CONTENTS

Chapter No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Title ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION ELECTRIC MOTOR CONSTRUCTION WORKING PRINCIPLE CIRCUITS ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES SOLDERING INSTRUCTION BIBLIOGRABHY CONCLUSION PHOTO VIEW

AUTOMATIC SIDE STAND .

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Our system includes a electronic circuit and the mechanical arrangement.A kickstand is a device on a bicycle or motorcycle that allows the bike to be kept upright without leaning against another object or the aid of a person. A kickstand is usually a piece of metal that flips down from the frame and makes contact with the ground. Contents • 1 Types o 1.1 Side stand . It is generally located in the middle of the bike or towards the rear. Hence in order to automate the process of lifting and leaning the side stand we propose a system. Which makes the process easy and highly luxuries and it also avoids many accidents in day to day life.

1 Materials 2.3 Length and angle 2 Construction o o o • .o o • 1.2 Locking mechanism 2.2 Center stand 1.3 Flick stand 2.

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Center stands can be mounted to the chain stays right behind the bottom bracket or to the rear dropouts. or to the bracket between them. Side stands mounted right behind the bottom bracket can be bolted on. Center stand A center stand kickstand is a pair of legs or a bracket that flips straight down and lifts the rear wheel off the ground when in use. Side stands can be mounted to the chain stays right behind the bottom bracket or to a chain and seat stay near the rear hub. Center stands are found on most "standard" and "touring" motorcycles. usually the non-drive side. either clamping the chain stays. or welded into place as an integral part of the frame.Types Side stand A side stand style kickstand is a single leg that simply flips out to one side. and the bike then leans against it. and it allows the user to perform maintenance such as chain adjustments without the need for an external stand. but are omitted on most high-performance sportbikes to save weight and increase ground clearance. Many motorcycles feature center stands in addition to side stands. The center stand is advantageous because it takes most of the motorcycle's weight off its tires for long-term parking. Flick stand .

While not strictly a kickstand. Too short or shallow. especially a side stand. either up or down. Construction Materials Kickstands can be made of steel or cast aluminum. A detent mechanism. needs to be appropriate for the bike on which it is mounted. Locking mechanism Kickstands can lock in place. However it . and the bike does not lean far enough. and the bike leans too far. Steel kickstands with some care may be bent to adjust length slightly. which usually also employs its own spring. • Length and angle The length and angle of the kickstand. a flick stand is a small bracket that flips down from the down tube and engages the front tire to prevent the front end from steering and thus enabling the bike to be safely leaned against an object without danger of the front end turning and the bike subsequently falling to the ground. Cast aluminum kickstands can be shortened by cutting the end off. Too long or steep. There may be a rubber cap on the end. by several means: • A spring that is stretched when the kickstand is partway deployed and less stretched when it is stowed or all the way deployed.

preventing mounting of this type. Mounting If there is not enough room between the bottom bracket and the rear tire to mount a side stand. perhaps a flick stand will suffice. When mounting a kickstand that clamps to the chain stays behind the bottom bracket.is not advisable to bend "cast" aluminum types of kickstand (which are most common today) as they are quite brittle. care must be taken not to clamp control cables (shift or brake) that may be routed along the bottom of the chain stays. the style that mounts near the rear hub may be indicated. If there is an obstruction. such as a rear disk brake. A kickstand that mounts by clamping should never be installed on a carbon fiber frame. .

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is accomplished by a generator or dynamo. very typically through the interaction of magnetic fields and current-carrying conductors. and vice versa. Many types of electric motors can be run as generators.Electric motor Electric motors An electric motor uses electrical energy to produce mechanical energy. The reverse process. . producing electrical energy from mechanical energy. For example a starter/generator for a gas turbine or Traction motors used on vehicles often perform both tasks.

and for such purposes as pipeline compressors. but commercial exploitation of electric motors on a large scale required efficient electrical generators and electrical distribution networks. by their internal construction. . and disk drives. household appliances. power tools. The very largest electric motors are used for propulsion of large ships. They may be powered by direct current (for example a battery powered portable device or motor vehicle). Medium-size motors of highly standardized dimensions and characteristics provide convenient mechanical power for industrial uses. are not generally referred to as electric motors. machine tools. with ratings in the millions of watts. and are usually termed actuators[1] and transducers. or by the type of motion they give. The smallest motors may be found in electric wristwatches. such as magnetic solenoids and loudspeakers. Some devices.Electric motors are found in applications as diverse as industrial fans. by their application. although they generate some mechanical power. or by alternating current from a central electrical distribution grid. blowers and pumps. Electric motors may be classified by the source of electric power. Electric motors of increasing efficiency were constructed throughout the 19th century. The physical principle of production of mechanical force by the interactions of an electric current and a magnetic field was known as early as 1821.[2] respectively.

3 Induction motor 3.1 Brushed DC motors 4.2 Brushless DC motors 4.Contents • 1 History and development o o 1.2 Synchronous electric motor 3.4 Printed Armature or Pancake DC Motors • 4 DC Motors o o o o • • 5 Universal motors 6 AC motors o 6.1 Components .2 The first electric motors • • 2 Categorization of electric motors 3 Comparison of motor types o o o o 3.1 The principle 1.3 Coreless or ironless DC motors 4.1 Servo motor 3.4 Electrostatic motor (capacitor motor) 4.

2 Torque capability of motor types • • • 14 Materials 15 Motor standards 16 Uses • .1 Implications 13.1 Doubly-fed electric motor 11.• • • • • 7 Torque motors 8 Slip ring 9 Stepper motors 10 Linear motors 11 Feeding and windings o o 11.2 Singly-fed electric motor • • 12 Nanotube nanomotor 13 Efficiency o o 13.

[3] The principle The conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy by electromagnetic means was demonstrated by the British scientist Michael Faraday in 1821. When a current was passed through the wire. the wire rotated around the magnet. on which a permanent magnet was placed. but brine (salt water) is sometimes used in place of the toxic mercury.History and development Electromagnetic experiment of Faraday. showing that the current gave rise to a circular magnetic field around the wire. A later refinement is the Barlow's Wheel. These were demonstration devices only.[citation needed] . ca. unsuited to practical applications due to their primitive construction. 1821. A free-hanging wire was dipped into a pool of mercury.[4] This motor is often demonstrated in school physics classes. This is the simplest form of a class of devices called homopolar motors.

