Telecommunications & Networks

A 12-session course by Ravi S. Sharma A 12-session course by Ravi S. Sharma
At SPJCM – Dubai
Sep 2007
Introduction to the Course
• Scope : management centered
• Text : The Essential Guide by Dodd
• Case : Skype + … • Case : Skype + …
• Assessment :20 + 30 + 50
• Schedule : cf. Outline
• Questions?
Session I - 8osics Moffer
8osed on Chop I of Dodd:
8ifs, 8yfes & Code
MuIfipIexinq
Compression
ProfocoIs & LAMs
Figure 1.2
Noise amplified on the analog line, eliminated on digital service.
Bits
• A bit = the smallest unit of information
– On or off signals
– Analog bits
– Digital bits – Digital bits
Bytes
• 8 bits
– A character
• Code - bytes in a common format
• Examples of ASCII code • Examples of ASCII code
– 1110101 W
– 1111110 ?
– 1011000 Return
Figure 1.1
One cycle of an analog wave, 1 hertz (Hz).
Broadband
• Multiple simultaneous
streams
• Examples
– Wireline – Wireline
– Wireless
• Why the growth?
– Enterprises
– Consumers
Compression
A way to make networks more efficient
Abbreviating text
– Common characters
Compressing video Compressing video
Not sending stationary objects
Matching compression algorithms at each
end
Where is Compression used?

Whof is ifs impocf7
Figure 1.3
Multiplexing.
Types of Multiplexing
• Time division
Based on strict timing
Everyone gets an equal turn
• Statistical division
First come, first served
Or prioritization
Protocols
• A protocol is a set of
rules for
communicating
between computers.
• Why are they needed? • Why are they needed?
Protocol Functions
• Who goes first?
• Are you ready?
• I got your message
• There are errors
• This is a high priority
message
• Who is sending? • Who is sending?
How do Protocols Differ?
• HTML & XML
• VoIP
• Security protocols
• Layer 3 vs. Layer 4 • Layer 3 vs. Layer 4
LANs
• Characteristics
– Ownership
– Limited geography
– High speeds
– Shared devices
• Devices on LANs • Devices on LANs
• Changes in LANs
Figure 1.4
LAN architecture.
Archifecfure: how devices fif
foqefher in o nefwork.
Figure 1.5
Rack-mounted and chassis-based switches.
The Work Environment
• How has the way your organization
conducts business changed in the last five
years?
• Which technologies have enabled these • Which technologies have enabled these
changes?
• What’s next?
Figure 1.6
Home LAN.
Figure 1.7
Edge and core routers.
Recap
A Bit is ____
– Bits sent as analog signals have the following disadvantages:
– Bits sent as digital signals the following advantages:
Bytes are:
ASCII code is:
Multiplexing makes better use of _____ by _____
Compression adds efficiencies to networks by ____ Compression adds efficiencies to networks by ____
______ changes the format of what is sent
______ does not change the format of what is transmitted
Recap Continued
Protocols are important because they:
Layers simplify changes because they:
What do we mean by a layer 3 device versus a
layer 4 device? layer 4 device?
Characteristics of LANs are:
Switches perform the following functions:
Routers are needed to:
Edge devices are more complex than core
devices because they:
Learning & Discussion
• Why do we need computer codes?
• What is the difference between a bit and a byte?
• Define multiplexing and compression. How do they differ?
How are they the same?
• List three Internet services that have been enhanced through • List three Internet services that have been enhanced through
compression.
• Define protocol and explain why protocols are important. Give
examples of two protocols and how they impact our work or
our personal use of technology.
• How do core networks differ from the edge of the network?
List five functions commonly performed at the edge.
• Describe functions at the core of the network.
• How have backbone networks changed in the last five years
and why are these changes important?
Session Z - VoIP ond Voice
Circuifs
8osed on Chop Z of Dodd:
The TeIephone Sysfem
IP P8Xs
Advonced Services
CobIinq
Figure 2.1
A hybrid system with circuit switched PBX and Voice over IP capabilities.
VoIP, PBXs and Cabling
• In this session we shall learn about:
– The structure of VoIP based telephone systems vs.
traditional PBXs
– Applications such as voice mail, ACDs, unified – Applications such as voice mail, ACDs, unified
messaging and integrated voice response, and how
they are connected to telephone systems
– Characteristics of unshielded twisted pair and fiber
optic cabling
TDM Vs. IP
End Office
fondem
I Z
3 4 Z I
3 4
...
...
3 4 Z I
Peserved fime sIofs
Soffswifch
Soffswifch
Voice diqifized, compressed
& puf info pockefs
IZ3333ZZI3ZI4 Z Z 33 I
Pockefs inferIeoved os
required in no specioI
order
Figure 2.2
Circuit switched PBXs connected to a data network for Voice over IP traffic.
Figure 2.3
Connection to a branch office Voice over IP telephone system.
Figure 2.4
Courtesy of Avaya, 2005. Voice over IP
softphone with the same extension
number as the desk telephone.
Figure 2.5
PBX trunks from the telephone company to the demarcation.
Figure 2.6
Direct inward dialing (DID) carried on a T-1 trunk to an IP-based telephone system.
Figure 2.7
In-building wireless service.
Figure 2.8
One-number wireless service in conjunction with a PBX.
Figure 2.9
Integrated voice response system linked to a computer and an ACD.
Figure 2.10
Queue management software linked to an e-mail server and PBX.
Media
• What are my choices?
• What are the criteria
for selection?
• Implication of choices • Implication of choices
Figure 2.11
Cross section of Category 6 cabling.
Fiber Applications & Characteristics
• Characteristics
– Performance
– Electrical immunity
• Applications
– CATV
– Security
– Durability
– Cost
– Size
– Weight
– Flexibility
– Material & labor costs
– Backbones
– Trans oceanic routes
– Cellular backhaul
Figure 2.12
Fiber optics in cable TV networks.
Impact of Wavelength Division
Multiplexing
AmpIifiers
Dense WoveIenqfh division muIfipIexinq
·Dense vs. Coorse
· # of chonneIs
• Cosfs
Figure 2.13
Coarse wavelength division multiplexing
(CWDM) in cable TV networks.
Summary
• Traditional PBXs differ from soft-switches (to
be re-visited) in the following ways:
• Customers purchase VoIP based switches
because: because:
• How do customers insure security?
• How do fiber cabling and unshielded twisted
pair differ from each other?
• In what applications are fiber rather than copper
used?
Learning & Discussion
• How are proprietary PBXs different than telephone systems
based on Voice over IP? How are they alike?
• Describe four reasons organizations purchase VoIP PBXs
rather than traditional, telephone systems based on proprietary
protocols and signaling.
• Why do some people refer to voice as an application on the • Why do some people refer to voice as an application on the
local area network?
• What advice would you give organizations that purchase VoIP
systems to ensure that they have successful implementations.
List five actions that you think they should take.
• Discuss the rationale for purchasing a hybrid VoIP/traditional
telephone system rather than a strictly VoIP system.
• Describe the main functions of contact centers and why reports
are critical.
• Describe coarse wave division multiplexing. Why do you think
cable companies are interested in bringing fiber closer to
homes?
Session 3 - PubIic Swifched
TeIecommunicofions
Mefworks
8osed on Chop 4 of Dodd:
Converqence
8roodbond
OnIine Services
Access Mefworks
SiqnoIinq
VoIP, the PSTN & Signaling
• Key components & rationale for converged
networks
• Residential VoIP services
• The public switched telephone network
• The structure & limitations of the public
switched telephone network
• Challenges & components of the last mile
• Signaling & why it matters
The Traditional Public Switched
Telephone Network
Local calls in the PSTN
Carrier B’s customer calls carrier A’s customer.
E911 call to a public safety answering point.
911 call to a public safety answering point
without enhanced 911 (E911)
The last-mile access portion of incumbent local exchange carrier networks.
Bringing Fiber closer to customers via
digital loop carriers
Broadband over power lines
figure courtesy of Amperion, Inc.
Residential Voice over IP over DSL or cable modem service
Pre-paid calling services
Common channel signaling—separate links for signaling and voice traffic.
Bypassing telephone Companies’
Access Fees Using Competitive
Access Providers (CAPs)
How did the industry change after
Divestiture?
Post-Telecommunications Co-location
Figure 3.4
A local loop leased by a CLEC.
Enter Convergence - The Triple Play
• Wireless Carriers
• Cable TV Providers
• CLECs • CLECs
• ILECs
• Utilities
Connections between IP networks
Peer-to-peer services
• Examples of providers
• Services offered
• Pluses
• Minuses
Sue
JuIio
• Minuses
• Impact on the industry
Dove
JuIio
Mike
Liz
Joe
I. Sue cIicks on Joe's nome fo coII him.
Z. Messoqe roufed fo Mike.
3. Mike's compufer oufomoficoIIy
forwords coII fo Joe.
Thinking Aloud
• Why are carriers transitioning to VoIP?
• How do these networks differ from traditional
public switched networks?
• Explain the functions of: • Explain the functions of:
– Softswitches, gateways and media servers
• In what ways is signaling the glue that holds
networks together?
• Why are consumers attracted to Skype &
Vonage?
Learning & Discussion
1. Describe the main pieces of equipment in carriers’ voice over IP
architecture: soft-switches, media gateways, signaling gateways,
media servers and application servers. What functions does each of
them provide?
2. Analysts are predicting that VoIP for residential customers will boom
over the next few years. Do you agree or disagree? Defend your
answer. answer.
3. Why are some carriers selling VoIP services through retail outlets
and on the Web rather than directly through live sales
representatives?
4. Define the last mile in carriers’ networks and why it such a challenge
to upgrade these facilities.
5. What are the functions of digital loop carriers and why are they
important?
6. Why did the Skype CEO in an October 17, 2005 interview in the New
York Post say that his biggest competitors are Yahoo! and
Microsoft? What did the CEO’s comments suggest about Yahoo! and
Microsoft’s plans? Do you agree that these are his main
competitors? Why or why not?
Case Discussion –
The making of a Full Service Provider.
• Read the case on Telesp (HBS Case No. 804-
149), taking the position of a consultant to the
Board, give your recommendations on each of
the opportunities identified in the case: the opportunities identified in the case:
– Expand nationally?
– Launch narrowband ISP?
– Develop integrated fixed mobile services?
Session 4 - VirfuoI Privofe
Mefworks & Ofher Services
8osed on Chop b of Dodd:
1
VPMs
Frome PeIoy
DiqifoI Services
Fosf Efhernef & ATM
OpficoI Mefworks
VPNs & Specialized Network
Services
• Virtual private networks
– Lowering the cost of enterprise links & enabling
remote access
• Frame relay as a replacement for private lines
2
• Frame relay as a replacement for private lines
• T-1/E-1 the first high speed service …
SDH/SONET & OC-3, 12, 48;
• ISDN – bri, pri, caller ID & video conferencing
• Gigabit Ethernet in carrier & enterprise
metropolitan networks
VPNs & Specialized Network
Services continued
• ATM compared to IP
• SONET
– In the backbone
3
– In the metropolitan area
– Compared to gigabit ethernet
virtual private networks
4
VirfuoI: from fhe Lofin exceIIence:
Essence fhouqh nof in focf ocfuoI
IPSec virtual private network for remote access
5
·Whof ore fhe odvonfoqes of VPMs7
·Why ore fhey imporfonf7
·How con fhey be mode secure7
. #I issue even wifh WiFi
Key Components of Frame relay
6
Multipoint private lines with
hub and spoke for small locations
7
·Why use privofe Iines rofher fhon o virfuoI privofe nefwork7
Mesh network topology pros & cons
8
Mesh; hub & spoke combo
9
Any-to-any mesh design in a VPN; hub and spoke (star) to headquarters for
Internet access.
Local and inter-exchange channels of a private line
10 ·8iIIinq, repoir & insfoIIofion romificofions
Integrated access device for T-1s
carrying voice and data
11
·SmoII & medium componies
·ImpIicofion of compefifion
T-1 and E-1
• 1.544 or 2.048 Megabits per second
– Bell Standard
– IT Standard
12
• Applications
T-1 Mux T-1 Mux
Z4 (or 30) chonneIs ^ o4Ibps + I (Z) for siqnoIinq
Z4 or 30 chonneIs
Fiber, copper or wireIess medio
28 T-1s = a T-3 Circuit

Boston
13
ISP
London
Dallas
T-3
T-1
T-1
Fiber or Wireless
Videoconferencing using
three bonded BRI ISDN circuits
14
BRI ISDN bonding
15
Primary rate interface ISDN
16
• PRI ISDN carrying the caller’s billed telephone number automatic number identification (ANI).
The ANI is often the same as the customer’s telephone number.
Digital subscriber line service
• No need for fiber to the home or business
• A response to cable providers
• Use of same copper already deployed
17
• Use of same copper already deployed
• Strategic implications of RBOC & cable
offerings
downsfreom
voice
dofo
upsfreom
DSLAMs in
digital loop carriers (remote terminals)
18
DSLAM connection to
an Internet service provider
19
20
Figure 5.14
Neighborhood mini remote access multiplexers (MiniRAMs).
Gigabit Ethernet
21
fiber-optic cabling and metropolitan fiber rings
Leasing wavelengths in the metropolitan area
22
Parallel streams in an ATM circuit
23
•Fixed size cells 53 bytes @ payload of 48
•Quality of service*
•Asynchronous switching
•In the frame relay backbone
SONET rings in the backbone
24
- bidirectional duplicate rings in a carrier’s backbone network
- The fiber glut & pricing
- SONET or SDH … backbone of PSDN
Summary
• What are the major trends in high-speed
networking
• Why are carriers, residential consumers and
enterprises demanding higher-speed services
25
enterprises demanding higher-speed services
• Which technologies will supply the required
capacity and speeds?
• Contrast & compare: ISDN, T-1, E-3, Gig-E,
SONET/SDH & ATM
Learning & Discussion
1. Compare gigabit Ethernet to SONET. How do carriers use each
of these technologies? What about enterprises?
2. Describe and compare Multiprotocol label switching (MPLS)
virtual private networks (VPNs) to IP VPNs. How are they
different from each other and what are advantages of each type
of network technology?
26
of network technology?
3. Security on VPNs is a major concern to carriers. Discuss how
businesses and carriers use firewalls and token ID security to
protect their networks.
4. List three reasons organizations are tending to use newer VPN
services rather than frame relay?
5. How does PRI ISDN differ from T-1? How is it the same?
6. Analysts are predicting that business and commercial
customers are going to use more services offered by large
carriers and that they will not be as price conscious because of
the importance of these value added services. What services do
you think they were thinking of?
Case Discussion on Care Group
(HBS case no 303-097)
• If you were the CIO of the CareGroup, would
you define your primary role as being an
integrator?
• What are some of the blind spots that John
27
• What are some of the blind spots that John
Halamka does not appear to see?
Session b - Medio &
Enferfoinmenf Services
8osed on Chop o of Dodd:
1
CobIe TV Mefworks
TV 8roodcosfinq
Enferfoinmenf over fhe
Infernef
DiqifoI Podio
Entertainment Networks
• The competitive
landscape
• Lifestyle changes
• Network evolutions
2
• Network evolutions
• The role of regulations
• Technological influences
Hybrid fiber cable (HFC) network
3
Two-way Internet access, improved reception, and
added reliability.
Linking distribution hubs to headends
4
The Triple Play
5
video, voice, and television
The Evolution of Set-top Boxes
• What is their function?
– Billing
– Tuners
– Security
6
– Security
• How have they changed? DOCSIS 1.0, 1.1, 2.0
• Personal video recorders (PVRs)
• Strategic advantages for cable companies
– Program guides
– Home networks
Digital broadcasting with compression
7
Broadcasters Use of Spare Digital
Spectrum for Extra Revenue
8
USDTV broadcasts. Figure courtesy of USDTV.
Satellite TV
• Why does it cost less to operate satellite
networks?
• The impact on cable TV operators
9
• Implications for the future
Satellite Digital Radio Broadcasts
10
Courtesy XM Satellite Radio
Over the Air TV Broadcasts
A8C (Disney)
Mofionwide 8roodcosfer
11
8osfon AffiIiofe Chicoqo AffiIiofe
Los AnqeIes AffiIiofe
A Passive Optical Network
for Cable Television
12
optical network unit (ONU)
Fiber to the Home from Telcos
13
A passive optical network with optical network terminations (ONTs).
Entertainment via the Internet
• The impact of Netflix
• Do people want to watch movies or TV reruns
on their PCs?
14
– Home networks
• What about on an i-Pods?
• Technological factors
Multiple System Operators (MSOs)
vs. Telcos
• Cable operators’ competitive advantages
• Telco strengths
15
• Telco strengths
• Regulatory issues
– Local franchises
– National legislation
Summary
• A couch potato world?
• The structure of cable TV networks compared to voice
and data networks
– How are networks converging?
16
– How are networks converging?
• Enabling technologies for video on demand
– Fiber
– Data storage
– Faster processors
– Compression
Learning & Discussion
Cable television is an extremely capital intensive business. Why do
you think cable TV networks are more capital intensive than
wireless networks such as direct broadcast satellite TV
networks?
Cable operators have lost many customers to satellite TV because of
lower pricing offered by satellite TV providers. What advice
17
lower pricing offered by satellite TV providers. What advice
would you give cable operators on how to win back customers?
Incumbent telephone companies are also gearing up to compete
against cable operators. Describe how a carrier such as
Deutsche Telekom uses passive optical networking. List the
main components and their functions.
Would you order cable TV from your telephone company? Why or
why not?
What would telephone companies have to do to get your business?
List four ways that cable TV products and services have changed in
the last five years. What technologies did operators have to
implement to offer these services?
Session o - The Infernef
8osed on Chop 7 of Dodd:
1
EvoIufion
How Messoqinq Works
UPLs, SEs ond e-biz
infronefs ond exfronefs
The Internet
2
Structure & evolution
Messaging
Addressing
E-Commerce
Intranets & Internets
Background
Department of Defense
Research vehicle
The IS & IETF
Arcane commands
USC
U of M
Morfheosfern
3
Arcane commands
Peer to peer
IPv6
Horvord
USC
MIT
Duke
What Makes the Web Special?
Graphical Interface from CERN
HTTP
– Client server
Addressing

