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"Time was when a man could order a pair of shoes directly from the cobbler. By measuring the foot himself and personally handling all aspects of manufacturing, the cobbler could assure the customer would be satisfied," lamented Dr. Yoji Akao, one of the founders of QFD, in his private lectures. Quality Function Deployment (QFD) was developed to bring this personal interface to modern manufacturing and business. In today's industrial society, where the growing distance between producers and users is a concern, QFD links the needs of the customer (end user) with design, development, engineering, manufacturing, and service functions. QFD is: 1. 2. 3. 5. Understanding Customer Requirements Quality Systems Thinking + Psychology + Knowledge/Epistemology Maximizing Positive Quality That Adds Value Strategy to Stay Ahead of The Game
4. Comprehensive Quality System for Customer Satisfaction
As a quality system that implements elements of Systems Thinking with elements of Psychology and Epistemology (knowledge), QFD provides a system of comprehensive development process for: • Understanding 'true' customer needs from the customer's perspective • What 'value' means to the customer, from the customer's perspective • Understanding how customers or end users become interested, choose, and are satisfied • Analyzing how do we know the needs of the customer • Deciding what features to include • Determining what level of performance to deliver • Intelligently linking the needs of the customer with design, development, engineering, manufacturing, and service functions • Intelligently linking Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) with the front end Voice of Customer analysis and the entire design system QFD is a comprehensive quality system that systematically links the needs of the customer with various business functions and organizational processes,
government. manufacturing. . environmental initiatives. empowering organizations to exceed normal expectations and provide a level of unanticipated excitement that generates value. identifying positive quality and business opportunities. Step-by-step guide to performing quality function deployment (QFD) PERFORMING QFD STEP BY STEP Kenneth Crow DRM Associates © 2002 DRM Associates All rights reserved. service industry.. design. May be used with attribution. business process development. The QFD methodology can be used for both tangible products and nontangible services. healthcare. aligning the entire company toward achieving a common goal. It does so by seeking both spoken and unspoken needs. sales. Other use prohibited. production. and translating these into actions and designs by using transparent analytic and prioritization methods.such as marketing. and many other applications. IT projects. etc. software products. quality. including manufactured goods.
3. customer specification documents. 4. determine set-up requirements. Gather customer needs from other sources such as customer requirement documents. Prepare for collection of customer needs. During customer meetings or focus groups. Plan who will perform the data collection activities and when these activities can take place. Schedule activities such as meetings. focus group/user meeting presentations. Based in these process steps. Document these needs. requests for quotations. contracts. rating. list of questions. focus groups/clinics. Consider spoken needs and unspoken needs. contracts. suggestions. Pay particular attention to lead customers as they are a better indicator of future needs. Plan collection of customer needs. customer specification documents. focus groups. and feedback from the field. Extract statements of needs from documents. Derive top-level product requirements or technical characteristics from customer needs (Product Planning Matrix). survey forms. The matrices and the specific steps in the QFD process are as follows. focus groups. or conjoint analysis to determine importance of customer needs. Determine manufacturing process steps to meet these assembly or part characteristics. For critical assemblies or parts. requests for quotations. 4. requests for proposals. customer meetings/interviews. What sources of information will be used? Consider customer requirement documents. Determine customer needs or requirements using the mechanisms described in step 1. Organize needs into categories. ask "why" to understand needs and determine root needs. Prepare agendas. Summarize surveys and other data. 2. Derive lower-level product requirements (assembly or part characteristics) and specifications from subsystem/assembly requirements (Assembly/Part Deployment Matrix). The QFD process described below is supported by our Product Development Toolkit. surveys. requests for proposals. Use affinity diagrams to organize customer needs. 5. surveys. paired comparisons. Why and How QFD uses a series of matrices to document information collected and developed and represent the team's plan for a product. Partition system concept or architecture into subsystems or assemblies and flow-down higher. 7. observation.Product Development Forum NPD Body of Knowledge Quality Function Deployment (QFD) Paper QFD: What. and feedback from the field. user groups. observation. Consolidate similar needs and restate. 2. customer meetings/interviews. Use techniques such as ranking. The QFD methodology is based on a systems engineering approach consisting of the following general steps: 1. etc. 8. Identify required information. which includes QFD software. suggestions.level requirements or technical characteristics to these subsystems or assemblies. Evaluate product concepts to select most optimum (Concept Selection Matrix). 3. flow-down lower-level product requirements (assembly or part characteristics) to process planning. QFD Case Study QFD Software and Examples Product Definition QFD Experience Quality Function Deployment (QFD) Workshop Voice of the Customer (VOC) Workshop Gather Customer Needs 1. product clinics. Consider recording any meetings. 6. Develop product concepts to satisfy these requirements. process controls and quality controls to assure achievement of these critical assembly or part characteristics. surveys. Breakdown general customer QFD Consulting QFD Software (PD Toolkit) DRM Associates . Consider both current customers as well as potential customers.
