 'Eat carefully.' This end ing is usually.3.104 (c) \.:0] The first two endi ngs.1.l oj t!~ III oJalii bASilla 'Take off your hat.12} -/JA/a (found Korean Grammar only with -0 'to come') [-0 Chapter IV (b) 105 7. 01 All ~. Imperative Mood Ending 43. the non-final endings do notdistinguish tile five styles of speech.5.1.3 .(1 -a/:« alII-form -. both being characterized by I nronerne LF or HFJ but also in the pitch/stress feature associated with [he imperative ending (4.'to stay'. but -g sla TO -Ja. The non-final endings may be preceded by an appropriate voice suffix and/ or the honorific suffix. and (iii) 'Adverbial Clause Ending'. e.r_ '?)-.5.1. ts.' try soni gobgun '[Your] hand is pretty..1 -i! suspecti ve in form to the declarative (cf.3. cwessnil da hajsla 'Do your best.' . 4.U-.' 2.5. alga UIA 'The child is crying.3.'to sleep'. ~°l-c.a. oJ).j.5.' 1J. %!'. (ii) 'Adjectival Clause Ending'. Propositive Mood Ending A} -ja.4. must be preceded by a nonZero tense suffix when occurring with processive verb stems. any processive verbs.4. Non-Final Endings The non-final endings are classified into three different types according to the syntactic [unctions which they enable verb to perform: they are (i) 'Nominal Clause Ending'.ii!&~ oj] 7}71 <!+ gjohwee gagskr 'Go to the church.5.] .2.g./ ~ -a/:» alA-form Mood Endings .3.}7\·. Declarative Mood Endings (a) (b) ot / ~ .' 4. 'quickly sit down') 4. e.".1.5.5. Unlike the final endings.-o~ -i'-cl5'_ 41r:j ije nola 'Let's play now.5.4. ~ 4. 4. but the humble suffix is only rarely found with the non-final endings.little too high and the low plain style a little too low..l..3.:.5.~ iIi 011Ala 'Come c] here. f-i7<1 doni manhji '[He) has plenty 0 f money..3). such as -ga.3).' sit down.g.'-12. The ending -a/a/-'I/a may be suffixed only a few verb-s.2.Ii suspective Verbs suffixed by this ending are hardly distinguishable from those suffixed by [he homophonous imperative mood ending since they arc identical not only in intonation.' *~ ~ot 4.g.7).5.1. although identical are different from the latter intonationally YA~ ~ cocala 'Follow [him].2)..3.' c-l ~ol "417]' \.-] '?J:oJ-.3.' .g.'to come'. etc.' 'Someone has opened [i t].1). 'It the adult going Ollt?' endings. Interrogative (a) 0].g.1. Propositive Mood Ending -a/-/\ a/A-rorm 4.4.5.4. It can also be used between equals whose relationship is not so intimate as to require the low plain style. Medium Style The medium speech style is between the high plain and low plain styles and is used by elders to those younger where the high plain is [eli to be a .. e.t 0).2.2. like -guna (d.1.g. but (10 such restriction applies when it occurs with descriptive verb stems. AI! inflectional endings of the medium style can function as endings of the low formal style when they are followed by the particlejo 'speech style modulator' (d. e.1.3. I .1.5.' (IiI. distinguished from the homophonous declarative ending by (a) a higher and more abrupt pitch contour and (b) a stronger stress associated with it (cf'.:lllcga 'il<>1 stint nagago is» r/wJasJI' 'Am I not right?' 4. However..3. 3. the presence of a first person pro nou n uti 'we' serves as the marker of the proposirive mood ending..

e.2. .2. e.3.g.1. As all exception.. VIC-form VIC-form past/present future/presumptive 2 / ~ -f/-il A~% oH~ . and csgha..' ~%Ol . whereas -gi onlywith -ha. *~ ~iiJ4 mos bon csghanda '[She] pretends that she did not see [you].g.. 3.3.d A-.4.1. jal)iwalld csgha.g.3. (b) 7] -gi .j-71-'A~ndiIJi algi '[the degree of] the lamp being bright' b balg. 3.>1} ja.. 'Writing this letter is good [for some reason]./lIg.3.' and semantic.g.(cf.<J--r weguge gasdMI JOIJgul7 '[ he general who had been abroad [as I remember].3).[0] . e.or the pas I tense suffix -a!i-I.(l-~ 7~ [anin ge 'the sleeping dog' ti17~. simi Johda _~r. or (ii) 'degree' in the case of a descriptive verb.-c--x ~}c} biga Of/in didhada 'It looks as .}o] oJ. ~ ~}c.g-~ "'. c. the ending -111-i/l may occur with auxiliary verbs didha-.>\5·.: % {win srt:!am'thc man who ran/has run' jibin do:1 'the pebble that I picked up' ""rct with descriptive verbs: (0) Semantic difference -111/-ill1 refers to the abstract side of the meaning of a verb to which it is added whereas -gi emphasizes (i) 'actual process' in the case of a.3.. endings: (a) Distributional both distributional difference The endings -111/-im and -si are different in their distribution with the nominal auxiliary verbs. juggeJ·11 ill sotlnm 'The person who may be dying'. Adjectival Clause Endings Like -nin.only rarely. but with descriptive verbs it refers to the present time.J:~.} ma:li midim jighada '[His] word is worth listening to. There is some difference.. O'j % 71-c sdubg! IIin hada 'It is da rk. cried/was crying' .2.2.5.g. e.g.(]~ ~ 01 w-r:c} ipjlwjili/ ~./lS. 4.4. There arc three adjectival clause endings and any verb suffixed by one of them has the same syntactic function as an adjective: (i) C (ii) (iii) L / :.7.gjn mojo 'a small 7J 7}gi:n gal] 'a long river' cap' The ending -n/-in may be preceded by the retrospective tense suffix -d s.2. ..3.g ~ 'Jl-~ 0}o1 gOl)il Jibil ai 'the.} if} -'{.9.106 4.#7]7} 'F4 ipjAnjili/ sigiga johda 'This letter is good to write' or '1 like writing this letter. [1 remember).juggesit gj AlJlI 'the situation in which you might feel like: dying' . 0] ~. child who will pick up a ball' nl] dali balgil ie the time when the moon is/may be bright' -11 ill ~ present -Ill-in -II-it may be preceded by the past tense suffix -(/5-/-.(cf. e.1.:! 0J"~uld sn ane 'the wife who.'to be bright' Yd.1l may be preceded by the future tense uffix -ge.2..' 01 . (b) in time reference when they are not preceded by any .2.5.2)..2.]~.(cf.1. The three adjectival clause endings are different from one another (a) in ·distribuiion with verbs.g.-"1] :.Ici/ahl adil 'the son who might have grown up' -5f Jl ~ 7cH'.2.:!.]. 3..'10 die'.plus . e.4. between the two (ii) -nr-in may be suffixed to any verb but its time reference varies according to the type of verb to which it is suffixed: with processive verbs it refers to the past time or to an action or event that has been completed. I admit.. It is never found with any other tense suffix' and occurs with auxiliary verbs didha-i jaqha-.1.very freely and by the future tense suffix -ges. (a) tl 1% -m/-im VIC-form other tense suffix.! .~t%jA:ndir]i balgim 'the lamp being bright (that the lamp is bright)' ?j%o] ~.1.g. Nominal Korean Grammar Clause Endings Chapter JV 107 There are two nomina! clause endings and any verb suffixed by one of them has the same syntactic function as a noun.:! . (c) in distribution with tense suffixes and (d) in distribution with the adjectival auxiliary verbs: (i) -nin is suffixed 'to processive verbs only and refers to the present time or to an action or event in progress.if it is raining.2).:.' with prccessive verbs: '1. e.1l.g. c.3). 3.:. p. processive verb. -1"I11-im occurs only with -jigh« (cf.g.1.~-when they occur wiib the verb .' (iii) -/l-il may be suffixed to any verb and refers to the future time or presumptive.4.

. 27<} -goja 7·}t.sfx.g. Any verb suffixed by one 0 r tile foHowing adverbial clause endings has 1he same syntactic functions as an adverb.>:} gilliga gadolog gidalija 'Let's wait until [he beggar goes away. A}l.' } 8. e.-l.'jrlgo / -ujsgo -.' 4. are not preceded by any tense suffix while others may be preceded by a tense suffix other than -n/snin-.x~A}cl-x{t:} hr:galija salajjssda '[It] disappeared as.-Ikumi! kUllljtl. 2. 'while 1 I. e. the more'... A117~ Li'. Zero t.g. Adverbial Clause Endings 711 -ge 'until.s a player and coach.£.-§-:z1 0J~!f::Al h esdinj! soon as' Zero t."'d -~. [he] wakes up' (lit.g..bog sdin mali! h cla 'Tell [him] when you see him. 7-1 -g sna y!f::(7.1. . manha-.' VIC-form } "'.g. tcH7}) -datga) interruption.' .' not 'J.. notetil lu:simjll 1J ~ -l}~ 1::1c1 kocl usssda e.1.JCmi 'Are you sleeping [while] dreaming?' c] dilimjsnss banda 'They see wh i Ie listening.~ 71 c}i!."'r~ -tsutog/iitsutog VIC-form 'the more . u17.:! I.' -.' TlJ--:} <>-Hc.3).(cf'.-1) rii'-}A~ ili! hagotss} i sna]« 'Let's do the job and then leave.g.. ). going comes')..sfx. Zero t. 'wakes up and stops waking 6~ 7} !:E.' These endings are suffixed to V. a"'r~ I _Q.q.2)_ The lime reference of an adverbial clause ending not preceded by a tense suffix is determined by that of a final clause with which the adverbial clause occurs.l·-I-go(sll) 'and then> afterward' (after V.' _e_ -jo and' (after vs: only)..J These endings occur form.gadaga onda '[She] is coming back while on the way' (lit. only...sfx..3.g. ~ 5!_71-§- ~? A] calbimjnn JohJi '[ILl is good if it is short.1 0 let S.sfx.. s.1.5l. pres.~1~ 71-2 t-]--c.} kCjCf //Jolla 'as soon a.1-1 _£_l-} -ne/-ina :od-@.3. dacit bsnhesdo '[IJ was almost hurt.~ 'f' I· I S!. [they] come or go' . e. while'.\)I-i/l1)/I(I1S/1) VIC-form in double -~ ~ 'rt Ai ~ 5_ ??-* '!II A} VIC-form 'at the same rime. 7}. bsbha.J (L ). I.' 4_ } 'whether _.g. c] VIC-form. e. so that' Zero t.p.~Llc1-fj..-}711 rr~ ~ c} soliga nage ietjsk: 'Beat [ill until/so that it makes a noise.and 6.' 109 -II-if may occur with adjectival {)Il/lh(1.'ll~.1.yu. ' up') W 2.g.2 i>}~ L].lIndlll'I/-iliJundllf.' 7.]..?l2-..' in double ..5. the better.l. IV h en . e.g.acimit m sggo hagesda 'I will do it after break fast.. 2~L1211 to live.j 4-0 l. 3. e.108 Korean Grammar auxiliary verbs didha-..g. soon the sun rose. e.sfx. Zero t.2 (..j.fo suffixed to the verb 'to stop"] E. :I!.sna gagsna 'whether og At -ja 'as second tlJ. r. 12.' 10.!It:-J.lij sgo tn sgninda '[We] eat in order .a. Zero t. [This usually occurs I1IU/- form.g. Some adverbial clause endings. e~ I il't:il _£_.' 0]. e.. transference'.sfx. Zero t..sfx.p.t. or' l"l ('--Ai) I ~u. aoj /2-<'1 -m)t\/-im)1l VIC-form 'and'. 7} I::} 7t ~t::.4. butalso.g. e.t -dolog 'until. ~ <'-171· l.'?_7-1l.3.' 3_ jl. q~~~l "§.1.I(j)/\ /-ilUJt\ VIC-f· orrn } 'in order ro'..\ only . e.sfx . marked Zero t.sfx...1) -111)II(ns..~q janenin gaga nanin onda 'You are going and I am coming.libi\Sifj:JLlI1d/I!/1 da II/ilg/lsda 'Not only did J take.~ -gilt III /. -go 'and.-} 71-7-11--1.<. ~ ~ C-} .1. only)..l)-din{Ji) l. with the J 'whether all hddinp [she] did [it] or [did not do it]. ~c} -!lt9-~r bolsurog johda 'The more [ see it.g.sfx. e.j -m)IlIl/-jl7ljllll 7.g. e. 43.3. it but also ate it all.:::il 9. which is found only with the final inflectional ending -da (cr.:I1S1I ijo koci ida '[H e] i. II. J-~..2. 1~-cC} so.£.. 7-1x] 7} Chapter IV so that' Zero t.2.l1-{t -~~ooj ~ol *~etSEga 'Birds sang and flowers smiled.\.

'as.sfx.' . e a...R i} A~( Al..g. only when'. mtro ucer d ) jjttSilmaU]AI] dati isdo 'Even if the sun has set.-l) 7jaH c~ naii malgass gifticla '[1] am happy as the weather is nne.' "J VIC-form 'As the house 'liLt jib! kimilo baqdo manhda is large. because'.·bgun(l 'The bride is there but the bridegroom is not..c.](~}) /2l.~ull 3.AnJIII]I-il)iAnJAIJ 'even if/though' 2: 2: Ale.]-kiga kinde hllJlul]haglllJo '(She] is tall and [ye!.t- it is snowing I-} !J ~J-~ 'itFr \-} sinbunin isina sinlilT)in .g.AI .' !7.i~ 5'_l..~ . d 1 I" -crl 1 -/1Ge -in.' ...:2.e 'Even though Can 1 .d·· (f ter V .' catenating (d.•. } VIC-form '11. he do?' "3H. there is the moon. -na/sina -gi\nman. 4.' iliA/a \-}/ ~1. 1J·o} i.p.pa.• q u]l-l 14. (b) :Jl-go (c) ill -ge (d) A1 -ji s. 5. (L]e) ..7..) 0] oj 2.1.@- ~ <>1. as'. e.J gonbutl! haninde we uni 'I am working .110 Korean Grammar } 'only if.£ -(di\!)adol-Adoa/II-Torm 1}). E.} salmgo isda '[She] is boiling it.' .rl] -/1 inde (afier 1.. l.ause 1 met you').t kige hajsla 'Make it loud. (a) o} loj form.... sajini manhiijsnman might have been many photos -a(SJI)/~A(SA) e..-form ~lof -Iaja (after V..i. Causerbecause.g.}_"'. but' VIC-form..5!.j.E..... what -%-¥-{.bda Concatenating Ending Concarenati rig Ending Concatenating Ending I II III [V ~Hl1 0 'There 'i'£~<. as.2.I gAJ2.-\~ a/II-romi 'and then. 21.3. e. ) V.) Zero t.g. an d' ( tOpIC . Concatenating Every verb ending r 0] ._ -Ijilado/siljiiodo VIC-form 'lJ"1l1 ~.>:1 jagi! .' -rr xl~"'} nu. e. .hlI0I2.ivC verbs may end in any of the four concatenating endings.. 0t<>"j: / oj °t -aja/-Ioja a/t.tie gadwe jam) tllJhage but behaveyourself'./.Sdo '[IJ was happy to see you' (Iit.why are you crying?' 7']7} ~'~I] ~S~g.·ril 5'~ +t.[-1 -1i %t:>J·>:a 'ito] 911:+ hega .. -ge and-p. .}-Tl. since'.) }. a t ioug . ~ 01 3E. ' . upjol if sas t..' * .~·"C.}.xiDJ -jiman 1 1/Lo'I.s_15 .' l.fot().-1%VJA1.g.s}00j r.. tlJ-:<J -miJIJJM)/-i1maIJJIIl] VIC-form '.2. {! .- lJ'. -:£. -na/sina of (15) and -na/sina of (11) are di fferent endings.l2.' 9lc.1.}oljepin ccgilaja 'Only if it is a pretty book .>:1 <d::<J -ljI·. Pro. since. dasi bini jo IJSMwsibsio )\1~::<~ / %.~ I ~% -ndil/-lndit V/C-·form 'As I apologize once more.g.' oj ~ 11]<i"1] buja indil i\}Ahge he [he] is a rich man.gilja nasji '[You] will get well onlywhen/if you take somepills..f:rr ~t::} salma linda '[It] is/gets boiled. Chapter IV 18.}.A} oJ .}'£ mollasdslado ·ii~7]- 'Even if you did not know' 20 . ..5..*EJ <>11 7~SI "J >:j "3}?11 ~ Endings 'You may go to the party All hough identical in form. btl t ilila 'Buy a starnn and stick it on. there are many rooms too. please forgive me. III 13. sf'§oj1..1).'bec.x.. The former occurs in double form whereas the latter occurs in single form.:l_ 'll ~"'J-£ ~ c].. e. e.£ -milo/similo VIC-form. . but' oj r.5!.HJ}~) -ni(ka)/-ini(!w) VIC-form Time: 'when. '[1_1i! /0 <.' Zero t..3. °t :f. The concatenating endings are not found preceded by any tense suffix.£... L}..:l'i! -/jAlll1lanl-ifjIWI1WI1 VlCform 'might/would .:·1 -dwe 'may/might -.CC$S.. which in one of the following four inflectional endings is a conoccurs in the head structure of the verbal phrase 91~ -(11-.] plump.:e. 0]-A1 / oJ. because'. and descriptive verbs in -a/-II.. .\ alA-form: Concatenating Ending 16.' '?ict k~/i anhda '[It] is riot big. e. since. 19. b' .'£ I oj.]~} 7] ~ c} IlAli! bonika gipiJ.3.1..] 'Although oJ AJ -¥..... ut .g. ''It./1lt.ni ajiman wOJi anhda it is not cold.sfx.! o}.. hallj(lIJdo but there isn't even one.' as.' 'r}0l 'i1..

1. 5.:>} %.6) such as giligo 'and' and lonin 'or+as the coordinator. The exponent of the nominal head is (i) a single noun. simple or compound.. after [he verb 'drink'.fAgi H order of the tWO innin 'the pencil which is there. There are three types phrase in Korean: (i) 'Nominal Phrase'. or (iv) a compound numeral. JAgi innin jMlpi! Exp.1:1 du gwt\/1 'twovolumes' o}~ :11] anin ce 'pretending to know' 'oil.:..Ul1 0/ Nominal Phrase two major 0 f the two in careless may be re- sAtlfundoJl/(I/] 'Wide Seoul Stadi lim' S/Ju!tll/dor).:171'J. 'which thing') -¥.4. constituents the above phrase is: :'>:17i9:1. g it is independent 61 ¥ k] -q} i koc 'this flower' 7].U} JA 1111:1'1 gabat) 'thai old brief-case' ¥~ 'fresh milk' occurs in t he same syntactic position as 'mil k'.lib <>J ~o}~ 1.!lAtbi" 5.0 fone or more of its constituents.Chapter V J 13 V Examples PHRASE two or more words and may be substituted by a word of similar syntactic function. e."'J. The phraseconsistsof '[a] house" "II ~J Sf jib '[a] new house' .1. e.4.. 'certain beauti ful one new house' In the examples given above.:. 5. whether or non-independent.sangwa natnu 7J.4.~ The USlIUl jAl'lpil. 'Head' and 'Expansion'. Elements lind Structure ~Ht pulin hanil '[the] blue sky' o-l.1) such as walgwa 'and' and na/ina 'or' or by a conjunctive adverb (cr. river and ship' 112 . (ii) 'Verbal Ph rase' and (iii) 'Relational Phrase'. an English phrase 'fresh mil k' is an endocentric construction since it has the same syntactic function as the noun 'milk'. ~ An i gtlS 'Wh ich one?' (lit.e.1 'C1--8:- ~ .2. or'Expunsion'..~9+ . A nominal phrase is syntactically identical to a single noun .2. In the ph rase 'fresh milk".:>:-1 All ~. head always following expansion.. l_lI"gllU. NOMINi\L PHRASE The nominal phrase is an endocentric construction I consist ing of a noun or il s syntactic equivalent as head and aile or more subordinates as expansion.fA se jib 'that new house' 0l~ l:1·-&.1.'t--t. 01" 5. < 'Seoul' + IIllrlOJ]JaU'stadium' Theeleruenrs occurring in a nominal phrase may be divided into constituents. except and/or informal conversation where the Expansion-Head order versed.5. An endocentrie construction is a construction whose syntactic function is identical with that .i!} '-lJf. 'beauti . H. The order of occurrence constituents is fixed. Drinkfresh milk.2.::_ Al -€. ?iva or More Nouns as Nominal Head The linking cf two Or more nouns that fiJI the head position phrase may be effected either by coordinarorts) or paraiacrlcaily. .l.. .6.g.c.lib new house' or lit.. Nominal Head 5. and 'fresh' 'Su bordirrare".c c::!:>lJ.1. Nouns linked by Coordinatorts} Nouns may be linked by a conjunctive particle (cf.J~ 'a bird and a cat' 'the mountain and tree' 1lllllllllgw(i ga qgwa be 'water. (iii) a nominal group.1.l. in Drink milk. (Ii) two or mote nouns linked with or without coordinators..{!:.=.2. stand in apposition.:1 All 11 aiimaaun JA Sf j ib lit.g.~ '}J I1n j alimdaun hall Sf: lul that . 5.5. or standing in apposition. e.g.1. e. 5. . 12.6 and 3.1.. 'milk' is called 'Head'.1.2. i. simple or compound.4.2.2 oJO] Selva goja/]i L L~OI1"rd lJluomlield.1 D. the noun Jib 'house' is the head and the subordinate words precedi ng the head constitute (he expansion.. 3. the term used in this book. For instance. or the nominal unless they '::! ~:.' Exp.fu(J Ncornp. 3. . 1950. Single Noun as Nominal Head Any noun can fill the position of the nominal head. p. 194.

