Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire 4.

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Parametric Technology Corporation

Copyright © 2008 Parametric Technology Corporation. All Rights Reserved. User and training guides and related documentation from Parametric Technology Corporation and its subsidiary companies (collectively “PTC”) is subject to the copyright laws of the United States and other countries and is provided under a license agreement that restricts copying, disclosure, and use of such documentation. PTC hereby grants to the licensed software user the right to make copies in printed form of this documentation if provided on software media, but only for internal/personal use and in accordance with the license agreement under which the applicable software is licensed. Any copy made shall include the PTC copyright notice and any other proprietary notice provided by PTC. Training materials may not be copied without the express written consent of PTC. This documentation may not be disclosed, transferred, modified, or reduced to any form, including electronic media, or transmitted or made publicly available by any means without the prior written consent of PTC and no authorization is granted to make copies for such purposes. Information described herein is furnished for general information only, is subject to change without notice, and should not be construed as a warranty or commitment by PTC. PTC assumes no responsibility or liability for any errors or inaccuracies that may appear in this document. The software described in this document is provided under written license agreement, contains valuable trade secrets and proprietary information, and is protected by the copyright laws of the United States and other countries. It may not be copied or distributed in any form or medium, disclosed to third parties, or used in any manner not provided for in the software licenses agreement except with written prior approval from PTC. UNAUTHORIZED USE OF SOFTWARE OR ITS DOCUMENTATION CAN RESULT IN CIVIL DAMAGES AND CRIMINAL PROSECUTION. For Important Copyright, Trademark, Patent, and Licensing Information: For Windchill products, select About Windchill at the bottom of the product page. For InterComm products, on the Help main page, click the link for Copyright 2007. For other products, select Help > About on the main menu for the product. UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT RESTRICTED RIGHTS LEGEND This document and the software described herein are Commercial Computer Documentation and Software, pursuant to FAR 12.212(a)-(b) (OCT’95) or DFARS 227.7202-1(a) and 227.7202-3(a) (JUN’95), and are provided to the US Government under a limited commercial license only. For procurements predating the above clauses, use, duplication, or disclosure by the Government is subject to the restrictions set forth in subparagraph (c)(1)(ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software Clause at DFARS 252.227-7013 (OCT’88) or Commercial Computer Software-Restricted Rights at FAR 52.227-19(c)(1)-(2) (JUN’87), as applicable. 01012008 Parametric Technology Corporation, 140 Kendrick Street, Needham, MA 02494 USA

Table of Contents
Using Part ..................................................................................................... 2 About Part .................................................................................................. 2 Design Concepts .......................................................................................... 2 Planning Your Design.................................................................................... 3 Design Approaches.................................................................................... 3 The Modeling Process ................................................................................... 4 Features and Parts ....................................................................................... 4 Parent-Child Relationships............................................................................. 4 Putting It All Together .................................................................................. 5 Starting Out in Part Mode.............................................................................. 5 Creating the Initial Solid Feature ................................................................. 5 Creating a User-Defined Feature as the First Feature ..................................... 5 Creating Features ........................................................................................ 6 Configuring Pro/ENGINEER for Using Part........................................................... 7 About Configuration Options for Part .............................................................. 7 To Set Configuration Options for Part.............................................................. 7 accuracy_lower_bound ................................................................................. 7 allow_anatomic_features .............................................................................. 7 allow_move_view_with_move ....................................................................... 8 allow_udf_style_cosm_threads ...................................................................... 8 angle_grid_interval ...................................................................................... 8 autohide_copied_group_af ............................................................................ 8 autoround_max_n_chains_per_feat................................................................ 8 blended_transparency .................................................................................. 9 centimeter_grid_interval............................................................................... 9 datum_point_symbol.................................................................................... 9 default_abs_accuracy ................................................................................... 9 default_dec_places ...................................................................................... 9