4
Addressing
Commercialization
SEs
SSL
*World Wide Web
Linked Networks
MCI* Backbone
AT&T** Backbone
MAE* East
MCI
Vienna, VA
Sprint Backbone
MAE* West
MCI
San Jose
Sprint NAP
Pennsauken NJ
5
Metropolitan Area Exchanges: Sites
with routers where ISPs exchange
traffic. Also called network access
points, NAPs.
Carriers monitor their
Networks at NOCs,
Network Operations
Centers
Pennsauken NJ
* MCI to be purchased by Verizon Communications
** AT&T to be purchased by SBC
Keeping up With Changes on Corporate Web Sites
6
Figure 7.1
Web server, application server, content management software, and content database.
(Courtesy of Ektron, Inc.)
Internet Connections to a Cable Multiple
System Operator (MSO)
7
E-Mail, Chats & Instant Messaging
• The killer apps
• HTML formatted
email
• Impact of attachments
8
• Impact of attachments
• IM & presence for
businesses
• Teenagers & chat
• Multi-media
messaging
• … XML
9
Figure 7.3
Links between hosting companies and the Internet.
BLOGs, Craig’s List & Really
Simple Syndication
• Web logs
• Impact on news media
• New distribution
10
• New distribution
– Push Vs. pull
– Pod casting via really simple syndication (RSS)
• Will newspapers disappear?
11
Figure 7.4
Distance learning company hosting
applications and course material for schools.
Figure courtesy Blackboard, Inc. … NTU’s edventure
Phishing and Identity Theft
• Are our identities safe?
• Which of our organizations’ identities have
been forged by phishers?
12
been forged by phishers?
• How can we protect our identities?
• SPAM – stamps
• Spyware
E-Commerce
Who shops online?
What sells?
Pornography
Gambling
13
Gambling
Retail products
Ads on search sites
Privacy
Cookies
Surveys
Database sales
Thinking Aloud
Describe the structure of the Internet
How has the Internet changed the way
we do business?
We live?
14
We live?
What are the biggest opportunities for e-
commerce?
Who are the major competitors & future
winners?
How will the Internet change life for the
next generation?
Learning & Discussion
1. How do teens and college students study, socialize and interface with
family members differently today than ten years ago due to technologies
enabled by the Internet? What about 20 years ago?
2. How has the ways business is conducted changed as a result of the Internet?
If you were working 10 years ago describe how these differences impacted
your work.
3. What technological developments have enabled the changes discussed in
15
3. What technological developments have enabled the changes discussed in
questions one and two above?
4. Explain how customers’ with broadband connections are connected from
their modem to the Internet. For example, how does email travel from your
home, to MSN or T-Online and then to the Internet.
5. How are Internet backbone networks such as those owned by AT&T and
Sprint connected to each other?
6. Why are businesses interested in instant messaging? What are the technical
challenges of implementing instant messages in commercial organizations?
7. What impact have spam and viruses had on use of the Internet? How can
residential customers protect themselves from: Phishing, Spam, Viruses.
Session 7 - MobiIe
Services
8osed on Chop 8 of Dodd:
1
CeIIuIor Mefworks
Frequency Specfrum
Mew 0en Corriers & Services
Mobile Services
• Cellular networks
• Spectrum
• The structure of the industry
• Second & third generation networks
2
• Second & third generation networks
• Handhelds
• M-Commerce
Pre-cellular Mobile Service
3
1984
Cellular Service
2 Carriers/market
1994 PCS Auctions
Entry of Competitors
AT&T Wireless
Sprint, T-Mobile predecessors
Late 1990s
Consolidation & Growth
Sprint Nextel, AT&T/Cingular
Verizon Wireless/Vodafone
Wireless Milestones
In the U.S.
4
Cellular’s Additional Capacity
5
Spectrum
• What is it?
• Wavelength
• Allocation
6
• Allocation
– Licensed
– Unlicensed
• Harmonization
Connecfions 8efween MobiIe & LondIine Mefworks
7
2nd Generation Wireless
Services
8
SS7 & Registers - Tracking Users
9
Third Generation Cellular
• WCDMA
– GSM & TDMA
– Evolution via:
• GPRS (General Packet radio services)
10
• EDGE (Enhanced data rates for GSM)
• HSDPA (High speed uplink packet access)
• CDMA2000
– 1x
– 1xEV-DO
– Rev A
U.S. Carriers
• GSM evolving to
WCDMA
– Cingular Wireless
– T-Mobile
• CDMA2000 1X & EV-
DO
– Verizon Wireless
– Sprint Nextel
• iDEN
11
• iDEN
• Trialing WiMAX
Third generation
network architecture -
3GPP
for WCDMA
12
Nextel’s Nationwide Push-to-talk Service
13
What Issues are Carriers
Facing?
• $$$
• Roaming
• Capacity
• Billing
14
• Billing
• New Applications
What do Customers Want?
• Voice
– Quality
– Pricing
– Coverage
15
– Coverage
• Features
• Data
• Video
Third Generation
Economics
New Handsets
Denser base station coverage
$$$ for licenses
16
$$$ for licenses
Will companies pay for high-speed
data?
Will consumers?
17
Figure 8.6
Kodiak push-to-talk
between cellular networks.
Figure courtesy of Kodiak
Networks.
Handhelds
• Triple mode
– WCDMA
– GSM
– GPRS
• Multi-band
– 800 megahertz (MHz)
– 1.8 gigahertz (GHz)
18
Handheld Capabilities
• Ring tones
• Cameras
• Video & games
• Battery life
19
• Battery life
• Differentiators
• Subsidies
Advanced Applications & M-
commerce
• Pay by phone
• Multi-media
• Internet access
• Remote Access to Enterprise applications
20
• Remote Access to Enterprise applications
• Challenges
– Spam
– Security
Mobile Services Summary
• The Significance of cellular service
• Differences between 2nd & 3rd
Generation Service
• Impact of governments’ spectrum policies
21
• Impact of governments’ spectrum policies
• Handhelds & user experiences
Learning & Discussion
1. Define spectrum and discuss its impact on: speed, capacity and costs for
carriers to build networks.
2. How should governments allot spectrum? Should it be free? Why or why not.
What is the business and technological impact of the way governments allot
spectrum.
3. What are three advantages of second generation over first generation cellular
services? Does anyone remember having an analog handset and the features
that were available on it?
4. Currently, close to 10% of telephone customers have substituted cellular service
22
4. Currently, close to 10% of telephone customers have substituted cellular service
for their main telephone service. What factors do you think have led to this
substitution? Why don’t more people use cellular service as their only telephone
service? What about Fixed Mobile Integration?
5. What are the two main third generation mobile standards? Discuss the ways that
carriers using the two different standards WCDMA and CDMA2000 are evolving
to third generation networks.
6. How will customers benefit from 3G?
7. Which applications will customers want and what are barriers to acceptance?
What advice would you give carriers to further acceptance of new applications?
8. List the ways that consumers and business customers will benefit from and be
hurt from the consolidation in the wireless industry.
Session 8 - WireIess
Services
8osed on Chop 9 of Dodd:
1
WLAMs
8roodbond WireIess Access
PAMs
Wi-Fi, Wireless Broadband,
Sensor & Personal Area
Networks
• 802.11
– Standards
– Applications
• Broadband Wireless Access
– WiMAX
2
– WiMAX
– Adapting 3G for WBA: UMTS TDD
• Personal Area Networks: Bluetooth, RFID, UWB
• Sensor Networks - Zigbee
• Comparisons of Technologies & Applications
What is Wi-Fi?
• A wireless Ethernet standard
– Wi-Fi - (wireless fidelity) IEEE 802.11b, 802.11a &
802.11g
• Why standards matter
3
• Why standards matter
• The downside of standards
802.11 Standards
Standard Top Speed Achievable
Speed
No. of
Channels
Frequency
Band
802.11b 11 megabits
per second
5 megabits per
second
3 2.4 gigahertz
802.11a 54 megabits 32 megabits 12 5 gigahertz
4
802.11a 54 megabits
per second
32 megabits
per second
12 5 gigahertz
802.11g 54 megabits
per second
14.4 megabits
per second
3 2.4 gigahertz
• 802.11n
• Range
• Capacity
• Data Rate
• Why these matter
Portability in Enterprises
Lopfops & hondheId compufers
CobIinq
Meed for compufers in common oreos
5
PeIionce on 0roupWore
AppIicofions in verficoI indusfries
802.11 Components
• Access points
• The user interface
• Switches
• Controllers
6
• Controllers
WireIess occess
poinf
Modem fo fhe
Infernef
Eoch compufer hos o Wi-Fi
compofibIe cord or chip & onfenno
7
Workgroup
switches (which
are on
individual
floors), access
points, and a
core switch in
an enterprise
network.
Wi-Fi in Hot Spots
•Speed
•Convenience
•Benefits to providers
8
•Benefits to providers
A Clearinghouse for Single Sign on & Billing
9
Clearinghouse passes billing data to WISP
who bills user & pays clearing house a fee
A secure virtual private network (VPN) connection
between hotspots and enterprises using tunneling
10
WISPs & Aggregators
• WISPs
– Wayport
– T-Mobile
• Aggregators
11
• Aggregators
– Boingo - billing “uber-aggregator”
– GoRemote
– iPass
– Fiberlink
Mesh networks
12
Hot Spot Remote Access
Lost PDAs & laptops
Eavesdropping
Stolen data
13
Log in to WISP authenticated but data
not secured
Wi-Fi in Homes
• Why did residential customers use Wi-Fi
earlier than business & commercial
customers?
• How will future residential applications
14
• How will future residential applications
differ from initial applications?
• Is there a downside to Wi-Fi in homes?
Voice over IP on corporate 802.11 wireless
networks
15
Security
• Security on wireless services compared
to that of wireline
• Software on access points or devices
connected to corporate networks
16
connected to corporate networks
• Software on clients
What can go wrong?
• Unauthorized access
• Snooping
• Competitive information compromised
• Rogue access points
17
• Rogue access points
Security Tools
• WEP - Wired Equivalent Privacy
– Easy to “crack”
– Shared passwords
18
• WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) 802.11i
subset
– 128 bit level of encryption - more scrambled
– “Keys” between user & access point changed
more frequently
Implications for the CIO
Complexity Vs. ease of administration
19
Compared to cellular
•13% of the cost of cellular data to provision*
•Stationary
•Speed
20
•Speed
•Coverage
* Craig Mathias, the Farpoint Group
What about WiMAX?
• 802.16d - fixed
• 802.16e - mobile
• Longer distances
• MMDS - Multipoint Microwave
21
• MMDS - Multipoint Microwave
Distribution System
• Will these go the way of WinStar &
Teligent?
WiMAX service with overlapping wireless
coverage between towers for redundancy
22
WiMAX to Extend Wireline
Networks
ISP
23
Provider's Tower
Fiber
ISP
Cusfomers'
onfennos
Bluetooth
• Short distances
• 2.4 GHz
• Standards
24
• Version 1 vs. Version 2
Bluetooth wireless links
Palm
RFID service in hospitals to manage
assets
25
Ultra-wideband (UWB) low-power
signals
26
A ZigBee partial mesh network
27
Summary
• Wi-Fi use in enterprises will increase
when:___
• Hot spots compared to Cellular?
– Will wane as 3G grows
28
– Will wane as 3G grows
– Will outpace 3G
• Explain the differences & similarities
between fixed & mobile WiMAX
• Compare: bluetooth, RFID, Ultra-
Wideband & Zigbee
Learning & Discussion
1. Of those of you that use a hot spot why and for what purpose do you use
it?
2. Discuss the pros and cons of using a hot spot for remote access to
corporate applications.
3. Wi-Fi doesn’t exist in a vacuum; rather it needs to be connected to other
networks – the Internet and LANs. Discuss various ways to make these
connections. List various connectivity options.
4. List four challenges of using voice on Wi-Fi networks.
29
4. List four challenges of using voice on Wi-Fi networks.
5. Some carriers (eg Vodaphone)have announced that they are
considering offering handsets that work on both cellular and Wi-Fi
services. What are the challenges they will face if they do offer these
handsets?
6. List three reasons why fixed WiMAX service will succeed or why it will
not achieve significant market share.
7. List the technical and regulatory challenges faced by municipalities that
build mesh Wi-Fi networks.
8. Compare Zigbee, Bluetooth and RFID. How do they differ? How are
they the same?
9. Why are developing countries interested in broadband wireless access?
Session 9 - Desiqninq
Disfribufed Sysfems
8osed on Chop I4 of Hoffer
ef oI (b
fh
ed): ef oI (b ed):
CIienf Server SoIufions
Web Sfondords
E-Commerce
Learning Objectives
Define the key terms client/server architecture,
local area network LAN, distributed database,
and middleware.
Distinguish between file server and
client/server environments and contrast how
each is used in a LAN.
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 2
Chapter 14
client/server environments and contrast how
each is used in a LAN.
Describe alternative designs for distributed
systems and their trade-offs.
Describe how standards shape the design of
Internet-based systems.
Learning Objectives (Cont.)
Describe options for ensuring Internet design
consistency.
Describe how site management issues can
influence customer loyalty and trustworthiness
as well as system security.
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 3
Chapter 14
as well as system security.
Discuss issues related to managing online
data, including context development, online
transaction processing (OLTP), online
analytical processing (OLAP), and data
warehousing.
The Process of Designing
Distributed and Internet Systems
• Similar to designing single-location systems.
• Due to multi-location deployment, numerous
design issues must be considered.
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 4
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• More opportunity for failure due to number of
components.
• Main issues involve ensuring reliability,
availability, survivability, performance.
Deliverables and Outcome
• Document that consolidates system
design information:
– Description of each site.
– Description of data usage for each site.
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 5
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– Description of data usage for each site.
– Description of business process for each
site.
– Contrasts of alternative IS architectures for
site, data and processing needs of each
site.
Designing Distributed Systems
• Distributed systems use:
–LAN-based file server architecture.
–Client/server architecture
• File server: a device that manages file
operations and is shared by each client
PC attached to a LAN.
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 6
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Limitations of File Servers
• Excessive data movement.
– Entire data tables must be transferred instead
of individual records.
• Need for powerful client workstations. • Need for powerful client workstations.
– Each client workstation must devote memory
to a full DBMS.
• Decentralized data control.
– Complicates record concurrency control,
recovery, and security.
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 7
Chapter 14
Designing Systems for a
Client/Server Architecture
• Client/server architecture: a LAN-based
computing environment in which central
database server or engine performs all
database commands sent to it from client
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 8
Chapter 14
database commands sent to it from client
workstations, and application programs
on each client concentrate on user
interface functions.
Designing Systems for a
Client/Server Architecture
• Application processing is divided
between client and server.
• Client manages the user interface.
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 9
Chapter 14
• Database server is responsible for
data storage and query processing.
Designing Systems for a
Client/Server Architecture (Cont.)
• Database engine: the (back-end)
portion of the client/server database
system running on the server that
provides database processing and
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 10
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provides database processing and
shared access functions.
Designing Systems for a
Client/Server Architecture (Cont.)
• Client: the (front-end) portion of the
client/server database system that
provides the user interface and data
manipulation functions.
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 11
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manipulation functions.
Designing Systems for a
Client/Server Architecture (Cont.)
• Application program interface (API):
software building blocks that are used to
ensure that common system capabilities, such
as user interfaces and printing, as well as
modules are standardized to facilitate data
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 12
Chapter 14
modules are standardized to facilitate data
exchange between clients and servers.
– Common API interface can be used by any
kind of DBMS (MySQL, Sybase, or Oracle).
Client/Server Advantages and
Cautions
• Advantages
– Leverages benefits of microcomputer
technology.
– Processing performed close to data source.
• Improves response time.
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Chapter 14
• Improves response time.
• Reduces network traffic.
– Facilitates use of GUIs.
– Encourages acceptance of open systems.
Client/Server Advantages and
Cautions
• Cautions
– Difficult migration from file server to
client/server.
– Compatibility issues.
– Limited system design and performance
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 14
Chapter 14
– Limited system design and performance
monitoring tools.
Advanced Forms of
Client/Server Architectures
• Application server: a computing server
where data analysis functions primarily
reside.
• Three-tiered client/server: advanced
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 15
Chapter 14
• Three-tiered client/server: advanced
client/server architectures in which there
are three logical and distinct applications
– data management, presentation, and
analysis – that are combined to create a
single information system.
Advanced Forms of Client/Server
Architectures (Cont.)
• Middleware: a combination of hardware,
software, and communication
technologies that bring data
management, presentation, and analysis
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 16
Chapter 14
management, presentation, and analysis
together into a three-tiered client/server
environemnt.
Approaches to Designing
Client/Server Architectures
• Distributed Presentation
• Remote Presentation
• Remote Data Management
• Distributed Function
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 17
Chapter 14
• Distributed Function
• Distributed Database
• Distributed Processing
Advanced Forms of Client/Server
Architectures (Cont.)
• Applications can be partitioned in a way that
best fits the organizational computing need.
• Easier customization: application code resides
on application server, so change done only in
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 18
Chapter 14
on application server, so change done only in
one place.
• Easier maintenance: data analysis is separate
from user interface, so changing one can be
done independently of the other.
Designing Internet Systems
• Most new system development focuses
on Internet-base applications (for internal
processing, business-to-business, and
business-to-consumer).
• Main design issues: standards,
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 19
Chapter 14
• Main design issues: standards,
separating content from display, future
evolution, site consistency, site
management and online data
management.
Standards Drive the Internet
• Internet design is simpler than
client/server due to proliferation of
standards.
• Types of Standards:
– Domain naming (BIND): a method for
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 20
Chapter 14
– Domain naming (BIND): a method for
translating domain names into Internet
Protocol (IP) addresses.
• “B” refers to Berkeley, Ca. where first developed.
• See www.isc.org/products/BIND/bind-history.html
Standards Drive the Internet
(Cont.)
– Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP): a
communication protocol for exchanging
information on the Internet.
– Hypertext Markup Language (HTML): the
standard language for representing content
on the Web via command tags.
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 21
Chapter 14
on the Web via command tags.
Separating Content and Display
• HTML has limitations due to format
orientation of tags.
• eXtensible MarkupLanguage (XML): an
Internet-authoring language that allows
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 22
Chapter 14
Internet-authoring language that allows
designers to create customized tags,
enabling the definition, transmission,
validation, and interpretation of data
between applications.
Future Evolution
• Thin client: a client device designed so
that most processing and data storage
occur on the server.
• Use of wireless mobile devices
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 23
Chapter 14
• Use of wireless mobile devices
– Wireless Access Protocol (WAP): a wireless
version of HTTP.
– Wireless Markup Language (WML): a
wireless version of HTML.
Site Consistency
• Professionalism requires a consistent
look-and-feel across all pages of a Web
site.
• Cascading Style Sheets (CSSs): a set
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 24
Chapter 14
• Cascading Style Sheets (CSSs): a set
of style rules that tells a Web browser
how to present a document.
Site Consistency (Cont.)
• Extensible Style Language (XSL): a
specification for separating style from
content when generating HTML
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 25
Chapter 14
content when generating HTML
documents.
– Methods for transforming XML documents into
a generic comprehensive form.
– Methods for formatting the generic
comprehensive form into a device-specific
form.
Other Site Consistency Issues
• Two key issues should be considered:
– Use unique titles.
– Choose words carefully.
• Major problem is users do not know • Major problem is users do not know
where they are going when they follow a
hyperlink.
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 26
Chapter 14
Design Issues Related to Site
Management
• Customer Loyalty and Trustworthiness
– Design quality.
– Up-front disclosure.
– Comprehensive, correct, and current content. – Comprehensive, correct, and current content.
– Connected to the rest of the Web.
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 27
Chapter 14
Customer Loyalty and
Trustworthiness
• Personalization: providing Internet
content to a user based upon knowledge
of that customer.
• Customization: Internet sites that allow • Customization: Internet sites that allow
users to customize the content and look
of the site based on their personal
preferences.
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 28
Chapter 14
Web Pages Must Live Forever
• Customer Bookmarks.
• Links from Other Sites.
• Search Engine Referrals.
• Old Content Adds Value.
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 29
Chapter 14
• Old Content Adds Value.
• System Security vs. ease of use
– “Remember my password”.
– Use of cookies.
Online Data Management
• Context development : a method that helps
analysts to better understand how a system
fits within the existing business activities and
data.
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 30
Chapter 14
data.
• Integration depth: a measurement of how
far into the existing technology infrastructure
a system penetrates.
• Organizational breadth: a measurement
that tracks the core business functions
affected by a system.
Online Transaction Processing
(OLTP)
• Online transaction processing (OLTP):
the immediate automated responses to
the requests of users.
• Designed to handle multiple concurrent
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 31
Chapter 14
• Designed to handle multiple concurrent
transactions.
• Plays a large role in electronic commerce
applications.
Online Analytical Processing
(OLAP)
• Online analytical processing (OLAP):
the use of graphical software tools that
provide complex analysis of data stored
in a database.
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in a database.
• OLAP server is the chief component
• Good for time series and trend analysis.
• Enables user to “drill-down” into the data.
Merging Transaction and
Analytical Processing
• Operational systems: systems that are
used to interact with customers and run a
business in real time.
• Informational systems: systems • Informational systems: systems
designed to support decision making
based on stable point-in-time or historical
data.
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Chapter 14
Data Warehousing
• Data warehouse: a subject-oriented,
integrated, time-variant, nonvolatile
collection of data used in support of
management decision making.
34
management decision making.
Data Warehousing (Cont.)
• Key features
– Subject-oriented: organized around key
subjects.
– Integrated: data are collected from many
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 35
Chapter 14
– Integrated: data are collected from many
operational systems and made to conform to
standards.
– Time-variant: data contains a time dimension.
– Nonvolatile: data cannot be updated by users.
Data Warehousing (Cont.)
• Four basic steps to build:
– Extract data from various source system files
and databases.
– Transform, integrate, and load the data.
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 36
Chapter 14
– Transform, integrate, and load the data.
– Data warehouse is a read-only environment.
– Users access via query languages and
analytical tools.
Data Warehousing (Cont.)
• Two level Architecture:
– Data warehouse and decision support
environment.
• Three-level architecture:
© 2008 by Prentice Hall
Chapter 14
• Three-level architecture:
– Operational systems and data.
– An enterprise data warehouse.
– Data marts.
Data Warehousing (Cont.)
• Enterprise data warehouse (EDW): a
centralized, integrated data warehouse that
is the control point and single source of all
data made available to end users for
decision support applications throughout the
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 38
Chapter 14
decision support applications throughout the
entire organization.
• Data mart: a data warehouse that is limited
in scope: its data are obtained by selecting
and (where appropriate) summarizing data
from the enterprise data warehouse.
Web Site Content Management
• Content management system (CMS): a
special type of software application for
collecting, organizing, and publishing
Web site content. Web site content.
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 39
Chapter 14
Electronic Commerce Application:
Designing a Distributed Advertisement
Server for a WebStore
• Benefits for including advertising:
– Potential to increase revenue generated from
the WebStore. the WebStore.
– Potential to create cross-promotions and
alliances with other online commerce systems.
– Potential to provide customers with improved
service when looking for additional products
that accessorize PVF’s product line.
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 40
Chapter 14
Advertising on PVF’s WebStore
• List of advertisement system concerns:
– Advertisement must be served quickly so that
site performance is not affected.
– Advertisement must be uniform in size and – Advertisement must be uniform in size and
resolution, so as not to disrupt the site layout.
– Advertisement links must not redirect the
user’s browser away from the WebStore.
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 41
Chapter 14
Designing the Advertising
Component
• Transactional requirements are:
– Determine which advertisements apply,
based on where the user is in the WebStore.
– Personalize the advertisement if the identity – Personalize the advertisement if the identity
of user and preferences are known.
– Check for any seasonal or promotional
advertisements.
– Log the transaction.
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 42
Chapter 14
Designing the Management
Reporting Component
• Queries for top-management:
– “How many women, when shopping for
desks, clicked on an advertisement for
lamps?” lamps?”
– “How many advertisements were served to
shoppers looking at filing cabinets?”
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 43
Chapter 14
Designing the Management
Reporting Component
– How many people clicked on the first
advertisement they saw?”
– “How many people clicked on an
advertisement and then purchased something
from the WebStore?” from the WebStore?”
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 44
Chapter 14
Summary
Define the key terms client/server
architecture, local area network LAN,
distributed database, and middleware.
Distinguish between file server and
client/server environments and contrast how
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 45
Chapter 14
client/server environments and contrast how
each is used in a LAN.
Describe alternative designs for distributed
systems and their trade-offs.
Describe how standards shape the design of
Internet-based systems.
Summary (Cont.)
Describe options for ensuring Internet design
consistency.
Describe how site management issues can
influence customer loyalty and
trustworthiness as well as system security.
© 2008 by Prentice Hall 46
Chapter 14
trustworthiness as well as system security.
Discuss issues related to managing online
data, including context development, online
transaction processing (OLTP), online
analytical processing (OLAP), and data
warehousing.
Learning & Discussion
A discussion of the case on Rakuten (HBS Case No. 305-050):
A pure play merchant server based in Japan
Key decision points:-
• Which LoBs to expand?
• Should it go global?
• Is it time for clicks and bricks? • Is it time for clicks and bricks?
• What is the potential downside (ie risks)?
• What other business partnerships (including co-sourcing) should it explore?
Session I0 - Secure
Mefwork Services
(based on Chapter 6; ref – R. Panko, Corporate
Computer and Network Security, Prentice Hall, New
York, 2003.)
1
Outline
A·ailabilitv & Reliabilitv
2
(SI ´ lBI Sur·ev lindings
Attack 1rends and lramework íor Attackers
1vpes oí 1hreats
Securitv Management
Availability & Reliability - series
3
Combining components in
series decreases overall
availability
Availability & Reliability - parallel
4
Effect of Redundancy –
5 components in series
Pr (5 components fail at the same time) =
.02 * .02 * .02 * .02 * .02
A = 99.99999968
High Availability Facilities
·Uninterrupted Power Supplv
·Phvsical Securitv
·(limate (ontrol & lire Suppression
·Network (onnecti·itv
·N-1 & N-N Redundancv
5
·N-1 & N-N Redundancv
Ouestion - how much redundancv &
securitv can vou aííord·
CSI/FBI Computer Crime and Security
Survey
• Annual survey conducted by the
Computer Security Institute
(http://www.gocsi.com) in cooperation
with the FBI.
6
with the FBI.
• Based on replies from 503 U.S.
Computer Security Professionals.
• If fewer than 20 firms reported quantified
dollar losses, data for the threat are not
shown.
FBI / CSI Survey (contd.)
Threat Percent
Reporting
an
Incident
1997
Percent
Reporting
an
Incident
2002
Average
Annual
Loss per
Firm
(x1000)
Average
Annual
Loss per
Firm
(x1000)
7
1997 2002 (x1000)
1997
(x1000)
2002
Viruses 82% 85% $76 $283
Laptop
Theft
58% 65% $38 $89
FBI / CSI Survey (contd.)
Threat Percent
Reporting
an
Incident
1997
Percent
Reporting
an
Incident
2002
Average
Annual
Loss per
Firm
(x1000)
Average
Annual
Loss per
Firm
(x1000)
8
1997 2002 (x1000)
1997
(x1000)
2002
Denial of
Service
24% 40% $77 $297
System
Penetration
20% 40% $132 $226
Unauthorized
Access by
Insiders
40% 38% NA NA
FBI / CSI Survey (contd.)
Threat Percent
Reporting
an
Incident
1997
Percent
Reporting
an
Incident
2002
Average
Annual
Loss per
Firm
(x1000)
Average
Annual
Loss per
Firm
(x1000)
9
1997 2002 (x1000)
1997
(x1000)
2002
Theft of
Intellectual
Property
20% 20% $954 $6,571
Financial
Fraud
12% 12% $958 $4,632
Sabotage 14% 8% $164 $541
FBI / CSI Survey (contd.)
Threat Percent
Reporting
an
Incident
1997
Percent
Reporting
an
Incident
2002
Average
Annual
Loss per
Firm
(x1000)
Average
Annual
Loss per
Firm
(x1000)
10
1997 2002 (x1000)
1997
(x1000)
2002
Telecom
Fraud
27% 9% NA NA
Telecom
Eaves-
dropping
11% 6% NA NA
Active
Wiretap
3% 1% NA NA
Other Empirical Attack Data
• Riptech
– Analyzed 5.5 billion firewall log entries in 300
firms in five-month period
11
– Detected 128,678 attacks—an annual rate of
1,000 per firm
– Only 39% of attacks after viruses were
removed were directed at individual firms
Other Empirical Attack Data
• SecurityFocus
– Data from 10,000 firms in 2001
– Attack Frequency
• 129 million network scanning probe packets
12
• 129 million network scanning probe packets
(13,000 per firm)
• 29 million website attack packets (3,000 per firm)
• 6 million denial-of-service attack packets (600 per
firm)
Other Empirical Attack Data
• SecurityFocus
– Attack Targets
• 31 million Windows-specific attacks
13
• 22 million UNIX/LINUX attacks
• 7 million Cisco IOS attacks
• All operating systems are attacked!
Other Empirical Attack Data
• Honeynet project
– Networks set up for adversaries to attack
– Windows 98 PC with open shares and no
14
– Windows 98 PC with open shares and no
password compromised 5 times in 4 days
– LINUX PCs took 3 days on average to
compromise
Attack Trends
• Growing Incident Frequency
– Incidents reported to the Computer
Emergency Response Team/Coordination
Center
15
Center
– 1997: 2,134
– 1998: 3,474 (75% growth from previous
year)
– 1999: 9,859 (164% growth)
– 2000: 21,756 (121% growth)
– 2001: 52,658 (142% growth)
– Tomorrow?
Attack Trends
• Growing Randomness in Victim Selection
– In the past, large firms were targeted
– Now, targeting is increasingly random
16
– Now, targeting is increasingly random
– No more security through obscurity for small
firms and individuals
Attack Trends
• Growing Malevolence
– Most early attacks were not malicious
– Malicious attacks are becoming the norm
17
– Malicious attacks are becoming the norm
Attack Trends
• Growing Attack Automation
– Attacks are automated, rather than humanly-
directed
18
– Essentially, viruses and worms are attack
robots that travel among computers
– Attack many computers in minutes or hours
– Cyberweapons of mass destruction
Attack Trends
• Recap
– Growing Frequency of Attacks
– Growing Randomness of Victim Selection
19
– Growing Malevolence of Attacks
– Growing Attack Automation
• So don’t base thinking and planning on
today’s threats!
Framework for Attackers
• Elite Hackers
– Hacking: intentional access without
authorization or in excess of authorization
20
– Cracking versus hacking
– Technical expertise and dogged persistence
– Use attack scripts to automate actions, but
this is not the essence of what they do
– Deviants and hacker groups
Framework for Attackers
• White Hat or Ethical Hackers
– A term used in several ways
21
– Hackers who attack at the invitation of
target firms for vulnerability detection
– Hackers who hack without invitation but
who have a code of ethics about what
not to do.
• Codes often permit considerable mischief
• Still illegal
Framework for Attackers
• Virus Writers and Releasers
– Virus writers versus virus releasers
– Only releasing viruses is punishable
22
– Only releasing viruses is punishable
Framework for Attackers
• Script Kiddies
– Use pre-written attack scripts (kiddie scripts)
– Viewed as lamers and script kiddies
23
– Viewed as lamers and script kiddies
– Large numbers make dangerous
– Noise of kiddie script attacks masks more
sophisticated attacks
Framework for Attackers
• Criminals
– Many attackers are ordinary garden-variety
criminals
24
– Credit card and identity theft
– Stealing trade secrets (intellectual property)
– Extortion
Framework for Attackers
• Internal Employees
– Have access and knowledge
– Financial theft
25
– Financial theft
– Theft of trade secrets (intellectual property)
– Sabotage
– IT and security staff
– Consultants
Framework for Attackers
• Cyberterrorism and Cyberwar
– New level of danger
– Infrastructure destruction
26
– Infrastructure destruction
• IT infrastructure
• Use IT to damage physical infrastructure
– Cyberterrorists versus cyberwar by
national governments
– Amateur information warfare
Framework for Attacks
Attacks
Physical Access
Attacks
--
Wiretapping
Dialog Attacks
Social Engineering
--
Opening Attachments
Password Theft
27
Wiretapping
Server Hacking
Vandalism
Dialog Attacks
--
Eavesdropping
Impersonation
Message Alteration
Penetration
Attacks
Password Theft
Information Theft
Scanning
(Probing)
Break-in
Denial of
Service
Malware
--
Viruses
Worms
Social Engineering Attacks and
Defenses
• Social Engineering
– Tricking an employee into giving out
information or taking an action that reduces
security or harms a system
28
security or harms a system
– Opening an e-mail attachment that may
contain a virus
– Asking for a password claiming to be
someone with rights to know it
– Asking for a file to be sent to you
Social Engineering Attacks and
Defenses
• Social Engineering Defenses
– Training
– Enforcement through sanctions (punishment)
29
– Enforcement through sanctions (punishment)
Eavesdropping on a Dialog
Dialog
30
Client PC
Bob
Server
Alice
Attacker (Eve) intercepts
and reads messages
Hello
Hello
Impersonation and
Authentication
I’m Bob
31
Client PC
Bob
Server
Alice
Attacker
(Eve)
Prove it!
(Authenticate Yourself)
Classification of Threats – Spoofing
32
Message Alteration
Dialog
Balance =
33
Client PC
Bob
Server
Alice
Attacker (Eve) intercepts
and alters messages
Balance =
$1
Balance =
$1
Balance =
$1,000,000
Balance =
$1,000,000
Scanning (Probing) Attacks
Attack Packets to
172.16.99.1, 172.16.99.2, etc.
Internet
Host
172.16.99.1
I’m a
Candidate
34
Internet
Attacker
Corporate Network
172.16.99.1
Host
172.16.99.2
I’m a
Candidate
Single-Message Break-In
Attack
1.
Single Break-In Packet
35
2.
Server
Taken Over
By Single Message
Attacker
Denial-of-Service (DoS) Flooding
Attack
Message Flood
36
Server
Overloaded By
Message Flood
Attacker
Classification of Threats – DoS Attack
37
Security Management
• Security is a Primarily a Management
Issue, not a Technology Issue
• Top-to-Bottom Commitment
– Top-management commitment
38
– Top-management commitment
– Operational execution
– Enforcement
Security Management
• Comprehensive Security
– Closing all avenues of attack
– Asymmetrical warfare
• Attacker only has to find one opening
39
• Attacker only has to find one opening
– Defense in depth
• Attacker must get past several defenses to
succeed
– Security audits
• Run attacks against your own network
– Managing incidents before they occur
Security Management
• General Security Goals (CIA)
– Confidentiality
• Attackers cannot read messages if they
40
• Attackers cannot read messages if they
intercept them
– Integrity
• If attackers change messages, this will be
detected
– Availability
• System is able to server users
The Plan—Protect—Respond
Cycle
Plan
41
Protect Respond
The Plan—Protect—Respond
Cycle
• Planning
– Need for comprehensive security (no gaps)
– Risk analysis
• Enumerating threats
42
• Enumerating threats
• Threat severity = estimated cost of attack X
probability of attack
• Value of protection = threat severity – cost of
countermeasure
• Prioritize countermeasures by value of
prioritization
Threat Severity Analysis
Step Threat
1
2
Cost if attack succeeds
Probability of occurrence
A
$500,000
80%
B
$10,000
20%
C
$100,000
5%
D
$10,000
70%
43
3
4
5
Threat severity
Countermeasure cost
Value of protection
Apply countermeasure?
Priority
6
7
$400,000
$100,000
$300,000
Yes
1
$2,000
$3,000
($1,000)
No
NA
$5,000
$2,000
$3,000
Yes
2
$7,000
$20,000
($13,000)
No
NA
The Plan—Protect—Respond
Cycle
• Planning
– Security policies drive subsequent specific
actions
– Access control
44
– Access control
– Technical security architectures
• Tools and interactions for comprehensive security
• Central management
– Awareness and procedure training
– Punishment
The Plan—Protect—Respond
Cycle
• Protecting
– Installing protections: firewalls, IDSs, host
hardening, etc.
45
– Updating protections as the threat
environment changes
– Testing protections: security audits
The Plan—Protect—Respond
Cycle
• Responding
– Planning for response (Computer Emergency
Response Team)
46
– Incident detection and determination
• Procedures for reporting suspicious situations
• Determination that an attack really is occurring
• Description of the attack
The Plan—Protect—Respond
Cycle
• Responding
– Recovery
• The first priority
• Stop the attack
• Repair the damage
47
• Repair the damage
– Punishment
• Forensics: application of science to investigation
• Prosecution
• Employee Punishment
– Fixing the vulnerability that allowed the attack
Encryption for Confidentiality
Encrypted
Message
“100100110001”
48
Client PC
Bob
Server
Alice
Attacker (Eve) intercepts
but cannot read
“100100110001”
Original
Message
“Hello”
Decrypted
Message
“Hello”
Cryptographic System
Secure Dialog
49
Client PC
Bob
Server
Alice
Attacker cannot
read messages, alter
messages, or impersonate
Automatically Handles
Negation of Security Options
Authentication
Encryption
Integrity
Network Penetration Attacks and
Firewalls
Attack
Packet
Internet
Hardened
Client PC
Passed Packet
Internet
Firewall
50
Internet
Attacker
Client PC
Hardened
Server Internal
Corporate
Network
Dropped
Packet
Log File
Intrusion Detection System
1.
Suspicious
Packet
Internet
Network
Administrator
2. Suspicious
4. Alarm Intrusion
Detection
System
51
Internet
Attacker
Administrator
Hardened
Server
Corporate Network
2. Suspicious
Packet Passed
3. Log
Packet
Log File
Firewalls Versus IDSs
• Firewalls
– Actually drop attack packets
– This requires clear evidence of being
52
– This requires clear evidence of being
attack packets
• IDSs
– Log but then pass suspicious packets
– Log even if evidence is weak
• Products on the Market Often Blur
This Distinction
Recap
• Threats are considerable today
• Threats will be worse tomorrow, so
plan for tomorrow’s threat
53
plan for tomorrow’s threat
environment
• There are many threats from many
attackers
• Technology can reduce threats
– Firewalls
– IDSs
Recap
• However, security is primarily a
management issue: without strong
management and processes,
54
management and processes,
technology will do nothing
– Management cooperation
– Employee diligence
– Procedures
– Enforcement
• Plan-Protect-Respond Cycle
Learning & Discussion
Use the Risk Management
Matrix to analvze the
55
securitv requirements oí
an Internet banking
ser·ice.
An E-Biz Infrastructure
56
iPremier Company
• Luxury goods retailer
– Under attack from an unknown hacker
– Case covers events as they unfold
57
• What can we learn from this case
– IT infrastructure must be secured
– Decisions involved, however technical, must
be addressed by business and IT executives
=> Good basis for Learning & Discussion
Session II - Converqence
& M0Ms
8osed on occomponyinq ppfs:
1
E-TOM ond Mexf 0en
Mefworks
PequIofory Issues for
Converqence
Summary
• So, what is e-TOM anyway?
• NGNs, NGOSS and soft-switches
• Triple Play is here to stay
• Regulatory Best Practices deserve
2
• Regulatory Best Practices deserve
awards
Learning & Discussion
1. What motivated the TeleManagement Forum to begin the e-TOM
initiative?
2. How does e-TOM help the typical telco?
3. What are 3 executive learnings from the the NGOSS work of the TMF?
4. How are Deutche Telekom, Korea Telecom and Saudi Telecom
benefiting from e-TOM?
5. Why is there a need to re-look some of the regulatory issues in the
emerging Triple Play scenario?
3
emerging Triple Play scenario?
6. List 5 good practices for regulators of the converged marketplace?
7. Is it easier to sell converged services (than stand-alone fixed, mobile,
cable, internet) to the marketplace? Which do you think is the more
receptive – the consumer or business sector?
Case st udy: NGOSS at KT
Case st udy: NGOSS at KT
Kyl e Par k
Januar y 2006
Cust omer Ser vi ce Management Di vi si on
Net wor k Technol ogy Lab., KT
2 2
Agenda
Agenda
OSS/ BSS Paradigm Shift t owards Agilit y
Changing Archit ect ure
A brief look at KT OSS
Design Concept s & Archit ect ure
Mapping of NeOSS t o NGOSS eTOM
NeOSS Compliance t o NGOSS
NGOSS Principles in compliance
Realizat ion of NGOSS Principles t o NeOSS
Common Communicat ion Vehicle
Cont ract Defined I nt erfaces
Cont ract Regist rat ion & Trading
Ext ernalized Process Cont rol
Shared I nformat ion/ Dat a Model
St at us of NeOSS in t erms of NGOSS compliance
Conclusion
3 3
OSS/ BSS Par adi gm Shi f t t owar ds Agi l i t y
OSS/ BSS Par adi gm Shi f t t owar ds Agi l i t y
Virt ualized / Federat ed Virt ualized / Federat ed
B
u
s
i
n
e
s
s