[11] Following Sturgeon's work. Hungarian Ányos Jedlik started experimenting with electromagnetic rotating devices he called "lightning-magnetic self-rotors".) In 1827. (Museum of Applied Arts.[citation needed] The first electric motors The first commutator-type direct current electric motor capable of turning machinery was invented by the British scientist William Sturgeon in 1832. Several inventors followed Sturgeon in the development of DC . 1827. rotor and commutator. He used them for instructive purposes in universities. the motors were commercially unsuccessful and the Davenports went bankrupt. and powered machine tools and a printing press. the devices had no practical application. employing no permanent magnets. Both the stationary and the revolving parts were electromagnetic.[12] Due to the high cost of the zinc electrodes required by primary battery power. Budapest.[5][6][7][8][9][10] Again.Jedlik's "lightning-magnetic self-rotor". Their motors ran at up to 600 revolutions per minute. and in 1828 demonstrated the first device which contained the three main components of practical direct current motors: the stator. a commutator-type direct-current electric motor made with the intention of commercial use was built by Americans Emily and Thomas Davenport and patented in 1837.

which was first installed in 1892 in Chicago by the South Side Elevated Railway where it became popularly known as the "L".[5][7] He built a model electric motor-propelled vehicle that same year. the electric elevator and control system in 1892. Sprague's motor and related inventions . there was no practical commercial market for these motors. No electricity distribution had been developed at the time.[citation needed] The modern DC motor was invented by accident in 1873. and the electric subway with independently powered centrally controlled cars. provided for electric distribution to trolleys via overhead wires and the trolley pole. when Zénobe Gramme connected the dynamo he had invented to a second similar unit. a nonsparking motor capable of constant speed under variable loads. driving it as a motor. Like Sturgeon's motor.motors but all encountered the same cost issues with primary battery power. The Gramme machine was the first electric motor that was successful in the industry. and provided controls systems for electric operations. This allowed Sprague to use electric motors to invent the first electric trolley system in 1887-88 in Richmond VA.[13] There is no evidence that this experimentation was communicated to the wider scientific world at that time. allowed power from electric motors to be returned to the electric grid. Other Sprague electric inventions about this time greatly improved grid electric distribution [prior work done while employed by Edison].[citation needed] In 1855 Jedlik built a device using similar principles to those used in his electromagnetic self-rotors that was capable of useful work.[citation needed] In 1886 Frank Julian Sprague invented the first practical DC motor. or that it influenced the development of electric motors in the following decades.

by consuming zinc in wet primary cells!) In his workshops Froment had an electromotive engine of onehorse power. for some rotor positions. (Electricity was created. Tesla continued his work on the AC motor in the years to follow at the Westinghouse company. while almost simultaneously another great inventor was developing its primary competitor. as a practical matter. as this article describes. and flux patterns that create torque. They produced far-lower torque than an equivalent amount of power would produce with efficient designs. are based on a rotor with a comparatively small air gap. the air gap is likely to be considerable.[14] Note that the armature bars are at some distance (unknown) from the field pole pieces when power is fed to one of the field magnets. But.[citation needed] The development of electric motors of acceptable efficiency was delayed for several decades by failure to recognize the extreme importance of a relatively-small air gap between rotor and stator. The cause of the lack of understanding seems to be that early designs were based on familiarity of distant attraction between a magnet and a piece of ferromagnetic material. In 1888 Nikola Tesla invented the first practicable AC motor and with it the polyphase power transmission system. Efficient designs. though an interesting application of the . which would become much more widespread. had comparatively huge air gaps which constituted a very high reluctance magnetic circuit. The text tells of the inefficiency of the design. Early motors. or between two electromagnets.led to an explosion of interest and use in electric motors for industry.

Household uses of electric motors reduced heavy labor in the home and made higher standards of convenience. providing easy control at the point of use. and the huge air gap at the ends opposite the rotor. and improving power transmission efficiency. . Application of electric motors revolutionized industry. Industrial processes were no longer limited by power transmission using shaft. Even modern versions still have big air gaps if the rotor poles are not aligned. electric motors consume more than half of all electric energy produced. belts. are at least sixty times as dear to work as steam-engines. or of the cost of the acids. [.. long used in classrooms to illustrate motor principles. Although Gramme's design was comparatively much more efficient. Louis motor.] motors worked by electricity. these machines will never be practically applied on the large scale in manufactures.transformation of energy. It is of some interest that the St. comfort and safety possible. Electric motors applied in agriculture eliminated human and animal muscle power from such tasks as handling grain or pumping water. is extremely inefficient for the same reason. as well as appearing nothing like a modern motor. compressed air or hydraulic pressure. years later. Today. Photo of a traditional form of the motor: [3] Note the prominent bar magnets. for the expense of the acids and the zinc which they use very far exceeds that of the coal in steam-engines of the same force. Instead every machine could be equipped with its own electric motor. independently of any question as to the cost of construction.. apparently the Froment motor was still considered illustrative.

For example. those of less than 746 Watts. both being poly-phase AC motors requiring external electronic control. The ongoing trend toward electronic control further muddles the distinction. for example. the most ubiquitous example being the common AC induction motor which must slip to generate torque. stepping motors (such as for maritime and naval gyrocompass repeaters) were driven from DC switched by contacts. these motors being referred to as universal motors. For this new breed of motor. many classic DC motors run on AC power. Considering all rotating (or linear) electric motors require synchronism between a moving magnetic field and a moving current sheet for average torque production. In the synchronous types. driver circuits are relied upon to generate sinusoidal AC drive currents. there is a clearer distinction between an asynchronous motor and synchronous types. rather than a rigid distinction. An asynchronous motor requires slip between the moving magnetic field and a winding set to induce current in the winding set by mutual inductance. The two best examples are: the brushless DC motor and the stepping motor.Categorization of electric motors The classic division of electric motors has been that of Alternating Current (AC) types vs Direct Current (DC) types. although historically. are often referred to as fractional horsepower motors (FHP) in reference to the old imperial measurement. as modern drivers have moved the commutator out of the motor shell. or some approximation thereof. This is more a de facto convention. induction (or slip) is not a requisite for magnetic field or . Rated output power is also used to categorise motors.

current production (e.g. permanent magnet motors, synchronous brush-less wound-rotor doubly-fed electric machine.

Comparison of motor types

Servo motor Main article: Servo motor A servomechanism,or servo is an automatic device that uses error-sensing feedback to correct the performance of a mechanism. The term correctly applies only to systems where the feedback or error-correction signals help control mechanical position or other parameters. For example, an automotive power window control is not a servomechanism, as there is no automatic feedback which controls position—the operator does this by observation. By contrast the car's cruise control uses closed loop feedback, which classifies it as a servomechanism. Synchronous electric motor Main article: Synchronous motor

A synchronous electric motor is an AC motor distinguished by a rotor spinning with coils passing magnets at the same rate as the alternating current and resulting magnetic field which drives it. Another way of saying this is that it has zero slip under usual operating conditions. Contrast this with an induction motor, which must slip to produce torque. A synchronous motor is like an induction motor except the rotor is excited by a DC field. Slip rings and brushes are used to conduct current to rotor. The rotor poles connect to each other and move at the same speed hence the name synchronous motor. Induction motor Main article: Induction motor An induction motor (IM) is a type of asynchronous AC motor where power is supplied to the rotating device by means of electromagnetic induction. Another commonly used name is squirrel cage motor because the rotor bars with short circuit rings resemble a squirrel cage (hamster wheel). An electric motor converts electrical power to mechanical power in its rotor (rotating part). There are several ways to supply power to the rotor. In a DC motor this power is supplied to the armature directly from a DC source, while in an induction motor this power is induced in the rotating device. An induction motor is sometimes called a rotating transformer because the stator (stationary part) is essentially the primary side of the transformer and the rotor (rotating part) is the secondary side. Induction motors are widely used, especially polyphase induction motors, which are frequently used in industrial drives.