.i!1.lll9.2-}).}<!.l111 gal) gamcan 'General Gang Gamchan' ~~H9+).. 2. e. 5.gwa. meat and fish' 'film. but in practice they rarely exceed more than three in all. 'Youngchul.g.~.2) since both constructions lack the coordinator(s). .) N2 Nouns standing in apposition are superficially similar in construction to those linked paratactically (cf.. gimgjosu Or -gim .1°.J- '!!l-1-~ uliii jafaI) b egiusan 'Our pride..jacc/wa).j ssulina * 7J 7J"tl..<Jgo 1) gamcan < + gamcan given name There is no theoretical limit to the number of nouns to be linked by coordinators and functioning-as the head in the nominal phrase. . -sost.1. .r. resulting in N2 + NI. . 't1'sa.114 J.jundc/oI)nj111} 'Professor Han'. lnroneme R. Less frequently.1n (9})... derOI}lIjAl) The order of N' and N2 may sometimes be reversed.2.J.2.1. An.>!H.g.:}t! jill)!!.hcngjosu til ~ cJ .i!I1 nrit ionin mole 'tomorrow or the day after tomorrow' dOI)gjA{I %oll.: Examples (a) Nouns in apposition {l cf. Nouns in Apposition Nouns in apposition consist of two immediate constituents. mujol) 'vegetable. 2. N' is most often filled by a family name.g.-~ -i~.gogitwa).jA:ngig {gwa). and N2 by a title or other nouns descriptive of NI. NI and N!.:!~~ jAllc11/sM1be '[my college] senior. e.::il7·19-l).). Nil (the superscript 11 refers to any nurnber.-"J--r gal) gamcan jatjgun NI 'General Gang Gamchan' N2 (lit. e.'111 ~ 2"'r 'Professor Han' (lit. both Nl and N! may be represented by nouns other than personal name and title. .7) and are spoken consequently with a single intonation. play and ballet' (wa). the coordinators that may be added between paratacrically-Iinked nouns are wa/glva 'and' and giligo 'and' only.2.jsnglg.SCl]SAn . which may be realized with any nuclear Intonerne.mujotj J -T.::il o:j f} bom giligo jslim 'spring and su mmer' '-II ". N I is usually marked by Iruoneme L.jj!_. Paegdu' +i!-J2. a given name or by both. -'r% . or -jun . . Yu Inho' It is to be noted that of the coordinators.2.Stl}5/ln .. especially when NI includes both family name and given name.j/\I)hwa. "'i! §:}.g. more frequently.'.3.AJ ( 'vegetable.:>."i'l A. ]::.batm 'applc and chestnut' cf. t1J sa. .2. is accompanied by either lntoneme LF or. e.jill}hwa 'film.2. thus re lilting in the same construction as nouns linked by the coordinators. 'Gang Gamchan General') go IJ surname 7J. 5. c 'i:1.!I!l cana k spi 'tea or coffee' .4-. (lit. 'Yurt President') han gjosu .!j'~+.<J-.l.2.A}.7J- :. N I and N2 each forming a stress group.. 5.!- . N2 my senior') Mt. . Pararactically linked nouns have potentiality of laking the coordinators.gimgwa _U!. 'Kim.g.gjosu 'President Yun'. whereas nouns linked paratactically have the potentiality of laking a coordinator between every two member nouns.. .~Jjun d£I01)njAI) 'President Ylm' (lit.=.~ Korean Grammar Chapter V 115 'Seoul or Tokyo' 7. ju inho NI N" ssnsu ju inho N" N' S11r1SU 'the player. -'~ Aj .. the old man') Youngchul' ~. meat and fish' <:d~('"'-}). or -han .7J. ba.}1+ ". e.. NI Paratactically-linked nouns do not include the coordinator(s) and are linked phonologically by appropriate intonations. "B. na/ina 'or' and lonin 'or' cannot be added between nouns linked paratactically. and sometimes by a nickname.l.jace. ~I cf.::L "'-l. occurring in that order. The structure of nouns linke I either by coordinator or by parataxis may be summarily set out as follows: N I(C) N!(c) W(e) . 'H an Pro fessor') -cjpg.. * 7. Nouns linked by Parataxis to one another :g 3_ oJ gim noin 'Old man Kim' (lit. However. . But in fact they are different from each other in the following respects: 0) Nouns in apposition are not capable of taking a coordinator between I and N2. play and ballet' Nouns in apposition usually form a single stress group (cf. In the examples above.gwa(wa).71. when they are realized as two stress groups. -$. gjosu 'Professor Kim' gjosu (b) Nouns in parataxis A}:i1f-.1 ~~ .!'. In other words. O):. every noun except the last one.~.

. e. junbi N . a nominal group differs from nouns in apposition in that: (i) every member noun except the las! one has the potentiality of taking the adjectival pan iclc (cf. classifier A:}-tJ _9_ ("H) sasibo (WIo/1) A~"Jj/Il]gug NI sa.i11gimbogiOIj.4. Compound Numeral (IS Nominal Head in which "or the last N in the equence is the head and all other nouns preceding N" [he subordinme(s}. every rnern ber noun ora nom.. 'forty five (\Von)' numeral « sasib + a) + WAil monetary unit. which is either meaningless or means 'preparation journey or test journey'.ph.1) and not by a compound numeral (noun) if its last number is one. The subordinates may be further analysed as consisting of the last noun as tile head and other nouns preceding it as the subordinarers). Yu Inho' (b) Nouns in parataxis A-'~-~~. The first constituent of a compound numeral expression must be represented by a compound numeral adjective (cf.t-tl1 aj ~~junbi j shesj.g. which is itself an endocentric construction. a nominal group aj i. which consists of two or more numeral nouns.1. N" 5. two. * {) ~%~ changing . e. However. which is itself an endocentric nominal phra e with the classifier as head. The first of 1WO nouns standing in apposition is usually marked by Intoneme L and followed by plus juncture.4. whereas with paratactically linked nouns. whereas nouns in apposir ion have no such potentiality. aj ~~ ~1iI1 jJlhcl] junl» NI 'preparation ". a nominal group. 3.. For instance.oj i>H 21 II (ii) There is an intonational as well as j unctural contrast between the two constructions. NI N2 NJ .1) and with it constitute a 'Compound Numeral Expression'. but all appositional construction like 7. _laogul1 'Kim Bogdong'sgeneral' the original ·tl? -juinho 'the player. 7J-!.l~ N:' for a journey' (lit. classifier "rJ."'-1 ~ migllgjlll)bll NI N' ~jJ'_ 7~1~· 4 J A jlo:l1gU gehweg jag!.IIIJ walljo NI:' N~ 'the completion of the drawing of the research (lit. has asits (ii) the order of the member nouns call not be altered. the following construction is most frequently used: N + Compound I umeral Expression Examples ~ 01"ilj'_ 'twenty 1:! ceg isibo glVAI1 N five volumes of books' (lit. To express the n umber or quantity 0 r the referent of a noun.~ gitnbogionii meaning.4. e. 'journey preparation') The compound numeral. 3. doijca.116 Korean Grammar Chapter . compound numeral adjective + mali 'head'.\-* }(fJ]gl.'J. oj "!J ylJ)jAlicI] junbi 'preparation for journey' cannot be rewritten as .~ ~ tl1 jl.!/[:Ij JUNbi 'preparation for jou rney' can be rewritten as 5.1) ahin han (mali) 'ninety one (heads) [of sheep]. three or four.uJl -&-.5. thereby result ing in an adjectival phrase standing in subordinate relation to the immediately succeeding noun.3.4. t forms a separate stress group. h cqgi 'motor car and airplane' 5.4.tam N2 'Englishman' slag Nl 'American government policy' < sasibo forty five' compound lJl~ 'i'!y ::<J-¥. if.1~% . For example.>:J-~ gimboglou jOI)glll1 'General Kim Bogclong' can be rewritten as "J-'il.g.1. which may be accompanied by any intonation.{T gill1bogiaDJ{fl]glln but an appositional construction 7d~-% Kim Bogdong' cannot be rewritten as General without Examples (a) Nouns ill apposition fr <:13. 111 ~~ 71 ja.AJ {l (~) samb eg jugsib cil {gw sn) 'three hundred and sixty seven volumes' < . 'research plan drawing completion') plan' Like nouns in apposition.2.:.2. except the last one. 'book twenty five volumes') A}~-:<} oJ +:. may function as the head of the nominal phrase. every member noun is usually marked by lntoneme LF/HF or lntonerne R and followed by tentative juncture. 111 rtll jt\lu:T)ii adj. < ah in han '9 J'.1.8) ii 'of'. is normally marked by lntonerne L. jAlljllSM/ de 'sixteen cars' N 'cars sixteen set ') . whereas that of the nouns in apposi lion is in general reversible. A compound numeral may be lollowed by a classifier (cf. ancl so on.SMISU .g. Nominal Group as Nominal Head The nominal structure: group. nal group.! 'H jadotjca (lit.2. classifier o}~ 1f!(ol-e.:>:.sumbcgjllgsib cil '367' compound numeral + g WAn 'volume'. bi.3. 3.2.2.1.

e.::» . gAff Up to two adjectival clau es (cf.1..1.3.lA/min gi/igo AjAjJin sinbu c AFg.1 sa. Nominal N Expansion 'the young ~~PJ ~ J4iH~ 1 saw yesterday and will meet tomorrow.3.<. 'twenty five volumes' books') ?.ical single adjectival ~H ..-'l isibogwsnii ceg 'the child who is coming coming picking child') girl') /. ~~ jI.! 'sixteen Numeral Expression + ii + N '71 ~1 ). 'a which is old') <the girl who will pick apple(s)' ~ -E:. 'the crowded (and) busy street' (lit.: a: ar 2 <>l"'~ ~ ~J jA/mill giligo IIjApin sinbu -¥CI.± 11 ilgin so Adjectival clauses linked by coordinator: ::L N five volumes -.<.~2 (han Adj. There is no fixed order in which adjectives are to occur within the nominal expansion except that a qualitative adjective (cf. immediately before the head.2).4. 'a red or blue pencil' A djectival clauses linked by parataxis: ".ganin sakun ~ oJl 'the man who is going' one sheets of paper' (lit. 'going man') fiJ. i. 3.2 . (ii) up to two adjectival clauses (cf.~~ol 'i!l-.. though less frequently: Compound 0111.3.2)..4).g. must come last in the series.. 'home (lit.*~0 *"J'tl- 7-1... 5.J salami manhin bogcapan gAIi and which is complicated') paper' 5.IlnigojGI] 'Which locality?' oj _'::.q oj_'::.g.4. clauses linked by a coordinator or by parathe semantically ident.) and beauti ful bride' <1a]l1!!t'i'.{ami tna:nin bogcapan Cl.nurn. or (iv) a com bination of up La th ree adjectives and an adjectival clause. . 'apple CO\\!' The construction N + Compound Numeral Expression may be best described as a special type of appositional construction. e. the following endoceniric construction is also used. and (ii) two or more deictic or interrogative adjectives do not occur at a time.g. 'the street where people are numerous ~}~ ~Olkinja'biI1Jof)i'a large and thin [sheelof] (lit.2.4.) ~. "'JYf.3.:: o}o] Jibe on in ai home' (lit.' ~'41palgan ionin palan jsnpil c (lit.l-j!I·~ ttl ~~t'l sagwal if Tal CM?}" 'an old cow' (lit.*:::<. As an alternative to the one described above..Ani st: gOjol] 'Which new locality?' <>J.2.'tl st: Jib '[a) new house' (sc Adj. AJ.&-01 6% 'twenty ~j- Korean Grammar Chapter V I 19 (lit. 'a paper which is large and thin') It is to be noted that adjectival taxis are far less frequent than clause. 'a young cf..1.} j..-JAmkoAjApinsinbLi Cl.1. J cr.3) may occur as the nominal expansion..118 .1 sa:!ami ma:l1ko bogcapan gAIi CI.//j.4.1fol 'the crowded and busy street' ~'f. 3.fiJ. Cl.JOfJi simul han N Jal] twenty one sheets') 7H:· A}'id.<Z1 of books' (lit. 6. if present. . 'twenty ~ aj -".g.<Jl JII ceg 'that book' (JA Adj.deic.3. 'a pencil which is red or blue') The nominal expansion consists of (i) up to three adjectives..iJ 2.3) are mutually excl usive.) . except that (i) the deictic and interrogative adjectives (cf. 'a bride who is young and beauti ful') cars' (lit. they are linked either by a coordinator such as giligo 'and' or 10n. Adjectival Clause(s) as Nomina! Expansion .:::<J.sAddeii jadotjca N sets' cars') jGl}ii JOIJi 'twenty one sheets of paper' . 'paper _2_:'.i ~ "'-12 oj oj ~ . e. CI. 'sixteen oJ~ !lje bon giligo neil manna! man whom ~ ~~ ~~ ~~ Cfll]njMI L:%?J -'1fEi 5.qual.3.4.g.2 and 3. jI.e..00.&-0] simuthan 'a young and beaut i ful bride' ~~2 C (lit. Adjective/s) as Nominal Expansion ~ Any adjective and any combination of up to three adjectives may occur as the expansion of the nominal phrase.. (iii) one or more adjectival relational phrase (cf.11 'or' or by parataxis..:" ~ All "J! Alii han se ceg '[a] certain new book' . 5.3. 6.}'tl- 7-12. When the expansion consists of two adjectival clauses.2.Jd ¥.

. the two examples.1...2). except for the.cl. + Exp.. scparat ing Ex p.\i!. the nominal translates 'the woman's voice which is beautiful'..>:1. Nomina! Phrase embedded in a larger Nominal Phrase Although theoretically unlimited.1 Hi H 11. voice' There is a tendency. Language.•. See R. + H Npi EXp. 'raj brave young man' may be interpreted in two different ways depending on where 1he first IC WI is made.] ~::L't gjosuiijs...3. but if it is made between Exp. Wells. han sigsikancllf)!ljlln Adj. found in a nominal expansionis L~~ in general the numberof adjectival relational phrases not more than three inall. especially in spoken language. ~~ '1J sn] han johin Adj. as shown by the following formula: NP .-J~. .1. o.1] V new car' 12l jot more adjectival relational phrase may occur as the nominal expansion. for the particle if to drop when a series of it occurs in the nominal expansion. Adjectival Oneor Korean Grammar Relational Phrasets) as Expansion (cf. lib Adj. 2312..\i!. Adjectives 4 and Adjectival Clause as Expansion A nominal phrase of the structure Exp.. 'the streets of Seoulthat o}%r::}-&- Exp.J jllJ3ii mcgsoli Exp. I HI H 'the beautiful woman's cingu(iij apJ"iii sAnsf:l)(iij tal gjosuii jA:ngu(iij gjrdgwa 5.1.g. 81-117. S.f:. e. .•.1.1 Exp.-IJ. adj. N" -t.2i .1 ncga bon.3..'that who-comes-From-Seoul 91 '-oj- N3 1/ ••.g. SIIU/ii gn!i 'the results of the professor's research' (lit. thus sistswa 1.9.\l7\- ~ Aj~-. alimdaun j'ljaii //Iogsoli 'the beautiful woman's voice' Up 10 three adjectives and an adjectival clause.~~ ).3.120 5..}:gl ~± c.nguli + + 1-[1 EXp. of N + ii.•.or-. Exp.*.••••..1 + HI Very 0 rten a tentative j uncture occurs after Exp: in the above formula. gi ssuless all cAlJnjAfI Adj.2i o}~~ M].' and HI.}7J srn sni]! ab sjiii sajin '[my] mol her's father's photo' . adj . leaving as many as would be required to avoid ambiguity For instance..' + HI may in some: ins lances be subject to more than one st ructural interpretat ion and consequently give rise to semantic ambiguity. may occur as the nomi nal expansion. the one belonging to the embedded NP and the ot her to t he larger NP of which the embedded NP occurs as head.4'-2..\» 2.•. e.!j'-21 ot+)(] dotjmuii alASi '[my] friend's uncle' .'. occurring in any order..2i "'{Jgjojugii him 'the power of education' "'1' u-j Y £j o~~ .. restrictions stated in 5.1 7j 2. with the first-cut coming between Exp. pp...l. the same phrase translates two different IC curs may be shown 'the voice ofthe by the following beauti ful woman'. A more complex nominal phrase may comprise an NP as its head.4.tt8"J Ojj \:l..cl. diagrams.] . from Exp. Adj. and every such NP includes two expansions.. Exp... 5. J 947.9.3.] ~ T.9.L3 .g.l . <>1 oj Y naif sm sn! 'my mother' %. young man') Sf :L Al& <>1\ AI ~- o<J'd A nominal its IC (Immediate Nil/ expansion con sisti ng of two or more adjectival Constituent): structure as follows: exhibits 'lila! young man from Seoul' (lil. each consisting phrases 01 Chapter o}%t.•••. -.cl.d. I. adj. adj. i alinidaun Sf co 'this beautiful Adj . For instance.. Adj. The .J ~ cinguii GjASW Snf/Sf:l)ii tal '[my] friend's uncle'steacher's daughter' I saw' alimdaun.given above may be rewritten as: . e. 'a certain nice new house' 5. and Exp.. "he results of research of the professor') Exp.H Npi NP _.