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dim_fraction_denominator ............................................................................ 9 display_coordinate_sys................................................................................. 9 display_dwg_sketch_constraint.....................................................................10 dm_cache_mode ........................................................................................10 dm_cache_size ...........................................................................................10 dm_remember_server .................................................................................10 dm_upload_objects .....................................................................................10 enable_absolute_accuracy ...........................................................................10 fail_unattached_feature ...............................................................................10 feature_create_auto_begin ..........................................................................11 feature_create_auto_ok...............................................................................11 flip_arrow_scale .........................................................................................11 foot_grid_interval .......................................................................................11 group_repl_with_recycle ..............................................................................11 group_replace_rename ................................................................................11 hole_diameter_override ...............................................................................12 hole_parameter_file_path ............................................................................12 inch_grid_interval .......................................................................................12 info_output_format .....................................................................................12 keep_info_datums ......................................................................................12 mark_approximate_dims .............................................................................12 meter_grid_interval ....................................................................................13 millimeter_grid_interval...............................................................................13 new_parameter_ui ......................................................................................13 new_relation_ui ..........................................................................................13 pro_group_dir ............................................................................................13 ratio_grid_interval ......................................................................................13 regenerate_read_only_objects......................................................................13 select_on_dtm_edges..................................................................................14 show_axes_for_extr_arcs ............................................................................14 show_dim_sign...........................................................................................14 iv

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show_geom_checks_on_creation ..................................................................14 system_curves_color...................................................................................14 user_defined_grid_interval...........................................................................14 use_pre_wildfire_text_font...........................................................................14 web_browser_homepage .............................................................................15 web_enable_javascript ................................................................................15 Datum Features ............................................................................................16 Datum Planes .............................................................................................16 About Datum Planes .................................................................................16 About the Datum Planes User Interface .......................................................17 DATUM PLANE Dialog Box.......................................................................17 Shortcut Menus.....................................................................................19 Handles ...............................................................................................19 About Using Datum Planes with Legacy Data ...............................................19 Using Legacy Datum Planes with Size Adjusted to Specified Radius ..............20 Using Legacy Datum Planes with Datum Coordinate Systems or Point Features as References .......................................................................................20 About Modifying the Size of the Datum Planes..............................................20 To Create a Datum Plane and Adjust Its Display by Size ................................21 To Adjust Datum Display by Reference........................................................22 To Create an Offset Datum Plane ...............................................................22 To Create a Datum Plane with an Angular Offset ..........................................23 Snapping and Unsnapping of Handles .........................................................23 About Creating a Datum Plane Using a Datum Coordinate System ..................24 To Create a Datum Plane Through a Datum Coordinate System......................25 About Creating a Datum Plane Tangent to a Surface .....................................25 To Preselect Datum References ..................................................................26 Datum Axes ...............................................................................................26 About Datum Axes ...................................................................................26 About the Datum Axes User Interface .........................................................27 DATUM AXIS Dialog Box .........................................................................27

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Placement .........................................................................................27 Display..............................................................................................28 Properties..........................................................................................28 Shortcut Menus.....................................................................................28 To Create a Datum Axis and Adjust Its Size .................................................29 To Create a Datum Axis Normal to a Surface Using Two Offset References.......29 To Create a Datum Axis Selecting a Circular Curve or Edge............................30 To Preselect Datum Axis References ...........................................................30 Example: Using Datum Axes in Modeling .....................................................31 Datum Points .............................................................................................33 About the Datum Point Feature ..................................................................33 Different Types of Datum Points ..............................................................33 Accessing Datum Points .........................................................................33 Datum Points Display................................................................................34 Point (General) ........................................................................................34 About General Datum Points ...................................................................34 Accessing a General Datum Point..........................................................34 Using the Object-Action Workflow .........................................................35 Creating a Group of Datum Points on a Surface or Quilt ...........................35 About the General Point User Interface.....................................................35 Feature Icon ......................................................................................36 Datum Point Dialog Box.......................................................................36 Using the Placement Tab .....................................................................36 Shortcut Menus ..................................................................................37 To Work with the Points List in the Datum Points Dialog Box .......................37 To Create a Datum Point on a Curve, Edge, or Datum Axis..........................38 Tip: Creating a Datum Point at the Extension of a Straight Edge or Curve .....38 To Create a Datum Point at a Curve's Intersection .....................................39 To Create a Datum Point at the Center .....................................................39 To Create a Datum Point On or Offset from a Surface.................................39