Electrostatic motor (capacitor motor) Main article: Electrostatic motor An electrostatic motor or capacitor motor is a type of electric motor based on the attraction and repulsion of electric charge. Usually, electrostatic motors are the dual of conventional coil-based motors. They typically require a high voltage power supply, although very small motors employ lower voltages. Conventional electric motors instead employ magnetic attraction and repulsion, and require high current at low voltages. In the 1750s, the first electrostatic motors were developed by Benjamin Franklin and Andrew Gordon. Today the electrostatic motor finds frequent use in micromechanical (MEMS) systems where their drive voltages are below 100 volts, and where moving, charged plates are far easier to fabricate than coils and iron cores. Also, the molecular machinery which runs living cells is often based on linear and rotary electrostatic motors. DC Motors A DC motor is designed to run on DC electric power. Two examples of pure DC designs are Michael Faraday's homopolar motor (which is uncommon), and the ball bearing motor, which is (so far) a novelty. By far the most common DC motor types are the brushed and brushless types, which use internal and external commutation respectively to create an oscillating AC current from the DC source—so they are not purely DC machines in a strict sense. Brushed DC motors

) This sparking limits the maximum speed of the machine. the inductance of the rotor coils causes the voltage across each to rise when its circuit is opened. in combination with their resistivity. The commutator causes the current in the coils to be switched as the rotor turns. as too-rapid sparking will overheat. an electrical power source is connected to the rotor coil through the commutator and its brushes. Furthermore. The current density per unit area of the brushes.) Many of the limitations of the classic commutator DC motor are due to the need for brushes to press against the commutator. with a split ring commutator. keeping the magnetic poles of the rotor from ever fully aligning with the magnetic poles of the stator field. Sparks are created by the brushes making and breaking circuits through the rotor coils as the brushes cross the insulating gaps between commutator sections. limits the output of the motor. or armature. erode. producing electromagnetism. and either a wound or permanent magnet stator. This creates friction.Main article: Brushed DC electric motor The classic DC motor design generates an oscillating current in a wound rotor. increasing the sparking of the brushes. or even melt the commutator. causing current to flow in it. etc. Depending on the commutator design. so that the rotor never stops (like a compass needle does) but rather keeps rotating indefinitely (as long as power is applied and is sufficient for the motor to overcome the shaft torque load and internal losses due to friction. The making and breaking of electric contact also causes electrical noise. A rotor consists of one or more coils of wire wound around a core on a shaft. this may include the brushes shorting together adjacent sections—and hence coil ends—momentarily while crossing the gaps. and the sparks .

but small brushes are desired for low mass to maximize the speed at which the motor can run without the brushes excessively bouncing and sparking (comparable to the problem of "valve float" in internal combustion engines). A: B: C: f = field coil There are five types of brushed DC motor: shunt series compound . but at the cost of greater friction losses (lower efficiency) and accelerated brush and commutator wear. and the commutator itself is subject to wear and maintenance (on larger motors) or replacement (on small motors). The commutator assembly on a large machine is a costly element. On small motors. Large brushes are desired for a larger brush contact area to maximize motor output.additionally cause RFI. and efficiency/wear. Brushes eventually wear out and require replacement. speed. Therefore. requiring precision assembly of many parts. the commutator is usually permanently integrated into the rotor.) Stiffer brush springs can also be used to make brushes of a given mass work at a higher speed. so replacing it usually requires replacing the whole rotor. DC motor brush design entails a trade-off between output power. (Small brushes are also desirable for lower cost.

DC series wound motor C. Midway between ordinary DC motors and stepper motors lies the realm of the brushless DC motor. the mechanical "rotating switch" or commutator/brushgear assembly is replaced by an external electronic switch synchronised to the rotor's position. and the associated drive electronics. DC compound motor (two configurations): • • Cumulative compound Differentially compounded D.A. Separately-excited (sepex) (not shown). Brushless motors are typically 85-90% efficient or more (higher efficiency for a brushless electric motor of up to 96.[16] whereas DC motors with brushgear are typically 75-80% efficient. three phases of driving coils. DC shunt wound motor B. these often use a permanent magnet external rotor. Brushless DC motors Main article: Brushless DC electric motor Some of the problems of the brushed DC motor are eliminated in the brushless design. Permanent Magnet DC Motor (not shown) E. Built in a fashion very similar to stepper motors. The coils are activated. one or more Hall effect sensors to sense the position of the rotor. In this motor. one phase after the .5% were reported by researchers at the Tokai University in Japan in 2009).

running much cooler than the equivalent AC motors. The same Hall effect sensors that provide the commutation can also provide a convenient tachometer signal for closed-loop control (servo- • • . They have several advantages over conventional motors: • Compared to AC fans using shaded-pole motors. laser printers and photocopiers. as in computer disk drives or in video cassette recorders.) drives.other. they act as three-phase synchronous motors containing their own variable-frequency drive electronics. a brushless motor may be used in electrically sensitive devices like audio equipment or computers. In effect. and mechanisms within office products such as fans. these are referred to by modellers as outrunner motors. Brushless DC motors are commonly used where precise speed control is necessary. Without a commutator to wear out. CD-ROM (etc. These motors are used extensively in electric radio-controlled vehicles. When configured with the magnets on the outside. A specialized class of brushless DC motor controllers utilize EMF feedback through the main phase connections instead of Hall effect sensors to determine position and velocity. Commutation also tends to cause a great deal of electrical and RF noise. the life of a DC brushless motor can be significantly longer compared to a DC motor using brushes and a commutator. without a commutator or brushes. by the drive electronics as cued by the signals from either Hall effect sensors or from the back EMF (electromotive force) of the undriven coils. This cool operation leads to much-improved life of the fan's bearings. they are very efficient. the spindles within CD.

or a self-supporting structure comprising only the magnet wire and the bonding material. unlike brushed motors. Also. They are also very quiet motors which is an advantage if being used in equipment that is affected by vibrations. sparking generates ozone which can accumulate in poorly ventilated buildings risking harm to occupants' health. • • • Modern DC brushless motors range in power from a fraction of a watt to many kilowatts. The rotor can fit inside the stator magnets. Brushless motors are usually used in small equipment such as computers and are generally used to get rid of unwanted heat. Larger brushless motors up to about 100 kW rating are used in electric vehicles. the tachometer signal can be used to derive a "fan OK" signal. a specialized form of a brush or brushless DC motor. They also find significant use in high-performance electric model aircraft. Optimized for rapid acceleration. In fans. torque is exerted only on the windings of the electromagnets. a . The rotor can take the form of a windingfilled cylinder. leading to precise speed control. making them better suited to environments with volatile chemicals and fuels. Coreless or ironless DC motors Nothing in the design of any of the motors described above requires that the iron (steel) portions of the rotor actually rotate. Brushless motors have no chance of sparking. • The motor can be easily synchronized to an internal or external clock. Taking advantage of this fact is the coreless or ironless DC motor.controlled) applications. these motors have a rotor that is constructed without any iron core.