1 alimdaun <-I ~'---. + Exp. The syntactic function. i. will be discussed at the clause level and the present section is devoted entirely to a discussion of the internal structure of verbal phrases. + hila progr.2. grill and eat' (ii) Nucleus + Satellite 71-2. Sat.. mogsoli 'voice' N. PHRASE Where! he verbal head consists of two Or more full verbs.::i:<!. 'EXpansion' and 'Head'. The expansion.) consists 0 fone to three full verbs and 'Satellite' which consists of one or more auxi liary verbs. consisting of an adverb or an adverbial phrase.cl. jA!{[ -&-± cj ii mog!.n Nucleus Head (Satellite) °H-Ll·_.aux . 5.'_J~J fIla 1/ mar:' "he voice 0 f the beautifu 1 worn an' Expansion NP atimdaun '(who/which) is beautiful' adj. isan optional element and so is the satellite.ph. and Exp.a whole. 3.Nuc.} 'B'~cl ja.l.5.122 (i) o] . despite its central importance in Korean syntax and indeed in grammar as. 4.o:jAt2.ofi 'the woman's voice which is beautiful' Hli . which was very rare. V. 'to be wanting to go running' < lwiJl'running' + gago 'going' + sip« 'wanting 10' + hugo 'proc. Exp. is analysable into successively smaller constituents in the manner shown by the diagram.4.'f:.' in the nominal phrase comprising an embedded NP and 'this phonological feature serves to distinguish. in spoken language at least. occurring in that order. This.e.fmtv.. A<. < jibA'picking up' + Jidapasv. Sat. Allin Exp.JibA jida 'to be picked up' Nuc. (ii) 'L. For instance.2.g. VERBAl. (wiA gat/a 'to go running quickly' Nuc.. jAj{l 'woman' N.' Vaux.-~u:j .:11:].3) as required by the immediately succeeding verb. no word of any class can intervene between any two elements within a verbal phrase. of the verbal phrase is exclusively determined by the inflectional ending suffixed [0 the verb of such a phrase.t.9). Apart from a modifying particle tcf.h a non-final ending.or three-verb phrases and was fragmentary. a verbal phrase may function as a clause or sentence on its own when its last verb is inflected with a final ending.5. This chapter attempts to describe the structuring a f the verbal phrase in such a way that a complete pic! ure may be shown.---::--:-:::-~~_JI I TEXp.. a plus juncture or le-ss frequently a tentative juncture.. it hardly went beyond two. the former from the latter type.~ cj. 5. The head is further analysedinto 'Nucleus' which . As stated earlier. Korean Grammar Chapter V 123 4-&- <..2 . v.3 . H < [al 'well' + hada 'to do' Efl <>! 71-cJ. NP H ~.) sibla '[ I1 wan t to go. + H type where Exp. Elements and Structure of Verbal Phrases The verbal phrase has two immediate constituents..fmtv. however..' . gago 'going' + sibla 'to want to' 1i.vc. c~ gaga The verbal phrase.v. (iii) Expansion + Head . !fl o:j 7~2 11 o-J io}. and especially rhe external distribution.? Vaux.. every verb except the last one must be inflected in one of Ihe four concatenating forms (cf. has been given an incomplete and unsystematic treatment up to now.' Nuc. Even when a discussion of the verbal phrase as such was attempted..lv. H twill gada 'to go running' < j1tlin 'quickly" + .. adjectival or adverbial clause when it is suffixed wit..e.l<. . < 'il 0.( hada 'to do [something] well' Exp.aux. or as any non-final clause such as nominal. or 0 r oneor more full verbs plus one or more auxiliary verbs.fmtv.!Ad v. [wiA gogo SiPA hago j(jia Nuc. The verbal phrase structure may be set out by the following diagram. The IC analysis of (i) refers to the structure of an NP comprising an embedded Npi as its head.1.adj. Sal.' + H whereas that of (ii) refers to an NP structure of Exp. (i) Nucleus only 1. i-i 'of' Pcl.a tentative juncture is frequently found between Exp.zJo} 7~t:111t1111t1 T"i gada 'to go over' < nnmr: 'crossing' + gada 'to go' t!j" c] jaba gUll mllg/a 'to catch.ij 4£l alimdaun Exp.

1. However the relation obtaining between 'Nucleus' and 'Satellite'.d. and (c) its function as an adverbial Syntactic "J-~ clause as in Relations'. however. by the inflectional ending suffixed to the last auxiliary verb in the satellite. For instance. H '[0 Chapter V go even if he wishes to.1). ganda '[He] is running away' (goes running) run' V. 'they have caught the tiger and are going away').tr.1.' 'Expansion' (or subordinative! determinants regularly precedes 'Head' (or determines. according to l he type of verbs included in it.p. are all made possible by the satellite.' < nilg. who wishes to go'.} boibnida '[Shel looks young. and so on.'to be bruised'.'[0 get old 1~oj . II. adverb precedes verb.1. is rather unique.124 ~~~2 OJU 1I1. here represented by gago 'going'. as in other "Iuranian' languages.2. the function of the verbal head as a whole in various syntactic positions is determined exclusively by the satellite.'to be young' V. A one-verb nucleus is most frequent. erc. transitive and intransitive. 5. and a three-verb nucleus is very rare.tr.] c]. Accordingly. The satellite. [he satellite that consists of two auxiliary verbs cannot occur 011 its own and perform any syntactic function unless it is preceded by the nucleus. ganda V..4.1. ..i nIL V. d.2. Descriptive verbs may occur as [he exponent of a one-verb nucleu but no multiple-verb nucleus may include. each inflected in the concatenating form I except for the las! one. or to be more precise.1. the nucleus is subordinate to the satellite. which can occur on its own independently 01 [he satellite. since it is (the last auxiliary verb of) the satellite which determines the external distribution of the verbal head and ultimately the entire verbal phrase in which the satellite occurs.Iii/III. sip« honda '[he] wants to go' Sat.. a passive verb derived from bo. c. to be shown.1. Nuc. (i) 1:l. by the criterion of syntactic function.!i!. the nucleus which consists only of intransitive verbs is an intransitive type and has the same syntactic funct ion as an intransitive verb. ~~ ~~ Korean Grammar ~~~2 SII):\ hago idla Sal. Thus. ~o}t:!J9:11. '[Tiley] are taking the tiger with them' (lit.-j bab.1.1. This criterion justifies taking the nucleus as central and the satellite as subordinate to the former.~ 'lie} gago Nuc. 'The Fundamental Nuc.\ gago Exp. (b) its function as an adjectival clause as in gago SiPA h{1II in cingu 'the friend Nucleus of Transitive Type ~% ~·0l- 7J-C} brent]! jaba a v.I/li iwj.d'. Transitive and Intransitive Nucleus The nucleus is of two different types. Head of Verbal Phrase In Korean. 'il 'L. a two-verb nucleus less frequent. (a) the occurrence of gogo sip» honda as a complete sentence. T.~ _Ii!. Bazcll. the satellite is central and the nucleus only peripheral. On the other hand.' 125 ~4 gaga SiPA hajndo iliad ganda '[He) cannot ad v.1. 'Did you eat your slipper sitting down?' . I C. cI..g. be wanting to go running very far' < aJII 'very' + InAIIi 'far' + twill gaga 'to go running' + SiPA liago idia 'to be wanting to' 5.'to V. The first position of such a nucleus may be filled by any descriptive verb or by some processive verbs such as n its 'to grow ol. or consist entirely of descriptive verb. 7JC} 5. In respect of the syntactic function(s) of the verbal head as a whole. IIIAfjdil.'to be seen.. adj.2. e. is syntactically bound and therefore unable [0 perform any syntactic function by itself unless it is preceded by the nucleus which is syntactically free.g.. oJ c}nilgd boindu '[He] looks old. The nucleus which includes one or more transit ive verbis) is a transitive type and its syntactic function is the same as !hat of a single transitive verb. On (he other hand. Nuc. to seem'.' < JII/I1I. adjective pre· cedes noun.g. in [he verbal head 7]'2 ~l<>j twi» < 111'1'. 3.1.1 o anjll III!\gJIIllli V. E. consisting of one or more auxiliary verbis). may occur as the nucleus of a verbal phrase. Nucleus of Verbal Head One to three prccessive verbs (cf. with the exception of two-verb nuclei of which the second verb is boi.intr.tr.p. e. the two constituents of the verbal head.'to see' V.

intr. except for the last one.' -ii"{. '[He} is drinking wine lying down' (lit.il gu« jatla noadta o V. V.'to want to' . 'He is wanting to go'). as in the following example with multiple negations. But in practice not mote than five auxi liary verbs occur in the verbal head. for negation. cannot be directly followed by the auxiliary verb is.'1.>:1 <ZJc].aux.>:] .inlr. Vtr . Examples 'll q 7~2 ~ <>i jaga V.A1.intr. negation.' 5. verbal head of processive type or of descriptive type. v.'to want to' and (1I1h~.tr. etc. 'crawling went.:. each inflected in the appropriate concatenating form. verbal head of descriptive type can have the progressive tense unless it is first transformed into a processive type by means of one of the processive verb forrnatives such ss. sibi:i'to want' Vaux. mAggo sipji anhda Imllgko sibc! antal Nuc.1 7}""r'"_A} koci.intr. V.' 'Let us Nuc. V. e. 'sitting resting shall we go?') giA gadi« the auxiliary verb anhda. may be repeated any number of'times.aux.aux.').} --"t"9l C1' pal).g. V. cut. ([}tl].2 jaga jigo lsda '[It] is becoming small. '1 don't want to eat. On the other hand.'. '[He] wants to go' (lit. For instance.2 ~::>:1 ~l"CtmAggo slpji anhda ') don't want to eat' the two auxiliary verbs sip. ¢}.incr. 'U"C~ *joggo isda l1L} The satellite which is the optional element in the srruct lire of the verbal head consists alone or more auxiliary verbs. anh-. '[She roasted..aux. '[Itl is becoming small. Thus a verbal head consisting of a descriptive verb and the auxiliary verb ji-.1. 1i cl . V. .. Vaux. . a verbal head consisting ofa prccessive verb and the auxiliary verb sip. and served 1 he bread. Satelliteof Verbal HeM d.'10 want 10' is a head of descriptive type and behaves syntactically as a descriptive verb such as jag.tr. selects the concatenating ending -}i for the immediately preceding verb sip.d.. FOT 111stance. '(. ji-. any more than a descriptive verb can. ~:k0} 91 "l 7.:i!.aux. negation. gaku}a V.aux.. dwe-.' a53 processive verb i5 a head of processive type and behaves syntactically such as ga. Vimr.:i!. ~ iiso isda. isda v. The num ber 0 r auxiliary verbs that may be found within a satellite is theoretically unlimited.2.l?7~ anja 5wiA galka V.2. IHiA T"1 "F'J c} sulit (ii) Nucleus ofIntransitive Type 71o-J 7}4 '[He] went crawling' (lit.t. r::t . a head of descri pt ive type lik e 7}.l" ~I zil"ct gaga sibci anci anci anci anci anta '[IJ do no! do nOI do not do not want to go/ < gago 'to go' V.' V.. i.- tala masinda o V. A general statement may be made as follows with regard to various functions of auxiliary verbs which constitute the satellite of the verbal head: (i) Every auxiliary verb in the satellite determines the concatenating form in which the immediately preceding verb.(1 ~.intr. 'wine lying pouring out is drinki fig').d.gago sipda '[1] want to go' Vp_ Vaux. gago sip« hago isda V.ro} ?d -cl)aga jinda V.lr. V.'to go': j~2~X+ ~o~ gago Vp. Sat.126 Korean Grammar Chapter <!:j2 V 127 ¥-~ -e-J 0.'to eat'. (ii) Every auxiliary verb in the satellite adds to or modifies the meani ng of the verb(s) in the nucleus. Vaux.aux. V. Vaux.ha-. 'running comes').which in turn selects the concatenating ending -go for the full verb in the nucleus m sg» 'to eat.lmr.lr.1. . V. -'¥lol ~E} twi» onda '[He] is coming running' (lit.lr. For example in~. '[[t] becomes small.im r. 7]2 1.d *}. For instance. V. is to be inflected.0 be small'. in the following verbal head.e. whether if is a full verb in the nucleus or another auxiliary verb in the satellite. (iii) Some auxiliary verbs determine the type of the verbal head in which they occur. V.. V. V. add their respective meanings to the meaning of the nuclear verb IIi Ag. plant flowers and look after them. 'Shall we sit down and rest before we go?' (lit.>:1 '1!€ 7'] ~.1.' 11"<'.'progressive tense formative'.p.. and consequently neither a descriptive verb nor a. '[He] is going. ~.lr.' V. Nuc. sims o V.:.:r.

11 ne- l.5.1. 4.2. as auxiliary verbs are not concatenated in a disorderly manner.3.}mosha- 3.4). or ends in.1. sahI O.(cr.1. Ciassification oj A uxiliary J7erbsaccording 10 Concatenating Restrictions in this section auxiliary verbs will be classified into four different groups according to the concatenating form in which they require the immediately preceding verb. However.aux. [he entire verbal head is also processive and may be followed by any other auxiliary verb.2.2.:li.2. which.3 for examples.1 J . and then each auxiliary verb in each group will be discussed in [urn <IS regards other relevant features.. I.3).3 for examples. See 5.3).2.~ - 2. or ends in. 'U4l1lAggO V. or a nucleus plus a satellite. . 7~ ga12.and dwe.2.tr.1.1. See S.3. Rilles all the Distribution within Verbal Head 0. of processive type.is a processive type.3).2.3.andmoshamay follow a nucleus.E_ 1'. Auxiliary Verbs oj Croup JI aniha.1. 5. '[ttl is [being] torn. passive voice formation by the auxiliary verb ji. 4.is eithera processive or a descriptive type. '-:J:lI1al- _1l bo5. but nor by a processive auxiliary verb unless it is first tran formed into a processive type by taking a processive formative such es ji-.2. 0- All auxiliary verbs of group I arc processive. .1. it cannot be followed by an auxiliary verb of proccssive type links ir is first of all transformed into a proces: ive type by taking a processivc verb The classification of auxiliary verbs into the four different groups on the basis of the morphological restrictions imposed by the auxiliary verbs 011 the immediately preceding verb (cf.2. with the exception of ji which may follow a nucleus.are auxiliary verbs 0 r both proccssive and descriptive type whereas mal. -0/-/\ (cr. ha-.2. 5. to be inflected.1.vc.1.1.e.3.2.2.-Ji}aniha- 2..1 and 5.e. *i.J '}j EJ. whereas mal.( Auxiliary Anyauxiliary verb of this group requires the immediately preceding be inflected in the concatenating form ll. mandil-.3). isda '[He] is eating. of both processive and descriprive type.2.. Y. i . aniha. A verbal head whose satellite consists of.1. 4.1. 9.1.C.e. L 1. ho-.tr. 5. 4.Irmv.2. If it is proccssive... 1:J1.follows on ly [hal of processive type. However.3).aux.1.1.5.3 for examples.1. 1. 4. must appear when followed by an auxiliary verb. de8. or a nucleus plus a satellite.3).g.5. oJ-l. A verbal head whose satellite consists of. or a nucleus plus a satellite.!' 1. and progressive tense formation by the auxiliary verb (cr.and may follow a nucleus.' II [ verb to V. i.2.1.3 for examples.1.. one of the auxiliary verbs of group III i itself <I processive type and may be followed by any other auxiliary verb.2.2. verb to Verbs with other Verbs I.2. i.1.2.. Any auxiliary verb of this group requires the immediately preceding be inflected in the concatenau ng form I It.2. of prccessive type on ly. but if it is descriptive..1 and 5.2.2.1. ~acc noll3 . verb of this group requires the immediately preceding in the concatenating form I. -ge (cf.-~ no4. a nucleus plus a satellite. or ends in.1.1. mandil.1. A uxitior» Verbs of Group 1 Any auxiliary verbs of group III are processive and may follow a nucleus. verb (0 be inflected 1. or of bOI h process: ve and descriptive type.1.1.. or a 11 ucleus pl us a sntelli te.1. i:i}<\ Jillc/a is- formative such nsji-.'negation' Or mosha.j u6. 5. -i! (cf.3. 5.128 Korean Grammar Chapter V 129 (iv) Some auxiliary verbs supplement and extend the morphological formations of voice and tense.2.2.e. e. . the entire verbal head is also descriptive and may be followed by a descriptive auxiliary verb. or ends in one 0 r the auxiliary verb.. til. full or auxiliary.1.' V. 5.3. l.2. 2.1.2.2.2.2. it does nOI specify in detail what type of verb may wecedeor follow a particular auxiliary verb.2). Accordingly aniha.1.'negation' (cf'. is vitally important for the correct understanding and generation or verbal heads.1.4. ~l dwe- 5.1.2.and mosha..2. 5. of both prccessive and descriptive type.2.1.2.1. and dwe.. especially of long and COll1- .1.1. depending on whether the preceding verbis) j processive or descriptive. one of the two auxiliary verbs of group 11 is itself a descriptive type and may be followed directly by an auxiliary verb or descriptive type such as anilta. i. U1.ha- 2. -go (cf.3. A usiliary Verbs oj Group ~o. See 5.1. Sec 5.1 bsli9 .2.1. 'i!% mandil- 3.5. x] J iII.2.'1 diti7.1. All auxiliary 5.<. Auxiliary Verbs of Croup IY verb to Any auxiliary verb of' this group requires the immediately preceding be inflected in the concatenating form IV.(cf'.1. full or auxiliary. 5.or tuosha.1) shows in wh ich or the four concatenating forms a verb.pasv. i. A verbal phrase whose satellite consists of'. of group I is itself a processive type and may be Followed by any other auxiliary verb. 111 sip- These auxiliary verbs are descriptive and may be preceded by a nucleus. A verbal head whose satell ite consists of.

X y'p Y x' -> Y P Nucleus The abbreviations Satellite The restrictions (i) and (ii) are to be read: 'if a descriptive full or auxil. whether full or auxiliary. al:hOl:gh in practice it rarely repeats itsel f more than five times U1 all..'does not occur. ' Examples 'i'i"t:j.' (iii) used in the rule above are: X = Processive full verb(s) x = Processive auxiliary verb Y = Descriptive full verb(s) y = Descriptive auxiliary verb (The superscripts 1 and 2 are used for reference. subject only to collocational restrict ions.1). ylxlylX2. ha-.1i"0}71. Exemplification of Verbal Head y'x': mage! anke dwesdla '[Ill has not become clear. xly2..g. J i-. as indicated by the arrows.. tions on the choice of an appropriate concatenating form and any limitations which will be mentioned in the exemplification of each auxiliary verb in the following section will generate correct verbal heads.f7l] "ilr. vertically.1.>:j 'i'.2.) X y'y'yJ: til2 1U·1 ?'§~l ~c~ mogko sibci anci anta lit. is open-ended and therefore the xly expansion may be repeated theoretically .1. 5.130 Korean Grammar Chapter (f) Y y1xly2x'. the latter must be one of the processive verb formatives.. etc.' V ~t:. (i) tho.3. i.' msgk» siar: honda 11 <>J ~. p- X ylX> _... either of which may in its turn be followed by x~ or v'.. ln the application of the above rules the followi ng restrictions must be observed: (i) (ij) ji-.any nUI~lber of times.1.' (c) XX'X!yl: I!j. v'. as conditioned by the criterion of the process: ve/descripti ve distinction of verbs...2.) The above rule is to be read from left to right as follows: The nucleus X or Y may be followed by x' or y' in the satellite.2. They may be brought together here and collapsed into a single rule as follows: etc. have already been made at relevant places in the sections deali ng with the feu r groups of auxiliary verbs (cf. y1 may be represented by mosha. 5.aniha.2.or aniha.j- 131 plex type. Simple satellite consists 01 one auxiliary verb. x2 and Y" in the satellite structure are free to combine in any order and in any direction. dwe-. e. 'R.2 'R.} matga jigo idia £j~t:. Processive fmtv.se with ~impl~ satellite and (ii) those with compound satellite. which is optional. The satellite structure. bage! motaji anta lit..>J i:} msgke hago sibla 'J want to make him eat.g. . e.. XiX" y'x'.e.) y yly2: ~i"A'1 *-&p(j . This restriction is to be read: 'if a descriptive full or auxiliary verb is followed by one or more descriptive auxiliary verbts).iary verb is followed by a processive auxiliary verb.' Examples-of verbal heads will be divided into two types. ha-.' The application of the rule given earlier in conjunction with l~e .:i! (b) X Y'X':~. The statements on the distribution of auxiliary verbs with other verbs in the verbal head structure..'(0 want to' when mosha. horizontally or diagonally. and y2yJ . etc.unless v' is preceded by sip.>:] *ii}7rl <5}2 'I wan! him not to eat. x'y'.lmAgi::imotagehagosibia '[Ill is getting clear..] 'i'..)c711 "iJ%2 &<>J niagci anke mandilgo SiPA honda '[He] would like to make it not clear. xlyIX"ylx'x2. 'Ur. Or yl or x I respectively. by aniha. '1 do not not want to eat' (I want to eat. [It] is not not bright' (It is bright. _ \y I Y )1 mosha'j \ C11lIha- aniha.J . [Y y l y'yly' .res~ric.' (d) y x'y': (e) Y '. dwe-.>. into the processive and descriptive types that is directly relevant to the manner in which auxiliary verbs combine with one another and with full verbs in the nucleus.j.. and compound satellite of more than one.:i!. Thus the following sequences are possible: (a) X x 'y': ~ 7j1<5~. yly2.} '[She] would like to eat. ylxl. It is the distinction of verbs. x'.