P
r
o
c
e
s
s
B
u
s
i
n
e
s
s

P
r
o
c
e
s
s
Oper at i ons Oper at i ons
Adapt abi l i t y Adapt abi l i t y
Aut omat ically balance, Aut omat ically balance,
schedule, and allocat e schedule, and allocat e
resources resources
based on business priorit ies based on business priorit ies
and impact s and impact s
Opt imize ut ilizat ion and Opt imize ut ilizat ion and
performance of business performance of business
processes and applicat ions processes and applicat ions
Manage end Manage end- - t o t o- - end business end business
int eract ions across mult iple int eract ions across mult iple
services services
Aut omat e Operat ions, Aut omat e Operat ions,
aut o aut o- - act ivat e and act ivat e and
reconfigure infrast ruct ure based reconfigure infrast ruct ure based
on business needs on business needs
2005~ 2005~
I nt egrat ed / Clust ered I nt egrat ed / Clust ered
Oper at i ons Oper at i ons
Ef f i ci ency Ef f i ci ency
Link I nfrast ruct ure wit h Link I nfrast ruct ure wit h
t he business t he business – – communicat e, communicat e,
measure and deliver services measure and deliver services
Align resources and Align resources and
processes t o enable processes t o enable
opt imal ut ilizat ion, opt imal ut ilizat ion,
performance and response performance and response
Priorit ize Operat ions based on Priorit ize Operat ions based on
business import ance business import ance
2003~ 2004 2003~ 2004
S
e
r
v
i
c
e
S
e
r
v
i
c
e
Discret e / Part it ioned Discret e / Part it ioned
R
e
s
o
u
r
c
e
R
e
s
o
u
r
c
e
Oper at i ons Oper at i ons
St abi l i t y St abi l i t y
Plan Plan
Provision Provision
Monit or Monit or
Billing Billing
Get t he net work under Get t he net work under
cont rol cont rol
~ 2002 ~ 2002
4 4
Changi ng Ar chi t ect ur e
Changi ng Ar chi t ect ur e
I nt egrat ions = cost
Funct ion orient ed
Build t o last
Prolonged development
From
From To
To
I nt egrat ions = value
Process orient ed
Build t o change
I ncrement ally deployed
Applicat ion silos
Tight ly coupled
Obj ect orient ed
Orchest rat ed solut ions
Loosely coupled
Message orient ed
Source : Microsoft
5 5
What i s NeOSS ?
What i s NeOSS ?
New & Next Gener at i on Oper at i ons Suppor t Syst em
( NeOSS) – KT NG OSS
Ful l y adapt i ve OSS pl at f or m f or busi ness pr ocess r evol ut i on
XML–based Ser vi ce Or i ent ed Ar chi t ect ur e ( SOA)
I nt er oper abl e ar chi t ect ur e wi t h NGOSS ar chi t ect ur al
pr i nci pl es
An i nt egr at ed sol ut i on f or mi t i gat i ng or gani zat i on’s OPEX
6 6
Desi gn Concept s of NeOSS
Desi gn Concept s of NeOSS
Cust omer-Cent ric Archit ect ure
One-st op Service / Appoint ment of Visit ing Cust omer Premises
Pre-Ordering / Order Tracking
Cust omer Service fulfillment / assurance t ime saving
SLA enabled
I nt egrat ed I nvent ory Management
End-t o-end View of Mult iple Domain Net work I nvent ory
Consolidat ed Cust omer I nformat ion
Consolidat ed Cust omer Service Configurat ion I nformat ion
Separat ion of Business Flows and Funct ions
Using workflow engine
Loosely-coupled int egrat ion using EAI
7 7
NeOSS Ar chi t ect ur e
NeOSS Ar chi t ect ur e
BSS BSS
Or der Ent r y Or der Ent r y Or der Ent r y
Ser vi ce Del i ver y Ser vi ce Del i ver y
Management Management
Int egr at ed Or der Management Int egr at ed Or der Management Int egr at ed Or der Management
Fl ow- t hough Ser vi ce
Pr ovi si oni ng
Fl ow Fl ow- - t hough Ser vi ce t hough Ser vi ce
Pr ovi si oni ng Pr ovi si oni ng
Devi ce Act i vat i on f or
Seaml ess Ser vi ce Del i ver y
Devi ce Act i vat i on f or Devi ce Act i vat i on f or
Seaml ess Ser vi ce Del i ver y Seaml ess Ser vi ce Del i ver y
Ser vi ce Assur ance Ser vi ce Assur ance
Management Management
Cust omer Car e Cust omer Car e Cust omer Car e
Cust omer / Ser vi ce
Tr oubl e Management
Cust omer / Ser vi ce Cust omer / Ser vi ce
Tr oubl e Management Tr oubl e Management
Net wor k Test Management Net wor k Test Management Net wor k Test Management
Ser vi ce Qual i t y Ser vi ce Qual i t y
Management Management
SLA Management SLA Management SLA Management
Ser vi ce QoS
Management
Ser vi ce QoS Ser vi ce QoS
Management Management
Net wor k Dat a
War e housi ng
Net wor k Dat a Net wor k Dat a
War e housi ng War e housi ng
Ser vi ce Agr eement
Management
Ser vi ce Agr eement Ser vi ce Agr eement
Management Management
OSS Inf or mat i on OSS Inf or mat i on
Management Management
Net wor k Pl anni ng
and Engi neer i ng
Net wor k Pl anni ng Net wor k Pl anni ng
and Engi neer i ng and Engi neer i ng
Repor t i ng Repor t i ng Repor t i ng
Invent or y Invent or y
Management Management
Invent or y
Management
Invent or y Invent or y
Management Management
Ser vi ce, Resour ce &
Cust omer Dat a Mgmt .
Ser vi ce, Resour ce & Ser vi ce, Resour ce &
Cust omer Dat a Mgmt . Cust omer Dat a Mgmt .
Wor kf or ce Wor kf or ce
Management Management
Wor kf or ce
Schedul i ng
Wor kf or ce Wor kf or ce
Schedul i ng Schedul i ng
Fi el d Wor k
Management
Fi el d Wor k Fi el d Wor k
Management Management
Access Domai n Access Domai n
Management Management
Ser vi ce Mai nt enance Ser vi ce Mai nt enance Ser vi ce Mai nt enance
Access Domai n
Net wor k Mgmt .
Access Domai n Access Domai n
Net wor k Mgmt . Net wor k Mgmt .
Pl ug Pl ug- - and and- - Pl ay Net wor k Management Pl ay Net wor k Management
Conf i gur at i on
Management
Conf i gur at i on Conf i gur at i on
Management Management
Faul t Management Faul t Management Faul t Management
Per f or mance
Management
Per f or mance Per f or mance
Management Management
Devi ce Act i vat i on
Management
Devi ce Act i vat i on Devi ce Act i vat i on
Management Management
IP, ATM, FR,
Leased Li ne,
Fi ber , Wi Br o,
et c
IP, ATM, FR, IP, ATM, FR,
Leased Li ne, Leased Li ne,
Fi ber , Wi Br o, Fi ber , Wi Br o,
et c et c
Pr obl em Repor t Pr obl em Repor t
Subscr i pt i on Subscr i pt i on
NeOSS NeOSS- -SO SO NeOSS NeOSS- -SA SA NeOSS NeOSS- -SLA SLA NeOSS NeOSS- -Net IS/ NE Net IS/ NE
NeOSS NeOSS- -FM FM NeOSS NeOSS- -WM WM
NeOSS NeOSS- -ADM ADM
NeOSS NeOSS- -xNMS xNMS
SO: Ser vi ce Or der i ng
SA: Ser vi ce Assur ance
FM: Faci l i t y Management
WM: Wor kf or ce Management
ADM: Access Domai n Management
DeL: Dedi cat ed Li ne
TN: Tr ansmi ssi on Net wor k
SLA: Ser vi ce Level Agr eement
Net IS: Net wor k Inf or mat i on Suppor t Syst em
NE: Net wor k engi neer i ng
ICIS: Int egr at ed Cust omer Inf or mat i on Syst em
EAI: Ent er pr i se Appl i cat i on Int egr at i on
EAI Inf ormat i on Bus
EAI Inf ormat i on Bus
8 8
Mappi ng of NeOSS t o NGOSS eTOM
Mappi ng of NeOSS t o NGOSS eTOM
Operat i ons
Ful f i l l ment Ful f i l l ment Assurance Assurance Bi l l i ng Bi l l i ng Operat i ons Support Operat i ons Support
& & Readi ness Readi ness
Cust omer Rel at i onshi p Cust omer Rel at i onshi p Management Management
Ser vi ce Management Ser vi ce Management & & Oper at i ons Oper at i ons
Resour ce Management Resour ce Management & & Oper at i ons Oper at i ons
Suppl i er / Par t ner Rel at i onshi p Management Suppl i er / Par t ner Rel at i onshi p Management
Ser vi ce
Conf i gur at i on
& Act i vat i on
Ser vi ce
Conf i gur at i on
& Act i vat i on
Ser vi ce &
Speci f i c
Inst ance
Rat i ng
Ser vi ce &
Speci f i c
Inst ance
Rat i ng
SM&O Suppor t & Pr ocess
Management
SM&O Suppor t & Pr ocess
Management
Ser vi ce Management & Oper at i ons
Readi ness
Ser vi ce Management & Oper at i ons
Readi ness
Suppl i er / Par t ner Int er f ace Management
Suppl i er / Par t ner Int er f ace Management
S/ P
Buyi ng
S/ P
Buyi ng
S/ P Pur chase
Or der
Management
S/ P Pur chase
Or der
Management
S/ P Pr obl em
Repor t i ng &
Management
S/ P Pr obl em
Repor t i ng &
Management
S/ P Per f or mance
Management
S/ P Per f or mance
Management
S/ PRM Set t l ement s
& Bi l l i ng
Management
S/ PRM Set t l ement s
& Bi l l i ng
Management
S/ PRM Oper at i ons Suppor t & Pr ocess
Management
S/ PRM Oper at i ons Suppor t & Pr ocess
Management
S/ P Rel at i onshi p Management
Oper at i ons Readi ness
S/ P Rel at i onshi p Management
Oper at i ons Readi ness
Resour ce Pr ovi si oni ng
& Al l ocat i on
t o Ser vi ce Inst ance
RM&O Suppor t & Pr ocess
Management
RM&O Suppor t & Pr ocess
Management
Resour ce Management
& Oper at i ons Readi ness
Resour ce Management
& Oper at i ons Readi ness
Ret ent i on & Loyal t y
Ret ent i on & Loyal t y
Cust omer QoS / SLA
Management
Cust omer QoS / SLA
Management
Cust omer Int er f ace Management
Cust omer Int er f ace Management
Bi l l i ng &
Col l ect i ons
Management
Bi l l i ng &
Col l ect i ons
Management
Pr obl em Handl i ng
Pr obl em Handl i ng
Sel l i ng
Sel l i ng
Or der
Handl i ng
Or der
Handl i ng
Mar ket i ng
Ful f i l l ment
Response
Mar ket i ng
Ful f i l l ment
Response
CRM Oper at i ons
Suppor t & Pr ocess
Management
CRM Oper at i ons
Suppor t & Pr ocess
Management
CRM Oper at i ons
Readi ness
CRM Oper at i ons
Readi ness
Sal es & Channel
Management
Sal es & Channel
Management
Resour ce Dat a Col l ect i on, Anal ysi s & Cont r ol
Resour ce Dat a Col l ect i on, Anal ysi s & Cont r ol
Resour ce Qual i t y Anal ysi s,
Act i on & Repor t i ng
Resour ce Qual i t y Anal ysi s,
Act i on & Repor t i ng
Resour ce Pr obl em Management
Resour ce Pr obl em Management
Ser vi ce Pr obl em Management
Ser vi ce Pr obl em Management
Ser vi ce Qual i t y Anal ysi s,
Act i on & Repor t i ng
Ser vi ce Qual i t y Anal ysi s,
Act i on & Repor t i ng
Operat i ons
Ful f i l l ment Ful f i l l ment Assurance Assurance Bi l l i ng Bi l l i ng Operat i ons Support Operat i ons Support
& & Readi ness Readi ness
Ser vi ce Management Ser vi ce Management & & Oper at i ons Oper at i ons
Resour ce Management Resour ce Management & & Oper at i ons Oper at i ons
Suppl i er / Par t ner Rel at i onshi p Management Suppl i er / Par t ner Rel at i onshi p Management
Ser vi ce
Conf i gur at i on
& Act i vat i on
Ser vi ce
Conf i gur at i on
& Act i vat i on
Ser vi ce &
Speci f i c
Inst ance
Rat i ng
Ser vi ce &
Speci f i c
Inst ance
Rat i ng
SM&O Suppor t & Pr ocess
Management
SM&O Suppor t & Pr ocess
Management
Ser vi ce Management & Oper at i ons
Readi ness
Ser vi ce Management & Oper at i ons
Readi ness
Suppl i er / Par t ner Int er f ace Management
Suppl i er / Par t ner Int er f ace Management
S/ P
Buyi ng
S/ P
Buyi ng
S/ P Pur chase
Or der
Management
S/ P Pur chase
Or der
Management
S/ P Pr obl em
Repor t i ng &
Management
S/ P Pr obl em
Repor t i ng &
Management
S/ P Per f or mance
Management
S/ P Per f or mance
Management
S/ PRM
Set t l ement s & Bi l l i ng
Management
S/ PRM
Set t l ement s & Bi l l i ng
Management
S/ PRM Oper at i ons Suppor t & Pr ocess
Management
S/ PRM Oper at i ons Suppor t & Pr ocess
Management
S/ P Rel at i onshi p Management
Oper at i ons Readi ness
S/ P Rel at i onshi p Management
Oper at i ons Readi ness
Resour ce Pr ovi si oni ng
& Al l ocat i on
t o Ser vi ce Inst ance
RM&O Suppor t & Pr ocess
Management
RM&O Suppor t & Pr ocess
Management
Resour ce Management
& Oper at i ons Readi ness
Resour ce Management
& Oper at i ons Readi ness
Ret ent i on & Loyal t y
Ret ent i on & Loyal t y
Cust omer QoS / SLA
Management
Cust omer QoS / SLA
Management
Cust omer Int er f ace Management
Cust omer Int er f ace Management
Bi l l i ng &
Col l ect i ons
Management
Bi l l i ng &
Col l ect i ons
Management
Pr obl em Handl i ng
Pr obl em Handl i ng
Sel l i ng
Sel l i ng
Or der
Handl i ng
Or der
Handl i ng
Mar ket i ng
Ful f i l l ment
Response
Mar ket i ng
Ful f i l l ment
Response
CRM Oper at i ons
Suppor t & Pr ocess
Management
CRM Oper at i ons
Suppor t & Pr ocess
Management
CRM Oper at i ons
Readi ness
CRM Oper at i ons
Readi ness
Sal es & Channel
Management
Sal es & Channel
Management
Resour ce Dat a Col l ect i on, Anal ysi s & Cont r ol
Resour ce Dat a Col l ect i on, Anal ysi s & Cont r ol
Resour ce Qual i t y Anal ysi s,
Act i on & Repor t i ng
Resour ce Qual i t y Anal ysi s,
Act i on & Repor t i ng
Resour ce Pr obl em Management
Resour ce Pr obl em Management
Ser vi ce Pr obl em Management
Ser vi ce Pr obl em Management
Ser vi ce Qual i t y Anal ysi s,
Act i on & Repor t i ng
Ser vi ce Qual i t y Anal ysi s,
Act i on & Repor t i ng
Cust omer Rel at i onshi p Cust omer Rel at i onshi p Management Management
NeOSS- SA NeOSS NeOSS- - SA SA
NeOSS- SO NeOSS NeOSS- - SO SO
NeOSS- SLA NeOSS NeOSS- - SLA SLA
NeOSS- WM NeOSS NeOSS- - WM WM
NeOSS-FM NeOSS NeOSS- - FM FM
NeOSS- ADM NeOSS NeOSS- - ADM ADM
NeOSS-NM NeOSS NeOSS- - NM NM
NeOSS- Net IS NeOSS NeOSS- - Net IS Net IS
ICIS ICIS ICIS
9 9
NGOSS Framework Requirement s
TMF052
TMForum NGOSS Compliance Test ing St rat egies
TMF050, TMF051
Mat rix for core NGOSS Principles (TMF050)
Common Communicat ion Vehicle
support a communicat ions I nfrast ruct ure Service t o communicat e bet ween
component s
Cont ract Defined I nt erfaces
Support t he need for secure, cont ract ed open int erfaces bet ween mult iple
component s t o support int er- and int ra-business requirement s
Cont ract Regist rat ion and Trading
Support a Reposit ory of runt ime informat ion
Support t he mechanism t o regist er t he cont ract s and t o communicat e t he
cont ract when request ed by a client .
Ext ernalized Process Cont rol
Separat ion of business process from soft ware implement at ion
Shared I nformat ion/ Dat a Model (SI D)
Use of a single informat ion represent at ion for business informat ion concept s
communicat ed bet ween t wo or more component s
NGOSS Pr i nci pl es i n Compl i ance
NGOSS Pr i nci pl es i n Compl i ance
10 10
Real i zat i on of NGOSS Pr i nci pl es i n NeOSS : Real i zat i on of NGOSS Pr i nci pl es i n NeOSS :
I . Common Communi cat i on Vehi cl e ( 1) I . Common Communi cat i on Vehi cl e ( 1)
The Benefit s of Common Communicat ion Vehicle
Ease of int egrat ion
Ease of access t o informat ion
NeOSS uses EAI as a message bus
Use Microsoft BizTalk Server as a communicat ion bus for t he
communicat ion in and out of NeOSS
To collaborat e wit h foreign .NET applicat ions
Use Web Services
Put I nt erworking Funct ion Gat eway for prot ocol adapt ers
NeOSS-xNMS
(Web Service)
Legacy
Systems
(Proprietary
interface only)
ASYNC
EAI
ADM
WM FM
SA
Web Service
Protocol
Adapter
DB
Socket
XML-RPC
NeOSS
I WF Gat eway
Mi cr osof t .NET Fr amewor k
Non - .NET Fr amewor k
EAI
EAI
Non - .NET Fr amewor k
SO
11 11
Busi ness Pr ocess
Busi ness Pr ocess Busi ness Pr ocess
Real i zat i on of NGOSS Pr i nci pl es i n NeOSS : Real i zat i on of NGOSS Pr i nci pl es i n NeOSS :
I . Common Communi cat i on Vehi cl e ( 2) I . Common Communi cat i on Vehi cl e ( 2)
The Granularit y of funct ions visible at t he bus level
Fine grain approach
Large amount of business logics required; processes become slow and inefficient
Significant ly more bus t raffic occurred and negat ive impact s on scalabilit y
Coarse grain approach
Simplified processes result ing in lower t raffic volumes and bet t er scalabilit y
Limit ed business agilit y
Adopt ed desi gn pr i nci pl es
The communicat ion bet ween element ary busi ness-pr ocess-awar e ( BPA)
funct ional unit s is exposed t o t he bus level
Defined Funct ional Part Cont ract s as business processes-aware funct ionalit y
BPA functionality
Common API s
Common API s Common API s
BPA functionality


