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"Time was when a man could order a pair of shoes directly from the cobbler. By measuring the foot himself and personally handling all aspects of manufacturing, the cobbler could assure the customer would be satisfied," lamented Dr. Yoji Akao, one of the founders of QFD, in his private lectures. Quality Function Deployment (QFD) was developed to bring this personal interface to modern manufacturing and business. In today's industrial society, where the growing distance between producers and users is a concern, QFD links the needs of the customer (end user) with design, development, engineering, manufacturing, and service functions. QFD is: 1. 2. 3. 5. Understanding Customer Requirements Quality Systems Thinking + Psychology + Knowledge/Epistemology Maximizing Positive Quality That Adds Value Strategy to Stay Ahead of The Game
4. Comprehensive Quality System for Customer Satisfaction
As a quality system that implements elements of Systems Thinking with elements of Psychology and Epistemology (knowledge), QFD provides a system of comprehensive development process for: • Understanding 'true' customer needs from the customer's perspective • What 'value' means to the customer, from the customer's perspective • Understanding how customers or end users become interested, choose, and are satisfied • Analyzing how do we know the needs of the customer • Deciding what features to include • Determining what level of performance to deliver • Intelligently linking the needs of the customer with design, development, engineering, manufacturing, and service functions • Intelligently linking Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) with the front end Voice of Customer analysis and the entire design system QFD is a comprehensive quality system that systematically links the needs of the customer with various business functions and organizational processes,
Step-by-step guide to performing quality function deployment (QFD) PERFORMING QFD STEP BY STEP Kenneth Crow DRM Associates © 2002 DRM Associates All rights reserved. IT projects. healthcare. and many other applications. Other use prohibited. service industry. manufacturing. government. software products. The QFD methodology can be used for both tangible products and nontangible services. sales.such as marketing. . empowering organizations to exceed normal expectations and provide a level of unanticipated excitement that generates value. It does so by seeking both spoken and unspoken needs. aligning the entire company toward achieving a common goal. identifying positive quality and business opportunities. production. and translating these into actions and designs by using transparent analytic and prioritization methods. environmental initiatives. including manufactured goods. business process development. quality.. May be used with attribution. design. etc.
Product Development Forum NPD Body of Knowledge Quality Function Deployment (QFD) Paper QFD: What. Derive top-level product requirements or technical characteristics from customer needs (Product Planning Matrix). which includes QFD software. user groups. Extract statements of needs from documents. flow-down lower-level product requirements (assembly or part characteristics) to process planning. suggestions. paired comparisons. focus groups. 3. customer specification documents. The matrices and the specific steps in the QFD process are as follows. process controls and quality controls to assure achievement of these critical assembly or part characteristics. Document these needs. survey forms. Evaluate product concepts to select most optimum (Concept Selection Matrix). Consider both current customers as well as potential customers. determine set-up requirements. contracts. Summarize surveys and other data. Plan collection of customer needs. Organize needs into categories. and feedback from the field. focus groups/clinics. rating. surveys. product clinics. What sources of information will be used? Consider customer requirement documents. 8. 7. surveys. Develop product concepts to satisfy these requirements. During customer meetings or focus groups. QFD Case Study QFD Software and Examples Product Definition QFD Experience Quality Function Deployment (QFD) Workshop Voice of the Customer (VOC) Workshop Gather Customer Needs 1. 2. For critical assemblies or parts. surveys. or conjoint analysis to determine importance of customer needs. Prepare for collection of customer needs. requests for proposals. Based in these process steps. customer specification documents. contracts. Use affinity diagrams to organize customer needs. 5. Partition system concept or architecture into subsystems or assemblies and flow-down higher. Prepare agendas. etc. Derive lower-level product requirements (assembly or part characteristics) and specifications from subsystem/assembly requirements (Assembly/Part Deployment Matrix). customer meetings/interviews. 4. The QFD methodology is based on a systems engineering approach consisting of the following general steps: 1. focus groups. Determine manufacturing process steps to meet these assembly or part characteristics. Use techniques such as ranking. suggestions. list of questions. requests for quotations. requests for proposals.level requirements or technical characteristics to these subsystems or assemblies. Breakdown general customer QFD Consulting QFD Software (PD Toolkit) DRM Associates . requests for quotations. 6. customer meetings/interviews. 3. focus group/user meeting presentations. observation. ask "why" to understand needs and determine root needs. Pay particular attention to lead customers as they are a better indicator of future needs. The QFD process described below is supported by our Product Development Toolkit. Consider recording any meetings. Gather customer needs from other sources such as customer requirement documents. Consolidate similar needs and restate. Identify required information. and feedback from the field. Plan who will perform the data collection activities and when these activities can take place. observation. Why and How QFD uses a series of matrices to document information collected and developed and represent the team's plan for a product. 4. 2. Schedule activities such as meetings. Consider spoken needs and unspoken needs. Determine customer needs or requirements using the mechanisms described in step 1.