2i!.aux. ~-~ 'M-ot -'c~oli:'.} gilgSllli/171t1gll denda '[He] is eating noodles again. "Ji'.'to ear'.\ bogedia X x '[I] will try and read [itj lying.aux..2. . ~ o-J X x X x present or to- to.' o. '{. Wj de.' sitting [even if you don't intend lO]?'J 2. etc.'. ..' x 'The old man has prayed for the past two clay.11t:<. <>1 £ ~'6}oj ~}c~(lj.' 612¥-o-J ~q1J} {(Ju .' when preceded or 'to become' ~}Ol *0-1 Al~t:j.'to blow'.\.v. IISI1 'Die! you lease him too m uch?' continuation 'Why do you keep all laughi ng?' 1II11g11 X x 4'.~dutl.V..inrr.y~ . '* 5!.J t:-} jal gajind« Xx JibA.1..u.p.p.' 9.hon. Jalla Chapter . repetition.3. -r JlIX Vp.2.+~ol '3jo-l~ r sajini cigs jinda The picture is [being] taken. e.1. A] (a) ji- Vp. X end.o-j ~. completion..p.t:} /alil salma sann! progression wards the speaker [towards a goal] from past (Q 2i:....g ..llllko x [IJ pick [ill up 1'01'you?' 'progression' 'to do somet hing for someone as a favour' 3.IjMlla !I 133 5..I will find the book for you [Sir].' -rr Ii 5. plus I he meaning 4.aux.! L-l nollj» denni X X Vp.aux. preceded by V. !J_ 0. ~ bul.' .Vp. 'Do you rind yourself ~ 7} X X nu» ilg.v.allx.l ala noala X x X x .p. on Iy.aux.' (e) processive verb formative .'to tea e'. ga.132 Korean Grammar ~~ ~ c]. Verbal Heads with Sill/pie Sateilite 5.aux.. or thoroughly' X IO. coni inuation oH"8.j notli.. ilg» boadlo X x '[It] is broken/cui.d.[~ 7..' ttl cl I\} \t2~ /)'I/i- V.lill1l1ika by a V. ll~* kabu]: 'to flippantly'.'il~ °l~%c:} 71J:_~- i5n ~4noi/1il1iri/loIJallgid()/iIht.. progression [towards a goal] from present away from the peaker or near-completion 0l:Z~. 'to do . ~ noh. Have yOLI cut LIP [and left ir in the cut-up state]?' 'Find about it first of all. kaei bll/gAjigedla y x 'The flower is likely to become red.}0] '5]-oj ~cl' ili! gael haj« wadla 'We have worked together.'to cry'.:iUj ~'} x JJ..j}1-PI~ the meat IISMI 7. .<lUx. 7]- 'Is it getting very dark?' 10 y x future 01" The which are: ~ behave collocability of I his auxiliary verb is very limited compared with sahmay collocate with almost any verb.. or independent of the will of the subject.tr.V.011- 9Jl 1:.~ ~J-L-111'[..~oJ] 7JC].' passive voice formative when preceded by a V.to} A1 LI anja jini 'Can you sit?' (IiI.I ~l~ t:~ Ja bll/iM/fa lY] X X i:. cegil caja diligesilllnida X x '. '10 do sornct h mg completely.l- -!t 'il:.. ornething '[Shall] for someone as a favour' 'Ll] find [myself] going well [even if [ don't try to].p.\f. .aux.iga nilg» ganda 'My uncle is getting old. ~ 2. Verbs which collocate wit h aetn sg. '!j o-j ~J-°l Xx 1"'tl. ~ cJ dili.<.l17r .lI'ad{a X sadia x '[\'Vel boiled eggs and ate t hern without 6. Willi the Group I Auxiliary 1.1 I'/II/IA bAII/Ic/i:! 'You pressed it completely.' didn't you?' retention gogil]! Filla noasimnika X x This auxil iary verb is usually preceded by V.1.3.aux.2. '[He] went to bed $1 raigh I away.p.busane docakaj» ganda '[We] are getting near Pusan.2. bo.' (b) unintentional.1. repetition.1.1.1.' Verbs X x when 'to try [doing] [to see how il is]' '[He] has read/tried reading [il].ul.!! c..

l '-II~ o}oj7} c] gjsndjr. Thus the sequence Vtr. AJ sal.-1] x . progressive tense formative 7~ ~ . Verbs x «(I) causative voice formative when preceded by Vp.' Verbs X ~~I~..in the satellite is syntactically equivalent to '1l is. completion o 'I would like to have some bread. x X Examples ~~~"i).in every respect except that it is more emphatic than the latter.~oj 7t2 PJ-% ~% "!j 711 ~AI c] mali! pufillT/..) (b) When preceded go over the mountain?' \.aux.tr. '6} ha.l-oj 0--12 qj jl s. Jlt::} aiga sugcelil Iu: nenda X 5. etc.d.aux. 'made the sound small'). e.may exhibit two different syntactic patterns: changed as i( would without sip-.2.'to blossom'.134 I l.' !.intr.V.1.l_ ~ X 12.:g~ ...1..' OUL' V.tr.1gke 'Do you Want oj u-j ~::1: nAIIIA gagosibso X y [0 o habsida 0 X x 'Let's make the horse cal grass..p. ~ sOs. A verbal head that includes ha. l.'to endure'.t::} aiga jala nadia X 'The sun is rising/coming 'The child has grown lip.aux.-l ccgsanil nobke hani o y x 'Are you making the table [to be] high? 2. Zit ha. This auxiliary verbis identical to ha.aux.) '6}A~ ~l?jl 2. 'It was snowing' (Jit. 'The boy is doing his home work [and he can finish it alone].-1::: . ~lgjsndi. etc. + sip- .d.'to wi n'. j.j pi.3. there may be two objects but if it is an jidk» idi« '[They] are building a house. such as ..aux.Vxi.Jl2 1i ~ r::j.3.2. .p.2.tr. ~ mal. .gke hajsdia o y x '[He] turned the volume down' (lit.'The snow was coming.p.' (mAgk-e 'ro eat' V.or (ii) become a complement the replacement of the object particle filii! by the complement 'i!-% mandil.'to leave'.. il] 7]oJ .3..2.>11 Zit\. negedla '[I) can stand [it] [and will be all right]. l.d.} ~ I::} '[His] mother wanted (0 send some money 3.)2 ~lA Jibj! a transitive verb and may rhus take at least one object.Vp.'to rise or soar'. o~ol-~ X X y Y 'l! ~ ~~ nu.intr.V. only one object may occur: (d) When preceded bya V. + sip.V. '?] jis.aux. progression. compose or make' .« oXx Let's make the baby sleep. (b) causative voice and processive verb formative when preceded by V.in (i) is syntactically equivalent to a transitive verb.aux.1. 1:'1' q paI]il II1Agko sib]a '-l1 111:- V. With the Group III Auxiliary I.p.. C 5.nil bonego sipndla by a V.:]-c}jato. I f the nucleus of such a verbal head is the transitive type.'to do'.jl X y ± "-1-l'ii- :~_''lllj sotitit p. completion Chapter V 135 0) (ii) This is found with a limited number of V. such as 7. With the Group IT Auxiliary 1.'to devise..oj7t *o} \!-t::} hega sosa nanda 0 C + v«.')..H: *... The object of a transitive verb followed by sip.!I· '.sm sninin do.AJ-.ni ago issdla. e.may either (i) remain unby means of particle sa/'.g.1..]. whereas the same verbal head in (ii) is equivalent to a descriptive verb occurring with C.1. 0171 igi.1.' '1 would like to have some bread.1. to wish to' ailil jage ha.2.!Jl_\. ~ sip.xll]i /1lJ\gko sibla This is found with a limited number of Vtr. Korean Grammar progression. + sip+ v.-InaVp.g. 'to want to.' CJage 'to sleep' V. + sip.d.d. ~ l:.' intransitive or descriptive type.'to grow' . negation '[1) have bought 0J-'ll: C-} sago maladta X y it at last' :HJ A. .:!.

may also occur in interrogative sentences if the subject noun is expressed by a first person pronoun.V p. With the Group IV Auxiliary I. chool far?' o y x ~. (ii) 'regret' all the part of the speaker for something being unfavourable otherwise..slI/ilsaojill1{1sejo .1.{0 'til . (millet.V..1. has it not?' 5.] '[. 3£7-1] ~t?jl '\:l_ ani/ nalijoci metoda Y y 'It is not clear today [regreu ably].aniha- 'Did you make the car go?' ""1. or 01 5'1 Si A] hanili malke dwesdci 'The sky has become clear. anitia.3..'l.p..7~ 1.occur in declarative and iruerrogat ive sentences only.3.:'i:::>:1 0)-'-1~ q coOil so)i anihcdia '[He] did not fire the gun.' ~-'6}c1- * by V. I. inotando X x go to [he theatre. z] ~!\1 1 % AI X y x ~..136 (a) Korean Grammar When preceded by a Chapter V 137 v. '.' 'Make the light brighter.negation 2. mosha.2.il] X 'l!-% '1l. -3'::-1>]. '71' giiga nobke dwelka 'Will he y X A sliaht semantic difference is observed between aniha.JiI X '[IJ happened to come home x [although '[She] cannot I did not intend to].1. As an X 5.negation *'8'~ i.and mosha.p.and tnosho. ~::<.1. both wh iclt are used to form negati veconstructions.2.2..in relation [0 the types of sentence.' 5'. 5') dwe.' that [rny] grandfather saw it.1.-} jibe oge dwesdta on the pan or the subject' when 'Frightened.1) illustrative examples of those with compound satellite are given below under .ld.' l11I-~AI auiha.2.zd.. especially a personal noun or nouns.p.". .J-L-I hagk jog« l11.3.occurs in imperative and proposit ive sentences only.dJi ann! -T-l-~ 7.' uJ-~<>1.l c] notlos« didc! niotojsdta X x [she] could nOI hear.d1:.' y 'Even if you make your 3.and tnoslia. ~ 1/1(1/- ~~ A~_S>_Al oH] .' X 7tAI x 'Shall I not go'?' Satellite X oJj)).expresses (il 'inability or incapability' 011 rhe pari or the subject i fthe subject is represented by an animate noun.~AJ 7i1 5'.* %-% .aux. mal.' *'tic~ gigi'alJe gal.nanin g(lji malka or the three auxiliary verbs listed above. 0~L-l'6]. [hat is.}<>ll ..' 'Isn't the. ot 1. xJ"'11 5'.2. gudu/il gAll1ke mandilsdo o y x hoes dark..11oJ I.~ 1.expresses 'simple negation' while mosha.aux. aniha.I]-A) i>} 9. bltlif balke manditsta 'This child does not walk yet.1'. 'to be unable to' 3.<l-~ 7~7-1)0J-% Si 1-1 calil gage o niandilsnni X x exception to the complementary distribution mentioned above.mosha- -Fa-tAl (a) 'independent preceded of the will or intention 5'.ilLlX.1. whereas mal.1 ~-g.4. L-] x 'Who has made you earn money?' nuga nstit don if bA:lge mandilsnm oI o~01::: "'P~l 72 AI ott-I'tiL)' lain in oJig gAdi:i anihonda o X x (b) When preceded -~-~ ~Jl) by a Vd.are in complementary distribution with mal.V.1 7-11 '1% <>15'.d. .1 '.P.7il.-) Y x Verbs 3.2. Verbal Heads with COIIIPollnd Following the illustration of verbal heads with simple satellite (cf.2. 2. 5.p.' (bl processive verb formative' ceded with the meaning 'to become' become when preimportant?' z: "')7~ ii}.1.aux.A] c} neil llllU)Ji !III/Milia 'Let LlS not leave tomorrow.H:· uJ. .-tol ~AI ~orul A] 71.d ~ 1.~ halebejiga bosige dwessimnida X x 'It so happened by V. ~ malV. X x 'Please do not buy wine and bring it with you.

V.z.' X y y l!l s: ~ .(1 'i''.x y x ~a} X 2.f.::i!.J?H 1i Al ~A1 ib» bogo sibla X x y -=ri"'] '[Il would A]2 ~..J].' X y y 7}..tl X 0-] y '.:.' xxxx :. the nucleus of proXxyy '1).:.L~ like to try ancl wear [it].0}2} on and on. 'was wishing to hear').3. X rype Xy x x clt:.3l -11 <>l ii}A] ". ~AJ 'i'J-'1[.711 iiPJc+ IIIAgtl boge hasinda THe] allows me to try and eat [it].6-J ~l-c-l:+ X x x li!:.<J~ 7}AI 'fi"71) -6~ f..5') '[She] wanted ~2 'U6-J -=r<tjo] 9lAJ 912 'i'.' X x x -¥ .>: ?lC} J nubko sibci anta '[He] does not want 10 lie down.' X y x ~.JI ~<>l ~4 gjsndj« nage dwego sip» handa X x x y x (lit. u-j is nearly finished' (lit.' Verbs x x (iv) X y~e:l 'Try and make her cry [and leave her crying].' X x x x y x .>.:i2 9lc+ giljAJjll gago idia Xx xy '[The] almost picture done). 'is being drawn' [and] Verbal Heads with Five Auxiliary Xxxx.JI ~ ~t:..1. oj ~t.' X y x (ii) Xxxyx busjs dego sip» hajimatge X x y x x 'Stop wishing to des! roy [it] completely.t didko sip" hago iliAdfa X y x x ilgAjull sanninda '[She] is reading Xxy fir] again and again [for you]. .JI :ll':'>:] ?.~ iotso idke Ilwndillldia'[He] made him drowsy..!jLAj c. the former cessive type and the latter that of descriptive 5.' nolgo sip» hage dwesdla '[He] has come to like playing.}1i] .' to make him not to be arrested and taken away [for *°1 jal!« bAligo sip» honda x x '[She] would like to cut it off.:i'.V2 y y like to find himself standing ~~ U~ ~~c} y y it [somehow].:>:] kabul» dego idci anadci X x y y '[You] were not behaving flippantly.2.' X x y 'i'}. not to be drowsy.' Xyy x yx gilimi giljll jigo idta 'The picture is being drawn.' jotgo idci anke dwesdci '[He] has managed X y y x Xyy y l.*0-] Chapter V 139 two separate headings.' Aoj 7}.>11 <u--~.2.' x yX Y ~H -?..xx X. 11<>l 'tlA Japjl\g{~!i anke In: Juga sip» honda X xxx y x '[She] wants his sake].>ll "5to:J ul» dcji anke haj» boa/a 'Try to stop her crying X x x x x ~711 7>}~c~ X xyxx gago sibke hajsdla '[1] had him want to go.:il . 11.' ulge mandils X x Xxx idko sibci anci anadta '[He] did not disli ke to be lying clown.' x yyx x y to hear it' (lit.!<] ~ ~t [were you"].~ r. X and Y.138 Korean Grammar representing type.JI ~q % .1J.fussn smgj« bllUA.JIji anke hOjllJilAla X x x x x x 'Do no! allow [ill to be laughed away [for her sake).1.J2 y ~ 0-] ~c~ l.>:12 ~i-C} [itl.* (/11/(0 idci anta '[She] is not sitting.:.£711 Verbal Heads with Three Auxiliary Verbs Xxxx %711 ~%<>l TO} 1100 J4 bwa Xyyyy ~<>l IlUA '[He] would .~7j tl~i"'] A1A1 ?J-rl] i>}00j i"<>i2.' ~~ 4~ ~.JI manjigo idko sibci an/a '[I] do not warn to keep on touching X y Y Y (iii) X Verbal Heads with Four Auxiliary %0-] t:lj Verbs li!:. 'try making her not [0 go on crying'). L2.' . ~ (i) Verbal Heads with TIvo Auxiliary Verbs Xxx '!:] 01 1i!.' .

} D~ -o-} ttj x 1'.] x x x ~}J!.} Yyxxx '[He] is.J 'Do you want to make it red?' bulke hago sitnni y x y 3711 '-d-~2 9Jr:} kige ntandilgo idia 'They are making it. making [It] III her.1.' ~0l- A!lll -5}_2 ~<>i ~l-1JA y x x \( ~.' ?i-r!l 'S~ To:1 *771- .} nobci anci/nin) alike dwesdta Y y Pel.x 'f.1. 'Make it nOLlO be narrow').:I{1::-) ~cJ- y x AI.0]2 Verbal Heads wit h Two Auxiliary Verbs Yyxy 'Don't make itnarrow' o} ~::>:1 y .1 "3"1L-j juni» I]flC(~e dwego sip« liani Y x y x 'Do you wan! to become famous. '1 wish to become ~71 ~Jc7l(-c) ?J-Jl] !<]'j.1. y x 'It has become somewhat high' (lit..3.2. -=} jigo sibci {/I/JI{Ifa x y y xx ~Al y ~J:111 'H-€O-] y 'i'i"1l] -f:o}c+ x (IiI.' yy .1] 5'1 <>i 17~ "* )lIllIkc dwell y y xy *11] x bolka x 'Shall I try to become young"?' yyy x -61-2 1lt. ?:·l 'i§z] ei-7. ~171 ~i"'j.' ?£:.?-11 14c:} IJ!)" .:II x catba )ige hugo sip» hajsdia y x x y x [She] wanted it La become short.P(1 'i'ill] -"'12 1i ""Ii>} A] blllpjllllill{li anke dwego sip» hC{li y y x X \ '[She) wishes to become nor nucomfortable. 'It is not not big').] 'i'J-c1si) i unci anci anta y y y Y 'It is not all that bitter (after all)..2.llIgo idia x -6} ~I] y ~lJ~ 1l a.' ~ c.1.Ai u-J cl ~:lA '[Il] has become completely clear. II is not not not biuer.140 Xx y x x x 0]7'j Korean Grammar t. yxyy Chapter V 141 <>i t!:j . (lit.r::.u1 -itt Al *-~l-?n <'il-o:! illnobci motuge haj-Ja 'Don't let it get high.' y Yyx ~~ ~~q git]! anke dwesdia y y x Yyyy U~ x y '[1I] somehow became not long. 'It has become not not high'). y 'II is somewhat big' (lit. big.\( balgajig« iSll ~z} he bOJl1 'Let us try to make it bright.1/)11 y '[She] did not wish to become young.' 7H1 A] mudke hajA.0 make you not lO feel itchy?' % lid 'z.' Yyxyx goUllbCi anke he ju» botko Y y xx x 'Shall I try 1.f0Jy zll1l . anke tiago sibla Y x x x y 'I would like 1O make [her] not y xx yx 10 be late. kiJi ancitnin) anta y y Pc I.J_J ~ 5.712. . __y. (ii) Verbal Heads with Three Auxiliary Verbs yx X xy ~01 ?i.J!2 1!<>1 ~}~I 'i'1J'1] 0J~~ct igj« ncgo sip« haji anke lIIC1ndj{AdiCl X x y X X x '[They] made [her] not to want [0 overcome [pains].f01- .' matga ljA bAliJl{lia y x x Wi! . yyy _=.' Y Y x (iii) Verbal Heads with Four Auxiliary Yxxxx i""Sfj sitp )1]71] ~}<>i -'r7] Jige haj« JlI.Ii).' apiji anke dwego sibla Y y x Y 'I don't wish to be ill' (lil .!i lIIa{/a °JA 'Let us not make her sad. Y Type (i) jobci anke mandil» noala x :."\ y X ..2.. x '?t }I] y Y.) Verbs not ill').