Atomic API Atomic API Atomic API


Atomic API
Common Communication Vehicle (EAI)
Common Communication Vehicle (EAI)
BPA functionality
12 12
Real i zat i on of NGOSS Pr i nci pl es i n NeOSS : Real i zat i on of NGOSS Pr i nci pl es i n NeOSS :
I I . Cont r act Def i ned I nt er f aces ( 1) I I . Cont r act Def i ned I nt er f aces ( 1)
Busi ness
Syst em
I mpl ement at i on Depl oyment
Busi ness Per sonnel
Speci f i es Hi gh- l evel
goal s & obl i gat i ons
t hat r esour ce
/ ser vi ce must
suppl y
eTOM
Techni cal St af f
Speci f i es
Ar chi t ect ur al
r equi r ement s
necessar y t o
model i ng of syst em
pr ocesses &
Inf or mat i on
eTOM & SID, TNA
Pr ogr ammer
Speci f i es t he
conf i gur at i on,
pr ogr ammi ng and
i mpl ement at i on
f act or s of
component s /
f unct i onal i t y
TNA, TSA
OA&M St af f
Speci f i es
mechani sm f or
moni t or i ng &
admi ni st er i ng t he
f unct i onal i t y and
Cont r act s
Templat e of Cont ract Definit ion
General Cont ract Part : Header, Descript ive Part
Funct ional Part : defines t he capabilit ies provided by t he Cont ract
Non-Funct ional Part : defines aspect s which govern & rest rict t he bounds of operat ion
Management Part : Defines t he management capabilit ies needed t o OA&M t he Cont ract
View Specific Model Part : Defines various t ypes of models
13 13
Exampl es: Model Par t s f or Syst em Vi ews
Exampl es: Model Par t s f or Syst em Vi ews
Process Flow Diagrams
Act ivit y Diagrams
Use Case Diagrams
St at e Chart Diagrams
Sequence Diagrams
14 14
Devel opment Met hodol ogy i n KT NeOSS
Devel opment Met hodol ogy i n KT NeOSS
NeOSS
Phase
Business Modeling Logical Modeling Physical Modeling
Implementation /
Deployment
NGOSS
View
Business View System View Implementation View Deployment View
NeOSS
Process
Analyze Business Use Case
Analyze User Requirement
Analyze Business Flow
Analyze System Use Case
BM100
BM200
BM300
BM400
Realize System Use Case
BM500
Design Class Model
Design Local Database
Design Logical UI
LM100
LM200
LM300
Design Application
Architecture
Design Physical UI
PM200
PM300
Design Physical Database
PM400
1
2
3
4
5
6
6
6
8
7
7
Implementation of
Component
Integration of Components
Implementation of UI
Implementation of
Database
Design Component Model
PM100 7
Application Architecture
Guideline of Development
User Requirement
Use Case Spec. and
Diagram
NeOSS
Artifact
Classes Spec. and Diagram
Sequence Diagram
State Chart Diagram
Logical UI Spec.
Logical ERD(DB) Spec.
Component Spec.
Component Interaction
Diagram
Physical UI Spec.
Physical ERD(DB) Spec.
User Manual
OAM Guideline
15 15
Real i zat i on of NGOSS Pr i nci pl es i n NeOSS : Real i zat i on of NGOSS Pr i nci pl es i n NeOSS :
I I . Cont r act Def i ned I nt er f aces ( 2) I I . Cont r act Def i ned I nt er f aces ( 2)
Crit eria for Cont ract s applied t o NeOSS in 4 Views
eTOM OPS Level 2
Busi ness Fl ow Moni t or i ng,
Heal t h & Per f . Moni t or i ng f or
Cont r act ,
Cont r act Admi ni st er i ng ( r egi st r at i on,
updat e, del et e …)
• Funct i onal i t i es f or OA&M
Depl oyment Vi ew
Val i dat e Ser vi ce Or der , Cr eat e Wor k
Or der ( WO) , Add WO, Updat e WO,
Del et e WO, Cancel WO, Quer y WO,
Reser ve I P, Assi gn I P, Ret ur n I P…
Di agnose Ser vi ce Conf i gur at i on f or
PSTN/ xDSL/ …,
Di agnose Resour ce Conf i gur at i on
f or DSLAM/ Swi t ch/ …
• Busi ness-pr ocess-awar e I nt er f ace
i nvoked wi t hi n busi ness pr ocess
ÎeTOM OPS Level 3 * Ser vi ce
Types( PSTN, xDSL, Leased-Li ne) *
Resour ce Types ( SDH, xDSL, I P…)
Syst em Vi ew
- Funct i onal Par t
• Component Uni t
( DLLs i n .NET, Packages i n Java)
ÎeTOM OPS Level 3 * Ser vi ces
Types * Resour ce Types
I mpl ement at i on
Vi ew
Or der handl i ng, Ret ent i on & Loyal t y,
Ser vi ce conf i gur at i on and Act i vat i on,
Probl em Handl i ng,
Ser vi ce Pr obl em Management …
• eTOM OPS Level 2
ÎOper abl e/ Depl oyabl e Uni t
i n t er m of r el evant Di vi si ons i n
Operat i onal Organi zat i ons
Busi ness Vi ew
Cont r act Exampl es f or SA Cr i t er i a 4 Vi ew Cont r act s
16 16
Real i zat i on of NGOSS Pr i nci pl es i n NeOSS : Real i zat i on of NGOSS Pr i nci pl es i n NeOSS :
I I I . Cont r act Regi st r at i on and Tr adi ng I I I . Cont r act Regi st r at i on and Tr adi ng
The benefit s of Cont ract Regist rat ion and Trading
Ease of Upgrade and Maint enance of a Cont ract
Ease of I nt egrat ion
I n NeOSS
Abilit y t o add/ remove services while syst em st ill in operat ion,
discovery of services t hrough appropriat e locat ion t ransparency
service
Cont ract Definit ion, Regist rat ion and Discovery is achieved wit h
UDDI and WSDL
UDDI for cont ract regist rat ion and discovery
UDDI : Universal Descript ion, Discovery and I nt egrat ion
WSDL for defining Cont ract Specificat ion & int erfaces
Use XML Based messages
WSDL: Web Service Descript ion Language
17 17
Real i zat i on of NGOSS Pr i nci pl es i n NeOSS : Real i zat i on of NGOSS Pr i nci pl es i n NeOSS :
I V. Ext er nal i zed Pr ocess Cont r ol ( 1) I V. Ext er nal i zed Pr ocess Cont r ol ( 1)
The Benefit s of Ext ernalized Process Cont rol
Ease of adapt at ion t o business evolut ion
Ease of procurement
NeOSS
Separat es Business Process flow from applicat ion component
operat ion for great er flexibilit y, more re-use of component s
across business scenarios
Uses BizTalk Server 2004 as Workflow Engine for designing and
operat ing business process based on business rules
various applicat ion logics could be designed, especially, in t he
following areas
Choice of t he appropriat e design solut ion according t o service and
resource t ypes in fulfillment .
Det erminat ion of cust omer order feasibilit y according t o t he order t ypes
Choice of t est ing rules according t o t he service t ypes and net work
facilit y t ypes in t he service assurance.
18 18
Real i zat i on of NGOSS Pr i nci pl es i n NeOSS : Real i zat i on of NGOSS Pr i nci pl es i n NeOSS :
I V. Ext er nal i zed Pr ocess Cont r ol ( 2) I V. Ext er nal i zed Pr ocess Cont r ol ( 2)
Business process orchest rat ion via workflow engine
Order Anal ysi s &
Creat e Work Order
Di spat ch-i n & Di spat ch-out
Common Reposi t ory
Order Compl et i on
Busi ness Pr ocess( Wor kf l ow)
Message
>> Port Surf ace >> Port Surf ace
Por t
Oper at i on
Request
Recei ve
Const r uct Message
Tr ansf or m
Send
Por t
Oper at i on
Request
Port Surf ace <<
Recei ve PO
Recei vePOPor t
Oper at i on_1
-> Request
Check Quant i t y
Deni ed El se
Deni ed Msg
Tr ansf or m
SendDeni edPor t
Oper at i on_1
<- Request
Send_Appr ove
Send_Deni ed
!
>> Port Surf ace
SendAppr vPor
t
Oper at i on_1
->
Request
Recei ve_PO
Over Cr edi t Li mi t
Deni ed El se
Const r uct Rul e
Msg Assi gn
{ }
Scope
Cal l Rul es
>> Port Surf ace
SendAppr vPor
t
Oper at i on_1
->
Request
Busi ness Pr ocess( Wor kf l ow) Busi ness Pr ocess( Wor kf l ow)
Appl i cat i on Logi c (BSL, DSL)
Syst ems
Pri or t o NeOSS
Legacy syst ems IPMS TIMS IDMS ADSL-SDMS ICIS
Separat e BP f rom
Appl i cat i on Logi c
Real i ze BP cent ri c
Order management
Seaml ess Order
harmoni zat i on
Among domai ns
Vi sual i ze BP and
Gai n f l exi bi l i t y
Cont ract
19 19
Real i zat i on of NGOSS Pr i nci pl es i n NeOSS : Real i zat i on of NGOSS Pr i nci pl es i n NeOSS :
V. Shar ed I nf or mat i on/ Dat a Model V. Shar ed I nf or mat i on/ Dat a Model
The Benefit s of Shared I nformat ion Model
Commonalit y of t erminology
Ease of I nt egrat ion
Ease of procurement
NeOSS provides
I nt egrat ed Management of I nformat ion for physical/ logical
resources, cust omer and service informat ion
I nt egr at ed Dat abase f or I nt egr at ed Dat abase f or
enhanced dat a accur acy wi t h enhanced dat a accur acy wi t h
common schema, dat a common schema, dat a
st ewar dshi p, common st ewar dshi p, common
r eposi t or y r eposi t or y
St at us of NeOSS in t he SI D
Not yet used SI D
relat ionship/ at t ribut es and design
pat t erns.
Will be applied t o NeOSS TO-BE
Model
Dat abase Consol i dat i on Dat abase Consol i dat i on
Mast er, Code, Backup, Rol l i ng, Col l aborat i on
Cust omer Cust omer
Service Service
order order
Cust omer Cust omer
order order
Pr oduct s Pr oduct s
Ser vi ce Ser vi ce
Various code Various code
Service Service
Configurat ion Configurat ion
Resour ce Resour ce
NeOSS NeOSS- - FM FM
20 20
St at us of NeOSS i n t er ms of NGOSS Compl i ance
St at us of NeOSS i n t er ms of NGOSS Compl i ance
TM For um NGOSS Pr i nci pl e KT NeOSS Ar chi t ect ur e Feat ur es
9Use Microsoft BizTalk Server (EAI) as message bus
9Use Microsoft BizTalk Server (EAI) as message bus
Common Communication
Vehicle
9Service Oriented Architecture
9Uses Web Service (UDDI, WSDL) technology for
registering and trading of Contract
9Supports Run-time monitor/control
functions for each interface and version
of component
9Service Oriented Architecture
9Uses Web Service (UDDI, WSDL) technology for
registering and trading of Contract
9Supports Run-time monitor/control
functions for each interface and version
of component
Contract Defined Interfaces
& Registration / Trading
Externalized Process Control
9Not yet use SID Model fully.
9Support Data Integrity and consistency
by logically centralized Database
9Design Common Information Model
9Not yet use SID Model fully.
9Support Data Integrity and consistency
by logically centralized Database
9Design Common Information Model
Shared Information /
Data Model
9Separate process flow from application
component operation
9Use BizTalk Server as Work Flow Engine for
designing business process based on policy
9Separate process flow from application
component operation
9Use BizTalk Server as Work Flow Engine for
designing business process based on policy
21 21
Concl usi on
Concl usi on
-
- Pr oof of NGOSS Ar chi t ect ur e & Pr i nci pl es Pr oof of NGOSS Ar chi t ect ur e & Pr i nci pl es
NGOSS archit ect ure & principles are field-proved in NeOSS
as a real t elco OSS
Devel opment per i od/ cost r educt i on f or new ser vi ces
Oper at i onal cost r educt i on
Dat abase Consol i dat i on
Oper at i onal envi r onment consol i dat i on
NGOSS archit ect ure & principles are field NGOSS archit ect ure & principles are field- - proved in NeOSS proved in NeOSS
as a real as a real t elco t elco OSS OSS
Devel opment per i od/ cost r educt i on f or new ser vi ces
Oper at i onal cost r educt i on
Dat abase Consol i dat i on
Oper at i onal envi r onment consol i dat i on
The key aspect s of NeOSS
Focus on a dr amat i c r educt i on i n t he number of appl i cat i ons
Cont i nue t o use exi st i ng syst ems and syst em i nt er f aces
whi l e i nt r oduci ng st andar d syst ems
Tr ansi t i on gr adual l y, dr i ven by busi ness obj ect i ves,
or gani zat i onal pat t er ns and pr oj ect s
Re-or chest r at e t r ansact i ons and dat a f l ows t o suppor t
t he t r ansi t i on
The key aspect s of NeOSS The key aspect s of NeOSS
Focus on a dr amat i c r educt i on i n t he number of appl i cat i ons
Cont i nue t o use exi st i ng syst ems and syst em i nt er f aces
whi l e i nt r oduci ng st andar d syst ems
Tr ansi t i on gr adual l y, dr i ven by busi ness obj ect i ves,
or gani zat i onal pat t er ns and pr oj ect s
Re-or chest r at e t r ansact i ons and dat a f l ows t o suppor t
t he t r ansi t i on
22 22
For f ur t her i nf or mat i on, pl ease cont act For f ur t her i nf or mat i on, pl ease cont act
Kyl e Par k Kyl e Par k
Resear cher Resear cher
Ser vi ce Pr ovi si oni ng Depar t ment Ser vi ce Pr ovi si oni ng Depar t ment
Net wor k Technol ogy Lab, KT Net wor k Technol ogy Lab, KT
463 463- - 1 1 Jeonmi n Jeonmi n- - Dong Dong Yuseong Yuseong- - Gu Gu, Daej eon 305 , Daej eon 305- - 811 811
Kor ea Kor ea
Tel : + 82 42 870 8628 Tel : + 82 42 870 8628
E E- - mai l : mai l : pck@kt .co.kr pck@kt .co.kr
Best Practices for a Regulatory Iramework for
Converged 1elecommunications
Anish Madan
J
& Ravi Sharma
2
© 2005 Frost & Sullivan. All rights reserved.
A position paper for the
Indian Merchants’ Chambers “3
rd
International Conference on Communications Convergence”
8
th
Iebruary 2005
1
2
Outline
Overview of Convergence
Case Study of a Next-Generation Service Provider
Regulatory Best Practices
Concluding Remarks
Questions and Answers
2
Questions and Answers
Convergence of
Networks and Technologies
(Mobile, Fixed, Wi-Fi, IP, PSDN, VPN)
Terminals/Devices
(Handphones, PCs)
Services
(Voice, Data, Multimedia)
Overview of Convergence ÷ Definition
3
(Voice, Data, Multimedia)
Regulated Markets
(Telcos, Broadcasters, Media Cos)
Blurring of boundaries between voice, data and
video delivery and applications
Overview of Convergence ÷ Lssentials
Voice
VoIP
Enhanced VoIP (IP Centrex, IP
Conferencing etc.}
Data
WAN: IP VPN
4
WAN: IP VPN
Internet Access: xDSL, Ethernet
Applications: Broadband and Mobility (including video
applications, gaming etc}
Enterprise Specific
IP PBX ] IP Contact Center, Network
Security
Networking
Overview of Convergence ÷ Broadband vs. Narrowband
30.00%
35.00%
40.00%
45.00%
50.00%
60.0%
70.0%
80.0%
90.0%
5
0.00%
5.00%
10.00%
15.00%
20.00%
25.00%
30.00%
A
u
s
t
C
h
i
n
a
H
o
n
g

K
o
n
g
I
n
d
i
a
I
n
d
o
n
e
s
i
a
J
a
p
a
n
S
o
u
t
h

K
o
r
e
a
M
a
l
a
y
s
i
a
N
e
w

Z
e
a
l
a
n
d
P
h
i
l
i
p
p
i
n
e
s
S
i
n
g
a
p
o
r
e
T
a
i
w
a
n
T
h
a
i
l
a
n
d
0.0%
10.0%
20.0%
30.0%
40.0%
50.0%
Narrowband Penetration % Broadband Penetration % Broadband % of Total
Source: Frost & Sullivan
Overview of Convergence ÷ Revenue Composition
Local VoIP
13%
IP Centrex
1%
IP Video
Conferencing
1%
ILD
22%
Others
0%
Local VoIP
DLD
ILD
IP Centrex
IP Video Conferencing
6
• Domestic long distance VoIP calls dominate in revenue terms
• IP Centrex, IP video conferencing and other IP enhanced services
revenue only nominal in 2003
DLD
63%
IP Video Conferencing
Others
Source : Frost & Sullivan
Data includes Australia. China, Japan, Singapore,
South Korea and Taiwan revenues in 2003
Overview of Convergence ÷ Market Impact
Significant impact on service providers and customers
Service Providers
New business model
New opportunity
Reduce OPEX
7
Reduce OPEX
Train & retain employees
Next Generation Network and Services
Customers
Increased Options
Possible paradigm shift in service adoption
Sophisticated Customer Service Management
Infrastructure Provider
Content &
Application Provider
Content Aggregator
Content]Services
H
i
g
h
C
r
i
t
i
c
a
l
M
a
s
s
C
o
n
t
e
n
t
D
e
m
a
n
d
E
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e
Overview of Convergence ÷ 1he New Lcosystem
Services can be in-house, outsourced and hosted
8
Infrastructure Provider
End User
H
i
g
h
I
n
v
e
s
t
m
e
n
t
M
a
s
s
o
f
D
e
m
a
n
d
C
o
n
t
e
n
t
/

A
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
M
a
s
s
a
n
d
D
e
m
a
n
d
M
a
s
s
E
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e
V
a
l
u
e
P
r
o
p
o
s
i
t
i
o
n
Revenues Outflow
Case Study – IastWeb 1riple Play
ARPU per year € 780…
FastWeb is a leading Broadband SP in Italy (www.fastweb.it)
9
Data Voice Video
IastWeb ÷ Service Offerings
Fastweb’s Marketing strategy based upon Triple Play service
bundles
Voice
Internet
Video
10
No single killer application: the real killer application is the
Service Mix
Combination of Flat Rate and Pay Per Use tariff plans to match
specific customer needs
IastWeb's Innovative Services: Iastweb's 1V
FastWeb TV
Unified interface for content in all formats: Unified interface for content in all formats:
Terrestrial broadcast: RAI, Mediaset, ... Terrestrial broadcast: RAI, Mediaset, ...
Satellite broadcast : CNN, Bloomberg, ... Satellite broadcast : CNN, Bloomberg, ...
Pay Pay--TV/Pay TV/Pay--per per--View: Stream & TELE+ View: Stream & TELE+
Video Video--on on--Demand Demand
Integrated with VideoREC and Electronic Integrated with VideoREC and Electronic
Program Guide Program Guide
11
Video on Demand offer
First VoD licensing agreements with First VoD licensing agreements with
US major film studios: US major film studios:
20th Century Fox 20th Century Fox
Universal Studios Universal Studios
DreamWorks DreamWorks
Over 3,000 titles (up over 30% from Over 3,000 titles (up over 30% from
the end of the second quarter) the end of the second quarter)
Program Guide Program Guide
IastWeb's Innovative Services:
Business and Personal Video Communication
FastWeb’s Video
Communication allows
business and residential
customers to video
conference:
Between different
locations
Non-FastWeb
clients (ISDN)
FastWeb clients
Party 1
FastWeb
residential
customers
TV + TV Cam
12
With other external
parties using FastWeb’s
services
With traditional ISDN
video conferencing
systems and through the
Internet with PC-based
web-cameras
Party 2
Internet
PC + Webcam
IastWeb's innovative services:
VideoRLC
Virtual VCR service:
allows clients to
record favorite free-to-
air TV programs (RAI,
Mediaset, ...) with no
need for a VCR or tape
13
need for a VCR or tape
Easy and convenient
programming: just
click on the desired
show, directly on your
TV or on any PC with
an Internet connection
Fast Internet at up
to 10 Mb/s from
any point of the
house
No need for wires
or cables
Access base
FastWeb’s
network
IastWeb's innovative services:
Wireless-Iidelity (´Wi-Ii¨)
14
or cables
Fastest wireless
offer on the
market
Access kit on sale
at only 250 EUR
IastWeb's innovative services:
IP VPNs and B2L
Installed IP VPNs grew 85 (from 255 to 340) in 3Q 2002, confirming
FastWeb’s unique accelerated pace in this market segment
10 Mb/s (scalable) bi-directional connection among different branches
and from employees’ premises to the corporate LAN, on FastWeb
network
Service quality and security guaranteed through MPLS technology
and IPSec protocol
15
Big Internet
FastWeb’s
server farm
Branch 2
Branch 1
Business-to-Employee
(B2E) services
IP VPNs
Other
networks
Branch 3
Regulatory Best Practices ÷ Drivers of Convergence
85%
45%
53%
8%
18%
5%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
Both residential and
enterprise users find IP
an attractive value
proposition
16
0%
Cost Global
Connectivity
Efficiency Convergence Bundled
Service/VAS
Marketing
Push
23%
35%
38%
100%
95%
33%
53%
73%
75%
60%
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
120%
ERP CRM SCM Email Data Transfer VoIP Video E-Commerce Real Time Collaboration
Source: Frost & Sullivan
Supply demand match
Point to point
connectivity
Services abundance
Any to Any
connectivity
Traditional Structure
Emerging Structure
Technology Push
Regulatory Best Practices ÷ Industry Structure
17
connectivity
Distance 8 bandwidth
sensitivity
!ndividual services/rigid
Distance insensitive
Service suites/total
solutions/flexible
Market Pull
Regulatory Arbitration
Regulatory Best Practices ÷ A 1ale of Iour Countries
• No national
broadband (triple
play) policy
• Light touch
• USO metric:
• Broadband vision
(E Korea 2005,
Cyber Korea 21)
• Policies for
competition in
voice, data &
• Sharing
infrastructure and
facilities
• Stimulating
supply of content,
applications &
• Unified regulatory
regime (Multimedia
&
Telecommunication
s Regulatory
Commission)
18
• USO metric:
homes passed
rather than uptake
• Build-up of
national facilities
encouraged
• Technology
neutral
voice, data &
mobile
• Hands off internet
services regulation
• Competition of
facilities-based SPs
• Promotion of
broadband network
building (loans, KII,
Internet usage,
public/education
sectors)
applications &
services
• Encouraging
SMEs to e-biz
• Creating a
secondary market
for radio spectrum
Commission)
• Promotion of
multimedia super-
corridor and
flagship projects
• Possible
competition
between
incumbent,
competitive 3G
carriers and CATV
operator
Regulatory Best Practices ÷ Issues
Licensing of all existing and new services as they emerge, under
the ambit of convergence
Licensing fee – Auction, beauty contest or free for all?
Service area – Universal Service or roll-out Obligations
Setting an appropriate Universal Service incentive
19
Setting an appropriate Universal Service incentive
Creating a level playing field for incumbent or competitive,
standalone or full service operators
Interconnectivity and tariff agreements
Numbering and addressing issues, directory and look-up
services
Regulation of shared facilities, example infrastructure and OSS
Regulatory Best Practices ÷ Strategies for Growth
• Stabilize voice revenues
• Velocity and shelf-life of Next-Gen services
• Open platforms and business models
• One-touch for the customer
• Increase data revenues
• Grow an Internet based economy
20
• Grow an Internet based economy
• New Generation networks
• Applications
• Critical mass of subscriber services
• Allow SPs the opportunity to “lock-in”
customers
• Recognize that access and services are
evolving separately
Concluding Remarks ÷ Moving Up the Value Chain
Technology
• Facilitate environment for high
adoption of new technologies;
• Availability of latest services with
service quality;
• Competitive Cost for these services;
• Skilled IT workforce
21
Consumer
Markets
Regulatory
Policy
• Strengthen regulatory framework;
• Consumer advocacy
• Enable Growth of innovation drivers
• Availability of workforce with specific
skill sets at competitive costs
• Knowledgeable and sophisticated user
communities
• Drivers for sustainable growth
• Support for open competition
Concluding Remarks ÷ 1he Convergence effect
Benefits predominantly for end user
Service providers
Core competency based
Advantage Competition: Leap-frogging with Cost and Scale
Content/Application Developers/Providers also benefit
22
Content/Application Developers/Providers also benefit
Create green-field applications and opportunities
Customers will not pay; unless …
They can’t do without it (the utility of convergence)
© 2005 Frost & Sullivan. All rights reserved.
1hank You
Session IZ - ICT
infrosfrucfure issues
8osed on Shormo & Infon (Z00b):
The ICT infrosfrucfure in Asio The ICT infrosfrucfure in Asio
Whof is fhe diqifoI divide7
Issues & ChoIIenqes
E-qovernmenf
OUTLINE
1he Digital Di·ide
1elecoms 1rends
Best Practices
L-commerce re·isited
Learning & Discussion - I(14D
Overview of Sharma & Azura
• The Digital Divide
• A 3-Pillar Model
• APAC Telecom Trends • APAC Telecom Trends
• Seeing Value in Applications
• Information Literacy
• Creating an Information Society
The Digital Divide
The term "digital divide" refers to the gap between individuals, households,
businesses and geographic areas at different socio-economic levels with
regard to their opportunities to access information and communication
technologies (ICTs) and their use of the Internet. It reflects differences
among and within countries, and raises a number of questions. Where
does it occur and why? What are its causes? How can it be measured?
What are the relevant parameters? How wide is it? Where is it most
critical? What are its effects likely to be in the short term? In the longer critical? What are its effects likely to be in the short term? In the longer
term? What needs to be done to alleviate it? These questions have only
recently been raised, and it is not possible, as yet, to answer all of them
with any certainty.
'·1:1. 1ncc..1anc)n÷ 1/c 1)÷)1a/ 1)|)cc. 1c¡o.1(
Why Bridge the Digital Divide?
Now that we are accomplishing the goal we set 15 years ago, we must set
ourselves a new goal. That goal is: by the early part of the next century
virtually the whole of mankind should be brought within easy reach of
modern means of telecommunications, including the Internet. Once we
have established telephone connections, this goal will not be as difficult to
achieve as the first one. Giving everyone access to the wealth of
information available online, is not only a matter of justice, but is vital for
the whole world. The move from an agricultural economy to an industrial the whole world. The move from an agricultural economy to an industrial
economy, has generated enormous wealth, and raised our standard of
living throughout the world. The same quantum leap will be experienced in
the transition to a global information economy. Everyone must be given
access to the tools of this economy if they are to enjoy its benefits.
Dr Yoshio Utsumi, ITU SecGen, 1999.
… is it being bridged?
Top 15 Markets for Broadband
Penetration
Broadband subscribers Broadband households