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To Create a Datum Point On or Offset from a Coordinate System or Its Axis or a Vertex...............................................................................................40 Creating Multiple Datum Points on the Same Surface or Quilt ......................41 To Create a Datum Point Offset from Another Point....................................42 To Create a Datum Point at the Intersection of Entities...............................42 To Create a Datum Point Using an Intent Chain .........................................43 Sketched ................................................................................................44 About Sketched Datum Points .................................................................44 Accessing a Sketched Datum Point........................................................44 About the Sketched Datum Points User Interface .......................................44 Feature Icon ......................................................................................45 Sketched Datum Point Dialog Box .........................................................45 To Create Sketched Datum Points............................................................45 Offset from a Coordinate System................................................................45 About Datum Points Offset from a Coordinate System ................................45 Accessing Points Offset from a Coordinate System ..................................46 About the Datum Point Offset Coordinate System User Interface .................46 Feature Icon ......................................................................................46 Offset CSys Datum Point Dialog Box......................................................46 To Create Datum Points Offset from the Coordinate System ........................47 To Import a Data File .............................................................................48 To Update Values of the Datum Point Offset Coordinate System ..................48 Field.......................................................................................................49 About Field Points..................................................................................49 Accessing a Field Point ........................................................................49 To Create a Field Point ...........................................................................49 Object/Action (Streamlined) Workflow ...................................................49 Action/Object Workflow .......................................................................49 Datum Curves ............................................................................................50 About Datum Curves ................................................................................50 About Sketched Datum Curves...................................................................50

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About the Sketched Datum Curves User Interface ........................................50 To Create a Sketched Datum Curve ............................................................51 About Imported Datum Curves...................................................................51 To Create a Datum Curve Using a Cross Section...........................................52 To Create a Datum Curve From Equations ...................................................52 Example: Importing a Datum Curve ...........................................................53 Datum Curves Through Points....................................................................54 To Create a Datum Curve Through Points .................................................54 Creating a Curve by Connecting Points .....................................................55 Using the CONNECT TYPE Menu ............................................................55 Using the DEF TAN Menu Options..........................................................56 To Create a Datum Curve Through Points that Lie on a Surface ...................56 Rules for Creating a Datum Curve with the On Surface Option .....................57 Coordinate Systems ....................................................................................57 About Coordinate Systems ........................................................................57 About Datum Coordinate System Names ..................................................58 Default Datum Coordinate Systems .........................................................58 About Coordinate Systems UI ....................................................................58 To Locate a Coordinate System ..................................................................59 To Create an Offset Coordinate System .......................................................60 To Orient a Coordinate System ..................................................................60 About Creating a Coordinate System from a File...........................................61 Coordinate System Transformation ..........................................................61 To Create a Coordinate System from a File ..................................................62 Example: Transformation File Format..........................................................62 Datum References ......................................................................................63 About Datum Reference Features ...............................................................63 About the Datum References User Interface ................................................63 Feature Icon .........................................................................................63 Datum Reference Dialog Box...................................................................63 Using the Placement Tab .....................................................................64 viii