often achieving a mechanical time constant under 1 ms. The printed armature (originally formed on a printed circuit board) in a printed armature motor is made from punched copper sheets that are laminated together using advanced composites to form a thin rigid disc. Related limited-travel actuators have no core and a bonded coil placed between the poles of high-flux thin permanent magnets. This design is commonly known the pancake motor because of its extremely flat profile. facing the rotor and forming an axial air gap. The . the rotor fits inside a magnetically-soft cylinder that can serve as the housing for the motor. the rotor can accelerate much more rapidly. although the technology has had many brand names since it's inception. But because there is no metal mass in the rotor to act as a heat sink.magnetically-soft stationary cylinder inside the rotor provides a return path for the stator magnetic flux. This is especially true if the windings use aluminum rather than the heavier copper. These are the fast head positioners for rigid-disk ("hard disk") drives. Because the rotor is much lighter in weight (mass) than a conventional rotor formed from copper windings on steel laminations. In that design. A second arrangement has the rotor winding basket surrounding the stator magnets. and likewise provides a return path for the flux. arranged in a circle. even small coreless motors must often be cooled by forced air. Printed Armature or Pancake DC Motors A rather unique motor design the pancake/printed armature motor has the windings shaped as a disc running between arrays of high-flux magnets. such as ServoDisc.

printed armature has a unique construction. The brushes run directly on the armature surface making the whole design very compact. and are typically UL 1446 recognized as a potting compound for use up to 180°C (Class H) (UL File No. in a flower and petal shape. They are highlighted by low shrinkage and low exotherm. E 210549). An alternative manufacturing method is to use wound copper wire laid flat with a central conventional commutator. industrial automation and medical devices. Due to the variety of constructions now available the technology is used in applications from high temperature military to low cost pump and basic servo applications. These motors were originally invented to drive the capstan(s) of magnetic tape drives. The windings are typically stabilized by being impregnated with electrical epoxy potting systems. Pancake motors are still widely used in high-performance servo-controlled systems. in that is does not have a separate ring commutator. in the brushed motor world. The unique advantage of ironless DC motors is that there is no cogging (vibration caused by attraction between the iron and the magnets) and parasitic eddy currents cannot form in the rotor as it is totally ironless. Universal motors . This can greatly improve efficiency. humanoid robotic systems. in the burgeoning computer industry. These are filled epoxies that have moderate mixed viscosity and a long gel time. but variable-speed controllers must use a higher switching rate (>40 kHz) or direct current because of the decreased electromagnetic induction.

and often have high starting-torque demands. As a result. Household blenders that advertise many speeds frequently combine a field coil with several taps and a diode that can be inserted in series with the motor (causing the motor to run on half-wave rectified AC). and hence the resulting mechanical force will occur in a constant direction.A series-wound motor is referred to as a universal motor when it has been designed to operate on either AC or DC power. Because they are universal motors. Universal motors also form the basis of the traditional railway traction motor in electric railways. The ability to operate on AC is because the current in both the field and the armature (and hence the resultant magnetic fields) will alternate (reverse polarity) in synchronism. The negative aspect is the maintenance and short life problems caused by the commutator. universal motors are very rarely larger than one kilowatt (about 1.3 horsepower). . while (imprecise) stepped speed control can be accomplished using multiple taps on the field coil. with 25 and 16. An advantage of the universal motor is that AC supplies may be used on motors which have some characteristics more common in DC motors. to keep their electrical efficiency high. specifically high starting torque and very compact design if high running speeds are used. they were operated from very low frequency AC supplies. Continuous speed control of a universal motor running on AC is easily obtained by use of a thyristor circuit.7 hertz (Hz) operation being common. locomotives using this design were also commonly capable of operating from a third rail powered by DC. such motors are usually used in AC devices such as food mixers and power tools which are used only intermittently. Operating at normal power line frequencies. In this application.

such as drills. They are also commonly used in portable power tools. In some smaller applications. while Dremel and other similar miniature grinders will often exceed 30.000 RPM. Many vacuum cleaner and weed trimmer motors exceed 10. In 1885. In 1888. as well as a means to circulate cooling airflow over the armature and field windings. Motor damage may occur due to overspeeding (running at an RPM in excess of design limits) if the unit is operated with no significant load. and pioneered the use of a rotary field of force to operate machines. vacuum cleaners. He exploited the principle to design a unique two-phase induction motor in 1883. .Universal motors generally run at high speeds. On larger motors. sudden loss of load is to be avoided. Professor Poeschel. AC motors Main article: AC motor In 1882. Tesla had suggested that the commutators from a machine could be removed and the device could operate on a rotary field of force. and hair dryers where high RPM operation is desirable. and the possibility of such an occurrence is incorporated into the motor's protection and control schemes. Galileo Ferraris independently researched the concept. making them useful for appliances such as blenders.000 RPM. where the motor's characteristics work well. circular and jig saws. Ferraris published his research in a paper to the Royal Academy of Sciences in Turin. a fan blade attached to the shaft often acts as an artificial load to limit the motor speed to a safe value. Nikola Tesla discovered the rotating magnetic field.

without incurring damage. with the rotor blocked from turning. driven from a low voltage. Michail Osipovich Dolivo-Dobrovolsky later invented a three-phase "cagerotor" in 1890. This classic alternating current electro-magnetic motor was an induction motor. In this application.[17] Tesla would later attain U. that is. In this mode of operation. which resembles the motor seen in many of Tesla's photos.194. stated that would be akin to building a perpetual motion machine. and.S. Components A typical AC motor consists of two parts: • An outside stationary stator having coils supplied with AC current to produce a rotating magnetic field. Patent 0. An inside rotor attached to the output shaft that is given a torque by the rotating field. the motor will apply a steady torque to the load (hence the name).416. the characteristics of these motors allow a relatively-constant light tension to be . This type of motor is now used for the vast majority of commercial applications. • Torque motors A torque motor (also known as a limited torque motor) is a specialized form of induction motor which is capable of operating indefinitely while stalled. Electric Motor (December 1889). A common application of a torque motor would be the supply.and take-up reel motors in a tape drive.his teacher.