Economy
Total
000s
Change
2001-02
Per 100
inhabitants
% of all
subscribers


% of those
with
Internet
% of all


1 Korea (Rep.) 10'128 24% 21.3 94% 83% 43%
2
Hongkong,
China
989 38% 14.6 42% 68% 36%
3 Canada 3'600 27% 11.5 50% ~ 41% 20% ~
4 Taiwan, China 2'100 86% 9.4 28% 59% 31%
5 Iceland 25 138% 8.6 21% ~ 12% 9% ~ 5 Iceland 25 138% 8.6 21% ~ 12% 9% ~
6 Denmark 462 107% 8.6 19% 24% 16%
7 Belgium 869 90% 8.4 51% 41% 17%
8 Sweden 693 48% 7.7 23% 20% 13%
9 Austria 540 123% 6.6 22% ~ 28% 14%
10 Netherlands 1'060 127% 6.5 10% ~ 29% 19%
11 United States 18'700 46% 6.5 18% ~ 19% 10% ~
12 Switzerland 455 308% 6.3 5% ~ 9% 4%
13 Japan 7'806 176% 6.1 27% 18% 5% ~
14 Singapore 230 73% 5.5 26% 35% 20%
15 Finland 274 426% 5.3 5% ~ 15% 8%

Source: ITU World Telecommunication Indicators Database
A 3-Pillar Model


Access to infornation & knowIedge
lnfrastructure
([obvlous] ¨essentlal tounoatlon¨)

Access to infornation & knowIedge
(avallablllty, attoroablllty, usablllty etc.)
CapabiIity & confidence buiIding
(promotlng lntormatlon llteracy)
APAC Telecom Trends
… and the growth of the mobile Internet is the catalyst
to “anytime, anyplace” access to information and
communication…
Seeing Value in Applications
WSIS 2003 Plan of Action, to be achieved by 2015.
1. to connect villages with ICTs and establish community access points;
2. to connect universities, colleges, secondary schools and primary schools with
ICTs;
3. to connect scientific and research centres with ICTs;
4. to connect public libraries, cultural centres, museums, post offices and archives
with ICTs;
5. to connect health centres and hospitals with ICTs; 5. to connect health centres and hospitals with ICTs;
6. to connect all local and central government departments and establish websites
and email addresses;
7. to adapt all primary and secondary school curricula to meet the challenges of
the Information Society, taking into account national circumstances;
8. to ensure that all of the world's population have access to television and radio
services;
9. to encourage the development of content and to put in place technical
conditions in order to facilitate the presence and use of all world languages on
the Internet;
10. to ensure that more than half the world’s inhabitants have access to ICTs within
their reach.
Information Literacy
Landmark 1989 report of the American Library
Association describes information literate individuals
as those who have learned how to learn and that
they know how information is organised, how to find
information, and how to use information in such a information, and how to use information in such a
way that others can learn from them
… in order to engage in useful human endeavours
Measures and models : Big6, Kuhlthau (1993), Bruce
(1997)
AASL (1098) & ACRL (2000) : de-facto guidelines for
information literacy competencies
Analysis of ICT levels in Asia
Country Infrastructure Usage Market Hosts
per
10K
Users
per 10K
PCs
per
100
China 14.95
(63)
36.79
(61)
61.11
(66)
1.28 632.48 2.76
India 0.72
(160)
45.30
(15)
76.26
(45)
0.82 174.86 0.72
Indonesia 12.39
(70)
39.38
(40)
55.56
(82)
2.88 377.16 1.19
(70) (40) (82)
Japan 58.42
(7)
24.93
(148)
78.00
(44)
1016.47 4488.56 38.22
Korea 65.12
(3)
33.77
(91)
89.68
(14)
52.30 6034.20 55.14
HK SAR 58.42
(8)
50.58
(4)
96.10
(3)
864.49 4691.66 42.20
Lao PDR 0.26
(180)
28.76
(127)
37.50
(129)
1.65 33.46 0.35
Asia 13.10 33.92 61.11 50.34 674.25 4.45
OECD 36.10 37.70 71.41 1485.75 3993.38 41.77

Creating an Information Society
Access to distributed, secure, multimedia content
and transactions (Mobility of the user; Ubiquity of
devices and applications; Pervasive platform and
services)
There is a strong link between education, internet
use and the utilization of knowledge
There is a strong link between education, internet
use and the utilization of knowledge
Information literacy as a means of bridging the
digital divide and achieving the information society
Income levels, age, gender, education,
urbanization and the oft-cited lament that 80% of
Internet content is in English which less than 10%
of the world’s people understand
Required investments … e-Korea as a benchmark
… regulatory best practices – a tale of 4
countries
• No national
broadband (triple
play) policy
• Light touch
• USO metric: homes
• Broadband vision (E
Korea 2005, Cyber
Korea 21)
• Policies for
competition in voice,
data & mobile
• Sharing
infrastructure and
facilities
• Stimulating supply
of content,
applications &
• Unified regulatory
regime (Multimedia &
Telecom Regulatory
Commission)
• Promotion of
multimedia super-
• USO metric: homes
passed rather than
uptake
• Build-up of national
facilities encouraged
• Technology neutral
data & mobile
• Hands off internet
services regulation
• Competition of
facilities-based SPs
• Promotion of
broadband network
building (loans, KII,
Internet usage,
public/education
sectors)
applications &
services
• Encouraging SMEs
to e-biz
• Creating a
secondary market for
radio spectrum
multimedia super-
corridor and flagship
projects
• Possible competition
between incumbent,
competitive 3G
carriers and CATV
operator
References
Ravi S Sharma & Intan Azura Mokhtar, “Bridging the Digital Divide in Asia : challenges and solutions.”,
International Journal of Technology, Knowledge & Society 1 (3) 2006.
ITU World Telecommunication Indicators Database : http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/statistics/
World Summit on the Information Societies Geneva 2003 – Tunis 2005 : http://www.itu.int/wsis/index.html
Asia Pacific Networking Group (APNG) is an Internet organization dedicated to the advancement of networking
infrastructure in this region, and to the research and development of all associated enabling technologies.
Its mission is to promote the Internet and the coordination of network inter-connectivity in the Asia Pacific
infrastructure in this region, and to the research and development of all associated enabling technologies.
Its mission is to promote the Internet and the coordination of network inter-connectivity in the Asia Pacific
Region : http://www.apng.org
National Information Infrastructure In South-East Asia - 1997. This report examines the information
infrastructure programs in twelve Asia Pacific nations, and discusses APEC's recent initiative to establish
an APII - an Asia Pacific Information Infrastructure : http://www.vacets.org/vtic97/txbui.htm
Asia - Pacific Developement Information Programme (APDIP) seeks to promote and establish information
technology (IT) for social and economic development throughout Asia-Pacific. Launched in 1997 and
based in Kuala Lumpur, the Programme serves 42 countries in a vast region, from Iran in the west, north to
Mongolia and south to the Pacific Islands of Fiji : http://www.apdip.net
Rockman, I. F. (2003). Information literacy, a worldwide priority for the twenty-first century. Reference Services
Review. 31(3), 209-210.
Ma, F. and Hu, C. (2002). Information literacy, education reform and the economy – China as a case study.
White paper presented for UNESCO, the US National Commission on Libraries and Information Science,
and the National Forum on Information Literacy, for use at the Information Literacy Meeting of Experts,
Prague, Czech Republic. Available online at http://www.nclis.gov/libinter/infolitconf&meet/papers/ma-
E-Commerce (re)Defined
Electronic commerce is a phenomenon that
is dramatically changing the way in which
people live, learn, and communicate with people live, learn, and communicate with
one another. How people will benefit from
e-commerce and how policy issues can
affect the growth of e-commerce and the
costs as well as the benefits that are
associated with electronic commerce is the
subject of this topic.
E-Commerce Re-visited
Access to distributed, secure, multimedia content and secure
transactions
Mobility of users, ubiquity of devices and applications
Pervasive platform and services
There is a strong link between telecoms infrastructure, internet use, There is a strong link between telecoms infrastructure, internet use,
electronic financial instruments and e-commerce
E-commerce = transacting over public info-comms networks; ranges
from browsing web catalogs, to e-mail / ICQ enquiries, secure
ordering and payment clearance, to supply chain management and
after sales support.
Connectivity is the ability to securely transmit information between
electronic devices at different locations.
E-COMMERCE SNAPSHOTS
In 1997, e-business grew from an IBM advertising campaign to a catchy
metophor that expressed a way of doing business.
Amazon.com is now profitable, selling 2.5 million (10 x its nearest
bricks-and-motar competitor!) products to its 100 million (?)
customers at the fraction of industry norms for time/cost.
Dell, Toyota, eBay, Cisco are other success stories, as are SQ, DBS
and CabLink. and CabLink.
And some not-so-successful ones … Levi’s e-tailing (1998) and
Hershey’s Halloween rollout (1999) … eToys (2000)
Clorox estimates that the cost of ordering from its suppliers has dropped
from $100 to $15 through supply chain management.
E-COMMERCE BUSINESS MODELS
MODEL FUNCTION EXAMPLES
E-retailer Use the Internet to sell
directly to customers
Amazon.com,
expedia.com
Clicks & Bricks Use both the Internet
and physical stores to
sell to customers
Barnes & Noble
Mustafa’s
Financial Services Provide services such as
payment clearance and
Visa, MasterCard,
AmEx
payment clearance and
brokerage
AmEx
E-auction Run auctions to secure
highest bidder
eBay, Freemarkets
E-marketplace Provide information and
commercial transactions
for specific industry
verticals
Ariba, Commerce One,
TradeNet, LawNet
Content Aggregator Serve as a portal for
many types of
information and users
Yahoo, Lycos
Content Provider Provide online content Rediff.com, china.com
Managed Hosting Provide outsourced IBM, HP, EDS
… resulting in a basket of multimedia telematics applications over a converged
platform.
Emerging Applications and Services
Multimedia content: including graphics, video clips, music, locator
services, games and directories formatted especially for mobile
handsets.
Multimedia Messaging: Any combination of photos, video clips,
audio clips, graphics or text can be sent to another mobile handset,
PC or other device. "Mobile broadcasting“ of media (such as news)
to many terminals simultaneously is similar to cell broadcasting for
SMS. SMS.
Internet/Extranet Access: Mobile access to e-mail, rich web
content, corporate network resources etc.
Instant Messaging: "real-time" text-based messaging via the
Internet.
Location Based Services: LBS could allow subscribers to locate
the nearest restaurant, fuel station or shop of their choice.
Rich Voice: Two-way real-time enhanced voice, video and other
forms of data. Presence – enabling a caller to see if a contact is
available or "on-line" to receive calls or messages – will promote
even greater usage of voice telephony. .. Eg. "Push-to-Talk“ over
Cellular, ICQ, MSN, IVR solutions.
BACKED BY A SOLID BUSINESS
MODEL?
Challenges to Pervasive E-Commerce
Availability of affordable end-systems
Open architectures and access
Revenue sharing business models Revenue sharing business models
Move away from point-to-point
communications to user communities (eg.
e-government, schools-on-the-net, tele-
medicine and EPR, …)
The Media-Market Lag
Lessons from the ITU on why this is so …
It takes longer than you think
The media and the market follow different
cycles cycles
Convergence cannibalizes existing cash
cows
First movers often get burnt fingers
Standards and technologies are key in
promoting convergence and inter-
operability
Best Practices for Development
The telecoms market is liberalized (reflected by an
increased share private providers).
Telecoms charges fall (e.g., cost per minute, connection
charges) when volumes increase.
With USO, coverage expands (number of main lines in
operation), especially in rural areas.
The emergence of open delivery platforms allow a host of
content and transaction service providers to access a
critical mass of subscribers / customers.
Value-added taxation and revenue settlement
mechanisms encourage the move up the value chain.
LAST WORD
Moving towards the information society is in the interest
of government, industry and the public
Information and communication (in general) are not niche
applications; neither is e-commerce applications; neither is e-commerce
The digital divide must be bridged in order to create a
mass market, high volume business (the Grameen Bank
is an outstanding case in point for micro-payment
services)
Connectivity, security, content and business models are
the key infrastructure challenges
The Singapore Story – training (ISS), CSCP, R&D (ITI),
MNCs … e-citizen
Learning & Discussion
1. Does convergence support e-Business or is it the other way around?
2. Recall your last experience with e-commerce. Was it safe, affordable and
convenient? What could have been done better? Would you pay a premium for
such a service? Or more likely to use it?
3. Why do you think the state of ICT in Asia (and more so, India) is what it is?
4. Why is the digital divide even a problem since neither the poor nor the rural
communities clamour for more ICT?
5. What has been your experience with e-government services? 5. What has been your experience with e-government services?
6. Is e-government an effective tool for citizen to reach out to their elected leaders
and universal public services?
7. What do you think is the connection between National ICT Policy and economic
growth?

Introduction to the Course
• • • • • • Scope : management centered Text : The Essential Guide by Dodd Case : Skype + … Assessment :20 + 30 + 50 Schedule : cf. Outline Questions?

!"

Figure 1.2 Noise amplified on the analog line, eliminated on digital service.

Bits
• A bit = the smallest unit of information
– On or off signals – Analog bits – Digital bits

Bytes
• 8 bits
– A character

• Code - bytes in a common format • Examples of ASCII code
– 1110101 – 1111110 – 1011000 W ? Return

Figure 1.1 One cycle of an analog wave, 1 hertz (Hz).

Broadband • Multiple simultaneous streams • Examples – Wireline – Wireless • Why the growth? – Enterprises – Consumers .

Compression A way to make networks more efficient Abbreviating text – Common characters Compressing video Not sending stationary objects Matching compression algorithms at each end .

Where is Compression used? # $ .

Figure 1.3 Multiplexing. .

first served Or prioritization .Types of Multiplexing • Time division Based on strict timing Everyone gets an equal turn • Statistical division First come.

Protocols • A protocol is a set of rules for communicating between computers. • Why are they needed? .

Protocol Functions • Who goes first? • Are you ready? • I got your message • There are errors • This is a high priority message • Who is sending? .

How do Protocols Differ? • • • • HTML & XML VoIP Security protocols Layer 3 vs. Layer 4 .

LANs • Characteristics – – – – Ownership Limited geography High speeds Shared devices • Devices on LANs • Changes in LANs .

! % & % '( Figure 1. .4 LAN architecture.

.5 Rack-mounted and chassis-based switches.Figure 1.

The Work Environment • How has the way your organization conducts business changed in the last five years? • Which technologies have enabled these changes? • What’s next? .

Figure 1.6 Home LAN. .

7 Edge and core routers.Figure 1. .

Recap A Bit is ____ – Bits sent as analog signals have the following disadvantages: – Bits sent as digital signals the following advantages: Bytes are: ASCII code is: Multiplexing makes better use of _____ by _____ Compression adds efficiencies to networks by ____ ______ changes the format of what is sent ______ does not change the format of what is transmitted .

Recap Continued Protocols are important because they: Layers simplify changes because they: What do we mean by a layer 3 device versus a layer 4 device? Characteristics of LANs are: Switches perform the following functions: Routers are needed to: Edge devices are more complex than core devices because they: .

Give examples of two protocols and how they impact our work or our personal use of technology. How do they differ? How are they the same? List three Internet services that have been enhanced through compression. Define protocol and explain why protocols are important. How do core networks differ from the edge of the network? List five functions commonly performed at the edge. Describe functions at the core of the network.Learning & Discussion • • • • • • • • Why do we need computer codes? What is the difference between a bit and a byte? Define multiplexing and compression. How have backbone networks changed in the last five years and why are these changes important? .

! " .

1 A hybrid system with circuit switched PBX and Voice over IP capabilities. .Figure 2.

PBXs and Cabling • In this session we shall learn about: – The structure of VoIP based telephone systems vs. traditional PBXs – Applications such as voice mail. and how they are connected to telephone systems – Characteristics of unshielded twisted pair and fiber optic cabling . unified messaging and integrated voice response.VoIP. ACDs.

IP # $ % & ' ((% ( ) ( & ' (( % & ' * % &&&& %& %' && % * . " + . .TDM Vs. / .

Figure 2.2 Circuit switched PBXs connected to a data network for Voice over IP traffic.

Figure 2.3 Connection to a branch office Voice over IP telephone system.

Figure 2.4 Courtesy of Avaya, 2005. Voice over IP softphone with the same extension number as the desk telephone.

Figure 2.5 PBX trunks from the telephone company to the demarcation.

Figure 2.6 Direct inward dialing (DID) carried on a T-1 trunk to an IP-based telephone system.

Figure 2.7 In-building wireless service.

Figure 2.8 One-number wireless service in conjunction with a PBX.

9 Integrated voice response system linked to a computer and an ACD. .Figure 2.

.Figure 2.10 Queue management software linked to an e-mail server and PBX.

Media • What are my choices? • What are the criteria for selection? • Implication of choices .

Figure 2.11 Cross section of Category 6 cabling. .

Fiber Applications & Characteristics • Characteristics – – – – – – – – – Performance Electrical immunity Security Durability Cost Size Weight Flexibility Material & labor costs • Applications – – – – CATV Backbones Trans oceanic routes Cellular backhaul .

.Figure 2.12 Fiber optics in cable TV networks.

Impact of Wavelength Division Multiplexing 0 " 1 " 2 2 • ( 3 .

.13 Coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM) in cable TV networks.Figure 2.

Summary • Traditional PBXs differ from soft-switches (to be re-visited) in the following ways: • Customers purchase VoIP based switches because: • How do customers insure security? • How do fiber cabling and unshielded twisted pair differ from each other? • In what applications are fiber rather than copper used? .

telephone systems based on proprietary protocols and signaling. Describe coarse wave division multiplexing. Why do you think cable companies are interested in bringing fiber closer to homes? . Why do some people refer to voice as an application on the local area network? What advice would you give organizations that purchase VoIP systems to ensure that they have successful implementations. Discuss the rationale for purchasing a hybrid VoIP/traditional telephone system rather than a strictly VoIP system. List five actions that you think they should take. Describe the main functions of contact centers and why reports are critical.Learning & Discussion • • • • • • • How are proprietary PBXs different than telephone systems based on Voice over IP? How are they alike? Describe four reasons organizations purchase VoIP PBXs rather than traditional.

! " # ! ! .

the PSTN & Signaling • Key components & rationale for converged networks • Residential VoIP services • The public switched telephone network • The structure & limitations of the public switched telephone network • Challenges & components of the last mile • Signaling & why it matters .VoIP.

The Traditional Public Switched Telephone Network .

.Local calls in the PSTN Carrier B’s customer calls carrier A’s customer.

E911 call to a public safety answering point. .

911 call to a public safety answering point without enhanced 911 (E911) .

The last-mile access portion of incumbent local exchange carrier networks. .

Bringing Fiber closer to customers via digital loop carriers .

.Broadband over power lines figure courtesy of Amperion. Inc.

Residential Voice over IP over DSL or cable modem service .

Pre-paid calling services .

.Common channel signaling— separate links for signaling and voice traffic.

Bypassing telephone Companies’ Access Fees Using Competitive Access Providers (CAPs) How did the industry change after Divestiture? .

Post-Telecommunications Co-location Figure 3.4 A local loop leased by a CLEC. .

The Triple Play • • • • • Wireless Carriers Cable TV Providers CLECs ILECs Utilities .Enter Convergence .

.

Connections between IP networks .

Peer-to-peer services • • • • • Examples of providers Services offered Pluses Minuses Impact on the industry % $ () +) ) $ % % ! * * % $ ) ) . ) $ &' .

gateways and media servers • In what ways is signaling the glue that holds networks together? • Why are consumers attracted to Skype & Vonage? .Thinking Aloud • Why are carriers transitioning to VoIP? • How do these networks differ from traditional public switched networks? • Explain the functions of: – Softswitches.

. Why are some carriers selling VoIP services through retail outlets and on the Web rather than directly through live sales representatives? Define the last mile in carriers’ networks and why it such a challenge to upgrade these facilities. What are the functions of digital loop carriers and why are they important? Why did the Skype CEO in an October 17. 2005 interview in the New York Post say that his biggest competitors are Yahoo! and Microsoft? What did the CEO’s comments suggest about Yahoo! and Microsoft’s plans? Do you agree that these are his main competitors? Why or why not? 2. Describe the main pieces of equipment in carriers’ voice over IP architecture: soft-switches. What functions does each of them provide? Analysts are predicting that VoIP for residential customers will boom over the next few years. media gateways. media servers and application servers. 3. 5.Learning & Discussion 1. 6. Do you agree or disagree? Defend your answer. 4. signaling gateways.

give your recommendations on each of the opportunities identified in the case: – Expand nationally? – Launch narrowband ISP? – Develop integrated fixed mobile services? . • Read the case on Telesp (HBS Case No. taking the position of a consultant to the Board.Case Discussion – The making of a Full Service Provider. 804149).

! ! " % & # $ '() 1 .

• ISDN – bri. pri. caller ID & video conferencing • Gigabit Ethernet in carrier & enterprise metropolitan networks 2 .VPNs & Specialized Network Services • Virtual private networks – Lowering the cost of enterprise links & enabling remote access • Frame relay as a replacement for private lines • T-1/E-1 the first high speed service … SDH/SONET & OC-3. 48. 12.

VPNs & Specialized Network Services continued • ATM compared to IP • SONET – In the backbone – In the metropolitan area – Compared to gigabit ethernet 3 .

virtual private networks " & % * + . 4 .

IPSec virtual private network for remote access -. $ -0 2 34 % $ " $1 " / / . ! 5 / . -.

Key Components of Frame relay 6 .

$ / 7 .Multipoint private lines with hub and spoke for small locations -.