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Shortcut Menus.....................................................................................64 About Intent Objects ................................................................................64 About Intent Object Names .......................................................................65 Default Names for Intent Objects ...............................................................65 Defining Intent Sufaces and Chains ............................................................66 To Create an Intent Datum Using Datum Reference Features .........................66 To Create an Intent Chain Using a Datum Reference Feature .........................67 To Create an Intent Surface Using Datum Reference Features ........................68 To Display Intent Object Names in the Model Tree ........................................69 To Edit an Intent Object Name ...................................................................69 To Edit References of a Datum Reference Feature.........................................69 To Redefine a Datum Reference Feature......................................................69 To Automatically Place UDFs Using Datum Reference Features .......................70 Placing Features with Saved Queries...........................................................70 Asynchronous Datums .................................................................................71 About Creating Asynchronous Datum Features .............................................71 Model Tree Display of Asynchronous Datum Features ....................................72 Embedding Asynchronous Datums ..............................................................72 Display Order of Embedded Datums and other Sub-Nodes .............................73 Displaying Legacy Data ..........................................................................73 To Create a Feature with Embedded Datums................................................74 To Convert a Standalone Datum to an Embedded Datum...............................75 To Convert an Embedded Datum to a Standalone Datum...............................76 Dragging and Dropping Embedded Datums..................................................76 Editing and Redefining Features with Embedded Datums ...............................77 Editing References.................................................................................77 Editing Dimensions ................................................................................77 Redefining Features ...............................................................................77 Copying Features with Embedded Datums ...................................................77 About Patterning, Mirroring, or Moving Features with Embedded Datums .........78 About Patterning, Mirroring, or Moving Features with Asynchronous Datums ....79 ix

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Patterning Features.............................................................................79 Creating a Pattern of a Pattern .............................................................80 About Deleting or Suppressing Features with Embedded Datums ....................80 To Delete a Feature while Retaining the Embedded Datums ...........................81 Base Features ...............................................................................................82 Extrude .....................................................................................................82 Basics of the Extruded Feature...................................................................82 About the Extruded Feature ....................................................................82 Creating a Two-Sided Feature ..............................................................82 Accessing the Extrude Tool ..................................................................82 About the Extrude User Interface ............................................................83 Feature Icon ......................................................................................83 Dialog Bar .........................................................................................83 Slide-up Panels ..................................................................................84 Shortcut Menus ..................................................................................84 Example: Different Types of Extrude Feature ............................................85 About Sections Used for Extrusions ..........................................................88 Sections for Solid Extrusions ................................................................88 Sections for Cuts and Thickened Extrusions............................................88 Sections for Surfaces ..........................................................................88 Using Sections with Multiple Contours ...................................................89 Preselecting a Sketching Plane ................................................................89 Using a Sketched Datum Curve as a Feature Section..................................89 Associativity between the Selected Curve and the Feature .......................89 About the Depth Options ........................................................................90 Rules for Terminating Features Using the Part Entities .............................90 Tips for Changing the Depth Options Using Snapping...............................91 About the Thicken Sketch Command ........................................................91 About an Extruded Cut ...........................................................................91 About an Extruded Surface .....................................................................91 Creating an Extruded Surface with an Open or Closed Volume ..................92 x

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About a Surface Trim Created with the Extrude Tool ..................................92 Depth Options for Trim Surface ............................................................92 Selecting the Portion of the Quilt to Keep...............................................92 Tips for Creating a Revolved Feature Using the Object/Action Workflow ........93 Tips for Creating an Extrusion Using the Object/Action Workflow .................93 Working with the Extruded Feature.............................................................93 To Create a Solid Protrusion....................................................................93 To Create a Thickened Extrusion .............................................................94 To Create a Cut.....................................................................................95 To Create an Extruded Surface................................................................96 To Create a Surface Trim........................................................................97 To Create an Internal Sketch ..................................................................98 Tip: Creating a Datum Curve While in the Feature Tool...............................99 Making Changes to an Extruded Feature ...................................................99 Using Direct Section Edit .....................................................................99 Redefining a Copied Feature............................................................... 100 Revolve ................................................................................................... 100 Basics of the Revolved Feature ................................................................ 100 About the Revolved Feature .................................................................. 100 Creating a Two-Sided Feature ............................................................ 100 Accessing the Revolve Tool ................................................................ 101 About the Revolve User Interface .......................................................... 101 Feature Icon .................................................................................... 101 Dialog Bar ....................................................................................... 101 Slide-up Panels ................................................................................ 102 Shortcut Menus ................................................................................ 103 Example: Different Types of Revolved Feature......................................... 104 About Sections Used for Revolved Features............................................. 105 About the Axis of Revolution ................................................................. 105 Using Model Geometry as an Axis of Revolution .................................... 105 Using a Sketcher Centerline as the Axis of Revolution............................ 106 xi