depending on the speed.applied to the tape whether or not the capstan is feeding tape past the tape heads. provide continuous unswitched connection to the rotor windings. the governor will reduce the current being applied to the motor. where the rotor comprises a set of coils that are electrically terminated in slip rings. makes small adjustments to the amount of current applied to the motor. the current will be increased. torque motors are used in force feedback steering wheels. In the computer gaming world. (and so delivering a higher torque). Another common application is the control of the throttle of an internal combustion engine in conjunction with an electronic governor. The latter monitors engine speed by counting electrical pulses from the ignition system or from a magnetic pickup [18] and. the torque motors can also achieve fast-forward and rewind operation without requiring any additional mechanics such as gears or clutches. pulling against the return spring and opening the throttle. causing the return spring to pull back and close the throttle. Slip ring The slip ring is a component of the wound rotor motor as an induction machine (best evidenced by the construction of the common automotive alternator). If the engine starts to slow down relative to the desired speed. These are metal rings rigidly mounted on the rotor. the motor will develop more torque. Should the engine run too fast. In this usage. Driven from a higher voltage. the motor works against a return spring to move the throttle in accordance with the output of the governor. . and combined with brushes (as used with commutators).

the motor will operate at the speed where the torque developed by the motor is equal to the load torque. among other applications. By changing the impedance connected to the rotor circuit. Increasing the value of resistance will move the speed of maximum torque down. Operated in this manner. the slip losses are . the torque will be further reduced. the motor is able to produce maximum torque at a relatively low supply current from zero speed to full speed. Reducing the load will cause the motor to speed up. This type of motor also offers controllable speed. When used with a load that has a torque curve that increases with speed.In the case of the wound-rotor induction motor. and increasing the load will cause the motor to slow down until the load and motor torque are equal. external impedances can be connected to the brushes. If the resistance connected to the rotor is increased beyond the point where the maximum torque occurs at zero speed. Motor speed can be changed because the torque curve of the motor is effectively modified by the amount of resistance connected to the rotor circuit. The stator is excited similarly to the standard squirrel cage motor.) The slip ring motor is used primarily to start a high inertia load or a load that requires a very high starting torque across the full speed range. By correctly selecting the resistors used in the secondary resistance or slip ring starter. the speed/current and speed/torque curves can be altered. (Slip rings are most-commonly used in automotive alternators as well as in synchro angular data-transmission devices.

and it may change direction. the stepper motor may not rotate continuously. . particularly when part of a digital servo-controlled system. leading the rotor to "cog" to a limited number of positions. in its application. the rotor aligns itself with the magnetic field produced by the energized field winding. Unlike a synchronous motor. This mode of operation is often called microstepping. The speed regulation and net efficiency is also very poor. the rotor may turn forwards or backwards. it "steps" — starts and then quickly stops again — from one position to the next as field windings are energized and de-energized in sequence. As each coil is energized in turn. more sophisticated drivers can proportionally control the power to the field windings. instead. Computer controlled stepper motors are one of the most versatile forms of positioning systems.dissipated in the secondary resistors and can be very significant. A stepper motor may also be thought of as a cross between a DC electric motor and a rotary solenoid. Stepper motors Main article: Stepper motor Closely related in design to three-phase AC synchronous motors are stepper motors. allowing the rotors to position between the cog points and thereby rotate extremely smoothly. speed up or slow down arbitrarily at any time. stop. where an internal rotor containing permanent magnets or a magnetically-soft rotor with salient poles is controlled by a set of external magnets that are switched electronically. Simple stepper motor drivers entirely energize or entirely de-energize the field windings. Depending on the sequence.

draw very little power. and the platen. Nevertheless. and hence stepper motors are used for read/write head positioning in computer floppy diskette drives. As drive density increased.) Stepper motors were and still are often used in computer printers. where the precision and speed they offered was adequate for the correct positioning of the read/write head of a hard disk drive. they have one coil. the print head carriage (of dot matrix and inkjet printers). This structure was used for a while to position the heads. and have a permanent-magnet rotor. and the speed limitation made them uncompetitive—thus newer hard disk drives use voice coil-based head actuator systems. (The term "voice coil" in this connection is historic. optical scanners. the precision and speed limitations of stepper motors made them obsolete for hard drives—the precision limitation made them unusable. Likewise. like a voice coil.Stepper motors can be rotated to a specific angle in discrete steps with ease. the coil swings back and forth. something like a blade of a rotating fan. the typical alternatives here were either linear stepper motors or servomotors with complex closed-loop control systems. and digital photocopiers to move the optical scanning element. many computer plotters (which since the early 1990s have been replaced with large-format inkjet and laser printers) used rotary stepper motors for pen and platen movement. modern actuator coil conductors (the magnet wire) move perpendicular to the magnetic lines of force. The same kind of motor drives battery-powered . So-called quartz analog wristwatches contain the smallest commonplace stepping motors. Modern drives have a pivoted coil mount. it refers to the structure in a typical (cone type) loudspeaker. They were used for the same purpose in pre-gigabyte era computer disk drives.

at least one letter-size (8. contain more than one stepping motor.5" x 11") computer graphics X-Y pen plotter made by HewlettPackard (in the late 1970s to mid 1980's) used two linear stepper motors to move the pen along the two orthogonal axes. Linear motors Main article: Linear motor A linear motor is essentially an electric motor that has been "unrolled" so that. You can find a linear motor in a maglev (Transrapid) train.quartz clocks. Linear motors are most commonly induction motors or stepper motors. On a smaller scale. instead of producing a torque (rotation). and in many roller-coasters where the rapid motion of the motorless railcar is controlled by the rail. it produces a straight-line force along its length by setting up a traveling electromagnetic field. where the train "flies" over the ground. Feeding and windings Doubly-fed electric motor Main article: Doubly-fed electric machine Doubly-fed electric motors have two independent multiphase windings that actively participate in the energy conversion process with at least one of the . Stepper motors were upscaled to be used in electric vehicles under the term SRM (Switched Reluctance Motor). Some of these watches. such as chronographs.

such as a starting induction squirrel-cage winding or an electronic controller.[19] Singly-fed electric motor Main article: Singly-fed electric machine Singly-fed electric motors incorporate a single multiphase winding set that is connected to a power supply. doubly-fed electric motors are machines with an effective constant torque speed range that is twice synchronous speed for a given frequency of excitation. Induction machines develop starting torque at zero speed and can operate as standalone machines.e. Difficulties with controlling speed near synchronous speed limit applications. Singly-fed electric machines may be either induction or synchronous. squirrel cage rotor or wound rotor). synchronous motors (i. A doubly-fed motor allows for a smaller electronic converter but the cost of the rotor winding and slip rings may offset the saving in the power electronics components. This is twice the constant torque speed range as singly-fed electric machines. which have only one active winding set. Two is the most active multiphase winding sets possible without duplicating singlyfed or doubly-fed categories in the same package. The induction (asynchronous) motors (i.. field-excited. Synchronous machines must have auxiliary means for startup. The active winding set can be electronically controlled.. permanent magnet or .e. As a result. Singly-fed electric machines have an effective constant torque speed range up to synchronous speed for a given excitation frequency.winding sets electronically controlled for variable speed operation.