Include competitor's customer input to get a balanced perspective. a planned improvement of goiung from a rating of "2" to "4" would result in an improvement factor of "1. Identify warranty. Formally describe that strategy in a narrative form. Identify the sales points that Marketing will emphasize in its message about the product.. etc. What is to be emphasized with the new product? What are its competitive strengths? What will distinguish it in the marketplace? How will it be positioned relative to other products? In other words. national or international standards. practical (can be determined without extensive data collection or testing)and global. Critical internal customer needs or management control requirements. 3. but expected needs. 5.g. industry. industry. Categories may be related to functional aspects of the products or may be grouped by the likely subsystems to primarily address that characteristic. measurable. customer meetings or focus groups/clinics to obtain feedback. Once needs are summarized. Organize customer needs in the Product Planning Matrix. State customer priorities. focus groups. (e.needs into more specific needs by probing what is needed. 2.2". consider whether to get further customer feedback on priorities. Major sales points are assigned a weighting factor of 1. Undertake meetings. Review the competitive evaluation strengths and weaknesses relative to the customer priorities. The key is to focus development resources on those areas that will provide the greatest value to the customer. if important enough to include. Group under logical categories as determined with affinity diagramming.3 and minor sales points are assigned a weighting factor of 1. The Improvement Factor is "1" if there are no planned improvements to the competitive evaluation level. If standards or regulatory requirements are commonly understood. Use a 1 to 5 rating. Use surveys. surveys. to get customer priorities. Use ranking techniques and paired comparisons to develop priorities. 8. Add a factor of . Establish product requirements or technical characteristics to respond to customer needs and organize into logical categories. national or international standards. and regulatory requirements. 6. 5. are normally given a rating of "3". describe the value proposition behind this product. Establish critical internal customer needs or management control requirements. 7. State customer priorities using a 1 to 5 rating. service. and regulatory requirements. There should be no more than three major or primary sales points or two major sales points and two minor or secondary sales points in order to keep the Marketing message focused. This strategy brief is typically one page and is used to gain initial focus within the team as well as communicate and gain concurrence from management. or reliability problems & customer complaints to help identify areas of improvement. Maintain dictionary of original meanings to avoid misinterpretation. By being . The process of setting improvement goals and sales points implicitly develops a product strategy. Determine the improvement goals and the general strategy for responding to each customer need.1 for every planned step of improvement in the competitive rating. Characteristics should be meaningful (actionable by Engineering). 4. they should not be included in order to minimize the information that needs to be addressed.1. Rate the company's and the competitor's products on a 1 to 5 scale with "5" indicating that the product fully satisfies the customer's needs. Use function analysis to identify key unspoken. Develop competitive evaluation of current company products and competitive products. Product Planning 1.