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About the Angle of Revolution ............................................................... 106 Tips for Changing the Angle Option Using Snapping............................... 106 About a Revolved Cut .......................................................................... 106 About a Revolved Surface..................................................................... 107 Creating an Extruded Surface with an Open or Closed Volume ................ 107 Working with the Revolved Feature .......................................................... 107 To Define an Axis of Revolution ............................................................. 107 Using an external axis of revolution .................................................... 107 Using an internal centerline as an axis of revolution .............................. 108 To Create a Revolved Solid ................................................................... 108 To Create a Thickened Revolved Feature ................................................ 109 To Create a Revolved Cut ..................................................................... 110 To Create a Revolved Surface ............................................................... 111 To Create a Revolved Surface Trim ........................................................ 112 Making Changes to a Revolved Feature .................................................. 113 Using Direct Section Edit ................................................................... 113 Redefining a Copied Feature............................................................... 113 Variable Section Sweep ............................................................................. 113 About the Variable Section Sweep Feature................................................. 113 About the Variable Section Sweep User Interface ....................................... 114 Feature Icon ....................................................................................... 114 Dialog Bar .......................................................................................... 114 Slide-up Panels ................................................................................... 115 Shortcut Menus................................................................................... 116 To Create a Variable Section Sweep.......................................................... 117 About Tangent Trajectories...................................................................... 119 About Specifying the Variable Section Sweep Trajectories............................ 120 Workflow for Variable Section Sweeps....................................................... 120 Workflow for a Normal Trajectory ............................................................. 122 Workflow for Constant Section ................................................................. 122 Workflow for Section Plane at a Constant Normal Direction .......................... 122 xii

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Workflow for Sweeping with Default Settings - X-Trajectory......................... 122 Workflow for the Section Plane Normal to the Trajectory Projection............... 123 To Create a Variable Section Sweep Using Relations ................................... 123 Example: Using Relations to Create a Variable Section Sweep ...................... 124 Section Plane Orientation ........................................................................ 124 Normal to Trajectory (Automatic) .......................................................... 124 Normal to Trajectory (Automatic): Start X Direction ................................. 125 Normal to Trajectory - Normal to Surface ............................................... 126 Normal to Trajectory - X Trajectory ....................................................... 126 Normal to Other Trajectory (Automatic) ................................................. 127 Normal to Projection ............................................................................ 127 Constant Normal (Automatic)................................................................ 128 Constant Normal (X Trajectory)............................................................. 128 Constant Normal (Automatic) - Start X Direction ..................................... 129 Constant Normal (Normal to Surface) .................................................... 129 Blends ..................................................................................................... 129 About Blends ......................................................................................... 129 Blend Types........................................................................................ 130 To Create a Blend (basic) ........................................................................ 130 Example: Different Blend Geometries........................................................ 131 Modifying Blends.................................................................................... 131 To Add a Blend Vertex ............................................................................ 132 Using a Blend Vertex .............................................................................. 132 Example: Adding a Blend Vertex .............................................................. 132 To Import a Blend .................................................................................. 132 Importing a Blend Feature....................................................................... 133 Notes on Creating Blends: .................................................................... 133 Modifying an Imported Blend ................................................................ 133 Creating a Blend from Imported Curves.................................................. 133 Blend File Format ................................................................................... 133 Example: Importing Blend File ................................................................. 135 xiii