The Improvement Factor is "1" if there are no planned improvements to the competitive evaluation level.needs into more specific needs by probing what is needed. State customer priorities using a 1 to 5 rating. Formally describe that strategy in a narrative form. Include competitor's customer input to get a balanced perspective. Establish critical internal customer needs or management control requirements. Develop competitive evaluation of current company products and competitive products. they should not be included in order to minimize the information that needs to be addressed. measurable. 4. Characteristics should be meaningful (actionable by Engineering). Once needs are summarized. Identify warranty. 3. State customer priorities. service. Product Planning 1. and regulatory requirements. Determine the improvement goals and the general strategy for responding to each customer need. Review the competitive evaluation strengths and weaknesses relative to the customer priorities. a planned improvement of goiung from a rating of "2" to "4" would result in an improvement factor of "1. industry. or reliability problems & customer complaints to help identify areas of improvement. consider whether to get further customer feedback on priorities. Use function analysis to identify key unspoken.1.2". Organize customer needs in the Product Planning Matrix. Group under logical categories as determined with affinity diagramming. are normally given a rating of "3". describe the value proposition behind this product. Maintain dictionary of original meanings to avoid misinterpretation. By being . national or international standards. The process of setting improvement goals and sales points implicitly develops a product strategy. if important enough to include. Use a 1 to 5 rating. focus groups. Categories may be related to functional aspects of the products or may be grouped by the likely subsystems to primarily address that characteristic. 8. 5. Use ranking techniques and paired comparisons to develop priorities. to get customer priorities. surveys. The key is to focus development resources on those areas that will provide the greatest value to the customer. Identify the sales points that Marketing will emphasize in its message about the product. practical (can be determined without extensive data collection or testing)and global. Undertake meetings. national or international standards. There should be no more than three major or primary sales points or two major sales points and two minor or secondary sales points in order to keep the Marketing message focused. but expected needs. industry. 7. Establish product requirements or technical characteristics to respond to customer needs and organize into logical categories.3 and minor sales points are assigned a weighting factor of 1. Rate the company's and the competitor's products on a 1 to 5 scale with "5" indicating that the product fully satisfies the customer's needs. 5. 6. etc.g. (e. Use surveys. Add a factor of .1 for every planned step of improvement in the competitive rating. Major sales points are assigned a weighting factor of 1. This strategy brief is typically one page and is used to gain initial focus within the team as well as communicate and gain concurrence from management. and regulatory requirements. If standards or regulatory requirements are commonly understood. Critical internal customer needs or management control requirements.. 2. What is to be emphasized with the new product? What are its competitive strengths? What will distinguish it in the marketplace? How will it be positioned relative to other products? In other words. customer meetings or focus groups/clinics to obtain feedback.