are examples of singly-fed motors. singly-fed motors are the predominantly installed type of motors. See also: • • Molecular motors Electrostatic motor Efficiency To calculate a motor's efficiency. .brushless DC motors. Nanotube nanomotor Main article: Nanomotor Researchers at University of California. the mechanical output power is divided by the electrical input power: . etc. These nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) are the next step in miniaturization and may find their way into commercial applications in the future. devices have been oscillated thousands of times with no indication of wear. they are able to electrostatically rotate the outer shell relative to the inner core.). By far. recently developed rotational bearings based upon multiwall carbon nanotubes. By attaching a gold plate (with dimensions of the order of 100 nm) to the outer shell of a suspended multiwall carbon nanotube (like nested carbon cylinders). which are discussed on this page. These bearings are very robust. Berkeley. reluctance motors.

voltage.e. Implications Because a DC motor operates most efficiently at less than 1/2 its stall torque. IE: using a bigger motor than is necessary enables the motor to operate closest to no load. all categories of electric motors or generators will exhibit virtually the same maximum continuous shaft torque (i.. and Pm = Tω. It is possible to derive analytically the point of maximum efficiency. operating torque) within a given physical size of electromagnetic core. where V is input voltage. and ω is output angular velocity..e. pole-pair number. an "oversized" motor runs with the highest efficiency. T is output torque. . It is typically at less than 1/2 the stall torque. and Pm is mechanical output power. Always limited by magnetic core saturation or safe operating temperature rise and voltage. or peak operating conditions. such as short bursts of torque to accelerate an electric vehicle from standstill. Some applications require bursts of torque beyond the maximum operating torque.. I is input current. Torque capability of motor types When optimally designed for a given active current (i. synchronous speed). the capacity for torque bursts beyond the maximum operating torque differs significantly between categories of electric motors or generators. In simplest case Pe = VI.where η is energy conversion efficiency. torque current).e. Pe is electrical input power. excitation frequency (i. and core flux density.

the permanent magnet assembly of PM synchronous electric machines can be irreparably damaged.e.. Furthermore. .Note: Capacity for bursts of torque should not be confused with Field Weakening capability inherent in fully electromagnetic electric machines (Permanent Magnet (PM) electric machine are excluded). allows an electric machine to operate beyond the designed frequency of excitation without electrical damage. if bursts of torque exceeding the maximum operating torque rating are attempted.. Electric machines that rely on Induction or Asynchronous principles shortcircuit one port of the transformer circuit and as a result.e. Electric machines without a transformer circuit topology. electromagnet) or Permanent Magnet (PM) Synchronous electric machines cannot realize bursts of torque higher than the maximum designed torque without saturating the magnetic core and rendering any increase in current as useless. the active current contributes nothing to the transformer coupled magnetic core flux density. which would otherwise lead to core saturation. Electric machines with a transformer circuit topology. such as FieldWound (i. such as Induction (i. Field Weakening.e.. and Induction or Synchronous Wound-Rotor Doubly-Fed (WRDF) electric machines. Induction Doubly-Fed electric machines. the reactive impedance of the transformer circuit becomes dominant as slip increases. asynchronous) electric machines. which is not readily available with PM electric machines. Magneto-Motive-Force or the product of current and winding-turns) induced on either side of the transformer oppose each other and as a result. exhibit very high bursts of torque because the active current (i.

If a precision means were available to instantaneously control torque angle and slip for synchronous operation during motoring or generating while simultaneously providing brushless power to the rotor winding set (see Brushless wound-rotor doubly-fed electric machine). The dual ported transformer circuit topology is known to be unstable and requires a multiphase slip-ring-brush assembly to propagate limited power to the rotor winding set.e. For example.. However. Materials Further information: Materials science There is an impending shortage of many rare raw materials used in the manufacture of hybrid and electric cars (Nishiyama 2007) (Cox 2008). real) current.. both ports independently excited with no short-circuited port). the rare earth element dysprosium is required to fabricate many of the advanced electric motors used in hybrid cars (Cox 2008). Still.which limits the magnitude of active (i. bursts of torque that are two to three times higher than the maximum design torque are realizable. over . The Synchronous WRDF electric machine is the only electric machine with a truly dual ported transformer circuit topology (i.e. Torque bursts greater than eight times operating torque have been calculated. the active current of the Synchronous WRDF electric machine would be independent of the reactive impedance of the transformer circuit and bursts of torque significantly higher than the maximum operating torque and far beyond the practical capability of any other type of electric machine would be realizable.

AC motors typically use conventional copper wire for their stator coils and copper or aluminum rods or bars for their rotor. Motor standards The following are major design and manufacturing standards covering electric motors: • International Electrotechnical Commission: IEC 60034 Rotating Electrical Machines National Electrical Manufacturers Association (USA): NEMA MG 1 Motors and Generators Underwriters Laboratories (USA): UL 1004 . Toyota RAV4 EV and Tesla Roadster do not use permanent magnets or the associated rare earth materials. if not most. often use rare earth materials in their magnets.95% of the world's rare earth elements are mined in China (Haxel et al. and domestic Chinese consumption is expected to consume China's entire supply by 2012 (Cox 2008). turbines. drills. locomotives and conveyor belts. favored in hybrids such as those made by Toyota. AC motors do not significantly use rare earth materials. 2005). in many vibrating or . Also. modern machines.Standard for Electric Motors • • Uses Electric motors are used in many. the wheels on electric cars. Obvious uses would be in rotating machines such as fans.[citation needed] While permanent magnet motors. AC traction motors used in production electric vehicles such as the GM EV1.

oscillating machines. an electric motor spins an irregular figure with more area on one side of the axle than the other. and microwave ovens use motors to turn the tray food sits on. Electric motors are replacing hydraulic cylinders in airplanes and military equipment. Food processors and grinders spin blades to chop and break up foods. and servo motors are used to turn arms and legs in humanoid robots. a motor causes a propeller or wide. They are used to turn the wheels of vehicular robots. flat blades to spin and create lift force. allowing vertical motion. In industrial and manufacturing businesses. Toaster ovens also use electric motors to turn a conveyor to move food over heating elements. Electric motors are also popular in robotics. causing it to appear to be moving up and down. Many kitchen appliances also use electric motors to accomplish various jobs. and to spin gears and mixers (the latter very common in food manufacturing). electric motors are used to turn saws and blades in cutting and slicing processes. In flying robots. along with helicopters. Linear motors are often used to push products into containers horizontally. Blenders use electric motors to mix liquids. .

interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to another. voltage. For example. A switch that is operated by another electrical circuit is called a relay. flow. meaning the contacts are separated and nonconducting. Switches may be operated by process variables such as pressure. acting as sensors in a process and used to automatically control a system. to indicate that a garage door has reached its full open position or that a machine tool is in a position to accept another workpiece. Automatically-operated switches can be used to control the motions of machines.Switch In electronics. such as a computer keyboard button. or 'open'. A switch may be directly manipulated by a human as a control signal to a system. or to control power flow in a circuit. Large switches may be remotely operated by a motor drive mechanism. a thermostat is an automatically-operated switch used to control a heating process. Some switches are used to isolate electric power from a system.[1][2] The most familiar form of switch is a manually operated electromechanical device with one or more sets of electrical contacts. current. and force. temperature. for example. providing a visible point of isolation that can be pad-locked if necessary to . Each set of contacts can be in one of two states: either 'closed' meaning the contacts are touching and electricity can flow between them. a switch is an electrical component that can break an electrical circuit. such as a light switch.

prevent accidental operation of a machine during maintenance.2 Arcs and quenching 2 Contact terminology .1 Actuator 1. Major scale is inches. Contents 1 Contacts o o • 1. or to prevent electric shock. Three pushbutton switches (Tactile Switches).