Multiply the customer priority rating by the improvement factor. five being very difficult and risky) for each product requirement or technical characteristic. the technical difficulty ratings. trade shows. Develop preliminary target values for product requirements or technical characteristics. Determine required actions and areas of focus. catalogs and brochures. Develop concept alternatives for the product. and schedule. 17. purchasing and benchmarking competitor’s products. articles and technical papers. Calculate importance ratings. supply chain capability. Identify the direction of the objective for each characteristic (target value or range. 15. Identify a difficulty rating (1 to 5 point scale. manufacturing capability. global. Concept Development 1. published specifications. and former employees. positive or negative relationships. Consider the product strategy objectives. It does NOT show a potential negative impact on meeting a customer need . Finalize target values. technical risk. Analyze the matrix and finalize the product plan. Do not get too aggressive with target values in areas that are not determined to be the primary area of focus with this development effort. medium and weak. third-party service & support organizations. 14. characteristics should be stated in a way to avoid implying a particular technical solution so as not to constrain designers. 16. customer interviews. but other alternative concept approaches and . industry publications. Consider the goal associated with the characteristic in determining whether the characteristic satisfies the customer need. Sources of information include: competitor websites. 12. Develop a composite rating or breakdown into individual assessments by category. Consider technology maturity. This will allow a wide range of alternatives to be considered in an effort to better meet customer needs. Be sparing with the strong relationships to discriminate the really strong relationships.consider product concepts or technology to overcome these potential trade-offs or consider the trade-off's in establishing target values. Consider data gathered during the technical evaluation in setting target values. importance of the various technical characteristics. Consider not only the current approach and technology. Maintain the matrix as customer needs or conditions change. Perform a technical evaluation of current products and competitive products. Focus on negative interactions . patent information. 10. Use weights (we recommend using 5-3-1 weighting factors) to indicate the strength of the relationship . personnel technical qualifications. Perform this evaluation based on the defined product requirements or technical characteristics. Develop relationships between customer needs and product requirements or technical characteristics. the sales point factor and the weighting factor associated with the relationship in each box of the matrix and add the resulting products in each column. resource availability. published benchmarks.9. maximize or minimize).strong. the trade-offs that need to be made based on the interaction matrix. and technology solutions and maturity. Obtain other relevant data such as warranty or service repair occurrences and costs. These relationships define the degree to which as product requirement or technical characteristic satisfies the customer need.this will be addressed later in the interaction matrix. 13. Too many positive interactions suggest potential redundancy in product requirements or technical characteristics. 11. Determine potential positive and negative interactions between product requirements or technical characteristics using symbols for strong or medium.
and patent searches. standards and regulatory requirements. Normalize the importance rating by dividing the largest value by a factor that will yield "5" and post this value to the "Priority" column. List product requirements or technical characteristics from the Product Planning Matrix down the left side of the Concept Selection Matrix. Use brainstorming. development resources. 2. multiply the rating by the "Priority" value in that row. block diagram and/or a preliminary parts list. Also add other requirements or decision criteria such as key unstated but expected customer needs or requirements. effects and criticality analysis (FMECA). and development schedule.2. Determine critical subsystems. business risk. Use product benchmarking to identify different product concepts. The preferred concept alternative(s) will be the one(s) with the highest total. 6. Are there ways to modify the preferred concept to incorporate the advantage of another concept? Subsystem/Subassembly/Part Deployment Matrix 1. Rate each concept alternative against the criteria using a "1" to "5" scale with "5" being the highest rating for satisfying the criteria. Also bring forward the importance ratings and difficulty ratings associated with each product requirement or technical characteristic from the Product Planning Matrix. Summarize these values in each column in the bottom row. List concepts across the top of the matrix. 