trade shows. Use weights (we recommend using 5-3-1 weighting factors) to indicate the strength of the relationship . third-party service & support organizations. Consider the product strategy objectives. Consider not only the current approach and technology. medium and weak. 12. manufacturing capability. importance of the various technical characteristics. Identify the direction of the objective for each characteristic (target value or range. resource availability. Determine potential positive and negative interactions between product requirements or technical characteristics using symbols for strong or medium. patent information. These relationships define the degree to which as product requirement or technical characteristic satisfies the customer need. supply chain capability. the trade-offs that need to be made based on the interaction matrix. Maintain the matrix as customer needs or conditions change. 15. global. catalogs and brochures. Do not get too aggressive with target values in areas that are not determined to be the primary area of focus with this development effort. positive or negative relationships. Consider data gathered during the technical evaluation in setting target values. industry publications. and schedule.consider product concepts or technology to overcome these potential trade-offs or consider the trade-off's in establishing target values. Focus on negative interactions . personnel technical qualifications. 11. 17. 16.this will be addressed later in the interaction matrix. Multiply the customer priority rating by the improvement factor. published benchmarks. It does NOT show a potential negative impact on meeting a customer need . Develop a composite rating or breakdown into individual assessments by category. Develop preliminary target values for product requirements or technical characteristics. five being very difficult and risky) for each product requirement or technical characteristic. Identify a difficulty rating (1 to 5 point scale. Sources of information include: competitor websites. This will allow a wide range of alternatives to be considered in an effort to better meet customer needs. Perform a technical evaluation of current products and competitive products. Perform this evaluation based on the defined product requirements or technical characteristics. Obtain other relevant data such as warranty or service repair occurrences and costs. Consider the goal associated with the characteristic in determining whether the characteristic satisfies the customer need. Develop relationships between customer needs and product requirements or technical characteristics.strong. Determine required actions and areas of focus. purchasing and benchmarking competitor’s products. Finalize target values. 10. customer interviews. Concept Development 1. 13. maximize or minimize). the technical difficulty ratings. and technology solutions and maturity. Consider technology maturity. and former employees. technical risk. 14.9. Be sparing with the strong relationships to discriminate the really strong relationships. Analyze the matrix and finalize the product plan. published specifications. the sales point factor and the weighting factor associated with the relationship in each box of the matrix and add the resulting products in each column. Calculate importance ratings. Develop concept alternatives for the product. articles and technical papers. characteristics should be stated in a way to avoid implying a particular technical solution so as not to constrain designers. Too many positive interactions suggest potential redundancy in product requirements or technical characteristics. but other alternative concept approaches and .
Use brainstorming. Normalize the importance rating by dividing the largest value by a factor that will yield "5" and post this value to the "Priority" column. What changes can be made to the design or formulation of the preferred concept(s) to improve these low ratings with the product concept? Compare the preferred concept(s) to the other concepts that have higher ratings for that particular requirement. Also bring forward the importance ratings and difficulty ratings associated with each product requirement or technical characteristic from the Product Planning Matrix. Perform sufficient definition and development of each concept to evalaute against the decision criteria determined in the next step. and development schedule. The preferred concept alternative(s) will be the one(s) with the highest total. 6.2. Add target values as appropriate for the other evaluation criteria added in the previous step. subassemblies or parts on product performance or with respect to development goals. technical risk. Rate each concept alternative against the criteria using a "1" to "5" scale with "5" being the highest rating for satisfying the criteria. and patent searches. List product requirements or technical characteristics from the Product Planning Matrix down the left side of the Concept Selection Matrix. maintainability / serviceability requirements. Summarize these values in each column in the bottom row. Perform engineering analysis and trade studies. manufacturability requirements. For each rating. technology. For the preferred concept alternative(s). supply chain capability. block diagram and/or a preliminary parts list. standards and regulatory requirements. assemblies or subsystems present major challenges or are critical to the success and operation of the product? What critical characteristics have a major effect on performance? Consider performing failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA). business risk. effects and criticality analysis (FMECA). Also add other requirements or decision criteria such as key unstated but expected customer needs or requirements. multiply the rating by the "Priority" value in that row. What parts. Conduct literature. Focus attention on the criteria with the lowest ratings for that concept ("1's" and "2's"). technology. 