3 Footswitch • • • 5 Intermediate switch 6 Light switches 7 Power switching o 7.2 Knife switch 4.1 Mercury tilt switch 4.• • 3 Biased switches 4 Special types o o o 4.1 Inductive loads • • 8 Contact bounce 9 Electronic switches • Contacts A toggle switch in the "on" position. .

are sometimes used. also known as an electric arc. The contact material is chosen for its resistance to corrosion. mechanical strength.In the simplest case. Contact materials are also chosen on the basis of electrical conductivity. They may be designed to wipe against each other to clean off any contamination. such as conductive plastic. Sometimes the contacts are plated with noble metals. Actuator The moving part that applies the operating force to the contacts is called the actuator. The plasma is also very hot and is capable of eroding the metal surfaces of the switch contacts. a switch has two pieces of metal called contacts that touch to make a circuit. a rocker. even with the separation distance between the switch contacts steadily increasing. forming a gas plasma. hardness (resistance to abrasive wear). The plasma is of low resistance and is able to sustain power flow. because most metals form insulating oxides that would prevent the switch from working. low cost and low toxicity[3]. and may be a toggle or dolly. the electron flow across opening switch contacts is sufficient to ionize the air molecules across the tiny gap between the contacts as the switch is opened. a push-button or any type of mechanical linkage (see photo). and separate to break the circuit. Nonmetallic conductors. Arcs and quenching When the wattage being switched is sufficiently large. .

an arc can also form as the switch is closed and the contacts approach. or immersing the switch contacts in mineral oil.Where the voltage is sufficiently high. and the contacts suddenly snap open or closed as the spring tension is released. In either case. typically using a spring-operated tipping-point mechanism to assure quick motion of switch contacts. A puffer may be used to blow a sudden high velocity burst of gas across the switch contacts. If the voltage potential is sufficient to exceed the breakdown voltage of the air separating the contacts. an arc forms which is sustained until the switch closes completely and the switch surfaces make contact. As the power being switched increases. the standard method for minimizing arc formation and preventing contact damage is to use a fast-moving switch mechanism. and as the arc rises its length increases as it forms ridges rising into the spaces between the blades. A plasma is hot and will rise due to convection air currents. such as enclosing the switch contacts in a vacuum. Movement of the switch control lever applies tension to a spring until a tipping point is reached. . until the arc is too long to stay sustained and is extinguished. which rapidly extends the length of the arc to extinguish it quickly. regardless of the speed at which the switch control is operated by the user.000 watts capacity often place the switch contacts in something other than air to increase the resistance against arc formation. Extremely large switches in excess of 100. The arc can be quenched with a series of nonconductive blades spanning the distance between switch contacts. other methods are used to minimize or prevent arc formation.

and no current can flow at typical voltages. . they are said to be "open". When the contacts are separated by an insulating air gap. an air space.Contact terminology Triple Pole Single Throw (TPST or 3PST) knife switch used to short the windings of a 3 phase wind turbine for braking purposes. Here the switch is shown in the open position. A pair of contacts is said to be "closed" when current can flow from one to the other.

a triple-throw has a contact which can be connected to one of three other contacts.Switches are classified according to the arrangement of their contacts in electronics. In a push-button type switch. A single-throw switch has one pair of contacts that can either be closed or open. These may be "make-before-break" which momentarily connect both circuits. etc. or normally closed ("n. "three-way" and "four-way" switches. such as "one-way".o. "on or off") or "single-pole. Electricians installing building wiring use different nomenclature. The number of "throws" is the number of separate positions that the switch can adopt. In electrical . A switch with both types of contact is called a changeover switch. These terms give rise to abbreviations for the types of switch which are used in the electronics industry such as "single-pole. or "nc") and opened by the switch action. connecting either of two terminals to the common terminal. The number of "poles" is the number of separate circuits which are switched by a switch. A double-throw switch has a contact that can be connected to either of two other contacts.c. or may be "break-before-make" which interrupts one circuit before closing the other. the contacts can either be normally open (abbreviated "n. "two-way". which have different meanings in North American and British cultural regions as described in the table below." or "no") until closed by operation of the switch. in which the contacts remain in one state unless actuated. The terms pole and throw are also used to describe switch contact variations. double-throw" (SPDT). single-throw" (SPST) (the simplest type.

SPDT and intermediate will be used to avoid the ambiguity in the use of the word "way".power wiring (i. these terms differ between British and American English and the terms two way and three way are used in both with different meanings. Symbol IEC 60617 Switches with larger numbers of poles or throws can be described by replacing the "S" or "D" with a number or in some cases the letter "T" (for "triple"). House and building wiring by electricians) names generally involving the suffixed word "-way" are used. In the rest of this article the terms SPST. however. Biased switches .e.

The momentary push-button switch is a type of biased switch. or presence of a magnetic field (the reed switch). an (on)-off-(on) switch can be switched on by moving the actuator in either direction away from the centre. the turning of a key (key switch). breaks contact when the button is pressed and makes contact when it is released. on the other hand. linear or rotary movement (the limit switch or microswitch). The most common type is a "push-to-make" (or normally-open or NO) switch. for example. A "push-to-break" (or normally-closed or NC) switch. For example. Each key of a computer keyboard. which makes contact when the button is pressed and breaks when the button is released. The "on-off" notation can be modified by placing parentheses around all positions other than the resting position. but returns to the central off position when the actuator is released.A biased switch is one containing a spring that returns the actuator to a certain position. An example of a push-to-break switch is a button used to release a door held open by an electromagnet. fluid level (the float switch). vibration (the trembler switch). Mercury tilt switch . air pressure. Special types Switches can be designed to respond to any type of mechanical stimulus: for example. is a normally-open "push-to-make" switch. tilt.

The mercury switch consists of a drop of mercury inside a glass bulb with 2 or more contacts. When the switch is closed. and movement and vibration do not produce a poor contact. or may be directly bolted to an insulated switch board in a large assembly. hinged at one end. the switch is used only where people cannot accidentally come in contact with the switch. with an insulating handle for operation. as the liquid metal connection is unaffected by dirt. Knife switch Knife switches consist of a flat metal blade. it wets the contacts ensuring a very low resistance bounce-free connection. current flows through the hinged pivot and blade and through the fixed contact. In electrical transmission and . The parts may be mounted on an insulating base with terminals for wiring. debris and oxidation. Since the electrical contacts are exposed. Such switches are usually not enclosed. and a fixed contact. This type of switch performs much better than the ball tilt switch. The two contacts pass through the glass. These types can be used for precision works. and are connected by the mercury when the bulb is tilted to make the mercury roll on to them. Knife switches are made in many sizes from miniature switches to large devices used to carry thousands of amperes. It can also be used where arcing is dangerous (such as in the presence of explosive vapour) as the entire unit is sealed.