5. subassemblies or parts on product performance or with respect to development goals. development budget. technical risk. What changes can be made to the design or formulation of the preferred concept(s) to improve these low ratings with the product concept? Compare the preferred concept(s) to the other concepts that have higher ratings for that particular requirement. Carry forward the target values for the product requirements or technical characteristics from the Product Planning Matrix. Carry forward the important or critical product . develop a design layout. Conduct literature. test schedule and resources. support requirements. Focus attention on the criteria with the lowest ratings for that concept ("1's" and "2's"). For each rating. Perform sufficient definition and development of each concept to evalaute against the decision criteria determined in the next step. Develop derivative ideas. failure mode. maintainability / serviceability requirements. 4. Review these priorities and consider any changes appropriate since these are the weighting factors for the decision criteria. testability requirements. Add target values as appropriate for the other evaluation criteria added in the previous step. manufacturability requirements. For the preferred concept alternative(s). What parts. assemblies or subsystems present major challenges or are critical to the success and operation of the product? What critical characteristics have a major effect on performance? Consider performing failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA). technology. Perform engineering analysis and trade studies. subassemblies or parts. work to improve the concept by synthesizing a new concept that overcomes its weaknesses. environmental requirements. supply chain capability. 3. Using the selected concept as a basis. Determine the priorities for the additional evaluation criteria added in the prior step. technology. If there will be multiple Subsystem/Subassembly/Part Deployment Matrices prepared. or fault tree analysis (FTA) to help pinpoint critical items and their critical characteristics from a reliability/quality perspective. deploy the technical characteristics and their target values to the appropriate matrices. Evaluate the concept alternatives using the Concept Selection Matrix. Consider impact of subsystems.
Where appropriate. personnel technical qualifications. Review these priority ratings and make appropriate changes for the subsystems. subassembly or subsystem characteristics. and process technology to overcome the potential trade-off or consider the trade-off in establishing target values. Include any additional customer needs or requirements to address more detailed customer needs or general requirements. the sales point factor (if any) and the relationship factor in each cell of the relationship matrix and add the resulting products in each column. subassemblies or parts being addressed.. Identify a difficulty rating (1 to 5 point scale. mean-time between failures. State the characteristics in a measurable way. For higher-level subsystems or subassembles. 8. These "product needs" become the "what's" for this next level matrix. etc.g. requirements or technical characteristics from Product Planning Matrix (based on importance ratings and team decision) to the Subsystem/Subassembly/Part Deployment Matrix. identify the critical part. state the characteristics in a global manner to avoid constraining concept selection at this next level. Analyze the matrix and finalize the subsystem/subassembly/part deployment matrix. supplier capability. Develop preliminary target values for subsystem / subassembly / part characteristics. Consider interactions. manufacturing capability. Determine required actions and areas of focus. medium and weak relationships.3. Develop a composite rating or breakdown into individual assessments by category. Considering product requirements or technical characteristics. 6. Organize these product requirements or technical characteristics by assembly(ies) or part(s) to be addressed on a particular deployment matrix. five being very difficult and risky) for each subsystem / subassembly / part requirement or technical characteristic. 7. target manufacturing cost. positive or negative relationships. tooling concepts. Multiply the customer importance rating by the improvement factor (if any). Focus on negative interactions . Assign a weighting factor to the relationships (53-1). allocate target values (e. and schedule. 10. Determine potential positive and negative interactions between the technical part characteristics using symbols for strong or medium. 5. Use 5-3-1 relationship weights for strong. Too many positive interactions suggest potential redundancy in critical part characteristics. business risk. material technology. 4. . different technologies. importance ratings and difficulty ratings. Determine if overall risk is acceptable and if individual risks based on target or specification values are acceptable.consider different subsystem / subassembly / part concepts. Calculate importance ratings. Determine the the Priority for any needs that were added. 9. Normalize the Importance Ratings from the Product Planning Matrix and bring them forward as the Priority ratings. Adjust target or specification values accordingly. Develop relationships between product needs (product-level technical characteristics) and the subsystem / subassembly / part technical characteristics. Finalize target values. Consider technology maturity. Be sparing with the strong relationships.) to the Subsystem / Subassembly / Part Deployment Matrices.
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