2 1io-J ""'}-2 11.. extent' and the particle 10 'to. 5.2. y y x '1 find [myself] x y x yy xxx y tlJ.' x x '[She] was making it not thin. + mankim/nranci may occur .1).1- e.4. oJ ~.2.lAlJdo 'degree.aux.-14 AA] ~711 0t2.fi'll ~H -~o} 9-2 1.aux. Descriptive Adverb as Verbal Expansion A descriptive adverb occurs with a verbal head whose nucleus is descriptive type or ends with the verb boi-'to be seen.p.d. towards..6).' [become] ~ ~IA ja! (iv) Verbal Heads with Five Auxiliary y xxxx x Janda '[He] sleeps well. e. descriptive adverb.142 yy Korean Grammar Chapter . "'J-"'oh51 V. u~ T ~. V. (iv) a nominal phrase which has as its head the post modifier mankim/manci 'as as' or 'to the degree that' (d.. y 'Make the sound solilil jAI1lJAtrI }agke hela V.4. adverb Adverb as Verbal Expansion may OCcur with any type of verbal 'Do not sleep too much.3.:. VH.01 cH ~}i>j -rr0} 'The room l!j ~ :ti c} bani d£danhi joba jjAdia V.g. n smu )(1..1.1-3).p.4. "t.rll y u'!1}o._1.d t::.g.. dwes gage hajn jug« dwesdla 7)·71] 1oI}'l:l-01 ~t: -~"'1 1.2.{miami sotsot bulA wadla x x x x x (For them).2. 1. Processive-Descriptive A processive-descriptive processive or descriptive.1.\JjAdla -- V.2.aux.' 7. 5. 'The wind blew gently.I ?i'~r:t mcl.s~ it V 143 xxy %1'". or (v) a relational phrase which consists of the noun .2.el. V. 'Water has become impure [very] quickly.1.2. e.j '?f7'1l i.' '[She] made it toO good. with.>.d.2.2.eI. by' (cf.1.~ ~~ 2 ~ o-J 'Xl c] gAmei anke he 110ko sip« jjAdia wishing to make [it] not to be black [and keep it that way].<1 'i'iA nobke dwego sip» hago idi:i anta y x y x y y '[He] is not hoping to become important..2.1 y 'i'-. 3.2.' to make [her] not to be ill [10 remain >tl ~3. --V. LL!.1.2.\ <j C-} apiji alike he 110(1 jugo sipsdla y y xx x y '[The doctor] wanted like that] for her. (ii) a (iii) a processive-descriptive adverb (cr.p.2)."14 "'J-"'J-Sj ~% ~ t:t 17MI1U joke niandiledia V. 5.")l::\1 sill)daI]hi masigo ogedCi -~-o1 ·~<'-l ~.p.' 5.5.4.p.l C-} cAncMli '[They] are doing it slowly..1. 3./i mala --V.' '[She] looks very old.1. 'He will come very drunk.2. as. 1. V. has become very small.' V. Nominal A nominal phrase VH.ladj. 3. Vp.I:c1.4.p.~1 ~}:Jl.' 'I have managed to make [him] happy Yxyxyy *"lll _5.cl.d.2. or (vi) an adverbial phrase (cf.2.' 5.' Phrase as Verba! Expansion of the structure Adj.Ihlg nilg« boinda V.4. <'4 ~J.' "y"* "ii'}:>11 Y Verbs -V.' VH. y yxxyx 5.d.1.2.) jala anke mandil s noko issd!« *2 ~l~ c].' '[He] looked <>l 71 2i!..p.1). 5.l.' hago idia Vp.mull i'mlli hilj. smallter) gradually. head which is of processive type or 1l A1 sandcl{Jhi S Iviuti V. Processive Adverb as Verbal Expansion A processive whose nucleus adverb occurs with a verbal is of processive type.d.p. 1'-lo-J hrI]bokage ii-}o:] -T'-7-!l 5'] '.aux.' head. Expansion The expansion of Verbal Phrase 7}-AJ- ~~ ~%1-~4 gajaJ] kt1 bojl!simnida the tallest.p.1. 1.' of a verbal phrase may consist of (i) a processive adverb. _'f.d.l joci anadia '[It] was not very good.] ". 10 seem' (cf.1. 'It is very easy.g. oj-!l: AI ?.

may occur be lore a nucleus 0 f processivc tvpc.p. may occur be fore a nucleus ofdescri pr i I'C type and. intankiin kckisiSige dwesdta sub..4.p.4.1. e. 3. 3.l.25) as i is su bordi nate.' (usiul JM)dolo 'as to be laughable' rel.g. "&'ej Alo-J 11-12-1 ':tl u] usiuljsudolo palliji» b"Ii. . Some adverbial relational phrases may be followed by a modifying panicle (cr. 01 pJ% -\t 'hl: \1.1.£ Phrase as Verbal £\paI1SiOIl ka)i 'till evening' axis relarurn j.g. H V..2.4.p. V.g.>.ph.ph. 5.p.144 Korean Grammar Chupter before one of proces.}?-1l '6~A" imankilll baike bOJa adv.1. H1-'1t7'iI '6to~s::. 'Adverbial Relational Phrase' and 'Adjectival Relational Phrase'.2. considerably' Adv.6.. less frequently. (ii) a processivedescript ive adverb.p.zadj.llidia ol"J{.ll7hi 145 before a nucleus of descript ive type and. 'r 0 the extent t hat she wen I to a hospi 131'). vu.4).6.5.\TIONAL PHRASE "(]5:.ld. 'Let's make [it] as bright as this.1. 2r=~i± " 7J.ph.Fss:. .5.3. The relaunn is filled by a particle.g.' jadla v.d. 71] JL1~ c].y. sub. [He1 has slept [so long] that his eyes are swollen. REI. which is an cndoccnrric construction consisting of a processive adverb as its head and (i) a descriprive adverb.\/Jdo + 10.' (imankim this much' NP) +~% ~. e. ". 'Axis' and 'Rclatum' occurring in that order.:1:B <5"1 3 __ 1_ ':llr. before one of processi ve type.u] lIo/fal. 'Even if [you] make [it] that expensive. adv.x.2. H ogo idia V._~ satjdanhi sub.5!. Two types of relational phrase are distinguished 011 the basis of their syntactic functions.' (s{//)dar)l1i 'quite.JC" ltanda 'He does ii very well.ph.d. an English prepositional phrase such as 'in the house'.2.\ c] lIo/leliman/. + ).: illl k 11 J. in the house'. H V.[She] became so ill that she went to a hospital' (Ii I.) <lJ~ 7'1 1.' blli/manei '[You] have become so able as to write as clearly as this now. but where none of the words making up the phrase can alone replace the phrase in the same sentence.2. '[ lt] has become as bigas ~t:l'lIuni (0 surprise [mel.eI.) 5.a sub. c. The adverbial relational phrase hasas irs relaturn (i) a directive particle. 3.2. . sive type. H adv. Adverbial Relationa! Phrase nJl+ ~c~ rl/CII. An 'Exocent ric Construction' is a construction which does not share the same distribution as any of its constituents.! MJdolo IIIAl)lIillda The relational phrase is an exoceruric construction consisting or two irnrncdiate constituents.4.1 bam o'j 7]_. A 11adverbial relat ional phrases may occu r cit her alone as mi nor sentences or more commonly as adjuncts in the clause tructure..?jl ~l·~cJ. 3. 5._~ l2:J -c.L JJ~*ol .p.2.' '[They) are coming quite slowly. l~i. '[He] eats so much a' 5. (ii) a quorative particle or (iii) a clausal conjunctive particle (cf.II)l\'.9). 5.:L '[They) built [it] ridiculously tast.{Sj V CMIC.cl.5. less frequent Iy.) V.2.' inu:« 'very' Adv.5. The axis is most commonlyfilled by a noun or 11 nominal phrase.ll11? ga~111l)dolo apige dwesdia V. 5.1.4.' V. adv. e.1..d. but ill some relat ional phrases it may also be lilled by ot her relat ional phrases or a clause.~ orE.Ls:. Relational Phrase as Verbal Expansion A relational phrase of the structure Adj.4. &1}JII)doIObisagehajildo V.g .d. (ii i) a nom i na I phrase (cf.5. Adverbial to surprise me. '{} 71t.3.lgi 10 'to I his place' axis relaru rn The adverbial phrase.p. which can occur in [he sentence 'He i.ph.J"'. e..2). or (i vja rclar ional phrase (cl'.' l{:l-1! <>11 7.

.' (lit.~* t.] adv.xJ-~~~ Particle as Relatum igASi/ inilago bulinda 'We cal! it sil vel'.ii!..rel.~ c. e.adverbial phrase ends in two particles since I he axis itsel f ends in a panicle.!(j jllI]gllgii "-~!i!.' Relational Phrase 5.-.!46 (i) Korean Directive Particle as Relatum Grammar Chapter V (ii) AdverbiatReiationat Phrase as Axis 147 "iJ Ojl~"[:l ~{2. adj.' 7t?:} bokito gaJa 'Let's go out.l£ Ciausa/ Conjunctive ~~~'l! ~~ ~2 gia:gi/ boadlaman 'I saw/read dasi bogo sibta ~r. 'One can see it only in London. '1 of car') gO. /\~% oJl..jo] '.rel..rel.. (iii) . <>1"0'1 Y <>11711 S!l 7JA} smsniege ii gamsa 'thanks [of) to mother' Quotative Particle .o:J-<>1j£ 7}L-] gigc'aI]e do gani 'Do you go to the theatre Pel.§_ ~ "[:JA~ jibe tdia '[She] is at home.' adv.:.3.d uJ ~ c} nainulo mandllsdia '[They] made it with wood. ~Il L N .2.' z! t:~:q gjojaqgwa ii gin dchwa adv.8).g.. there is no time.:pj!. 'to out') The adjectival relational phrase which has as its axis an.~r.£2. ·-t}c} gido sigole ogediago honda 'He says that he will come to the country 0] :.1 _ * N jllllllinllaliikum .op~~ . .:tl1:+ fAndAnSA man bolsu idia Pel.'il A~.i] NP as Axis :::<t nail ('{I 'my car' (IiI.I])I'AI1 'Darks of England' ~ ~. long talk (of) with the principal' the book but I would like read it again. 3. i. (ii) tooT -1! T°1]7nAfS!1 ~Al cinguegess ii pjM1Ji 'a letter [of] from a friend' adv.-}.::1.' -:=.o)_g__ 'duty [of] as a son' side 100..rel.2. <'I j(fsigilo iidoli Al~<>11 S'.:g.rel. a nominal phrase or an adverbial relational phrase.. NP 'young day's dream' (liL 'the dream of the days when we were young') . Adjectival The ad iedi val relati-onal phrase has as its relaturn the adjectival pari icle il 'of' (cr. relational '11%.' <>JLt~O] ". and is: syruactically identical TO an adjective.rtc} n sdo aldasipi sigani A:bia 'As you know.4:5. occurs as subordinate toa succeeding noun or NP. 5:.J[0 '<1 adj. mdf.]. adj.rel...:L'..rel..:l-.I·~.' 4.c...91 5::~ ssuless ii sosig 'the news [of] Irom Seoul' adv.¥-~r.g.rel.reL adj.reL adj. (i) Nor I.::I. The axis of the adjectival relat ional phrase may be filled by either a noun..:..£ CIS Relatum At~!:.J.

1. 1£l.' Predicate as Clause ~ ct om/a '[Someone] comes. (iv) Complement (C) (v) Agent (Ag.5. ELEMENTS OF CLAUS' 711. the minimal form of a clause in Korean is a single verb.' '[They] are chewing gum.! ~01 c] josimnida '[It I is nice. which is the only obligatory element within the clause structure. There arc six different types of predicate distinguished according to the type of clause ill which they occur.3. (v) 'Passive Predicate' and (vi) 'Causa- major types..+w.2. V p P 6.7} 2. 3.j gjohwee gem. Predicate Any verb or VP which is inflected with a final or non-final inflectional ending may occur as the predicate of a clause.1.2f'. ~ 01 ~H'~~ haniti malgimjsn p 'if the sky is clear' gum' to the church' (ii) + Copula Verb u] i.1) and occurs bv itself asa major sentence.. (ii) 'Intransitive Predicate'.4.2.Chapter Vi VI CLAUSE The clause may be defined as an endocentric construction which consists of '3 predicate as its head and one or more other elements preceding the head as its expansion. which is always found preceded by or P. consists of a full verb or a verbal phrase inflected with a final or non-final inflectional ending (cf. they arc (i) 'Transitive Predicate'. 'Final Clause' tive Predicate'. whereas every non-final clause has its predicat~ inflected with a non-final inflectional ending (cf.' 6. 'Are you going to the church?' *""1 r:cj'ccgiI Clause 'Let's look at the book.:.' are many people: 'looking at the book' P S sa.' 01 c] jJalgal1 koc ida '[It] is a red flower.9 kMnil sibimj» P 'while chewing '& 7J ~ jsnpilida '[This] is a pencil. (iii) 'Descriptive a cal.'to be' (cf. 4.5)."ir:cl :<Jl-~ % blossomed. (ii) Su bject (5).3.) and (vi) Adjunct (A). 'Vo1 ~ ~.' 1.-1::: . (i) 149 all clauses are referable to one of [he [WO types. The predicate.2. Of these six elements.1. e:g.. (il Filial Clause 11).r INP . 6.1.johwee ganin g p ccgil boni '[He1 who is going NP (iii) Expansion ~o1 .5. 4.1). 'e: u:j e17} or Q. Every final clause has its predicate inflected with a final inflectional ending (cf. A~ a predicate may be expressed by a single verb.' '[He] wants to sleep.' 7H=. 4.' ~'E'I-l A:-. clllanill 51 onit msiiga apida A S2 P 'I have headache today.'e: 01 ~~ jil~l Oil @j ~ 'gir:cl- hanili niagtu 'The sky i clear.:c-4kJ\lnil P simninda p P bobsida p 7}t. 01 ~L-l c} logo sip» hainnida (ii) NOli-Filial -tJ. except where the verb is the copula i. only P is obligatory and the rest optional.g.2) and may occur either byitself as a minor sentence or more commonly as pan of a major sentence.iomi ajll manta 'There S Adv. and' 148 .3.' 1).as Clause ~~ 2~loll ~J2. The clause is of tWO FINAL AND NON-FINAL CLAUSE Predicate'. e. on-Final Clause' .:c-q gega gojal}ilil conninda SOP 'A dog is chasing he element of the clause are (i) Predicate (P).ol + Predicate (Head) as Clause 111 14 koc! pisd)« 'The flower has 5 o}.. (iii) Object (0).and (iv) 'Equat ional Predicate'.

150

Korean Grammar
'::l..7t

Chapter
.I.};g. 0] 50]

VI
P.eq.

151

6.2.1.1. Transitive Predicate (.P.lL)
The transitive predicate consists of (a} a transitive verb (ef. 3.4.1.2) or (b) a \lP of transitive type, i.e., one which includes at least one transitive verb in the nucleus but does not include the passive voice formative tt- (eL 3.4.1.3.2) in the satelli IC. Every transit ive predicate may occur with an object, e.g.

:d"1:} giga sa.iami dwesdla
C
a man.'

'He has become

~o]

<>j;; 0]

£12

~1:1·muli slitni dwego idia
C Peq.
ice.'

.:g.-l?;
~.j<>-1

'liq. gOl)jf cando
P.t!".

'[He] kicks the ball.'

'Water is becoming

~hJ:r:.l·i/g/ll1ociCinadla P.tr. '[He] has not read [the book for tomorrow's

~~1

6.2.1.5. Passive Predicate (P.pasv.)
lesson].' The passive predicate consists of (a) a passive verb, i.e., a transitive verb ineluding the passive voice suffix (cf. 4.3.1.1) or (b) a verbal phrase of pa ·sive type, i.e., One including at leas! one passive verb in the nucleus but excluding the voice formative (cf. 3.4.1.3.2 and 5.2.1.1.2.3.1.3) from the satellite, or one including a nucleus of transitive type (cf. 5.2.).1.1) and the passive voice formative ji- in the satellite, e.g,

6.2.1.2. Intransitive Predicate (P.intr.)
The intransitive predicate consists of (a) a processive intransitive verb (cf. 3.4.1.2 and 3.4.1.4) or (b) a VP of intransitive type, i.e., one whose nucleus is composed of intransitive verbs only ancl which does not include a causative voice formative (cf. 3.4.1.3.2) such as ha- or mandit- in Ihe satellite, e.g.

"f'--"-17} ;;(Ji>] <>j

{t ~ c} juiiga

killindo
P.pasv.

'[His] attention

is [being]

drawn.

~i:d

r:} anjsdia P.intr.

'[She] sat down.'

,*0] <>1llc}

.!apiA muki« gadia
Vpasv. v.pasv. P.pasv. and

~a-.Jl ~;>;lllo/go

idci

'[They]

are playing.' '[I] am in bed resting.' '[He] was caught,
L~-¥-7~

T <>-1
6.2.l.3.

412

P.inte ~ t:} nu« swigo idia Rintr.

bound

taken

away.' 'The tree is being cui.'

Descriptive Predicate (Prl.)

~2};<oJ c.} namuga jalla jinda Vtr. v.aux. Ppasv,

A predicate which consists ol"(a) a descriptive verb (cf', 3.4.1.1) or (b) a VP of descriptive type, i.e., one i ncludi ng a descri ptivc verb as nucleus and one or more auxiliary verbs other than the causative voice formative as satellite, is a descriptive predicate. The descriptive predicate may occur with two subjeers, e.g.
.:L ~
i

6.2.1.6. Causative Predicate (Pcaus.)
Every predicate which consists or (a) a causative verb, i.e., a verb including the causative voice suffix (cf. 4.3.1.2) or (b) a verbal phrase of causative type, i.e., one including a causative verb in the nucleus andlor a causative voice formative (cf. 3.4.1.3.2 and 5.2.1.1.2.3 ..1.3) in.the satellite, is a causative predicate . A causative predicate of phrasal type which includes a causative verb in the nucleus results in double causativity (cr. 6.3.6.7), e.g.

o}% 0]

1f"1:1- ginin niaimi [ota
S P.d. is nice'). j stjgami doni manci anadla

S He is k.ind' (IiI. his heart

"'!J7Jol

-e0l

'i'i;ll ~~t:l

%.6.1 % lil 01;>;} imsigill1lAgijq
P.caus. o~ -~- ~

'Let us feed [him].' '[She] made the child pia)'.' II/gulj/ bulkisdia

S

S

P.d.

'The old man was not rich' (lit. The old man money was not plenty'). 6.2.1.4. Equational Predicate (P.eq.)
The equational predicate COnSiStS of either t he copula verb i- '10 be' (cf', 3.4.1.1.1) or dwe- 'to become' V.o., or a VP with dwe- as nucleus, e.g, ;.<J"u] o]c.l.JGl]mi ida '[It) is 11 rose.' C P.eq.

Xl c] clll nottjsdla
P.caus. ~

± '4 7}

~-&- *.sl 'l! l::-}

sonjsga

Pcaus.
'The girl blushed' (lit. 'reddened her face').

152

<g ~ %

'* il"l fll

Korean Grammar

Chapter VI Vau}(.

153

i>t ~_2_

»lgul]! butkige hajilS;"o

v.eaus.

particle gq/! or a modifying particle (cf. 3.4.5.9). Like Sand 0, the element C is sometimes expressed in spoken language by N or NP alone, e.g, '{{~1 ':;} 01
<>1 ~

Pcaus, '[They] made the girl blush.' (lit. 'made the girl redden her face'). (hajllsso caus.vc, frntv.) ~ 7C! ~ *I <>l 7]' ill uJ:; ~ q slIflgjM)illtYill gage mandilsdia Nuc, V.aux. '[They] made the policeman 6.2.2. Subject
ga/],

!&J ~ bam!
S

il{qi dwemjsn

'1f the flight becomes the day. ' 'You have become a man!'

C

l..i

o]!&J

;d -1""':1' nll tllin(i) dwesdkuna S C

go running.'

P.. aus, c (mandilsdla caus.vc, frntv.)

When the predicate is expressed by the copula verb i- the complement occurs without the particle, e.g, ~olt} mulida '(It] is water.'

e

6.2.5. Ageiit The agent occurs both in passive and causative clauses. The element Ag. in the passive clause is expressed by a noun .or NP plus the agent particle (cf, 3.45.3) only, and the agent particle isobligatory. However, the element Ag. occurring in the causative clause may be expressed by N/NP plusthe agent panicle or a modifying particle (cL 3.4.).9), or by N/NP alone, e.g,
o} 0] oil ;>11 ~ 0 ]Al

The subject is commonly expressed by a noun or NP plus the su bject particle kes« or eSIt (d. 3.4.5.1),. or by a noun or NP plus a modifying particle (d. 3.4.5.9). In spoken Korean, just a noun or NP occurs frequently as S without beingaccompanied by one of the particles mentioned above, e.g.
1oI]7}
~t:~

bigaonda

'It is raining,'

~ol

S '1t£± sani nobso S

'The mountain is high.'

'*'l

ai ege m t\g ij i mala

Ag, 'Don't
make the child eat [it].'

P.C3US.

-£- /;t~~

~

oll{

01 sa.lamin tnjncinja
S

f 0 1~OrO

'iI 'Y lJ}
'!:j
0

'How many people are due to come'!' (in Pcl.mdf.)
l@;>;J ti'C} pjAnji(ga)

nul do ipilka Ag, Pcaus,

'Shall II] make my sisrer wear [it] also?'
'Don't make the child eat [it).'

A:bla

'There is no letter.'

1

1 hi

PP·r

ai InAgi] i mota

S 6.2.3. Object Theobject is commonly expressed bya noun or NP plus the object particle lil/i! (d. 3.4.5..2), or by a noun or NP plus a modifying particle (cL 3.4.5.9). Just like the element S, 0 may, in spoken language, be expressed by a noun Or NP alone, e.g, 7;1-~' l(:}q calil tanda'IShej rides, in a car.'

Ag. P.caus.
~T<jr,J]

-¥-% ~'C}

cingu home budiilljsdla

Ag. '[She] was held by a friend.' 6.2.6. Adjunct

Ppasv,

~~ .!f-71 ~

<iI.~

o

7,7). mwssil l'/7ilgilka 'What shall we eat?'