3. If there will be multiple Subsystem/Subassembly/Part Deployment Matrices prepared. Determine the priorities for the additional evaluation criteria added in the prior step. Carry forward the important or critical product . Develop derivative ideas. support requirements. Use product benchmarking to identify different product concepts. development resources. environmental requirements. failure mode. develop a design layout. Consider impact of subsystems. test schedule and resources. work to improve the concept by synthesizing a new concept that overcomes its weaknesses. Evaluate the concept alternatives using the Concept Selection Matrix. subassemblies or parts. 4. testability requirements. or fault tree analysis (FTA) to help pinpoint critical items and their critical characteristics from a reliability/quality perspective. deploy the technical characteristics and their target values to the appropriate matrices. Using the selected concept as a basis. Carry forward the target values for the product requirements or technical characteristics from the Product Planning Matrix. Review these priorities and consider any changes appropriate since these are the weighting factors for the decision criteria. List concepts across the top of the matrix. development budget. Determine critical subsystems. 2. Are there ways to modify the preferred concept to incorporate the advantage of another concept? Subsystem/Subassembly/Part Deployment Matrix 1. 5.
and process technology to overcome the potential trade-off or consider the trade-off in establishing target values. Adjust target or specification values accordingly. business risk. Focus on negative interactions . 5. Finalize target values. subassembly or subsystem characteristics. Multiply the customer importance rating by the improvement factor (if any). positive or negative relationships. target manufacturing cost. identify the critical part. 6.) to the Subsystem / Subassembly / Part Deployment Matrices. Determine potential positive and negative interactions between the technical part characteristics using symbols for strong or medium. manufacturing capability. importance ratings and difficulty ratings. Determine if overall risk is acceptable and if individual risks based on target or specification values are acceptable. supplier capability. Assign a weighting factor to the relationships (53-1). Develop preliminary target values for subsystem / subassembly / part characteristics.. Organize these product requirements or technical characteristics by assembly(ies) or part(s) to be addressed on a particular deployment matrix. mean-time between failures. Include any additional customer needs or requirements to address more detailed customer needs or general requirements. Consider technology maturity. 8. Develop relationships between product needs (product-level technical characteristics) and the subsystem / subassembly / part technical characteristics. Where appropriate. Considering product requirements or technical characteristics. allocate target values (e. personnel technical qualifications. Be sparing with the strong relationships. Use 5-3-1 relationship weights for strong. medium and weak relationships. 4. Review these priority ratings and make appropriate changes for the subsystems. and schedule. Determine the the Priority for any needs that were added.3. Consider interactions. 9.g. Too many positive interactions suggest potential redundancy in critical part characteristics. State the characteristics in a measurable way. Analyze the matrix and finalize the subsystem/subassembly/part deployment matrix. 7. different technologies. the sales point factor (if any) and the relationship factor in each cell of the relationship matrix and add the resulting products in each column. Identify a difficulty rating (1 to 5 point scale. state the characteristics in a global manner to avoid constraining concept selection at this next level. material technology. Normalize the Importance Ratings from the Product Planning Matrix and bring them forward as the Priority ratings. For higher-level subsystems or subassembles. 10. etc.consider different subsystem / subassembly / part concepts. Determine required actions and areas of focus. . five being very difficult and risky) for each subsystem / subassembly / part requirement or technical characteristic. Calculate importance ratings. requirements or technical characteristics from Product Planning Matrix (based on importance ratings and team decision) to the Subsystem/Subassembly/Part Deployment Matrix. subassemblies or parts being addressed. Develop a composite rating or breakdown into individual assessments by category. tooling concepts. These "product needs" become the "what's" for this next level matrix.
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