Mesh network topology pros & cons 8 .

hub & spoke combo Any-to-any mesh design in a VPN. 9 . hub and spoke (star) to headquarters for Internet access.Mesh.

Local and inter-exchange channels of a private line - %5 " 10 .

" -6" " " " " 11 .Integrated access device for T-1s carrying voice and data .

048 Megabits per second – Bell Standard – IT Standard • Applications 7 8 9:.544 or 2.T-1 and E-1 • 1. < = >1 ? 4 87 . % % 7 9: T-1 Mux T-1 Mux !1 5 " 12 .

28 T-1s = a T-3 Circuit Boston ISP T-3 T-1 Fiber or Wireless London T-1 Dallas 13 .

Videoconferencing using three bonded BRI ISDN circuits 14 .

BRI ISDN bonding 15 .

Primary rate interface ISDN • PRI ISDN carrying the caller’s billed telephone number automatic number identification (ANI). The ANI is often the same as the customer’s telephone number. 16 .

Digital subscriber line service • • • • No need for fiber to the home or business A response to cable providers Use of same copper already deployed Strategic implications of RBOC & cable offerings " " 17 .

DSLAMs in digital loop carriers (remote terminals) 18 .

DSLAM connection to an Internet service provider 19 .

Figure 5.14 Neighborhood mini remote access multiplexers (MiniRAMs).

20

Gigabit Ethernet

fiber-optic cabling and metropolitan fiber rings

21

Leasing wavelengths in the metropolitan area

22

Parallel streams in an ATM circuit

•Fixed size cells 53 bytes @ payload of 48 •Quality of service* •Asynchronous switching •In the frame relay backbone
23

SONET rings in the backbone

- bidirectional duplicate rings in a carrier’s backbone network - The fiber glut & pricing - SONET or SDH … backbone of PSDN

24

Summary
• What are the major trends in high-speed networking • Why are carriers, residential consumers and enterprises demanding higher-speed services • Which technologies will supply the required capacity and speeds? • Contrast & compare: ISDN, T-1, E-3, Gig-E, SONET/SDH & ATM
25

Learning & Discussion
1. 2. Compare gigabit Ethernet to SONET. How do carriers use each of these technologies? What about enterprises? Describe and compare Multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) virtual private networks (VPNs) to IP VPNs. How are they different from each other and what are advantages of each type of network technology? Security on VPNs is a major concern to carriers. Discuss how businesses and carriers use firewalls and token ID security to protect their networks. List three reasons organizations are tending to use newer VPN services rather than frame relay? How does PRI ISDN differ from T-1? How is it the same? Analysts are predicting that business and commercial customers are going to use more services offered by large carriers and that they will not be as price conscious because of the importance of these value added services. What services do 26 you think they were thinking of?

3. 4. 5. 6.

Case Discussion on Care Group (HBS case no 303-097) • If you were the CIO of the CareGroup. would you define your primary role as being an integrator? • What are some of the blind spots that John Halamka does not appear to see? 27 .

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Entertainment Networks • The competitive landscape • Lifestyle changes • Network evolutions • The role of regulations • Technological influences 2 .

Hybrid fiber cable (HFC) network Two-way Internet access. improved reception. 3 . and added reliability.

Linking distribution hubs to headends 4 .

The Triple Play video. voice. and television 5 .

1.0. 2.0 • Personal video recorders (PVRs) • Strategic advantages for cable companies – Program guides – Home networks 6 . 1.The Evolution of Set-top Boxes • What is their function? – Billing – Tuners – Security • How have they changed? DOCSIS 1.

Digital broadcasting with compression 7 .

Figure courtesy of USDTV. 8 .Broadcasters Use of Spare Digital Spectrum for Extra Revenue USDTV broadcasts.

Satellite TV • Why does it cost less to operate satellite networks? • The impact on cable TV operators • Implications for the future 9 .

Satellite Digital Radio Broadcasts Courtesy XM Satellite Radio 10 .

Over the Air TV Broadcasts ! & ' () * & # & # & & 11 .

A Passive Optical Network for Cable Television 12 optical network unit (ONU) .

13 .Fiber to the Home from Telcos A passive optical network with optical network terminations (ONTs).

Entertainment via the Internet • The impact of Netflix • Do people want to watch movies or TV reruns on their PCs? – Home networks • What about on an i-Pods? • Technological factors 14 .

Telcos • Cable operators’ competitive advantages • Telco strengths • Regulatory issues – Local franchises – National legislation 15 .Multiple System Operators (MSOs) vs.

Summary • A couch potato world? • The structure of cable TV networks compared to voice and data networks – How are networks converging? • Enabling technologies for video on demand – – – – Fiber Data storage Faster processors Compression 16 .

Learning & Discussion Cable television is an extremely capital intensive business. Describe how a carrier such as Deutsche Telekom uses passive optical networking. List the main components and their functions. Would you order cable TV from your telephone company? Why or why not? What would telephone companies have to do to get your business? List four ways that cable TV products and services have changed in the last five years. What advice would you give cable operators on how to win back customers? Incumbent telephone companies are also gearing up to compete against cable operators. Why do you think cable TV networks are more capital intensive than wireless networks such as direct broadcast satellite TV networks? Cable operators have lost many customers to satellite TV because of lower pricing offered by satellite TV providers. What technologies did operators have to 17 implement to offer these services? .

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The Internet Structure & evolution Messaging Addressing E-Commerce Intranets & Internets 2 .

Background Department of Defense Research vehicle The IS & IETF Arcane commands Peer to peer IPv6 * " " ! 3 .

What Makes the Web Special? Graphical Interface from CERN HTTP – Client server Addressing Commercialization SEs SSL *World Wide Web 4 .

Network Operations Centers * MCI to be purchased by Verizon Communications ** AT&T to be purchased by SBC 5 . VA AT&T** Backbone Sprint Backbone Sprint NAP Pennsauken NJ Metropolitan Area Exchanges: Sites with routers where ISPs exchange traffic. Also called network access points. NAPs.Linked Networks MAE* West MCI San Jose MCI* Backbone MAE* East MCI Vienna. Carriers monitor their Networks at NOCs.

Keeping up With Changes on Corporate Web Sites Figure 7. content management software. Inc.1 Web server. application server.) 6 . and content database. (Courtesy of Ektron.

Internet Connections to a Cable Multiple System Operator (MSO) 7 .

Chats & Instant Messaging • The killer apps • HTML formatted email • Impact of attachments • IM & presence for businesses • Teenagers & chat • Multi-media messaging • … XML 8 .E-Mail.

3 Links between hosting companies and the Internet. 9 .Figure 7.

pull – Pod casting via really simple syndication (RSS) • Will newspapers disappear? 10 .BLOGs. Craig’s List & Really Simple Syndication • Web logs • Impact on news media • New distribution – Push Vs.

Figure courtesy Blackboard.Figure 7. Inc. … NTU’s edventure 11 .4 Distance learning company hosting applications and course material for schools.

Phishing and Identity Theft • Are our identities safe? • Which of our organizations’ identities have been forged by phishers? • How can we protect our identities? • SPAM – stamps • Spyware 12 .

E-Commerce Who shops online? What sells? Pornography Gambling Retail products Ads on search sites Privacy Cookies Surveys Database sales 13 .

Thinking Aloud Describe the structure of the Internet How has the Internet changed the way we do business? We live? What are the biggest opportunities for ecommerce? Who are the major competitors & future winners? How will the Internet change life for the next generation? 14 .

socialize and interface with family members differently today than ten years ago due to technologies enabled by the Internet? What about 20 years ago? How has the ways business is conducted changed as a result of the Internet? If you were working 10 years ago describe how these differences impacted your work. 2.Learning & Discussion 1. 3. How do teens and college students study. How are Internet backbone networks such as those owned by AT&T and Sprint connected to each other? Why are businesses interested in instant messaging? What are the technical challenges of implementing instant messages in commercial organizations? What impact have spam and viruses had on use of the Internet? How can residential customers protect themselves from: Phishing. Spam. For example. to MSN or T-Online and then to the Internet. 6. 4. how does email travel from your home. 5. What technological developments have enabled the changes discussed in questions one and two above? Explain how customers’ with broadband connections are connected from their modem to the Internet. 15 . 7. Viruses.

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Mobile Services • • • • • • Cellular networks Spectrum The structure of the industry Second & third generation networks Handhelds M-Commerce 2 .

Pre-cellular Mobile Service 3 .

2 Carriers/market 1994 PCS Auctions Late 1990s 1984 Cellular Service Entry of Competitors Consolidation & Grow AT&T Wireless Sprint Nextel.Wireless Milestones In the U.S. T-Mobile predecessors Wireless/Vodafone Verizon 4 . AT&T/Cingula Sprint.

Cellular’s Additional Capacity 5 .

Spectrum • What is it? • Wavelength • Allocation – Licensed – Unlicensed • Harmonization 6 .

$ % 7 .

2nd Generation Wireless Services 8 .

SS7 & Registers .Tracking Users 9 .

Third Generation Cellular • WCDMA – GSM & TDMA – Evolution via: • GPRS (General Packet radio services) • EDGE (Enhanced data rates for GSM) • HSDPA (High speed uplink packet access) • CDMA2000 – 1x – 1xEV-DO – Rev A 10 .

S.U. Carriers • GSM evolving to WCDMA – Cingular Wireless – T-Mobile • CDMA2000 1X & EVDO – Verizon Wireless – Sprint Nextel • iDEN • Trialing WiMAX 11 .

Third generation network architecture 3GPP for WCDMA 12 .

Nextel’s Nationwide Push-to-talk Service 13 .

What Issues are Carriers Facing? • • • • • $$$ Roaming Capacity Billing New Applications 14 .

What do Customers Want? • Voice – Quality – Pricing – Coverage • Features • Data • Video 15 .

Third Generation Economics New Handsets Denser base station coverage $$$ for licenses Will companies pay for high-speed data? Will consumers? 16 .

17 .Figure 8. Figure courtesy of Kodiak Networks.6 Kodiak push-to-talk between cellular networks.

8 gigahertz (GHz) 18 .Handhelds • Triple mode – WCDMA – GSM – GPRS • Multi-band – 800 megahertz (MHz) – 1.

Handheld Capabilities • • • • • • Ring tones Cameras Video & games Battery life Differentiators Subsidies 19 .

Advanced Applications & Mcommerce • • • • • Pay by phone Multi-media Internet access Remote Access to Enterprise applications Challenges – Spam – Security 20 .

Mobile Services Summary • The Significance of cellular service • Differences between 2nd & 3rd Generation Service • Impact of governments’ spectrum policies • Handhelds & user experiences 21 .

2. close to 10% of telephone customers have substituted cellular service for their main telephone service.Learning & Discussion 1. 7. How should governments allot spectrum? Should it be free? Why or why not. 4. 22 . 6. 8. What are three advantages of second generation over first generation cellular services? Does anyone remember having an analog handset and the features that were available on it? Currently. capacity and costs for carriers to build networks. What factors do you think have led to this substitution? Why don’t more people use cellular service as their only telephone service? What about Fixed Mobile Integration? What are the two main third generation mobile standards? Discuss the ways that carriers using the two different standards WCDMA and CDMA2000 are evolving to third generation networks. How will customers benefit from 3G? Which applications will customers want and what are barriers to acceptance? What advice would you give carriers to further acceptance of new applications? List the ways that consumers and business customers will benefit from and be hurt from the consolidation in the wireless industry. Define spectrum and discuss its impact on: speed. 5. 3. What is the business and technological impact of the way governments allot spectrum.

1 .

UWB • Sensor Networks . RFID.Zigbee • Comparisons of Technologies & Applications 2 .11 – Standards – Applications – WiMAX – Adapting 3G for WBA: UMTS TDD • Broadband Wireless Access • Personal Area Networks: Bluetooth. Wireless Broadband.• Wi-Fi. Sensor & Personal Area Networks 802.

802.(wireless fidelity) IEEE 802.11g • Why standards matter • The downside of standards 3 .11b.What is Wi-Fi? • A wireless Ethernet standard – Wi-Fi .11a & 802.

11n • Range • Capacity • Data Rate • Why these matter 4 .4 megabits per second 3 2.11g 54 megabits per second 14.11a Top Speed 11 megabits per second 54 megabits per second Achievable Speed 5 megabits per second 32 megabits per second No.4 gigahertz • 802.11 Standards Standard 802.11b 802.4 gigahertz 5 gigahertz 802. of Channels 3 12 Frequency Band 2.802.

Portability in Enterprises ! " # ! $ ! ! 5 .

11 Components • • • • Access points The user interface Switches Controllers % & ' ! () 6 .802.

and a core switch in an enterprise network.Workgroup switches (which are on individual floors). access points. 7 .

Wi-Fi in Hot Spots •Speed •Convenience •Benefits to providers 8 .

A Clearinghouse for Single Sign on & Billing Clearinghouse passes billing data to WISP who bills user & pays clearing house a fee 9 .

A secure virtual private network (VPN) connection between hotspots and enterprises using tunneling 10 .

billing “uber-aggregator” – GoRemote – iPass – Fiberlink 11 .WISPs & Aggregators • WISPs – Wayport – T-Mobile • Aggregators – Boingo .

Mesh networks 12 .

Hot Spot Remote Access Lost PDAs & laptops Eavesdropping Stolen data Log in to WISP authenticated but data not secured 13 .

Wi-Fi in Homes • Why did residential customers use Wi-Fi earlier than business & commercial customers? • How will future residential applications differ from initial applications? • Is there a downside to Wi-Fi in homes? 14 .

Voice over IP on corporate 802.11 wireless networks 15 .

Security • Security on wireless services compared to that of wireline • Software on access points or devices connected to corporate networks • Software on clients 16 .

What can go wrong? • • • • Unauthorized access Snooping Competitive information compromised Rogue access points 17 .

11i subset – 128 bit level of encryption .Security Tools • WEP .Wired Equivalent Privacy – Easy to “crack” – Shared passwords • WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) 802.more scrambled – “Keys” between user & access point changed more frequently 18 .

ease of administration 19 .Implications for the CIO Complexity Vs.

the Farpoint Group 20 .Compared to cellular •13% of the cost of cellular data to provision* •Stationary •Speed •Coverage * Craig Mathias.

Multipoint Microwave Distribution System • Will these go the way of WinStar & Teligent? 21 • • • • .fixed 802.16d .What about WiMAX? 802.16e .mobile Longer distances MMDS .

WiMAX service with overlapping wireless coverage between towers for redundancy 22 .

! * 23 .WiMAX to Extend Wireline Networks ISP ) * + .

Bluetooth • • • • Short distances 2. Version 2 Palm Bluetooth wireless links 24 .4 GHz Standards Version 1 vs.

RFID service in hospitals to manage assets 25 .

Ultra-wideband (UWB) low-power signals 26 .

A ZigBee partial mesh network 27 .

RFID.Summary • Wi-Fi use in enterprises will increase when:___ • Hot spots compared to Cellular? – Will wane as 3G grows – Will outpace 3G • Explain the differences & similarities between fixed & mobile WiMAX • Compare: bluetooth. UltraWideband & Zigbee 28 .

Learning & Discussion
1. 2. 3.
4. 5.

6. 7. 8. 9.

Of those of you that use a hot spot why and for what purpose do you use it? Discuss the pros and cons of using a hot spot for remote access to corporate applications. Wi-Fi doesn’t exist in a vacuum; rather it needs to be connected to other networks – the Internet and LANs. Discuss various ways to make these connections. List various connectivity options. List four challenges of using voice on Wi-Fi networks. Some carriers (eg Vodaphone)have announced that they are considering offering handsets that work on both cellular and Wi-Fi services. What are the challenges they will face if they do offer these handsets? List three reasons why fixed WiMAX service will succeed or why it will not achieve significant market share. List the technical and regulatory challenges faced by municipalities that build mesh Wi-Fi networks. Compare Zigbee, Bluetooth and RFID. How do they differ? How are they the same? Why are developing countries interested in broadband wireless access?
29

! " #$ %

Learning Objectives
Define the key terms client/server architecture, local area network LAN, distributed database, and middleware. Distinguish between file server and client/server environments and contrast how each is used in a LAN. Describe alternative designs for distributed systems and their trade-offs. Describe how standards shape the design of Internet-based systems.

Chapter 14

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

Learning Objectives (Cont.)
Describe options for ensuring Internet design consistency. Describe how site management issues can influence customer loyalty and trustworthiness as well as system security. Discuss issues related to managing online data, including context development, online transaction processing (OLTP), online analytical processing (OLAP), and data warehousing.
Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall

The Process of Designing Distributed and Internet Systems
• Similar to designing single-location systems. • Due to multi-location deployment, numerous design issues must be considered. • More opportunity for failure due to number of components. • Main issues involve ensuring reliability, availability, survivability, performance.

Chapter 14

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

Deliverables and Outcome
• Document that consolidates system design information:
– Description of each site. – Description of data usage for each site. – Description of business process for each site. – Contrasts of alternative IS architectures for site, data and processing needs of each site.
Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall

Designing Distributed Systems
• Distributed systems use:
– LAN-based file server architecture. – Client/server architecture

• File server: a device that manages file operations and is shared by each client PC attached to a LAN.

Chapter 14

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

• Need for powerful client workstations. • Decentralized data control. recovery.Limitations of File Servers • Excessive data movement. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall . – Complicates record concurrency control. and security. – Entire data tables must be transferred instead of individual records. – Each client workstation must devote memory to a full DBMS.

and application programs on each client concentrate on user interface functions.Designing Systems for a Client/Server Architecture • Client/server architecture: a LAN-based computing environment in which central database server or engine performs all database commands sent to it from client workstations. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall .

• Client manages the user interface. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall . • Database server is responsible for data storage and query processing.Designing Systems for a Client/Server Architecture • Application processing is divided between client and server.

Designing Systems for a Client/Server Architecture (Cont. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall .) • Database engine: the (back-end) portion of the client/server database system running on the server that provides database processing and shared access functions.

Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall .) • Client: the (front-end) portion of the client/server database system that provides the user interface and data manipulation functions.Designing Systems for a Client/Server Architecture (Cont.

as well as modules are standardized to facilitate data exchange between clients and servers. – Common API interface can be used by any kind of DBMS (MySQL.Designing Systems for a Client/Server Architecture (Cont. such as user interfaces and printing. or Oracle). Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall .) • Application program interface (API): software building blocks that are used to ensure that common system capabilities. Sybase.

– Processing performed close to data source. – Encourages acceptance of open systems.Client/Server Advantages and Cautions • Advantages – Leverages benefits of microcomputer technology. • Reduces network traffic. – Facilitates use of GUIs. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall . • Improves response time.

– Compatibility issues.Client/Server Advantages and Cautions • Cautions – Difficult migration from file server to client/server. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall . – Limited system design and performance monitoring tools.

Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall . • Three-tiered client/server: advanced client/server architectures in which there are three logical and distinct applications – data management. presentation.Advanced Forms of Client/Server Architectures • Application server: a computing server where data analysis functions primarily reside. and analysis – that are combined to create a single information system.

) • Middleware: a combination of hardware. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall . and communication technologies that bring data management.Advanced Forms of Client/Server Architectures (Cont. software. and analysis together into a three-tiered client/server environemnt. presentation.

Approaches to Designing Client/Server Architectures • • • • • • Distributed Presentation Remote Presentation Remote Data Management Distributed Function Distributed Database Distributed Processing Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall .

so change done only in one place. • Easier customization: application code resides on application server. • Easier maintenance: data analysis is separate from user interface. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall .) • Applications can be partitioned in a way that best fits the organizational computing need. so changing one can be done independently of the other.Advanced Forms of Client/Server Architectures (Cont.

site management and online data management. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall . site consistency. • Main design issues: standards.Designing Internet Systems • Most new system development focuses on Internet-base applications (for internal processing. and business-to-consumer). separating content from display. business-to-business. future evolution.

org/products/BIND/bind-history. • Types of Standards: – Domain naming (BIND): a method for translating domain names into Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. • “B” refers to Berkeley. • See www. where first developed.Standards Drive the Internet • Internet design is simpler than client/server due to proliferation of standards. Ca.html Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall .isc.

Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall .) – Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP): a communication protocol for exchanging information on the Internet.Standards Drive the Internet (Cont. – Hypertext Markup Language (HTML): the standard language for representing content on the Web via command tags.

transmission. enabling the definition. • eXtensible MarkupLanguage (XML): an Internet-authoring language that allows designers to create customized tags.Separating Content and Display • HTML has limitations due to format orientation of tags. validation. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall . and interpretation of data between applications.

Future Evolution • Thin client: a client device designed so that most processing and data storage occur on the server. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall . – Wireless Markup Language (WML): a wireless version of HTML. • Use of wireless mobile devices – Wireless Access Protocol (WAP): a wireless version of HTTP.

Site Consistency • Professionalism requires a consistent look-and-feel across all pages of a Web site. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall . • Cascading Style Sheets (CSSs): a set of style rules that tells a Web browser how to present a document.

– Methods for formatting the generic comprehensive form into a device-specific form.) • Extensible Style Language (XSL): a specification for separating style from content when generating HTML documents. – Methods for transforming XML documents into a generic comprehensive form. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall .Site Consistency (Cont.

• Major problem is users do not know where they are going when they follow a hyperlink.Other Site Consistency Issues • Two key issues should be considered: – Use unique titles. – Choose words carefully. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall .

correct. – Connected to the rest of the Web. and current content.Design Issues Related to Site Management • Customer Loyalty and Trustworthiness – Design quality. – Up-front disclosure. – Comprehensive. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall .

Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall . • Customization: Internet sites that allow users to customize the content and look of the site based on their personal preferences.Customer Loyalty and Trustworthiness • Personalization: providing Internet content to a user based upon knowledge of that customer.

Web Pages Must Live Forever • • • • • Customer Bookmarks. – Use of cookies. Search Engine Referrals. System Security vs. Links from Other Sites. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall . Old Content Adds Value. ease of use – “Remember my password”.

Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall . • Organizational breadth: a measurement that tracks the core business functions affected by a system. • Integration depth: a measurement of how far into the existing technology infrastructure a system penetrates.Online Data Management • Context development : a method that helps analysts to better understand how a system fits within the existing business activities and data.

• Plays a large role in electronic commerce applications. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall .Online Transaction Processing (OLTP) • Online transaction processing (OLTP): the immediate automated responses to the requests of users. • Designed to handle multiple concurrent transactions.

Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) • Online analytical processing (OLAP): the use of graphical software tools that provide complex analysis of data stored in a database. • OLAP server is the chief component • Good for time series and trend analysis. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall . • Enables user to “drill-down” into the data.

• Informational systems: systems designed to support decision making based on stable point-in-time or historical data.Merging Transaction and Analytical Processing • Operational systems: systems that are used to interact with customers and run a business in real time. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall .

integrated. nonvolatile collection of data used in support of management decision making. time-variant. .Data Warehousing • Data warehouse: a subject-oriented.

) • Key features – Subject-oriented: organized around key subjects. – Nonvolatile: data cannot be updated by users. – Integrated: data are collected from many operational systems and made to conform to standards. – Time-variant: data contains a time dimension. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall .Data Warehousing (Cont.

– Users access via query languages and analytical tools.) • Four basic steps to build: – Extract data from various source system files and databases. – Transform. integrate.Data Warehousing (Cont. and load the data. – Data warehouse is a read-only environment. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall .

Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall . • Three-level architecture: – Operational systems and data.) • Two level Architecture: – Data warehouse and decision support environment. – An enterprise data warehouse. – Data marts.Data Warehousing (Cont.

) • Enterprise data warehouse (EDW): a centralized. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall . integrated data warehouse that is the control point and single source of all data made available to end users for decision support applications throughout the entire organization. • Data mart: a data warehouse that is limited in scope: its data are obtained by selecting and (where appropriate) summarizing data from the enterprise data warehouse.Data Warehousing (Cont.

organizing. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall . and publishing Web site content.Web Site Content Management • Content management system (CMS): a special type of software application for collecting.

Electronic Commerce Application: Designing a Distributed Advertisement Server for a WebStore • Benefits for including advertising: – Potential to increase revenue generated from the WebStore. – Potential to provide customers with improved service when looking for additional products that accessorize PVF’s product line. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall . – Potential to create cross-promotions and alliances with other online commerce systems.

– Advertisement links must not redirect the user’s browser away from the WebStore. so as not to disrupt the site layout. – Advertisement must be uniform in size and resolution.Advertising on PVF’s WebStore • List of advertisement system concerns: – Advertisement must be served quickly so that site performance is not affected. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall .

based on where the user is in the WebStore.Designing the Advertising Component • Transactional requirements are: – Determine which advertisements apply. – Check for any seasonal or promotional advertisements. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall . – Log the transaction. – Personalize the advertisement if the identity of user and preferences are known.

when shopping for desks. clicked on an advertisement for lamps?” – “How many advertisements were served to shoppers looking at filing cabinets?” Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall .Designing the Management Reporting Component • Queries for top-management: – “How many women.

Designing the Management Reporting Component – How many people clicked on the first advertisement they saw?” – “How many people clicked on an advertisement and then purchased something from the WebStore?” Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall .

Distinguish between file server and client/server environments and contrast how each is used in a LAN. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall .Summary Define the key terms client/server architecture. Describe how standards shape the design of Internet-based systems. and middleware. distributed database. Describe alternative designs for distributed systems and their trade-offs. local area network LAN.

online transaction processing (OLTP). Describe how site management issues can influence customer loyalty and trustworthiness as well as system security.) Describe options for ensuring Internet design consistency.Summary (Cont. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall . including context development. Discuss issues related to managing online data. and data warehousing. online analytical processing (OLAP).