7H}:£

o

2i. C:IIl-j mug sun gabat; do bonrni NP

o
'AI'\!

you sending the heavy briefcase too?'
~r:.} sinmunil)

The adj unct may be expressed by (a) an adverbial noun (cf. 3.4.2.1.4), (b) an interrogative adverb (cr. 3.4.4.4),. (c) an adverbial relational phrase (cf', 5..3.1) or (d) a nominal phrase expressing 'Distance' or 'Duration of time'. Such a nominal phrase may somerimes be followed by [he object particle lil/il (cf. 3.45.2) for emphasis, or by a modifying particle (cf, 3.4.5.9) with additional meaning. The element A expressed by N/NP + liI/il, although identical in construction to the element 0, is, however, differentiated from the latter by it's inability to be transformed into the element S of the passive clause corresponding to the active clause in which such an agent occurs, e.g,
(i)

.>;l~%

o

banda

'[I] am reading the newspaper.'

Adverbial

NOUn

as Adjunct
gages.<;o

41°.!
expressed by a noun or NP plus the subject

6.2.4. Complement The complement
is commonly

7tC?&..'i'..n cit jflIJg'VaIJ€ A 'I will go to the station tomorrow:

::<J;i] ",}61]

154

Korean Grammar

Chaplet VI

155

oij0J 01 Ai 71 ~H:l <51
'A woman (ii) is going

;;;}r;_~ jAini J ;Igi csncsnhi ganda A

there slowly.'

Interrogative Adverb as Adjunct
~~ ~.ll'."i] 1..-]'£

0J7t'l..1

w('

hagkjoe angani

'Why don't you go to school?' hcla

A

oj'¥rfl

~aJ

provides the basis for analysing the clause as endoceruric const ruct ion that consists of a P as head and other elements as expansion. Secondly, on the basis the degree of cohesion with P, thefive optional elements may be grouped into (i) 0, C and Ag., and (ii) S and A. The cohesion between P and OIC/Ag., whose presence orabsence is, potentionally determined by P, is greater than t.hat bet ween P and SIA, which may occur in any clause irrespective of the type of P found in it.

an

or

i;Hc~

A1AkenM!opalii
A

'Do [ill quickly
(i ii)

somehow.'
Six different

6.3.

TYPES

OF F1[1.!AL CLAUSE

Adverbia! Relational Phrase as A djunct
o}~ "ll 'r-7t -::l9i~(lcilJ1e nuga iSIiSO 'Who was [here] in the morning?'

types are distinguished of clauses according to (i) the type of predicate (6.2.1) funcricningin them, and (ii) other clause elements occurri ng wit h P. They are: (a) "Trans: live Clause', (b) 'Intransitive Clause', (e)' Descript

1,1]oJ :<J :?JAJo.!] 7Hl) ~ neil )'H)8/ljd/]e 'I will go /0 the station tomorrow,'
(iv)

ive Clause',

(d) 'Equational

Clause',

(e} 'Passive

Clause' and (j) 'Causative

gilgesSQ

Clause'.

Nominal

Phrase as Adjunct ~l~r} sil11lJi(fi/) lwii\C!la '[He] ran ten Ii.'
A

6.3.1. Transitive Clause A tra 11si ti ve cla usc incl 1I des a I ransi live pred icare (c f. 6.2.1.1) as P and has the potentialityof having the element 0 in it. The elements and structure of an unmarked (non-emphatic) transitive clause are: (S) + (0) + P. In the discussion of the six different clause types, the element Ais to be
understood

-'J al (1k)
°d-r°,J.( ~) '"Ii
ill] JoI1~

(li =measure

.x.L.] il juil(il) A

of lengt h: \0 m ile) noni 'Will you have a week off?'

--'f-A]7J( ~)

~V:tl-Tt..~ telebilil
the television

dllsfgan(jl)

boadkuna

transitiveclauses .± '>:! 0]

as positionally free except where restrictions are introduced. Most lend themselves to passive transformation (cf.6,3.S.1), e.. . g
fj-~

A
'You have watched

7J'C-.} sonjMligofjit o}o] ~ SOP ~~cl-gega

cando

'The boy is kicking

a ball.'

for IwO 110ill"5.'

1~71-

;;:17].-\:1

}lIgisli ailil couninda

6.2-.6.1. Multiple
The adjunct

Adjuncts

SAO
'A dog is chasing a boy there.' oj ::<il

P hedia P

does not always occur singly. A sentence Or a clause may include any two or more of the four different types of adjunct, which have been described in 6.2.6, e.g.
_2_~
5>11

oJ 7}L-]

<>1hll

ani! w<' angmu AA

'Why do you notgo today!'

'lie 1~ q .'Vi? gininJAI]malllill!umi A SAO 'Really he worked hard yesterday.'

.:::1;:

AJ pJ ~ ~

t..}.I._ oj 'i'! l'Jl

'Somehow 6.2.7. lmerrelations The interrelations

nado Ai/Ike sesiganil hedia A A A I also did [ill/ hree hours yesterday:'
lI)e

,.(~i ....17J-.g_

~ c]

Transitive clause structures 0 f marked (emphat ic) type, which are less frequent than the unmarked one, are (O)(S)P, P(S)(O) and P(O)(S), in each of which the first element l.il7} is brought

"lJ

g_

~i<>1
~~ "l "lj7}

~* "it

into focus, e.g.

nega cegil ilg» bolka

SOP

muong the Elements of a Clause obiaini ng among the elements of the clause may be stated

'Shall [ try and read the book'?'

-"11%
~ <>1

"li7} ~

{t7,7J. cegit nega iig« botka

in two different ways. Firstly, USing the criterion of binary opposition of obligatory/optional occurrence, [he six elements are di vided into the obligatory elements P and optional elements. S, 0, C, Ag. and A. And this criterion

o

S

p

7Jt

C!Jl i} ilg»

J

bolka nega cegil P S 0

2.g. 'soldier (ten) persons'. ~'7H.gO 'Sit on the chair quietly. ol% 1t71~ ~Lt adit bolgilil csdla o P ecgs({f]il 'Did you break a leg of the table?' cf.. e. 01 and 01.1. SJ .7j.. The elernen ts and structure 0 r an unmarked intransitive clause are: (5) + P.3) as P..lJ% '1[ i':! % ~...g. l-~:: 01· 2.' . They are "Descriptie Clause I" and "Descriptive Clause Il".l~ «. 'woman . P '[He] spanked his son [on] the buttocks.l:"C~ lf~4--e JcjJalli fJ\l1adttI beunin :i.. or ago] P.(its) quantity' .] :hlJ"J 4 "-] ~A] ':ti t.3. 'I head am sick').1.Jiga apida c.: 01' oneo f 'unit . Two kinds of descriptive clause are distinguished according to the type ofdescriplive predicate used.156 Korean Grammar 1cjj 7t ilgll Chapter VI 157 bolka cegit ncg(l p 0 S 6.. split objects are semantically somewhat more emphatic than t he corresponding single object.3. e. holding between the elements S and Cis di ffereru in type I and type II.h»~ T~n~ nlt-. In general.I:-j "lll. Intransitive Clause 'iJ"1l1li. I).]7l o}_gc} nanin lIu. etc.2.. bun] ilM111 i P SOP "'...ct l. the elements Sand C may combine into a new subject naii m sli go 'my head'. both structural and semantic.(his) hand'.. where the subject noun l1a'"]' and the complement noun m sli 'head' constit ute .. q~-~% + (01) (02) ~nt+ + SAP The priest comes-slowly to church and' (o..(her) hand' or 'table . 6.g.2. )..g .(its) leg' etc.:! 1:1 ~i~ 1-1ccg jll/kWAllit * ° iig snn! 1 °2 ° ilgsnnl p A descri ptive clause includes a descri ptive predicateIcf. e.3. 6. cf.JA~ '-1£% ~1fCt sinsa bali! balbodia o}~ + -'il. standing in such a relation as is described above will be termed 'Spli: Objects'.(ten) volumes'..nega dudelil pini dambelll S 02 P 01 6..(one) sheet' . 'related to' or 'part 0 f' t he referent of the noun functioning as S.. cj !I'] q nuga dll palli iwini Exp.tll~""l lli'..~-e jiLj:J ~ P mogsanin gjoh welo o. L Transitive Clause witlt '$plir Object' A transitive clause may take two objects which are related in such a way that the objects 01 and 01 may be freely replaceable by a unified single object composed of 01 and 02 in the form of a nominal phrase.' 6. e. Descriptive Clause P S 01 0.] cegil jll/k}\'ILl1il 'Have you read ten books?' tf.'book . It is noted that the semantic relationship 0 r 01 to 02 is one of 'whole .3.~ c} aditi! ° csdia bolgilit p A 'The actor left hurriedly. ingclause: Marked (emphatic) st I"UCLUres of the transitive clause with split objects are (OI)(O')P(S) and (S)(01) P(OI).e. in the follow. S p 'Who runs faster?' The structureof the marked intransitive clause is peS). 1. stepped [on] the gentleman [on] his foot'). the relation.l7cAnhi'slowly' T .1.part' . Thus the elements Sand C in a descriptive clause of type I may be replaced bya new subject composed of the original Sand C in the same way that the split objects 01 and 02 may combine to form a single unified object in Ihe transitive clause with split objects (cf.i}<>ll ~ Mt"] 2E-!}~1 ~J"o}~ i!ptl! )ojoOi arqalo A -&-).. 'paper .3. Semanticallythe relation of Sand C may be characterized as 'posession' since in most cases the referent of the noun functioning as C may be regarded asbelonging to'. For instance. 'man .' cf. . e.J ell?} dambetit dudeli! 01 01 'Are you smoking two cigarettes!' pini nega PS S C P '1 have headache' (lit. Although the elements and structure of the descriptive clauses of both types can be uniformly setout as (5) + (C) + P.] NILcegsaI) daliti! bUI11i!II11ni ~~ °1 P datili! 0.g.2 csncsnhi sinsalil bali! balbadta 01 01 P '[He] stepped on the gentleman's root' (lit.g. The structure of an unmarked transitive Clause with split objects is: (S) An intransitive clause includes an intransitive predicate as P but neither 0 or C.

'to be anxious.g. ::J. fond of' . The distinction of descri ptive clauses of type I and type II is reinforced by the fact that the subject noun of the descriptive clause type II is represented by an animate noun only. +~ $~sifh- * The elements and structure (SI) + (S2) + P. 6.'to be happy to [meet or hear from). in the following clause. the relation between the descriptive clauses of type I and 11 may.linin kiga kAd!a Y-Y. oj '1l ~ ~ 01 ~ ~ 'The woman's c} jAinin soni jAgAdia SI S2 P hands were small.3.'to be good.'to be ill ~ ~ silpi.3. whereas that of type I may be represented by any noun. large' ~l gi:l.'to be worried' T~"6} g!ll)gimha. Descriptive Clause oj Type II The descriptive clause of type [I has as the exponent of Pa member of the small class of descriptive verbs which can be list. the descriptive clause of type I will henceforth be given the following structural description: (SI) + ($2) + P where Sl corresponds to C. api. ~ vi" 3.3. In transformational-generative terms. 'I a dog am loathsome'). l~ol 7']7} %. ~~(~ll ~%.' (SI)P(Sl): P($I)(Sl): (S2) peSI): P(S2)(SI): jsinin J gMtla soni SI P 82 jAgAdia jsinin soni P SI S2 SOn{.g.]. For instance. 'priest foot aching'). .158 Korean Grammar cf. and the descriptive clause structure S + C + P of type II from the kernel string S + 0 + P of transitive type (cf. silpi. P(SI)(Sl).}o] 3-Ct hagkjo(iij undol)jaI}i kida S p Less common but marked structures of the descriptive clause type [ are (SI)P(S2).~ 1:. Joh.'to be sad' etc.n!. Examples illustrative of the verbs occurring in the element P of the descriptive clause of type I are: 6. (Sl)P(Si) and P(S2)(SI). e. concerned' etc.'10 miss or long for' 'to dislike'.'to miss [someone or sornethi ng]' ~E.2. tall. no such relation holds between Sand C within a descriptive clause of type 11. ki- tnanh.. of the unmarked descriptive clause 0f type! are ~. In view of the structural as well as semantic difference between the two types of descriptive clause and in order to emphasize the difference between them. cf. and SI to S in the original S + C + P structure. The verbs given below are illustrative: gilib.be viewed as a case of surface neutralization of two different deep structures. 6.3. .3.a soni jAinin P S2 $1 The descriptive clause of type 1 has as the exponent of P any descriptive verb except the verbs listed in 6.l61j ginsimsil sb. much or plenty' 'to be big. 45.[o1 %"'1 'The priest's 1 0t:¥l-~~ mogsanin bali mobsi apodia SI $2 P was foot was aching' (lit.=- lH 7]. e. sgutha'to be unjust.1) by a 'Detransitive' transformation..)+'E' 13. Descriptive Clause oj Type I $1 $1 p was tall' (lit. p.'to be sad over' ~*i'i}. to feel robbed' -c-1. animate or inanimate. regrettable' o}"(~ aswib.<'}ol 3.. since the descriptive clause structure S + C + P of type 1 may be described as being derived from the kernel' string S + P of intransitive type (cf.!f-1I mussb'to be afraid of' '1Ht bangab. sad.3.I AgMlia jsinin $1 P $1 jAgAd. o]-1:l-1 AI (2. Syntactic Structures.7~ ~%. 6.3. On the other hand.T}i kida S2 P 'The school playground is large' (lit.l.e} hagkjoga $1 undoJ)ja.1 0}>ll4 mogsa(ii) bali mobsi apodia S P ti 1:} abA.~--&-~} ssunha'to be sorry.nanin gcga silta S C P 'T disli ke dogs' (IiI.'to be long'.2. 'The school the playground is large').2) by 'Cvinsert ing' transformation.]) 7'17t ti 4 ab/ijiOiJ kiga kAdia S p 'Father ~. 'Father the height was tail'). cf. ~AH~l) o}Bi A1::: Chapter VI 159 a nominal phrase by means of the adjectival particle ii 'of'.3.'to be many.1.ed.I. Noam Chomsky. the subject nc 'I' and the complement noun ge 'dog' cannot combine into a single nominal phrase flail" gt: 'my dog' to stand ultimately as S of the same clause without destroying the original structural relation and meaning as exhibited by the clause.<.

>11 x:t cj- gojaqig« P.) + P where th.1. ~ ». Aj ~AoJ q ginin S ~~ 'Korea is a (lit.pasv..3.4.nsili dwesdci S C P '[Your] dream has become a reality. e.5. Passive Clause A passive clause includes a passive predicate (cl. basis of the elements operating in them. exhibits its unmarked structure as (8) + (Ag.tr. = transitive clause 6.1::d.' D ~ nugu inja giiga CPS 6.4) as P and the element e. by a passive transformation (cf. e. The marked structure of the equational .' 3 jl 0 SAg.~ol 'ii:-1t!-FlJ .' clause is ep(S}. There are two kinds of passive clause distinguished on the.g. Nor NP occurring in the equational clause as the element C is not followed by the complement particle i/ga when the element P is expressed by the copula verb i. Equationat Clause clause includes an equational predicate (ct. P(S)(C).' ~_:}o] .' Examples e 0/ Passive Clause Type I 3:. = passive clause An equational oJ 0l~ 1~ ~~r:l~ gega gojaI]ilil cocadta 'A dog chased a cal.3.J~r.1.2.g.' ::1t!.-~ "'" . from the underlying transitive clause of the (3) + (0) + P type.::20 buhaii jugimi si/pAdla S C 'p 'The officer was sad over the death of a soldier. are transforrnationally related to o and S respectively of the transiti ve clause as. sUl1gjM]/wntejapitldi(l P 'A thief was caught by a policeman. 'Korea %°1 aJM1 "Water has 'He is a singer..liI.I 1-J bsmi slmana mussmni CP(S): CAP 'How much are you afraid ofa tiger?' Less freq uent but marked structures of the descriptive clause of type IT ale (S)P(C).160 Korean Grammar descriptive clause of type II Chapter VI 161 The elements and structure of the unmarked are (S) + (e) + P..:] kumi hjs. 'the floor gets cleaned well today'). (S) + (0) + + Ptr.g. e.. o-J ~ 01 51~T'-~ muli bt\lsA slirni dwe.7]- ~._~ 5.c sm sninin lati giliwsdia S C P 'The mother missed [her] daughter.e elements Sand Ag. which is structurally related to and derivable. 6.. 6. geege codkjlldia oJ' 017)- <>11 . Passive Clause Type (S)P(C) P(S)(C) (C)P(S) P(C)(S) nanin gungimhedia nesosigi S P C guqgimh cdia nanin nesosigi p S C nesosigi gungimhedia nanin CPS gungimhedta nesosigi nanin P C S r The passive clause type I.' P <>11 'tl~ Ll-if. The elements and structure of the unmarked equational clause are (S) + C + P.diagrammatically shown below.}~+ -¥-15}~1 1':+ jangjonin ]7} C TT P O]LP giiga nugu inja 'Who is he?' S ~ 0] T "'.' g_ ~. and no other element such as A may be interposed between C and P. They are termed 'Passive Clause Type I' and 'Passive Clause Type 11'.g.::2: ~~ :: (O)~{Ag. 01 J.!f.) Examples 1~ 7} ~ p~pasv.: 0t. li"r0j-"J c} ani/in malaga jal daka jinda ASP 'The floor cleans weI! today' (lit. P.il:±'~ oJ 7:" q nanin nesosigi glll]gimhcdia S C P 'I was anxious to hear from you. 'l?" 01 011:>11.'to be'.3.1dkuna SAC P become ice already.1. '-l~ \.oj c] hangugin gigJo(]e innin nola ida S C p Far-Eastern country' is a in-the-Far East-existing country'). . (C)P{S) and P(C)(S). .' stll)agka ida 'A cat was chased by a dog.2. e. 6..5) as its P and may take the element Ag.>:J'51~c} dodugi SAg.5.-]~ ~'ol AJ-. the diagram below).

i.)P ~-017} %. S (S)P(Ag.' 0 jOlligel balame (Ag.' S P Ag.~t:t A causative clause includes a causative predicate (cf. 'A kni fe pricked a worker's Marked structures of the passive clause type 11 are (S)(Ag.)(S)P (Ag.' P SAg.) P(Ag. which is always expressed by an animate noun or noun phrase except in those rare instances where an inanimate noun or noun phrase may occur personified or animated.&~ r. ~).dia C P.g.*% *-% %n c} gcga S ~ol/~~~- (S)(Ag.) (Ag.' Ag. (S)(Ag.- !". t clause clause (S)(Ag. C/O P.' "'T.pasv. 'The thief was bitten by a dog on the hand. (S)(CIO)P(.)P(S) SAg.tr.clause. Passive Clause 'A worker's 7JO] foot is pricked ~-{~. 6.)P(C/O).1 {.' nodoqjalil bali/ ?:iIIAd!u 01 0: P.Iol]iga P Ag.1.I.' ~%- .5.2.7} % orAl 0117li <.. C foot was trodden on by a beggar.. P S joniga nallinda balame The paper is flown by wind. P 0 saga j . 'A dog bit the thief on the hand.' SAg" hair was cut by [his] sister.1.. i~"11E11 -~'.1).{-.)P(S). CPS .3.t7~ rj.h~~ -w 'i1 q*kal! S foot.). Any of the five type of clause so far discussed.! ~ .3. (S) + (01) + (02) + P type (cr. are Iransfonnationally related to 0 I and S respect ively of the rransiri ve clause..162 o} 0] 01171] Marked Korean Grammar ~ Chapter you been bitten VI 163 P <a ~laiege mulljsnni Ag. arm was held by his mother. The passive clause type II.' paitinda soga Ag.1 °l)?-I] 'The child's aiga snisniege SAg.) + (CIO) + P.)(C)P(S) (O)(Ag.tr. in the passive clause is most commonly expressed by an animate noun or nominal phrase.). 6. S Type Il point: i%~}c ~oll lid-oJ ~ ~ c} nodotjjanin SAg. + (0') + + (OC) (C/O) (S)>. many passive clauses with an inanimate noun or noun phrase as Ag.lASil sotjajiege pallinda soga o A g.' Although the element Ag.'{:fl q. balame joniga natlinda Ag.15i pallinda sotjajiege 7~ . 'Is flown by wind the paper.) P(S)(Ag. as diagrammatically hewn below: (S) . The following examples exemplify this nallinda balaine .pasv.g.) and P(Ag.6) asits P and may include up to two objects and/or a complement and/or an agent.)P(O) = passive ::t.. are not matched by corresponding transitive clauses.~ saga sOI)(fjl'ege j ssil pallinda SAg.3.) Examples 7~ I + + P.)(C/O)P(S) and (CIO)(Ag. and (C/O) 10 02. by a knife.:. nailinda jo qiga balame 'Is flown the paper by wind.pasv. Consequently."il:!t:} SO T)(ljleg e JAS! dodugi g shonte soni/son il rnullj Aelia SAg.)P(O) dodugil sonil nrulsdia 0.2.)(S) balame nallinda JOl)iga 'By wind is flown the paper. Causative pali! japj!l(/?a 0 P Clause 0r017~ <>l "1J.)P(S) S C P Ag.)P(S).6..Ag. dOl)sE'I)i nuiege 1II/IIilil kakjA(jia P '<t'Bt:} naltinda P P '[My] brother'S 'By wind the paper is flown. The ~. P(S)(Ag. it may also be expressed by an inanimate noun Or nominal phrase unli ke the trans forrnaticnally related S in the underlying transitive .:(Ag.e.)(S)P.' saga sOIJluiege pallinda jssi! SAg. exhibits its unmarked structure as (S) + (Ag. except: the equational Clause with the L .)(S). (S)(C)P(Ag. which is SI ructurally related to and transforrnationally derivable from the underlying transitive clause with split objects.' kale bali Cillj.r~t:I·sinsagagAJiegebalibalpjAdia SAg. P S Exatnptes Of Passive Ciause Type II 6. P 'Have clause by the baby?' (Ag. where the elements Sand Ag.(joli?-l] gentleman's ~J-0l structures of the passive tI}'ifoll type I are (Ag..tL = transitive P.5:. (Ag.o ]~]711 oj .. e.' £~o' 00 P. e. 0 P 'The cow's teat (or milk) is (being) sucked by a calf.~ 01 'The paper is flown by wind.pasv. 6.g.' (S)P(Ag.