Footswitch A footswitch is a rugged switch which is operated by foot pressure. some variations of the DPDT switch are internally wired specifically for polarity reversal. Sometimes spring-loaded auxiliary blades are fitted which momentarily carry the full current during opening. Intermediate switches are also an important part of multiway switching systems with more than two switches (see next section). gang-operated switches are used in circuits up to the highest voltages. Light switches Main article: Light switch . The disadvantages of the knife switch are the slow opening speed anparts. These crossover switches only have four terminals rather than six. then quickly part to rapidly extinguish the arc. Intermediate switch A DPDT switch has six connections. but since polarity reversal is a very common usage of DPDT switches. When connected to a battery or other DC source. Metal-enclosed safety disconnect switches are used for isolation of circuits in industrial power distribution. the 4-way switch selects from either normal or reversed polarity. An example of use is for the control of an electric sewing machine.distribution. Two of the terminals are inputs and two are outputs.

A momentary on-off switch (such as on a laser pointer) usually takes the form of a button and only closes the circuit when the button is depressed. Dual-action switches incorporate both of these features. By use of multiple-pole switches. However when the switch is flicked the resistance must pass through a state where briefly a quarter (or worse if the load is not purely resistive) of the load's rated power is dropped in the switch. control of a lamp can be obtained from two or more places. the transitional state of the switch as well as the ability to stand continuous operating currents must be considered. such as the ends of a corridor or stairwell. Power switching When a switch is designed to switch significant power. when a switch is in the off state its resistance is extremely high and even less power is dropped in the contacts. Power switches usually come in two types.In building wiring. A regular on-off switch (such as on a flashlight) has a constant on-off feature. When a switch is in the on state its resistance is near zero and very little power is dropped in the contacts. . most power switches (most light switches and almost all larger switches) have spring mechanisms in them to make sure the transition between on and off is as short as possible regardless of the speed at which the user moves the rocker. For this reason. light switches are installed at convenient locations to control lighting and occasionally other circuits.

Contact bounce Contact bounce (also called chatter) is a common problem with mechanical switches and relays. their momentum and elasticity act together to cause bounce. The effect is usually unimportant in power circuits. The spark will cause electromagnetic interference if not suppressed. a spark will jump across the opening contacts. the current cannot drop instantaneously to zero.A diagram of a dual-action switch system Inductive loads When a strongly inductive load such as an electric motor is switched off. Switch and relay contacts are usually made of springy metals that are forced into contact by an actuator. When the contacts strike together. a snubber network of a resistor and capacitor in series will quell the spark. . but causes problems in some analogue and logic circuits that respond fast enough to misinterpret the on-off pulses as a data stream[4]. The result is a rapidly pulsed electrical current instead of a clean transition from zero to full current. Switches for inductive loads must be rated to handle these cases.

runt pulses and glitches. The common feature of all these usages is they refer to devices that . due to problems such as metastability. Contact circuits can be filtered to reduce or eliminate multiple pulses. and signifies a network that is circuit switched. Electronic switches Since the advent of digital logic in the 1950s. such as the public switched telephone network. the term switch has spread to a variety of digital active devices such as transistors and logic gates whose function is to change their output state between two logic levels or connect different signal lines. and even computers. but these are now infrequently used because of the hazard of mercury release. One way to implement this is by using an SR Latch. race conditions. providing dedicated circuits for communication between end nodes. In digital systems.Sequential digital logic circuits are particularly vulnerable to contact bounce. The voltage waveform produced by switch bounce usually violates the amplitude and timing specifications of the logic circuit. The effects of contact bounce can be eliminated by use of mercury-wetted contacts. multiple samples of the contact state can be taken or a time delay can be implemented so that the contact bounce has settled before the contact input is used to control anything. whose function is to provide connections between different ports in a computer network.[6] The term 'switched' is also applied to telecommunications networks. network switches. The result is that the circuit may fail.

closed or open. connected or not connected. WORKING Block diagram Power supply Microcontroller Unit Motor Mechanical Arrangement .control a binary state: they are either on or off.

Circuit . The motors shaft is fitted with a wheel which is in turn contact with the stand in a eccentric manner thus this rotation of motor contributes stand to lift for first half cycle and to down for next half cycle. This initiations and termination are determined by the controller unit with help of button and limit switch.In our arrangement the stand motion in done by the motors rotations.

// Turn off the comparators TRISIO = 0xFE.F0=0. do { // beginning of a repeat loop if(GPIO. delay_ms(1500).Coding void main() { ANSEL = 0.F1==1) goto xyz. } .F1==1) { GPIO. // configure pins of GPIO as output GPIO. // Configure AN pins as digital CMCON = 7.F0=1. xyz: if(GPIO.

if(GPIO. } while(1).if(GPIO.F2==1 ) GPIO.F0=0.F3==1 ) GPIO. satisfied) } // endless loop as this condition is always SOLDERING INSTRUCTION .F0=0.

.  Don’t heat the electronics parts for more than 2-4 seconds.  For bigger joints use elevated temperature as per job. the tip of Soldering iron is held at an angle.  One to three mm solder which is neither too less nor too much and adequate for a normal joint.  Don’t carry molten solder to the joint.CLEANING FOR SOLDERING:  Ensure that parts to be soldered and the PCB are clean and free from dirt and grease.  Heat the joint the right amount of time. ensure that it is tinned.  Before using a new tip. with the help of non-static Bristol brush for cleaning. TIPS FOR GOOD SOLDERING:  Use 15 to20 watt soldering irons for general work involving small joints.  Use 60:40(tin: lead)  Ensure that while applying the tip to the job.  Use isopropyl alcohol.

 Don’t move the components until the molten solder at the joint has cooled.  Solder the components again after cleaning by repeating the steps under sub A and B above.  Don’t sit under the fan during soldering. Precaution:  Don’t use a spread solder on the board. TIPS FOR DE-SOLDERING:  Remove and remake if a solder joint is bad or dry.  Do not allow the solder to cool while the braid is still adhering to the joint. .  Repeat the above operation 2-3 until the soldering and when the solder melts.  Don’t over heat the components at the board . it may cause short circuit.  Allows it to cool and check for continuity.  Deposit additional solder before using the de-soldered pump for sucking.excess heat may damage the components or board.  Use a De-soldering pump which is first cocked and then the joint is heated in the same way as during soldering.

Be sure that all the joints are clean and well shines. . The board should not vibrate while soldering  Don’t use old dark colored solder. It may give dry joint.

CONCLUSION .

 We learn more and more in our project. . The project has come out as a grand success.  We well to step by step testing in that the  Result all so very well.  It is different experience to our self we well  Successfully finish the project.  This project is useful for all the peoples.