305-050): A pure play merchant server based in Japan Key decision points:• Which LoBs to expand? • Should it go global? • Is it time for clicks and bricks? • What is the potential downside (ie risks)? • What other business partnerships (including co-sourcing) should it explore? .Learning & Discussion A discussion of the case on Rakuten (HBS Case No.

Prentice Hall. 2003.(based on Chapter 6.) 1 . New York. ref – R. Corporate Computer and Network Security. Panko.

Outline ! " 2 .

Availability & Reliability - series

Combining components in series decreases overall availability

3

Availability & Reliability - parallel

Effect of Redundancy – 5 components in series Pr (5 components fail at the same time) = .02 * .02 * .02 * .02 * .02 A = 99.99999968

4

High Availability Facilities
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%

! +

5

CSI/FBI Computer Crime and Security Survey
• Annual survey conducted by the Computer Security Institute (http://www.gocsi.com) in cooperation with the FBI. • Based on replies from 503 U.S. Computer Security Professionals. • If fewer than 20 firms reported quantified dollar losses, data for the threat are not shown.

6

FBI / CSI Survey (contd.)
Threat Percent Reporting an Incident 1997 82% Percent Reporting an Incident 2002 85% Average Annual Loss per Firm (x1000) 1997 $76 Average Annual Loss per Firm (x1000) 2002 $283

Viruses

Laptop Theft

58%

65%

$38

$89

7

FBI / CSI Survey (contd.)
Threat Percent Reporting an Incident 1997 24% 20% 40% Percent Reporting an Incident 2002 40% 40% 38% Average Annual Loss per Firm (x1000) 1997 $77 $132 NA Average Annual Loss per Firm (x1000) 2002 $297 $226 NA
8

Denial of Service System Penetration Unauthorized Access by Insiders

FBI / CSI Survey (contd.)
Threat Percent Percent Reporting Reporting an an Incident Incident 1997 2002 20% 20% Average Annual Loss per Firm (x1000) 1997 $954 Average Annual Loss per Firm (x1000) 2002 $6,571

Theft of Intellectual Property Financial Fraud Sabotage

12% 14%

12% 8%

$958 $164

$4,632 $541
9

) Threat Percent Reporting an Incident 1997 27% 11% Percent Reporting an Incident 2002 Average Annual Loss per Firm (x1000) 1997 Average Annual Loss per Firm (x1000) 2002 NA NA Telecom Fraud Telecom Eavesdropping Active Wiretap 9% NA 6% NA 3% 1% NA NA 10 .FBI / CSI Survey (contd.

000 per firm – Only 39% of attacks after viruses were removed were directed at individual firms 11 .5 billion firewall log entries in 300 firms in five-month period – Detected 128.Other Empirical Attack Data • Riptech – Analyzed 5.678 attacks—an annual rate of 1.

Other Empirical Attack Data • SecurityFocus – Data from 10.000 firms in 2001 – Attack Frequency • 129 million network scanning probe packets (13.000 per firm) • 6 million denial-of-service attack packets (600 per firm) 12 .000 per firm) • 29 million website attack packets (3.

Other Empirical Attack Data • SecurityFocus – Attack Targets • 31 million Windows-specific attacks • 22 million UNIX/LINUX attacks • 7 million Cisco IOS attacks • All operating systems are attacked! 13 .

Other Empirical Attack Data • Honeynet project – Networks set up for adversaries to attack – Windows 98 PC with open shares and no password compromised 5 times in 4 days – LINUX PCs took 3 days on average to compromise 14 .

859 (164% growth) – 2000: 21.756 (121% growth) – 2001: 52.134 – 1998: 3.Attack Trends • Growing Incident Frequency – Incidents reported to the Computer Emergency Response Team/Coordination Center – 1997: 2.474 (75% growth from previous year) – 1999: 9.658 (142% growth) – Tomorrow? 15 .

large firms were targeted – Now.Attack Trends • Growing Randomness in Victim Selection – In the past. targeting is increasingly random – No more security through obscurity for small firms and individuals 16 .

Attack Trends • Growing Malevolence – Most early attacks were not malicious – Malicious attacks are becoming the norm 17 .

viruses and worms are attack robots that travel among computers – Attack many computers in minutes or hours – Cyberweapons of mass destruction 18 . rather than humanlydirected – Essentially.Attack Trends • Growing Attack Automation – Attacks are automated.

Attack Trends • Recap – Growing Frequency of Attacks – Growing Randomness of Victim Selection – Growing Malevolence of Attacks – Growing Attack Automation • So don’t base thinking and planning on today’s threats! 19 .

Framework for Attackers • Elite Hackers – Hacking: intentional access without authorization or in excess of authorization – Cracking versus hacking – Technical expertise and dogged persistence – Use attack scripts to automate actions. but this is not the essence of what they do – Deviants and hacker groups 20 .

Framework for Attackers • White Hat or Ethical Hackers – A term used in several ways – Hackers who attack at the invitation of target firms for vulnerability detection – Hackers who hack without invitation but who have a code of ethics about what not to do. • Codes often permit considerable mischief • Still illegal 21 .

Framework for Attackers • Virus Writers and Releasers – Virus writers versus virus releasers – Only releasing viruses is punishable 22 .

Framework for Attackers • Script Kiddies – Use pre-written attack scripts (kiddie scripts) – Viewed as lamers and script kiddies – Large numbers make dangerous – Noise of kiddie script attacks masks more sophisticated attacks 23 .

Framework for Attackers • Criminals – Many attackers are ordinary garden-variety criminals – Credit card and identity theft – Stealing trade secrets (intellectual property) – Extortion 24 .

Framework for Attackers • Internal Employees – Have access and knowledge – Financial theft – Theft of trade secrets (intellectual property) – Sabotage – IT and security staff – Consultants 25 .

Framework for Attackers • Cyberterrorism and Cyberwar – New level of danger – Infrastructure destruction • IT infrastructure • Use IT to damage physical infrastructure – Cyberterrorists versus cyberwar by national governments – Amateur information warfare 26 .

Framework for Attacks Attacks Physical Access Attacks -Wiretapping Server Hacking Vandalism Social Engineering -Opening Attachments Password Theft Information Theft Penetration Attacks Malware -Viruses Worms Dialog Attacks -Eavesdropping Impersonation Message Alteration Scanning (Probing) Break-in Denial of Service 27 .

Social Engineering Attacks and Defenses • Social Engineering – Tricking an employee into giving out information or taking an action that reduces security or harms a system – Opening an e-mail attachment that may contain a virus – Asking for a password claiming to be someone with rights to know it – Asking for a file to be sent to you 28 .

Social Engineering Attacks and Defenses • Social Engineering Defenses – Training – Enforcement through sanctions (punishment) 29 .

Eavesdropping on a Dialog Dialog Hello Client PC Bob Hello Attacker (Eve) intercepts and reads messages 30 Server Alice .

Impersonation and Authentication I’m Bob Client PC Bob Attacker (Eve) Prove it! (Authenticate Yourself) Server Alice 31 .

Classification of Threats – Spoofing 32 .

000.000 Attacker (Eve) intercepts and alters messages 33 .Message Alteration Dialog Client PC Bob Balance = $1 Balance = $1 Balance = $1.000.000 Server Alice Balance = $1.

etc.99.16.16.2.1.1 I’m a Candidate Attack Packets to 172. Internet Attacker Host 172.16.Scanning (Probing) Attacks I’m a Candidate Host 172.2 Corporate Network 34 .99. 172.99.16.99.

Single Break-In Packet 2. Server Taken Over By Single Message Attacker 35 .Single-Message Break-In Attack 1.

Denial-of-Service (DoS) Flooding Attack Message Flood Server Overloaded By Message Flood Attacker 36 .

Classification of Threats – DoS Attack 37 .

Security Management • Security is a Primarily a Management Issue. not a Technology Issue • Top-to-Bottom Commitment – Top-management commitment – Operational execution – Enforcement 38 .

Security Management • Comprehensive Security – Closing all avenues of attack – Asymmetrical warfare • Attacker only has to find one opening – Defense in depth • Attacker must get past several defenses to succeed – Security audits • Run attacks against your own network – Managing incidents before they occur 39 .

this will be detected – Availability • System is able to server users 40 .Security Management • General Security Goals (CIA) – Confidentiality • Attackers cannot read messages if they intercept them – Integrity • If attackers change messages.

The Plan—Protect—Respond Cycle Plan Respond Protect 41 .

The Plan—Protect—Respond Cycle • Planning – Need for comprehensive security (no gaps) – Risk analysis • Enumerating threats • Threat severity = estimated cost of attack X probability of attack • Value of protection = threat severity – cost of countermeasure • Prioritize countermeasures by value of prioritization 42 .

000 ($1.000 5% $5.000 $300.000 ($13.Threat Severity Analysis Step 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Threat Cost if attack succeeds Probability of occurrence Threat severity Countermeasure cost Value of protection Apply countermeasure? Priority A $500.000 $2.000) No NA 43 .000 $3.000 80% $400.000 $3.000) No NA C $100.000 $20.000 20% $2.000 Yes 2 D $10.000 Yes 1 B $10.000 $100.000 70% $7.

The Plan—Protect—Respond Cycle • Planning – Security policies drive subsequent specific actions – Access control – Technical security architectures • Tools and interactions for comprehensive security • Central management – Awareness and procedure training – Punishment 44 .

The Plan—Protect—Respond Cycle • Protecting – Installing protections: firewalls. etc. IDSs. – Updating protections as the threat environment changes – Testing protections: security audits 45 . host hardening.

The Plan—Protect—Respond Cycle • Responding – Planning for response (Computer Emergency Response Team) – Incident detection and determination • Procedures for reporting suspicious situations • Determination that an attack really is occurring • Description of the attack 46 .

The Plan—Protect—Respond Cycle • Responding – Recovery • The first priority • Stop the attack • Repair the damage – Punishment • Forensics: application of science to investigation • Prosecution • Employee Punishment – Fixing the vulnerability that allowed the attack 47 .

Encryption for Confidentiality Encrypted Message “100100110001” Client PC Bob “100100110001” Attacker (Eve) intercepts but cannot read Server Alice Original Message “Hello” Decrypted Message “Hello” 48 .

alter messages. or impersonate 49 .Cryptographic System Secure Dialog Client PC Automatically Handles Bob Negation of Security Options Authentication Encryption Integrity Server Alice Attacker cannot read messages.

Network Penetration Attacks and Firewalls Passed Packet Internet Firewall Hardened Client PC Attack Packet Internet Attacker Dropped Packet Hardened Server Log File Internal Corporate Network 50 .

Suspicious Packet 2. Log Packet Hardened Server Log File Corporate Network 51 .Intrusion Detection System 4. Alarm Network Administrator Intrusion Detection System 1. Suspicious Packet Passed Internet Attacker 3.

Firewalls Versus IDSs • Firewalls – Actually drop attack packets – This requires clear evidence of being attack packets • IDSs – Log but then pass suspicious packets – Log even if evidence is weak • Products on the Market Often Blur This Distinction 52 .

so plan for tomorrow’s threat environment • There are many threats from many attackers • Technology can reduce threats – Firewalls – IDSs 53 .Recap • Threats are considerable today • Threats will be worse tomorrow.

Recap • However. technology will do nothing – Management cooperation – Employee diligence – Procedures – Enforcement 54 • Plan-Protect-Respond Cycle . security is primarily a management issue: without strong management and processes.

! 55 .Learning & Discussion $ " ! . . / " .

An E-Biz Infrastructure 56 .

iPremier Company • Luxury goods retailer – Under attack from an unknown hacker – Case covers events as they unfold • What can we learn from this case – IT infrastructure must be secured – Decisions involved. however technical. must be addressed by business and IT executives => Good basis for Learning & Discussion 57 .

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Summary • • • • So. NGOSS and soft-switches Triple Play is here to stay Regulatory Best Practices deserve awards 2 . what is e-TOM anyway? NGNs.

2. 4. 5. What motivated the TeleManagement Forum to begin the e-TOM initiative? How does e-TOM help the typical telco? What are 3 executive learnings from the the NGOSS work of the TMF? How are Deutche Telekom. 7. 6. cable. 3. Korea Telecom and Saudi Telecom benefiting from e-TOM? Why is there a need to re-look some of the regulatory issues in the emerging Triple Play scenario? List 5 good practices for regulators of the converged marketplace? Is it easier to sell converged services (than stand-alone fixed. mobile. internet) to the marketplace? Which do you think is the more receptive – the consumer or business sector? 3 .Learning & Discussion 1.

Case study: NGOSS at KT Kyle Park January 2006 Customer Service Management Division Network Technology Lab.. KT .

Agenda OSS/BSS Paradigm Shift towards Agility Changing Architecture A brief look at KT OSS Design Concepts & Architecture Mapping of NeOSS to NGOSS eTOM NeOSS Compliance to NGOSS NGOSS Principles in compliance Realization of NGOSS Principles to NeOSS Common Communication Vehicle Contract Defined Interfaces Contract Registration & Trading Externalized Process Control Shared Information/Data Model Status of NeOSS in terms of NGOSS compliance Conclusion 2 .

and allocate resources based on business priorities and impacts Optimize utilization and performance of business processes and applications Manage end-to-end business end.tointeractions across multiple services Automate Operations. measure and deliver services Automatically balance. schedule. performance and response Prioritize Operations based on business importance Discrete / Partitioned ~2002 Integrated / Clustered 2003~2004 Virtualized / Federated 2005~ 3 . auto-activate and autoreconfigure infrastructure based on business needs Service Resource Operations Stability Plan Provision Monitor Billing Get the network under control Align resources and processes to enable optimal utilization.OSS/BSS Paradigm Shift towards Agility Business Process Operations Adaptability Operations Efficiency Link Infrastructure with the business – communicate.

Changing Architecture From Integrations = cost Function oriented Build to last Prolonged development Application silos Tightly coupled Object oriented To Integrations = value Process oriented Build to change Incrementally deployed Orchestrated solutions Loosely coupled Message oriented Source : Microsoft 4 .

What is NeOSS ? New & Next Generation Operations Support System (NeOSS) – KT NG OSS Fully adaptive OSS platform for business process revolution XML–based Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) Interoperable architecture with NGOSS architectural principles An integrated solution for mitigating organization’s OPEX 5 .

Design Concepts of NeOSS Customer-Centric Architecture One-stop Service / Appointment of Visiting Customer Premises Pre-Ordering / Order Tracking Customer Service fulfillment/assurance time saving SLA enabled Integrated Inventory Management End-to-end View of Multiple Domain Network Inventory Consolidated Customer Information Consolidated Customer Service Configuration Information Separation of Business Flows and Functions Using workflow engine Loosely-coupled integration using EAI 6 .

Leased Line. Fiber. WiBro. NeOSS-xNMS NeOSSPlug-and-Play Network Management Plug. FR. Fiber. FR. Network Mgmt.andConfiguration Configuration Management Management Fault Management Fault Management Performance Performance Management Management Device Activation Device Activation Management Management IP. ATM. NeOSS-WM NeOSSWorkforce Management Workforce Workforce Scheduling Scheduling Field Work Field Work Management Management NeOSS-ADM NeOSSAccess Domain Management Service Maintenance Service Maintenance Access Domain Access Domain Network Mgmt. Customer Data Mgmt. Resource & Service.NeOSS Architecture BSS Order Entry Order Entry Subscription EAI Information Bus Problem Report NeOSS-SO NeOSSService Delivery Management Integrated Order Management Integrated Order Management Flow-though Service FlowFlow-though Service Provisioning Provisioning Device Activation for Device Activation for Seamless Service Delivery Seamless Service Delivery NeOSS-SA NeOSSService Assurance Management Customer Care Customer Care Customer/Service Customer/Service Trouble Management Trouble Management Network Test Management Network Test Management NeOSS-SLA NeOSSService Quality Management SLA Management SLA Management Service QoS Service QoS Management Management Service Agreement Service Agreement Management Management NeOSS-NetIS/NE NeOSSOSS Information Management Network Data Network Data Ware housing Ware housing Reporting Reporting Network Planning Network Planning and Engineering and Engineering EAI Information Bus NeOSS-FM NeOSSInventory Management Inventory Inventory Management Management Service. Leased Line. IP. etc etc SO: Service Ordering SA: Service Assurance FM: Facility Management WM: Workforce Management ADM: Access Domain Management DeL: Dedicated Line TN: Transmission Network SLA: Service Level Agreement NetIS: Network Information Support System NE: Network engineering ICIS: Integrated Customer Information System EAI: Enterprise Application Integration 7 . ATM. WiBro. Resource & Customer Data Mgmt.

Analysis & Control NeOSS. Action & Reporting Action & Reporting Service & Service & Specific Specific Instance Instance Rating Rating Resource Data Collection. Action & Reporting Action & Reporting Service & Service & Specific Specific Instance Instance Rating Rating Service Management & Operations SM&O Support & Process SM&O Support & Process Management Management Service Management & Operations Service Management & Operations Readiness Readiness Resource NeOSS-SO Management & Operations NeOSSNeOSS-SO RM&O Support & Process Service RM&O Support & Process Service Management Management Configuration Configuration & Activation & Activation Resource Management Resource Management & Operations Readiness & Operations Readiness Service Problem Management Service Resource Provisioning Problem Management & Allocation to Service Instance Resource Problem Management Resource Problem Management Resource Quality Analysis.Mapping of NeOSS to NGOSS eTOM Operations Operations Support & Readiness Customer Relationship Management CRM Operations CRM Operations Support & Process Support & Process Management Management CRM Operations CRM Operations Readiness Readiness Sales & Channel Sales & Channel Management Management Operations Fulfillment Operations Support & Readiness Assurance Fulfillment Assurance Billing Billing Customer Relationship Management CRM Operations CRM Operations Support & Process Support & Process Management Management Customer Interface Management Customer Interface Management Selling Problem Handling Problem Handling Selling Customer Interface Management Customer Interface Management Marketing Marketing Fulfillment Fulfillment Response Response Order Order Handling Handling Selling Selling CRM Operations CRM Operations Readiness Readiness Problem Handling Problem Handling Customer QoS //SLA Customer QoS SLA Management Management Billing & Billing & Collections Collections Management Management ICIS Marketing Marketing Fulfillment Fulfillment Response Response Order Order Handling Handling Sales & Channel Sales & Channel Management Management Service Management & Operations SM&O Support & Process SM&O Support & Process Management Management Service Management & Operations Service Management & Operations Readiness Readiness Customer QoS / SLA Customer QoS / SLA Management Management Retention & Loyalty Retention & Loyalty Billing & Billing & Collections Collections Management Management NeOSS-SA NeOSSNeOSS-SA Service Retention & Loyalty Service Retention & Loyalty Configuration Configuration & Activation & Activation Service Problem Management Service Problem Management Service Quality Analysis. Analysis & Control Resource Data Collection. Supplier/Partner Interface Management Supplier/Partner Interface Management Action & Reporting Action & Reporting Resource Data Resource NeOSS-NM Collection. Action & Reporting Action & Reporting NeOSS-NetIS NeOSSNeOSS-NetIS Resource Management & Operations RM&O Support & Process RM&O Support & Process Management Management Resource Management Resource Management & Operations Readiness & Operations Readiness Supplier/Partner Relationship Management NeOSS-SLA NeOSSNeOSS-SLA Service Quality Analysis. Resource Quality Analysis. Service Quality Analysis. Analysis & Control NeOSS-NM NeOSS-ADM NeOSSNeOSS-ADM S/P S/P Buying Buying S/P Purchase S/P Purchase Order Order Management Management S/P Problem S/P Problem Reporting & Reporting & Management Management Supplier/Partner Relationship Management S/PRM Operations Support & Process S/PRM Operations Support & Process Management Management S/P Relationship Management S/P Relationship Management Operations Readiness Operations Readiness S/P Performance S/P Performance Management Management S/PRM S/PRM Settlements & Billing Settlements & Billing Management Management Supplier/Partner Interface Management Supplier/Partner Interface Management 8 . Analysis & Control NeOSS-WM NeOSSNeOSS-WM S/PRM Operations Support & Process S/PRM Operations Support & Process Management Management Purchase S/P Buying Order Resource ProblemS/PManagement Order Buying Resource ProblemManagement Management Management S/P S/P Purchase S/P Problem S/P Problem Reporting & Reporting & Management Management S/P Performance S/P Performance Management Management S/PRM Settlements S/PRM Settlements & Billing & Billing Management Management Resource Provisioning S/P Relationship Management Relationship Management & Allocation S/POperations Readiness Operations Readiness to Service Instance NeOSS-FM NeOSSNeOSS-FM Resource Quality Analysis.Data Collection. Resource Quality Analysis. Service Quality Analysis.

and intra-business requirements Support a Repository of runtime information Support the mechanism to register the contracts and to communicate the contract when requested by a client. Separation of business process from software implementation Use of a single information representation for business information concepts communicated between two or more components 9 TMF052 TMF050. contracted open interfaces between multiple components to support inter.NGOSS Principles in Compliance NGOSS Framework Requirements TMForum NGOSS Compliance Testing Strategies Matrix for core NGOSS Principles (TMF050) Common Communication Vehicle Contract Defined Interfaces support a communications Infrastructure Service to communicate between components Support the need for secure. TMF051 Contract Registration and Trading Externalized Process Control Shared Information/Data Model (SID) .

.NET applications Use Web Services Put Interworking Function Gateway for protocol adapters NeOSS SO EAI Web Service NeOSS-xNMS (Web Service) Non . Common Communication Vehicle (1) The Benefits of Common Communication Vehicle Ease of integration Ease of access to information NeOSS uses EAI as a message bus Use Microsoft BizTalk Server as a communication bus for the communication in and out of NeOSS To collaborate with foreign .NET Framework 10 .NET Framework WM FM IWF Gateway XML-RPC Microsoft .Realization of NGOSS Principles in NeOSS : I..NET Framework DB ADM EAI SA EAI Protocol ASYNC Adapter Socket Legacy Systems (Proprietary interface only) Non .

Realization of NGOSS Principles in NeOSS : I. Common Communication Vehicle (2) The Granularity of functions visible at the bus level Fine grain approach Large amount of business logics required. processes become slow and inefficient Significantly more bus traffic occurred and negative impacts on scalability Coarse grain approach Simplified processes resulting in lower traffic volumes and better scalability Limited business agility Adopted design principles The communication between elementary business-process-aware (BPA) functional units is exposed to the bus level Defined Functional Part Contracts as business processes-aware functionality Common Communication Vehicle (EAI) Common Communication Vehicle (EAI) Business Process Business Process BPA functionality BPA functionality … Atomic API BPA functionality Common APIs Common APIs Atomic API Atomic API … 11 Atomic API .

Realization of NGOSS Principles in NeOSS : II. TSA OA&M Staff Specifies mechanism for monitoring & administering the functionality and Contracts Template of Contract Definition General Contract Part: Header. Contract Defined Interfaces (1) Business System Implementation Deployment Business Personnel Specifies High-level goals & obligations that resource /service must supply eTOM Technical Staff Specifies Architectural requirements necessary to modeling of system processes & Information eTOM & SID. programming and implementation factors of components / functionality TNA. Descriptive Part Functional Part: defines the capabilities provided by the Contract Non-Functional Part: defines aspects which govern & restrict the bounds of operation Management Part: Defines the management capabilities needed to OA&M the Contract View Specific Model Part: Defines various types of models 12 . TNA Programmer Specifies the configuration.

Examples: Model Parts for System Views Process Flow Diagrams Activity Diagrams Use Case Diagrams State Chart Diagrams Sequence Diagrams 13 .

Logical ERD(DB) Spec. and Diagram 14 . Component Interaction Diagram Physical UI Spec. Physical ERD(DB) Spec. User Manual OAM Guideline NeOSS Artifact Guideline of Development User Requirement Use Case Spec. and Diagram Sequence Diagram State Chart Diagram Logical UI Spec. Component Spec.Development Methodology in KT NeOSS NeOSS Phase NGOSS View Business Modeling Business View BM100 1 Logical Modeling System View Physical Modeling Implementation View Implementation / Deployment Deployment View Analyze Business Use Case BM200 2 PM100 7 Analyze Business Flow BM300 3 Design Component Model LM100 Design Class Model LM200 Design Logical UI LM300 Design Local Database 6 6 6 NeOSS Process Analyze User Requirement BM400 4 PM200 Design Application Architecture PM300 Design Physical UI PM400 8 Implementation of Component 7 Analyze System Use Case BM500 5 Implementation of UI 7 Realize System Use Case Design Physical Database Implementation of Database Integration of Components Application Architecture Classes Spec.

xDSL. Query WO. Retention & Loyalty. Leased-Line) * Resource Types (SDH. delete …) 15 . Service Problem Management… Validate Service Order.Realization of NGOSS Principles in NeOSS : II. Delete WO. xDSL. Cancel WO. Health & Perf. Reserve IP. Contract Defined Interfaces (2) Criteria for Contracts applied to NeOSS in 4 Views 4 View Contracts Business View Criteria • eTOM OPS Level 2 Operable/Deployable Unit in term of relevant Divisions in Operational Organizations • Business-process-aware Interface invoked within business process eTOM OPS Level 3 * Service Types(PSTN. Diagnose Resource Configuration for DSLAM/Switch/… System View . Packages in Java) eTOM OPS Level 3 * Services Types * Resource Types • Functionalities for OA&M Contract Examples for SA Order handling. Create Work Order(WO). IP…) • Component Unit (DLLs in . Assign IP.Functional Part Implementation View Deployment View eTOM OPS Level 2 Business Flow Monitoring. Add WO. update. Update WO. Contract Administering (registration. Service configuration and Activation. Problem Handling. Monitoring for Contract.NET. Return IP… Diagnose Service Configuration for PSTN/xDSL/….

discovery of services through appropriate location transparency service Contract Definition. Discovery and Integration WSDL for defining Contract Specification & interfaces Use XML Based messages WSDL: Web Service Description Language 16 . Registration and Discovery is achieved with UDDI and WSDL UDDI for contract registration and discovery UDDI: Universal Description. Contract Registration and Trading The benefits of Contract Registration and Trading Ease of Upgrade and Maintenance of a Contract Ease of Integration In NeOSS Ability to add/remove services while system still in operation.Realization of NGOSS Principles in NeOSS : III.