A171\ ~ 1:} nuga Juli/ kinA jige heel/a SOP o}»l A]7} o}% % '9!.)(Oi)p (d) (S)(Ag..6. itoI]l1alil jobke 0] ~.1. 'were sold').% -'>l ii1 A] ~::: (b) (S)(O)(C)P (e) (S)(OI/Ag.3 . < '31 01 '#4 bici bag/a 'The light is bright. and the structural relation holding between the underlying clause and the corresponding causative clause is as follows: (S) 1 (0) 'An electrician makes the light bright.} iTl!l o mandilja p 'Let's make the passage narrow.)(OI)(02)P ee) (S)(OI)(Ag.[ '€l'2.164 Korean Grammar .6. e.-ol mala 'Don't make the soup get cold.c} itotjnoga jobta 'This passage is narrow.'to become'. The following five types of causative clause are distinguished according to the elements operating in the causative clause structure: (a) (S)(O)P < -~L.'(0 be' as P.i~ 'ff2{-1l] 'T.£.J llJ il~ P XI c] sagwlIlil.].' a '¥%- 'e!''''] Si t:+ sm snin S P .g.)(Ol/C)P < 'T.2..' S p (c) Causative Clause derived from Passive Clause + p:= underlying clause = (S) Examples + + Pcaus.' SOP 'The father made his son come. 6..' < )-}->l}7} ~ ~~ it sagwaga ja! pa/ljM/ia S p 'Apples sold well' (lit. o 6. 'to be solei') well. Causative Clause Q..' < 0] %.-.abAjiga adilil < 'Someone caused the string to be broken..l r.' ~ol 'i':k~ r.(S)(O)P The causative clause of (S)(O)P type is derived from (a) intransitive.:]...' S A.Jr-7} Chapter Vi 165 copula verb i.) ~ Clause 'ft-itlc} JJI:ngol)i bicil balkinda SOP Each of these five types will be discussed in turn with examples in the following sections.' S p oJ-{f. (a) Causative Clause derived from lntransitive Clause oj "'<]'-].:i!~{} 5\.lnuga nsiit noltage henni SOP 'Who surprised you?' ~i17} ~ ~y nega noilanni 'Were you surprised?' S p L.' -fF 01 # <>1 ~r.]. Causative Clause of(S)(O/CI)(C)P The causative clause of (S}(OICI)(C)P type is derived from an equational clause of (S)(C)P type where P has as nucleus the verb dwe. _9_711 L causative clause oge hedla T-7} ~~ {to-] .]-iali nj sdla 'The daughter sat up. The Structural relation between the underlying clause and the derived causative clause is as follows: < in iali! ancisdla SOP 'A mother made her daughter sit up.JC" pallige he jlvJld}a S P The element S in the causative clause.. p [They] made (he apples sell (lit. (b) descriptive.' p 1:} gugi stnnindo 'The soup gets cold.g.pili fO'nAjjlldfa 'The string was broken..} gugil sikiji o S p (b) Causative Clause derived from Descriptive ::<j~ol 't. and the elements and structure of a causative clause are determined by the type of (he underlying clause from which the former is derived. such as abAJi 'father' in the example above. is an invented element which is no! expressed in any form in the corresponding non-causative clause structure. noting the structural relations bet ween an underlying clause and a causative clause derived from the fanner.£.' lI}i:.7} .' derived from the intransitive clause o}%o] *c} adili wadia 'The son came. or (e) passive clause of (S)P type. may be transformed into a causative clause.3.

apige hedia SOl C 0 IC P 'He made my foot [to be] painful. = underlying ~ Pcaus.li dwege hajsk: C1 C P (S) + + + (0) + (O~) + P.oj .0J7J-0] -"']~ c} jejaga ingani dwesdia S C P 'The pupil became a man.3 and 6.tr. e.' J (0 I lAg.%.3. and the structural relation between them is as follows: (S) Jl < -""l0] 5-]71] i. c. = underlying 1 cl. (S)(O)P type.J' ginin nalil/nega bolit/bal.4.' < fin A]-i1.equ.1 <>1]"11 P ~~ ~71] . 6.)(OI)(O")P type is derived from a transitive clause with split objects.3.3.structural rel-ation set out in the above formula shows that the element S 0 r the underlying clause rna>' be transformed either into the element 0 or 0. clause may be 'Make your dream a reality.}o:j 2.1) and (b) the descriptive clause type II of (S)(C)P structure (cr. cl.17} 'A beggar put on clothes.+:: 6. 01-0j7} 711 ~ *% ~ 'li'C} aiga gel]! mull! m sglnda 6.I. = causative d. .A"l°l -{:j c].'I15.' *'~ SAg."_ L-t-§-/417~ 111{t!71l7t ~11l1 pJ~~t:} gidilin nalil/nega gC!jf/gcga silke mandilsdla S 0/ COl/ CI P < -"']:>J] ~ r:} ssnsenin Je. (S)(O 1)(Ql)P type. underlying causative clause clause (b) Causative Clause derived from Descriptive 1 (S) + (OICI) (C) J Pcaus.3:2). and the structural relation bel ween the underlying clauseis) and the derived clause i-s as follows: (S'/5) (S) Examples S 01 0" 'A child makes a dog drink water..' 0] ~ ~] }I. . nanin bali aasdia 'My foot is painful' SI S~ P 1. = underlying !.caus.6.lalil inguni dwege hedia SOC P 'The teacher made his pupil to become a man.-<j).-t~ 1 1 6.' 1'. cl.) ! (01) ! (02) Pcaus. i. = caus.3. clothes.].166 (5) Korean Grammar Chapter = VI Clause Type II 167 + + (C) + + P.' \.kumi hj!l:nsili dwenda S C P 'A dream becomes a reality. Causative Clause ~f(S)(O/C)(OI/CI)P The causative clause of (S)(O/C)(OI/Cl)P type is derived from (a) the descriptive clause type I or (51)(S:!)P structure (cr.3.}if 'tl {l'ol 'They made me dislike dogs.' 7.' < 1.3 and 6. d. 'The lady made a beggar put < 7"1}l. 6.ct c} g'l. Causative Clause of (S)(OI/Ag.e.' < 7Jl7} %~ 1:!:j:cc}gcgol1lulilmAI]ninda SOP 'A dog drinks water. (S) + L (Ag.g.' 71])I} ~ '.1..kumi 11).>'0] ·~.~.::2::: I >II 7} The causative clause of (S)(Ag.)(02)P type is derived from a transitive clause with a single object. = causative The above diagram shows that the element S of the underlying transformed either into the element 01 or Ag.t.) P.3.riga osil (a) Causative Clause derived from Descriptive Clause Type 1 't[~ I ~ol a}~~l 19. i.-}~ I~O] a}:i!1 c].5.r:..g.3.)(O')P The causative clause of (S)(01/Ag.e. Causative Clause of (S)(Ag."_ -=r."_ 7-J.!l 011 '* buinin gAjiege osil ibke hedia 0 P + + + (OIC) (S!/C) J (Oi/CI) + + Pdes.3.' ibssda oJ .d c} nanin gega sitsdta S C P 'I disliked dogs. and 1 heir structural relation is as follows: (S) + + (01) + + (02) + + Pf r.)(OI)(Ol)P .3. ee The.6.6.cl.

)(02)P type (cf. descriptive. a double causative clause is formed by transforming a suffix-effected causative clause into a phrasal causative clause by means of the causative formative ha. the non-final clause has three important syntactical functions. except that the element Ag.e.oJ-oj "J)ll] sinsagaaiege SAg. is < sive clause Of (S)(Ag.' adili helmsnili! 01 01 P 'The son massages his granny clauses. By this syntactic criterion. 0. C. and some to an adverb. except for the positional restriction on the element P within the non-final clause structure (see 6.3.2 and 5. the nOI1final clause is a rank-shi fted clause.. however..!01 ~~~% %71 ~ c] haini soli/ pulil iidkitl{lfa 6.g. equational.3.6. all non-final clauses.3.AJ.3.3. The split objects 0' and 01 in the causative clause are very often combined into a single object as in the underlying transitive clause (6..1. 0) O2 P 'My mother makes me feed my brother' (lit.cl. TYPES CLAUSE + caus. are classified into three syntactic classes: (i) 'Nominal Clause'.} 'I feed my brother' (lit. P 'She made [he gentleman's foot to be stepped on by a child.(cf.168 Korean Grammar Chapter VI 169 Examples ~ u-JL-J7} SAg.:L. Unlike the final clause. 01 01 P 'The master asked (lit... noted that a phrasal causative clause.) J P. 6. 'makes me make my brother eat his meal'). type is derived and their structural P.1. descriptive.e.. can never occur as an underlying clause for double causative formation. set up on the baSIS of the type of predicate..' juin in hainege soli! pulil lidke hajsdia SAg. . srrtsniga adilege halmsni dalifil jumulige her son massage ° ~. Ag.5. In other words.' OJ' NON-FINAL 0) 01 P (S) (S) + Examples + (Ag. i. cannot be expressed in the form of an object.6. 'made his servant make Ihe cow pick the grass'). However.' .7. transitive and passive.. the resultant clause structure will be identical to the causati ve clause of (S)(01/Ag. Causative Clause of (S)(OI ICI)(Ag.3. The o}% "')·711 Wn.2. A and P are found to operale in the non-final clause in much the same way as they do in the final clause.1. Double Causativity Every causative clause so far discussed has been described as being derived from one or the other of the five different types of non-causative underlying .1~ dalilit jumulinda *~q on the leg.e. O2 I c.e. ~~ ~~4 leg. e. 'The mother makes .c 1! . final and nonfinal clauses are identical in respect of elements and structure. 'made') his servant (to) graze the cow' (lit.some non-final clauses are syntactically similar to a noun.4.1. ln other words.6.2). one including a causative formative. 6. irrespective of their internal structure and to which of the six different types of clause (hey belong. intransitive.pasv. 3.caus. rhus. Thus the clause elements..er E.6.)(C/O)P as follows: S 'The servant grazed the cow. It is to be. i. 'iJ-ol I ~-~ 'iJ't1. +~/ . if the underlying causative clause includes a morphologically effected causative predicate.2.3).)(O~/C2)P The causative clause of (S)(O'/CI)(Ag.3. from a pasrelation cl..' I11I1Anigaadi/ege halm snilil mother doli/if jumulige handa her son massage his granny < °h~ol S ~o-Jq~ cJ-2. intransitive. tl bali/bati! bafpjAdla C/O P foot was stepped On by a child. Accordingly..1).A}7J.-J~ .' 'The gentleman's 6..or mandil. 6.1).)(02/C2)P type (cf. equational. can all be distinguished in non-final clauses .4.) r:fcJ~- TTE. JA}7} otol<>ljJ-l) 'l!~/"I£01'iJ'i>1r11 ginin sinsalil/sinsaga aiege balil/bali bolpige hcdia S 01 I CI Ag. %~:~* ~~~ '!l oJ 1:::} nsga S < 417~ ii-_. In such a case. (ii) 'Adjectival Clause' and (iii) 'Adverbial Clause'. ~c} Apart frOI11 the final/non-final difference in the predicate form..~ P lJ) t!-Ct on the leg.. downgraded from the clause level to [he word level.~u-jt.. a causative clause may be derived from an underlying clause which is also causative. transitive. i.(~: ~~~ ~~~~ "'J' ~ ~~ donsenil babi! m sginda o-ju-JL-J7} 0}%oil711 SAg. S. some to an adjective.L-H01 02 makes [:+<'.) + (Qle) 1 + (02/C) + + == underlying J (OI/CI) + L (Ag.. cannot alternate with 0\ i.1.4). passive and causative clauses.r11 honda P his granny's -~t. Thus the example given earlier may be rewritten as follows: ~u-Jq~ 0~~ ~4 smsninin naege donsem! babil msgige honda SAg. 'make 01 my brother 02 P eat his meal'). ~H.4. the six different clause types.

'holding the election in August')..4. can ever follow P.r-'r sc name 'a new tree' 1.Ji'..-Jg-"ll % onil sih smit bam 'raking an exam today' !. whereas a noun may be followed by ii. On the other hand. may be restructured \if .*. That is to say. <::l-l'-21 jil:ngu ii gj slgwa 'the results of research' N (c) bonda dagil gega adj. S or by both. "!:j g ~I 71~ "babil m sgitn ii gijJilll 'the joy of eating dinner' n... singly or in any combination.rel.ll'.. 5."J ijagin dutotje tikjo im SAC P being specially good for headaches' 0).~ "l. a non-final clause like iJl7t ~t~ {.35. form ing with it an adjectival relational phrase (cf..': 'this medicine .rel.4...~ be held in August (lit..1_0117J hagkioe gam 'this going-to-scnoo!' going-to-school'. but ~71'121 1_:i!\- 0 "codkig) ii si-tswo 'the results of being chased' n. Because of this positional rest riction all the element P. the non-final clauses arc naturally outnum bered by the final clauses in variety of internal structure.2.1I.-1-21 "l. the element P occupies the final position in every non-f nal clause struct ure and no other elements.4.ph. ~:i!} (a) gega banda dagil (b) dagil bonda gega ° P p S S etc.. and has practically the same syntactic functions as a single noun.A) ~ palwsle ssng sli! silsiham A 0 P . a final clause like . 5. For instance.1._ 7A 7r t. Examples ~~ 01] "3.2..*t:-t gega dagil honda SOP as 'A dog looks at a hen. etc. 4.<>11 by 7J "i an expansion: "nail hagkjoe gam 'my 1. For instance. Nominal Clause The nominal clause is a non-final clause of which the dement P is suffixed with one of the nominal clause endings.The distributional disparity between a nominal clause and a noun may be set out as follows: (i) A nomina! clause cannot be preceded by a nominal expansion (cf. but t he range of distribution of a nominal clause is by no means parallel with that of a single noun since not every syntactic position IIl1ed by a noun can be filled by a nominal clause.AI "B -~ -1". 'tl"~.2).170 Korean Grammar Clause Chapter Vf 171 6. 6.~ ega dag if g SOp only as bam 'That a dog looks at a hen.1. Syntactic Functions of Nominal Clause functions performed by a nominal clause are illustrated Various syntactic below.' 6. with one notable exception.2. -ni/-im and -gi (cf.°11 0'] ~ hagkjoe gam 'going to school' cannot be preceded ~.cl.}-'r naii nantu 'my tree' but a nominal clause like ~.1). That is. Nominal Clause as Minor Sentence A nominal clause whose P is suffixed with the ending -tn/-irn occurs frequentlyon its own as a minor sentence in official documents.iJ ~ to 'the election _2.3.4..-\-21 -~}_iJ. whereas this (post-P occurrence of non-P elements) is possible in the final clause structure.3). where P is followed by 0.' A 0 P -1l:. Internal Structure oj Non-Final The internal structure of the non-final clause is identical in every respect to that of ihe corresponding final clause.ph.1.dagi! gega bam o S p 6. a noun like IWII1/1 'tree' 'Can be preceded by an expansion as in ments.' (ii) A nominal clause is never followed immediately by the adjectival panicle ii 'of'.1. 7M z} ~Hi. the distributional range of a nominal clause is narrower than that of a noun .el.2.ll] may be internally S P restructured 0 7Hf inSE:I] if gipim 'the joy of Ii fe' N but'lJ-% adj .1. diaries and advertise- since neither S nor 0 may occur after P.

lc. 'Reading a book is better than looking after a baby. hs:n 'old.2). Adjectival Clause 7J~- *c.j]j~ adj.2).. in French.2.g.i~<>1. 'whom"..4. i. o:j A}7} u:j <'-17} ~ 'tl"717} adv.4.o be noted that the majority or 'Adjectives' in familiar European languages.' (iij) As C ° The adjectival clause is a non-tina I clause of which the element P is suffixed with one of [he adjectival clause endi ngs.} uj sonjsnin kumi k£IIJimi anlakawtldta SSP P 'The gi rl was sorry that her dream was shattered.' ± 'i!. An adjectival clause has practically the same syntactic functions as an adjective.5. ~ 4 'gjj. 'She stopped at understanding the theory').3 . -n/-in and -II-IiI (cf.1.1. 'q ue'.j.cl. 'who'. -nin. and thereby to suggest. etc. Nominal Clause as Axis of Adverbial Relational Phrase A nominal clause may function as the axis or an adverbial relational phrase which has as its relatum a directive particle (cf. e.!]Alo]t:} alga ulgiga jesa ida S PCP 'It is usual that a baby cries' (lit. Nominal (i) As S o}017} Korean Grammar Clause as S. 'which' or 'that' in English...4. 3.cl.3. as a language without the 'Relative Pronoun' as found in Europeari languages. 31" alimdaun kod adj.rel.:i 0]"6lj ~on . This is correct as far as (he linguistic data are concerned.l_7] .ph.3.172 6.3 and 3.g. :J. worn-out'. o. 'a singer who is clever/whose brain is good') y17} t:}'d "§:}. that Korean is less efficient or rich in expression than those languages which have . to 'Adjectival Clauses' in Korean.rel. 'the schooll went TO' (lit. 'A boy to-school going you saw?') P o 'iil" 01 'ill" 71 ij- 7] t:]'~A} noli balkili! gidalija S p P 'Let's wait for the dawn to break.r. e.2. including English correspond.5.e1 ~-717} Pd. Pcl. °1~2<>11 ° 6..2.1.211:1 c] hjllTJi dehage danimi buts wsdla SAP C '[He] envied his brother attending university. oj-%q. but it is not enough simply to say [hat relative pronouns do not exist in Korean.J 7} ~<>ll "L~ 'iJ 01 -¥. C in Clause Structure Chapter Vi 173 01-e.rel.1)..+~ }.3. 'the day when my heart will feel free' l. and 'qui'.3. P o}ol-~ ~~717J..-01 l. . 7l--'T. are expressed in Korean by semantically corresponding verbs inflected in the non-final clausal form.4.}l1}j.' ~ 0] qj c. P adv.iil. which are comparable to adjectives in European languages (cf. 0. '[1] came back early because it was cold. clc+ adv.ph.ph.4.e..1figajoin gasu ±'""l-c '>1. 'a flower which is beautiful') ~::.e1.' The KOrean language has been described by grammarians.J ~ 7-] ilonil iheham e gicisdci P n. 'l-have-anended school') P~g 0 1 ~ ~ \l: naii maimi pjsnhal nal adj.l7l.!t_r. 'a clever singer' (lit. It is t.g. 'A baby crying is a common thing').2.4. Lack of such pronouns has often been cited as one of the distinguishing features of Korean.e. 'That she had good brains is easy').-] sonjsni hagkjoe gamil bwanni SAP 'Did you see a boy going to school?' (lit.g. native and Western. i. e.:z. 3.occurs as the nominal expansion (c r. e.fcegit ilkiga aitit bogi boda jota S n. both syntactically and semantically.3).cl. etc.lClga msliga joadkiga 81 'It is likely that she had good brains' (lit. 'a beautiful flower' (lit. 4. There are only a Limited number or adjectives as such in Korean.<Jol oJE.cl. as is done not infrequently. 5. nega dan in hagkjo adj. (ii) As 82 S P swibla P *71 «ll ~ oil 0J'31 il'i} cubgi temune ilcig wad/a luI Pel.' P 6. '[She] just understood the theory (and no more)' (lit.I. Sf: 'new'.

3.3).cl.d.)(O!)P type (ef. clause ending -n added to the predicate verb bo.1 ganin jaqhedc! '[I] adj. + -in [1) bought' < sa. 'good': 'which 6. S. e.>.- °.1. For instance. auxiliary verb. i.g.4. 0 H 1II/lgko + adj .g. etc. e.'to see'.3.1Jebon (sonjsn) SAP H adj.3. lit. '(The boy) whom [ saw yesterday'.cl.p. or 02.4.l. or (ii) an extra-clausal element. e. 7H:. 3.2. namely. H 'The book which I bought' 4'-c17t IIt<'-H=: ~ uligu baianin gild 'the thing which S rare) as in o} 0 17} expansion.2 P adj . 'f-yesterday-saw which boy' 6. < "S~}~- + -/1 H who ha 6. Relation between Adjectival Clause and Its H is formed with the adjectival. (c) OI/Ag. from which the adjectival clause may be analysed as being derived.1. constitutes an endocentric construction with an N or NP as its head.:: ~ I11I1Sin ccg 'What book?' 'A gentleman (c) Ol/Ag. Join 'which is good' 'which [I] bought': -'J san [oh.1. (b) 0/01.oJ 01 Clause as Minor Sentence Itf-&- 6. 6. as a nominal IWO 1l O-j i. ja1]ha-.cl. an adjectival clause may occur also as a minor sentence provided the context is clear.1.±\:!) n cga .4.cl. The structure of such a construction is normally adj.2. Ll17~ O-j ill ~ (.1-2).cl. adj. 0 H (a) as a mi nor sentence. (cf.' auxiliary verb.t~ +.4. ~.e pronoun in English is expressed or formed by a different grammatical device in Korean. 6.3.g.g. H foot a lady stepped on' All hough less free and common than the nominal clause.3) whereas the European modifying clause marked by a relative pronoun corresponds to the Korean adjectival clause whose P is the processive type (cf. Par instance. Syntactic Function oj Adjectival Clause <@.6.3. by an auxiliary pretended to go. + H as in adj.cl.1. (b) co-occurrence with t he adjectival 'Milk which a baby would 'l. which is not an clement 0 fa rransforrnationally related final clause.cl. as follows. bs nha-. o~occur is a causa- .cl.1 Adjectival The adjectival clause Chapter Clause + Adjectival may be followed Vl Auxiliary Verb adjectival 175 them. H which is all Element oj the Underlying Clause H of an adjectival clause may be expressed by (a) SISI.cl. Exp. may b-e expressed in Korean by an adjectival clause.3.c1.'to buy' V.}jl1l)hw(/lil bon wal) '(he king who saw the film' o P S adj. by verbalinllection. (b) 010 as H 1 41 7~ but H ~ AJ :i<Jl m:ga san ceg adj. It is far more relevant to note that a clause functionally similar to the one introd uced by a relativ.e.kumi man in lal 'a daughter many dreams' The adjectival clause functions mainly as a nominal expansion. the European adjective corresponds to the Korean adjectival clause whose P is the descriptive type (cf. and tive clause of (S)(OI/Ag..cl.. only 1.'to be good' V.1.3).J~.2. may also occur (although Yj7 r~ ceg nega san H Besides its function other functions.0 the adjective of European languages but also to (he modifying clause introduced by a relative pronoun. the adjectival clause has ~. 6.2.4. or Cd) A of a final clause from which the adjectival clause is derived. (a) SISI as H .4.174 Korean Grammar 6.} :: like to drink' lJI. P SI H we want' ::.g. As a rule. the adjectival clause L~ z] AJ nega san 'which J bought' can occur on its OWn as a minor sentence in reply to such a question as -:f-. or 02 CiS whose H The underlying clause in which the elements Ol/Ag.2.~~ aiga S sip» hen in U)II P adj.1.1. the English clause. Adjectival AJ -'+ buini bali! balbin sinsa S O2 P 0 adj.3. csgha-. The Korean adjectival clause is therefore comparable not Nor NP functioning as H of an adject ivai clause may be either (i) an element of a transforrnationally related final clause.

H adjcl. 'A mother clothed her son. H when my daughter is going to nursery school' ~ol 41 <>oJ %.2. 'the situation in which you are late for the meeting') 6.176 e>1 uj L]7~ -*{- Korean Grammar Chapter VI 177 <>J?f. P 02 adj.1 .4. and thus separated from a final or nonfinal clause to which it is subordinate.!IJi' nasil Ie gunini g eiil/g cege mulil m sgisdia S Ag.cl.3. A H < <>lIiJt. Adverbial Clause The adverbial clause is a non-final clause of which the element P is suffixed with one of the adverbial clause endings (cf.3).<I~<>il 7~t I.' 'JJ:%~fl hangugess . 'in case you are late for [he meeting' (lit.cl.. 0) fl ~l"'II ~:. H 'The dog which a soldier made to drink water' < ~oJol 111~/7~<>117l] -~~ ~Ol~1::l A soldier made a dog drink water... by a tentative juncture.4.2.H°.~ <>1] .! 0~1k -V17 sniga osit ipin adil S OJ P O/Ag.}'i:! nega bjil{1wtonesJI iisatil mannamjsn 'when you see a doctor at the hospital' .' < 7. 'the time when the war broke out in Korea' t.~~ I 0 }.cl.£ 7t2 'a n ursery school adj.>11 ":P1l sm snig« adilil/aditege ipin od * ° 01 lAg. 6.cl.cl. An adverbial clause is very often marked.<. 'The son whose mother clothed [him]' ° 'a well from which to draw water P adj. H -€ ~ 7.~ 7J} semess mulil gililiw A 'Shall 1 draw water from a well?' 6..J/I:nJf.l.:} tali neil juciwsne ganda SA A P 'My daughter is going 10 school tomorrow.!lalijuciwAlleganinncil SAP A 'tomorrow adj.. 02~. Syntactic Functions ofAdverbial Clause adj. Extra-Clausal Element as H ° P Taj 01 %% '2:! oJ lil gunini mulil JIIAgill ge S 02 P O/Ag.-]7t 0t~~ /ot~oJIlll »m sniga odilil/adiiegeosit ipjsdla SOl / Ag.cl.' An adverbial clause may occur either (a) alone as a minor type sentence or (b) more frequently as a subordinate to a final clause or a non-final clause.cl. H *~ 0J~t:]. 02 P 1/ ° ASP H <>lulL] S 7}o }.1 ~ <>1] 7Jt..H which my daughter is going koc! bu 19ASMlo 'even th 0 ugh t he flower was red' 1"t! "'1]"'<'1 21A~"Jt.5. _p_ adj. zl AS sailami moinin gild PH adj .:: J 7~'+ datjsin! hweiie ninnin gillIJII SAP H adj. Examples (a) Adverbial o:j%~ Clause as Minor Sentence jslimin gaga 'the summer has gone and' '~·o I I. 4..4.3.! -~- "'JJ mulil gili! scm adj.4.2...I 711 <>11711 I!j <>J % gunini gclil/geege mngin mul S 1/ Ag.cl. 'water which a soldier made the dog drink' (d) A P 0" wo] < as H *.4.H~ 7}t l~--*] tati neil ganin ~ SAP to jUCiWAIl A l. H 'the clothes which a mother made her son wear' r lo1 O llli11.1.. '[the fact] that people gather' adj.01l10lTOW' ?it 01 ti17} *'7d <>l.cl.cl.

a concentric adverbial clause has its subject shared wit h a succeeding clause to which the former is subordinate. i. thus yielding two bound constituents.is different from that of a succeeding clause. or introduced by.J ~ a ship. S P notetil honda f. In view or the evidence presented so far it is clear that on surface structure at least there is not formal distinction between subordinate and co-ordinate clauses in Korean. a Korean adverbial clause would be analysed into 1wo bound constit uenrs. adv. whereas the English subordinate clause is formed with. (c) main cl. 'While walking away.~ ~~ .' (b) As! 1/. whereas an eccentric adverbial clause is free w have either one common subject shared by both clauses. e.Al -mJJI(/1sJ\)I-imjlL(nSIL) 'while.1. 'The boy took his breakfast. Furthermore.g.4.2. whereas the corresponding English examples (b) and (d) show that subordination and coordination arc both effected by a conj unction and the IC analysis yields two free forms.cl.jIwggjoe gasda. and went to school.2. the first of [he two Korean clauses standinu in coordinate relation (semantically) is expressed in the form of an adverbial clause.' advcl.cl. afterward' ~. 6. without any conj unct ive word occu ring between them.2. That is to say. 2A~ -gOSA 'and then. by an adverbial clause ending.4. "l:! A.4. adv. ~~ ~~.\ nanin jAr)hwalil bogoss.2. which .>.1H<}A-j 1£717j- bisas» sa/gig a himdilsdo adv. in Korean.cl.g. LeI. and the IC boundary comes immediately before the inflectional endings. Instead. That is to say.1-"1 / ~'2-<B_.. 'I will come home after seeing the film' (lit.4.cI. let us go out. 'Did you travel on board a hip?' (lit..' (d) The boy took Iris breakfas: and went fO school. Korean adverbial clauses cannot be classified into subordinate and coordinate types asin English.. differs sharply from the latter in construction. ~~4 'As it is fine.4. some eccentric adverbial clauses express different meanings depending on whether their S functions as the S of a succeeding clause or is different from the latter. Korean adverbial clauses may be classified according to the relationship between the element S of an adverbial clause and that of another clause with which the adverbial clause is in subordinate relation.cl. the adverbial clause ending which is bound on the one hand and the rest preceding the adverbial clause ending which is also bound. '.4. ~.' . 2.2~ clause is formed with one of the following adverbial 'ii. (ravelled?') bcga bit/ida LcI.cl. and consequently. the vendor adv. 'when'.JG Lcl.£ mulkaga 6. o~oj-c o}lJ% ~2 ail/ill acilllillllllg-I-go. clause 1 clause 2. adv.eI. Concentric Adverbial Clause A concentric adverbial clause endings: I. The Korean adverbial clause is formed inflectionally with an adverbial clause ending. ~i!»-li- <tic} JaT)saga gamjstnss).01 ~r~~ L-j / it isfine. the Co-ordination of a clause to another is also effected by an adverbial clause ending and not by a conjuncuve word as ill English. e. Cfquse -it! ~ oj. In IC (Immediate Con'stituent) terms.llCoII Uc. or a subject of its own. bake l1uga.cl. on the other. 'Even if Iife is difficult.cl. let 'Ii <>II Lj-7t~} nali joh-r-ini. 'Riding . jibe data ogedia SOP f. Thus both the co-ordination and the subordination of clauses are effected in Korean by verbal inflection. Those adverbial clauses whose S must function also as the S of a succeeding clause are termed 'Concentric Adverbial Clauses' and those adverbial clauses whose S may (i) function also as the S of a succeeding clause or (ii) be different from the S of a succeeding clause are termed 'Concentric-Eccentric Adverbial Clauses' or simply 'Eccentric Adverbial Clauses' in short. The following examples from Korean and Enalish will Contrast the di lferem analysis as applyi ng in the two languages: ~ (0) The two Korean examples (a) and (c) above show that both subordinate and co-ordinate constructions are formed inflectionally.e. '1 see the film and then will come home').e.}7} 7} at the same time'. go out. as prices are high. i. my stomach % 7}7} l.2 90~~ ~I--I belillagojA!IE:lJil adv. is singing.cl. !!J~ ColLI 1l1]7} 1'/--£ u] jMl1simillllAglldlAlli is full. -~·.J.f.A. 'As J have had my meal.178 (b) Adverbial Korean Gram/l/ar Clause as Subordinate /0 Chapter h enni VI 179 Other Clauses ull~ "-}. as prices are high' (lit. a subordinate conjunction such as 'if'.cl. although similar to a subordinate clause in English both syntactically and semantically. etc. sub.tJ_>. Types oj Adverbial The adverbial clause in Korean. even if life is difficult'). As will be indicated in 6. _. nf.

4.~_2_u4 ain in ujulil tn sghn]« usndia *~ oJl 3_:x~ 'l'!.g. the game started.' e. e. . S!.. '" (lit..} jtgilil hajs!« f. 'You are going away and so am 1.' I. 11 An Chapter e.} A1 ~o 1 S2 f.17Ado gago P nado ganda P 81 52 f. A] ~t5-] ~ 1:. I .3. 'Until you are exhausted. p P adv. The first two endings. :z_:::: ~lAl-~ 1±1:~ hotele gaijsgo ginin tcgsitit tadl« A P SOP adv. rij I ~9 -mjAI-imjt\ 51 ~ S2.el. 'while' when SI = 52 4.') .cI.-l nunil gamk» /1.. POP 1. LeI.-14::- O\!j-~ ~~C}7} A}l.el.cl.Jl. 'You are overworking yourself!' (lit.11 gidoli! hani o P adv.tA-1 )0)171 iisa/il inannatss).1- biga gicija. APJ~.g. sym bolized S I.l]7t -j« . since. = 'as. } 'in order to' . 2'j -1(j}t\I-j/(i)JI i!:].:i!...~gol. pjAl1jillJlvtldia SAP 0 P adv. 'Meet the doctor 4. Eccentric Adverbial A concentric-eccentric Clause adverbial clause is formed with one of the following adverbial clause endings. SO that'..2. and have a word.~ 7~ ~ *~u4 'and' when SI '* S2. 71-..IJ01 '1. adv.1.. e.-i3:.cl.li.~1:1S2 P is difficult.£. 6. when S' £~- 2.W. VI 181 3.eL 'Passing by the city hall.1. .>: l \.4. (he) went to the school. SiCMJil ji!l(/(sA) haggjoe gosda o PAP adv.} 'as soon as'.' gili mikit II )\I1I(S.' SI = S2.el. sihab! si]aglweM/F!l 5..Jl.iljsgo 27. °1212h~(-"n P -£-::. I read the letter. S' 0= S~: ~l A-l:'t "lH.' advcl. P f. a book?' SOP 'Are you asleep while reading o ~.J ~c} rl 'As soon as 1 came home milk.80 Korean Grammar C}(7}) -datsa) 'interruption. rain stopped.2. 3.cl. or is different from S". p S2 P adv. and a dog is jumping.' LeI. -mjAI-imjll and -asILI-IISA express two different meanings depending on whether the subject of the adverbial clause formed with one of (hem.-6}l.} -goja <9 I. 'A baby is smiling f.-l in cegil iglagajani adv..:12 I. transference'. namely. :2.:_~.cl.3U~ oil 7}2'j.' nega Jibe oja. while having 'A baby smiled 5.l-A~ ~~ _ill.-510:1 2. S. grnin lwinda S. f.. -)0 'and'.. either in the adverbial clause or in the succeeding clause.el.cl.>. adv.-f-S:~ 7Jrj. oJ1 31 t:-}. symbolized S2.j 2 -lj. oj-01:: -!f--l'r{i.cl. ).::L "'I.0] S. oj.1) UII] Alii AljAbhl LeI. 0 adv. adv.cl. 'As the road is slippery driving daqsinin [icidolog iii! heningutj» S POP LeI... 'Are you closing your eyes and doing your prayer?') l. SOP LeI. functions as the subject of a succeeding clause. f.g. C.cl. As shown in the examples given above the element S is overtly expressed only once.' 'As soon as-the \..g. e.1) I when SI o-"j (A1) -a(s/\)!-II(Si\) S2.cl.cl.g.-i-C 71':. -it-:} 7.cl. o}o]c 711:': E\'l t:~ ainin usimjs. 'Are you offerinc your prayer with your eyes closed? . 'and then' A1 *l£-~ ~ % ~l-~-?-~ S' = S2:7J.cl. o -gO} . you are working.(/ . because' "* -dolog rl1 -ge CJ)j ~ } 'until.

-]7). come to me.-C~.g.o1:..g..<J I ~.cl.cI.ici gaI]hada SI In the above example. let's go bunting. I.' -&-}~ 0] -¥-~¥-"C~ c-j ~ ~ 0] 7J--&-}4 hanili pulipund sl« hcf. ~~%~~~ ~~ 4 ti4 2 P SOilS 'nor only ..' 2.~ ~1:-1- bwaja.g. interrupted by the adverbial clause.} q~ P -'F-1:-} P8 adv. P S C P -r ad vel. 'Are parents happy only when their become successful?' being ginin donil badAsilpundAIA bAlsA cia ssdta SOP A P f.. o ~~ k inncgsdin. e.cl.+ adv.~ (.& ~ -~?-§i..cI. ~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~%~~ ~~ hela gadinji angadsnji.-}~ 7] t:}'·. adv. e. 1:.~ ~~ 7.<~ / ~ uJ-"J 5'_ / ~ A1 'tl. only If. e.. when'.sataI]il sditsulog sonjsnin gip sdia <. 1:.cl. Lc!.'! adv.' 8.e!.t~.. but also'. .. \if. P 'i0] 81 10. f. -g 11110 . n f. adilin silp-dciman SI P Sl P ad v. AI17M1iganilgilsulog. 'You know the feeling only when you have passed the exam. S2 f.J:-~ it)' 1 c] adv.]. _2_~~ SI P adv. e. or'. LeI./ %?~ -lsulogr-ilsulog 'the more . I will wait for you.l a. 'i:! ~ "-15'_ A} \. Lf -na/sina A) A] ] 'whether . PAP =~~~ ~~~ nahante ons!a 9-4.. 'Even if [he is] small.A1) -din{ji)..(] 'tl:.. nanin gidaligedia SI A P S2 P jj]7~ _2_\.. 'Whether it snows or rains.i£ '.£.cl. the happier she became.inga lIE.H!l.tc! ~~ []] 'r.blstado. advcl.' t:~ 2. r.} 5'-l<>l0F"il P bumonin jasig] jot dwesjaman 7]~7l gij..~ 1-=1 -c 71 ~ ~. do as you like.~ I <>1 OF -aja/-.eI.£ / 2 ej... eg.cl.. adv. S~and P of the final clause are discontinuous.l 01 c] . ginin minam ida 2 2 L. P 'You call the dog so that she can come running..va}.' o P S f..cl.E. \.182 ~~ iwi« ~~ ~~ *~ ~ ~~ gcga age nega bull» bwa Korean Grammar 9.:.'{') -mjlll1l-ill1jMJ } 'if. e.-1· IE. 'He not only got the money but also already spent it.cI. adv. nu:ni ana biga ana.' .' L"i]7} ~ <>11 ~ I:. P PAP ne maimdclo -Zli/adol-ilji/ado -lmaI]J. 'The older his mother became.\I)/-il/1i:1I]JM] % / :: ~ -ndil/sindil 4%Al <:d.cl.' 7.1'1 ulido sanjatjil habsida P S~ 0 P 'If the weather is fine. J1t1C/o asll anda m SOP P S2 P 11..' 6. .(J ] 'even i fit hough'._ ~c:~ t!·1 -ljJllnd'I/JI/-ilpund.c1.£ -Idsllado/csdo -~/itllJjJl/]/-i1JiAnjIlIJ _'L 71 q. f.cl. I am all right. nanin jota SI V. A)-E-J.g-?~- o}-§..~ . A] ~J"'I] A sih sme :'<:1 <>l dwell !ill-OF P l.cl. Lei. 0t<.aJa 1. the more the son was worried but.cl.g.' naif matgimjsn <>lu-j 1. adv. '* '* uJ-.!.g.el.' 'Even (hough you are not at home. c} nega Jibe s.cl. the more'. only when..Iagi!cillnjiIT). 'l f you finish the work early. 'Not only is the sky blue but also the sunlight is strong.1/iI / ~~ ~. 1 P S2 f.' 0] ..!f-y::: 51 A}~o1 SI 7. 'Whether you go or not. he is handsome. 'The more sweets the girl got.ro~ . Chapter VI 183 7~-2 -g sdin ~% iii! palt! '{') / .

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