17 . in the following areas Choice of the appropriate design solution according to service and resource types in fulfillment. especially.Realization of NGOSS Principles in NeOSS : IV. Determination of customer order feasibility according to the order types Choice of testing rules according to the service types and network facility types in the service assurance. Externalized Process Control (1) Ease of adaptation to business evolution Ease of procurement The Benefits of Externalized Process Control NeOSS Separates Business Process flow from application component operation for greater flexibility. more re-use of components across business scenarios Uses BizTalk Server 2004 as Workflow Engine for designing and operating business process based on business rules various application logics could be designed.

Request Send_Denied Over Credit Limit Denied Else Business Process(Workflow) Business Process(Workflow) Business Process(Workflow) Application Logic (BSL. Externalized Process Control (2) Order Analysis & Create Work Order >> Port Surface >> Port Surface Port Operation Request Receive Business process orchestration via workflow engine Dispatch-in & Dispatch-out Message Port Surface << Receive PO >> Port Surface ReceivePOPort Operation_1 -> Request Order Completion >> Port Surface SendApprvPor t Operation_1 -> Request Receive_PO ConstructRule Msg Assign {} Construct Message Contract Check Quantity Else Denied Transform Denied Msg Port Operation Request ! Transform Send_Approve SendApprvPor t Operation_1 -> Request Scope Call Rules Send SendDeniedPort Operation_1 <.Realization of NGOSS Principles in NeOSS : IV. DSL) Common Repository Separate BP from Application Logic Systems Prior to NeOSS Realize BP centric Order management Seamless Order harmonization Among domains Visualize BP and Gain flexibility ICIS ADSL-SDMS IDMS TIMS IPMS Legacy systems 18 .

common repository Master. Code.Realization of NGOSS Principles in NeOSS : V. Shared Information/Data Model The Benefits of Shared Information Model Commonality of terminology Ease of Integration Ease of procurement NeOSS provides Integrated Management of Information for physical/logical resources. data stewardship. Collaboration Database Consolidation Service Status of NeOSS in the SID Not yet used SID relationship/attributes and design patterns. Rolling. customer and service information Integrated Database for enhanced data accuracy with common schema. Backup. Will be applied to NeOSS TO-BE Model 19 Service order Service Configuration Customer Customer order NeOSS-FM Products Various code Resource .

WSDL) technology for registering and trading of Contract registering and trading of Contract Supports Run-time monitor/control Supports Run-time monitor/control functions for each interface and version functions for each interface and version of component of component Externalized Process Control Separate process flow from application Separate process flow from application component operation component operation Use BizTalk Server as Work Flow Engine for Use BizTalk Server as Work Flow Engine for designing business process based on policy designing business process based on policy Not yet use SID Model fully. Not yet use SID Model fully. Support Data Integrity and consistency Support Data Integrity and consistency by logically centralized Database by logically centralized Database Design Common Information Model Design Common Information Model 20 Shared Information / Data Model . WSDL) technology for Uses Web Service (UDDI.Status of NeOSS in terms of NGOSS Compliance TM Forum NGOSS Principle KT NeOSS Architecture Features Use Microsoft BizTalk Server (EAI) as message bus Use Microsoft BizTalk Server (EAI) as message bus Common Communication Vehicle Contract Defined Interfaces & Registration / Trading Service Oriented Architecture Service Oriented Architecture Uses Web Service (UDDI.

organizational patterns and projects organizational patterns and projects Re-orchestrate transactions and data flows to support Re-orchestrate transactions and data flows to support the transition the transition 21 . Transition gradually. driven by business objectives.Proof of NGOSS Architecture & Principles NGOSS architecture & principles are field-proved in NeOSS field-proved as a real telco OSS a real telco OSS Development period/cost reduction for new services Development period/cost reduction for new services Operational cost reduction Operational cost reduction Database Consolidation Database Consolidation Operational environment consolidation Operational environment consolidation The key aspects of NeOSS The key aspects of NeOSS Focus on a dramatic reduction in the number of applications Focus on a dramatic reduction in the number of applications Continue to use existing systems and system interfaces Continue to use existing systems and system interfaces while introducing standard systems while introducing standard systems Transition gradually. driven by business objectives.Conclusion .

KT 463-1 Jeonmin-Dong Yuseong-Gu. please contact Kyle Park Researcher Service Provisioning Department Network Technology Lab.kr 22 . Daejeon 305-811 Korea Tel: +82 42 870 8628 E-mail: pck@kt.For further information.co.

All rights reserved. .! " Indian Merchants’ Chambers “# $ "" ” % & !' ( ' 1 2 © 2005 Frost & Sullivan.

) Overview of Convergence Case Study of a Next-Generation Service Provider Regulatory Best Practices Concluding Remarks Questions and Answers 2 .

Broadcasters. PSDN. Multimedia) Regulated Markets (Telcos. IP. Wi-Fi. PCs) Services (Voice. data and video delivery and applications 3 . Fixed. Data.) Convergence of Networks and Technologies *+ (Mobile. VPN) Terminals/Devices (Handphones. Media Cos) Blurring of boundaries between voice.

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0% 40.00% 60.00% 50.0% 10.00% 70.00% 30.0% 15.00% 5.00% Ko re a d si a s or e ng si a na Au 0.0% 30.0% 35.00% * & .) 50.0% 45. & 90.00% 80.00% 10.00% 40.0% 25.0% 20.00% 20.0% Ko pa an ne di an hi ne ay In Ja ap al pi iw ai Th C la nd st a n ilip Ze do on In ut M Ph So N ew H Si ng h Narrowband Penetration % Broadband Penetration % Broadband % of Total Ta g al Source: Frost & Sullivan 5 .0% 0.

) IP Centrex 1% * IP Video Conferencing 1% Others 0% " ILD 22% Local VoIP 13% Local VoIP DLD ILD IP Centrex IP Video Conferencing Others DLD 63% Source : Frost & Sullivan Data includes Australia. China. Japan. South Korea and Taiwan revenues in 2003 • Domestic long distance VoIP calls dominate in revenue terms • IP Centrex. Singapore. IP video conferencing and other IP enhanced services revenue only nominal in 2003 6 .

) * $ " Significant impact on service providers and customers Service Providers New business model New opportunity Reduce OPEX Train & retain employees Next Generation Network and Services Customers Increased Options Possible paradigm shift in service adoption Sophisticated Customer Service Management 7 .

8 .Services can be in-house. Effective Effective Value Proposition * . - ) ! Revenues Outflow * ' & & ' ' . outsourced and hosted Critical Mass of Demand Mass Content Content Application Mass and Demand Demand Mass High High Investment .

fastweb.– / & " FastWeb is a leading Broadband SP in Italy (www.it) ARPU per year € 780… Data Voice Video 9 .

/ &* bundles Voice Internet Video ) Fastweb’s Marketing strategy based upon Triple Play service No single killer application: the real killer application is the Service Mix Combination of Flat Rate and Pay Per Use tariff plans to match specific customer needs 10 .

/ &0 $ 1 &0 2 FastWeb TV Unified interface for content in all formats: Terrestrial broadcast: RAI...000 titles (up over 30% from the end of the second quarter) 11 . .. Mediaset. Satellite broadcast : CNN. Bloomberg.. . Pay-TV/Pay-perPay-TV/Pay-per-View: Stream & TELE+ Video-on-Demand Video-onIntegrated with VideoREC and Electronic Program Guide Video on Demand offer First VoD licensing agreements with US major film studios: 20th Century Fox Universal Studios DreamWorks Over 3.

/ &0 $ 2 FastWeb’s Video Communication allows business and residential customers to video conference: Between different locations With other external parties using FastWeb’s services With traditional ISDN video conferencing systems and through the Internet with PC-based web-cameras 1 Non-FastWeb clients (ISDN) FastWeb clients Party 1 FastWeb residential customers TV + TV Cam PC + Webcam Party 2 Internet 12 .

Virtual VCR service: allows clients to record favorite free-toair TV programs (RAI...) with no need for a VCR or tape Easy and convenient programming: just click on the desired show.2 / &0 . Mediaset. directly on your TV or on any PC with an Internet connection 1 13 . .

/ / &0 3 1 4/ 3 6 5 7 FastWeb’s network Fast Internet at up to 10 Mb/s from any point of the house No need for wires or cables Fastest wireless offer on the market Access kit on sale at only 250 EUR Access base 14 .

/ &0 $ 2 . on FastWeb network Service quality and security guaranteed through MPLS technology and IPSec protocol IP VPNs Branch 2 FastWeb’s server farm Business-to-Employee (B2E) services Branch 1 Big Internet Branch 3 Other networks 15 . 1 !. Installed IP VPNs grew 85 (from 255 to 340) in 3Q 2002. confirming FastWeb’s unique accelerated pace in this market segment 10 Mb/s (scalable) bi-directional connection among different branches and from employees’ premises to the corporate LAN.

*+ 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Cost Global Connectivity Efficiency Convergence Bundled Service/VAS Marketing Push 85% 53% 45% Both residential and enterprise users find IP an attractive value proposition 18% 8% 5% 120% 100% 100% 95% 75% 60% 60% 35% 23% 20% 38% 53% 33% 80% 73% 40% 0% Source: Frost & Sullivan ERP CRM SCM Email Data Transfer VoIP Video E-Commerce Real Time Collaboration 16 .

*$ Traditional Structure Emerging Structure Technology Push Market Pull Regulatory Arbitration 17 .

applications & services • Encouraging SMEs to e-biz • Creating a secondary market for radio spectrum regime (Multimedia & Telecommunication s Regulatory Commission) • Promotion of multimedia supercorridor and flagship projects • Possible competition between incumbent. KII. competitive 3G carriers and CATV operator • Unified regulatory • Build-up of national facilities encouraged • Technology neutral 18 . public/education sectors) • Sharing infrastructure and facilities • USO metric: homes passed rather than uptake • Stimulating supply of content. Cyber Korea 21) • Policies for competition in voice. data & mobile • Hands off internet services regulation • Competition of facilities-based SPs • Promotion of broadband network building (loans. Internet usage.* • No national broadband (triple play) policy • Light touch • Broadband vision (E Korea 2005.

beauty contest or free for all? Service area – Universal Service or roll-out Obligations Setting an appropriate Universal Service incentive Creating a level playing field for incumbent or competitive.*$ Licensing of all existing and new services as they emerge. under the ambit of convergence Licensing fee – Auction. standalone or full service operators Interconnectivity and tariff agreements Numbering and addressing issues. example infrastructure and OSS 19 . directory and look-up services Regulation of shared facilities.

* • • • • 8 Stabilize voice revenues Velocity and shelf-life of Next-Gen services Open platforms and business models One-touch for the customer • Increase data revenues • Grow an Internet based economy • New Generation networks • Applications • Critical mass of subscriber services • Allow SPs the opportunity to “lock-in” customers • Recognize that access and services are evolving separately 20 .

Consumer advocacy Enable Growth of innovation drivers Availability of workforce with specific skill sets at competitive costs 21 • Knowledgeable and sophisticated user communities • Drivers for sustainable growth • Support for open competition .* 9" 2 Technology • Facilitate environment for high adoption of new technologies. • Competitive Cost for these services. • Skilled IT workforce Consumer Markets • • • • Regulatory Policy Strengthen regulatory framework. • Availability of latest services with service quality.

* Benefits predominantly for end user Service providers Core competency based Advantage Competition: Leap-frogging with Cost and Scale Content/Application Developers/Providers also benefit Create green-field applications and opportunities Customers will not pay. unless … They can’t do without it (the utility of convergence) 22 .

: © 2005 Frost & Sullivan. . All rights reserved.

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OUTLINE .

Overview of Sharma & Azura • • • • • • The Digital Divide A 3-Pillar Model APAC Telecom Trends Seeing Value in Applications Information Literacy Creating an Information Society .

businesses and geographic areas at different socio-economic levels with regard to their opportunities to access information and communication technologies (ICTs) and their use of the Internet. Where does it occur and why? What are its causes? How can it be measured? What are the relevant parameters? How wide is it? Where is it most critical? What are its effects likely to be in the short term? In the longer term? What needs to be done to alleviate it? These questions have only recently been raised. households. and raises a number of questions. to answer all of them with any certainty. and it is not possible.The Digital Divide The term "digital divide" refers to the gap between individuals. as yet. It reflects differences among and within countries. ‚vljkSG| • ‹ Œ ™ š › ˆ • ‹  • Ž G›  Œ Gk Ž  › ˆ “ Gk   ‹ Œ SGy Œ — – ™ › „ .

and raised our standard of living throughout the world. we must set ourselves a new goal. Everyone must be given access to the tools of this economy if they are to enjoy its benefits. this goal will not be as difficult to achieve as the first one. 1999. but is vital for the whole world. Once we have established telephone connections. Giving everyone access to the wealth of information available online. Dr Yoshio Utsumi. has generated enormous wealth. ITU SecGen. including the Internet. That goal is: by the early part of the next century virtually the whole of mankind should be brought within easy reach of modern means of telecommunications. is not only a matter of justice. . The move from an agricultural economy to an industrial economy. The same quantum leap will be experienced in the transition to a global information economy.Why Bridge the Digital Divide? Now that we are accomplishing the goal we set 15 years ago.

… is it being bridged? .

3 14.1 5.5 6.) Hongkong.6 6.3 94% 42% 50% ~ 28% 21% ~ 19% 51% 23% 22% ~ 10% ~ 18% ~ 5% ~ 27% 26% 5% ~ Broadband households % of those % of all with Internet 83% 43% 68% 41% 59% 12% 24% 41% 20% 28% 29% 19% 9% 18% 35% 15% 36% 20% 31% 9% 16% 17% 13% 14% 19% 10% 4% 5% 20% 8% ~ ~ ~ ~ Source: ITU World Telecommunication Indicators Database .6 8.7 6.5 6.5 9.3 6. 2 China 3 Canada 4 Taiwan.4 8.5 5. China 5 Iceland 6 Denmark 7 Belgium 8 Sweden 9 Austria 10 Netherlands 11 United States 12 Switzerland 13 Japan 14 Singapore 15 Finland Per 100 % of all Total Change 000s 2001-02 inhabitants subscribers 10'128 989 3'600 2'100 25 462 869 693 540 1'060 18'700 455 7'806 230 274 24% 38% 27% 86% 138% 107% 90% 48% 123% 127% 46% 308% 176% 73% 426% 21.Top 15 Markets for Broadband Penetration Broadband subscribers Economy 1 Korea (Rep.6 11.6 8.4 7.

A 3-Pillar Model .

APAC Telecom Trends .

… and the growth of the mobile Internet is the catalyst to “anytime. anyplace” access to information and communication… .

. 7. 4. post offices and archives with ICTs. to adapt all primary and secondary school curricula to meet the challenges of the Information Society. 8.Seeing Value in Applications WSIS 2003 Plan of Action. 5. to be achieved by 2015. to connect villages with ICTs and establish community access points. 10. to connect universities. colleges. to ensure that more than half the world’s inhabitants have access to ICTs within their reach. taking into account national circumstances. 9. secondary schools and primary schools with ICTs. to connect all local and central government departments and establish websites and email addresses. to encourage the development of content and to put in place technical conditions in order to facilitate the presence and use of all world languages on the Internet. to ensure that all of the world's population have access to television and radio services. 3. 2. museums. to connect public libraries. to connect scientific and research centres with ICTs. 6. 1. to connect health centres and hospitals with ICTs. cultural centres.

Bruce (1997) AASL (1098) & ACRL (2000) : de-facto guidelines for information literacy competencies . and how to use information in such a way that others can learn from them … in order to engage in useful human endeavours Measures and models : Big6.Information Literacy Landmark 1989 report of the American Library Association describes information literate individuals as those who have learned how to learn and that they know how information is organised. how to find information. Kuhlthau (1993).

79 (61) 45.10 (3) 37.77 (91) 50.Analysis of ICT levels in Asia Country Infrastructure Usage Market Hosts per 10K 1.12 (3) 58.77 China India Indonesia Japan Korea HK SAR Lao PDR Asia OECD 14.48 174.28 0.20 4691.26 (45) 55.39 (70) 58.65 50.19 38.72 1.68 (14) 96.25 3993.26 (180) 36.88 1016.45 41.70 61.35 4.30 (15) 39.42 (8) 0.76 (127) 33.38 (40) 24.11 71.47 52.75 Users per 10K 632.38 PCs per 100 2.66 33.16 4488.34 1485.49 1.41 13.92 37.00 (44) 89.93 (148) 33.10 .86 377.11 (66) 76.46 674.22 55.14 42.72 (160) 12.20 0.58 (4) 28.30 864.95 (63) 0.76 0.82 2.50 (129) 61.10 36.56 (82) 78.56 6034.42 (7) 65.

secure. multimedia content and transactions (Mobility of the user. education. gender. urbanization and the oft-cited lament that 80% of Internet content is in English which less than 10% of the world’s people understand Required investments … e-Korea as a benchmark . Pervasive platform and services) There is a strong link between education. internet use and the utilization of knowledge Information literacy as a means of bridging the digital divide and achieving the information society Income levels.Creating an Information Society Access to distributed. age. Ubiquity of devices and applications.

data & mobile • Hands off internet services regulation • Competition of facilities-based SPs • Promotion of broadband network building (loans. Internet usage. competitive 3G carriers and CATV operator • Build-up of national facilities encouraged • Technology neutral .… regulatory best practices – a tale of 4 countries • No national broadband (triple play) policy • Light touch • Broadband vision (E Korea 2005. applications & services • Encouraging SMEs to e-biz • Creating a secondary market for radio spectrum regime (Multimedia & Telecom Regulatory Commission) • Promotion of multimedia supercorridor and flagship projects • Possible competition between incumbent. KII. Cyber Korea 21) • Policies for competition in voice. public/education sectors) • Sharing infrastructure and facilities • Unified regulatory • USO metric: homes passed rather than uptake • Stimulating supply of content.

Information literacy. F. Launched in 1997 and based in Kuala Lumpur. “Bridging the Digital Divide in Asia : challenges and solutions.”. I.apdip.itu. and discusses APEC's recent initiative to establish an APII .1997. White paper presented for UNESCO. Reference Services Review. Knowledge & Society 1 (3) 2006.Pacific Developement Information Programme (APDIP) seeks to promote and establish information technology (IT) for social and economic development throughout Asia-Pacific.html Asia Pacific Networking Group (APNG) is an Internet organization dedicated to the advancement of networking infrastructure in this region.vacets. (2002). Prague. the Programme serves 42 countries in a vast region.References Ravi S Sharma & Intan Azura Mokhtar.gov/libinter/infolitconf&meet/papers/ma- . and the National Forum on Information Literacy.org National Information Infrastructure In South-East Asia .net Rockman. Ma. F. Available online at http://www. the US National Commission on Libraries and Information Science. and to the research and development of all associated enabling technologies. International Journal of Technology.int/wsis/index.int/ITU-D/ict/statistics/ World Summit on the Information Societies Geneva 2003 – Tunis 2005 : http://www. north to Mongolia and south to the Pacific Islands of Fiji : http://www. from Iran in the west. ITU World Telecommunication Indicators Database : http://www. (2003). 31(3). Information literacy.an Asia Pacific Information Infrastructure : http://www. education reform and the economy – China as a case study. C. Czech Republic. 209-210.itu. a worldwide priority for the twenty-first century. for use at the Information Literacy Meeting of Experts. and Hu.htm Asia .org/vtic97/txbui.nclis. This report examines the information infrastructure programs in twelve Asia Pacific nations. Its mission is to promote the Internet and the coordination of network inter-connectivity in the Asia Pacific Region : http://www.apng.

How people will benefit from e-commerce and how policy issues can affect the growth of e-commerce and the costs as well as the benefits that are associated with electronic commerce is the subject of this topic. and communicate with one another. .E-Commerce (re)Defined Electronic commerce is a phenomenon that is dramatically changing the way in which people live. learn.

multimedia content and secure transactions Mobility of users. secure ordering and payment clearance. Connectivity is the ability to securely transmit information between electronic devices at different locations.E-Commerce Re-visited Access to distributed. . secure. to e-mail / ICQ enquiries. ubiquity of devices and applications Pervasive platform and services There is a strong link between telecoms infrastructure. to supply chain management and after sales support. ranges from browsing web catalogs. internet use. electronic financial instruments and e-commerce E-commerce = transacting over public info-comms networks.

e-business grew from an IBM advertising campaign to a catchy metophor that expressed a way of doing business. . DBS and CabLink.com is now profitable. selling 2. Dell.E-COMMERCE SNAPSHOTS In 1997. Cisco are other success stories. Toyota. as are SQ. And some not-so-successful ones … Levi’s e-tailing (1998) and Hershey’s Halloween rollout (1999) … eToys (2000) Clorox estimates that the cost of ordering from its suppliers has dropped from $100 to $15 through supply chain management. Amazon. eBay.5 million (10 x its nearest bricks-and-motar competitor!) products to its 100 million (?) customers at the fraction of industry norms for time/cost.

Commerce One.E-COMMERCE BUSINESS MODELS MODEL E-retailer Clicks & Bricks FUNCTION Use the Internet to sell directly to customers Use both the Internet and physical stores to sell to customers Provide services such as payment clearance and brokerage Run auctions to secure highest bidder Provide information and commercial transactions for specific industry verticals Serve as a portal for many types of information and users Provide online content Provide outsourced EXAMPLES Amazon. expedia. AmEx eBay. china.com. EDS .com Barnes & Noble Mustafa’s Visa. LawNet Financial Services E-auction E-marketplace Content Aggregator Yahoo. MasterCard. Freemarkets Ariba. Lycos Content Provider Managed Hosting Rediff. TradeNet.com. HP.com IBM.

… resulting in a basket of multimedia telematics applications over a converged platform. .

Instant Messaging: "real-time" text-based messaging via the Internet. PC or other device. Rich Voice: Two-way real-time enhanced voice. .. Presence – enabling a caller to see if a contact is available or "on-line" to receive calls or messages – will promote even greater usage of voice telephony. video and other forms of data. video clips. corporate network resources etc. . "Mobile broadcasting“ of media (such as news) to many terminals simultaneously is similar to cell broadcasting for SMS. IVR solutions. Internet/Extranet Access: Mobile access to e-mail. fuel station or shop of their choice. locator services. Multimedia Messaging: Any combination of photos. music. ICQ. rich web content. "Push-to-Talk“ over Cellular. video clips. graphics or text can be sent to another mobile handset. MSN. Location Based Services: LBS could allow subscribers to locate the nearest restaurant.Emerging Applications and Services Multimedia content: including graphics. games and directories formatted especially for mobile handsets. audio clips. Eg.

BACKED BY A SOLID BUSINESS MODEL? .

Challenges to Pervasive E-Commerce Availability of affordable end-systems Open architectures and access Revenue sharing business models Move away from point-to-point communications to user communities (eg. e-government. schools-on-the-net. …) . telemedicine and EPR.

The Media-Market Lag .

Lessons from the ITU on why this is so … It takes longer than you think The media and the market follow different cycles Convergence cannibalizes existing cash cows First movers often get burnt fingers Standards and technologies are key in promoting convergence and interoperability .

Value-added taxation and revenue settlement mechanisms encourage the move up the value chain. The emergence of open delivery platforms allow a host of content and transaction service providers to access a critical mass of subscribers / customers. cost per minute. connection charges) when volumes increase.g.. Telecoms charges fall (e. .Best Practices for Development The telecoms market is liberalized (reflected by an increased share private providers). With USO. especially in rural areas. coverage expands (number of main lines in operation).

LAST WORD Moving towards the information society is in the interest of government. content and business models are the key infrastructure challenges The Singapore Story – training (ISS). CSCP. security. MNCs … e-citizen . neither is e-commerce The digital divide must be bridged in order to create a mass market. industry and the public Information and communication (in general) are not niche applications. R&D (ITI). high volume business (the Grameen Bank is an outstanding case in point for micro-payment services) Connectivity.

affordable and convenient? What could have been done better? Would you pay a premium for such a service? Or more likely to use it? Why do you think the state of ICT in Asia (and more so. India) is what it is? Why is the digital divide even a problem since neither the poor nor the rural communities clamour for more ICT? What has been your experience with e-government services? Is e-government an effective tool for citizen to reach out to their elected leaders and universal public services? What do you think is the connection between National ICT Policy and economic growth? . 7. 3. Does convergence support e-Business or is it the other way around? Recall your last experience with e-commerce. 4. 2. 6. Was it safe.Learning & Discussion 1. 5.

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