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Sections in Sketch-Based Features................................................................. 136 About Sections in Sketch-based Features ..................................................... 136 Valid and Invalid Sections ....................................................................... 136 About the Section User Interface................................................................. 137 Section Icons......................................................................................... 137 Dialog Boxes ......................................................................................... 137 Dialog Bar ............................................................................................. 138 Slide-Up Panels...................................................................................... 138 Placement, Reference, or Options slide-up panels .................................... 138 Properties slide-up panel ...................................................................... 139 Shortcut Menus...................................................................................... 139 Sketch-based Features in the Model Tree ..................................................... 140 Customizing the Model Tree Display For Sketch-based Features ................... 140 To Create a Section................................................................................... 141 To Select a Sketch Feature......................................................................... 141 To Redefine a Section ................................................................................ 142 To Make a Dependent Section Independent .................................................. 144 To Delete a Section ................................................................................... 145 To Delete a Sketch Feature ........................................................................ 145 To Report Sketch-based Feature Information ................................................ 146 Edit Features .............................................................................................. 147 Copy and Paste ........................................................................................ 147 About Copying and Pasting ...................................................................... 147 Copying to the Clipboard ...................................................................... 147 Accessing Copy-Paste Commands .......................................................... 148 Two Methods for Pasting Features.......................................................... 148 About Dependent and Independent Copies ................................................ 148 Fully-Dependent Copies........................................................................ 148 Fully-Dependent Copies with Varying Dependency ................................ 149 Copies Dependent on Dimensions .......................................................... 149 Independent Copies ............................................................................. 149 xiv

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Using Paste ........................................................................................... 149 About the Paste User Interface for Features ............................................ 149 Pasting Multiple Features ................................................................... 150 To Paste Using the Object-Action Workflow ............................................. 150 Pasting Using the Same or New References............................................. 150 Using Same References ..................................................................... 150 Replacing References ........................................................................ 151 Missing References ........................................................................... 151 Using New References ....................................................................... 151 Skipping References.......................................................................... 151 Using Common References ................................................................ 152 Copying and Pasting Features ............................................................... 152 To Copy and Paste a Feature.............................................................. 152 To Copy and Paste Multiple Features ................................................... 152 To Copy and Paste Between two Different Sources ................................ 152 To Cancel a Paste Operation............................................................... 153 Copying and Pasting Surfaces and Curves............................................... 154 About Copying and Pasting Surfaces and Curves ................................... 154 About the Paste User Interface for Surfaces and Curves......................... 154 To Copy a Surface ............................................................................ 156 To Copy a Surface Excluding Patches and Holes .................................... 156 To Copy Surfaces Inside a Closed Sketched Curve................................. 157 To Convert a Copied Surface to an Inner Boundary Copy ....................... 157 To Copy Curves or Edges ................................................................... 157 Using Paste Special ................................................................................ 158 About Paste Special ............................................................................. 158 About Dimension Dependency and Copying Sketch-Based Features............ 159 Copying Sketched-Based Features ...................................................... 160 About Varying the Dependency of Pasted Features................................... 160 To Create a Dependent Copy in a Model with Paste Special ....................... 161 To Create a Fully-Dependent Feature and Vary Dependency...................... 162 xv

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To Create an Independent Copy of a Feature or Feature Set...................... 163 To Break, Restore, or Remove Dependency............................................. 164 To Copy a Feature Across Models Using Paste Special............................... 165 To Create a Dependent Copy of Sketch-Based Features ............................ 166 Copying Features that Use an Internal Sketch ...................................... 166 Copying Features that Use an External Sketch ...................................... 166 To Create an Independent Copy of Sketch-Based Features........................ 166 Copying Features that Use an Internal Sketch ...................................... 166 Copying Features that Use an External Sketch ...................................... 167 About the Advanced Reference Configuration User Interface ..................... 167 To Copy Features Using the Advanced Reference Configuration ................. 168 To Verify the Availability of Original References ....................................... 169 default_dep_copy_option ..................................................................... 169 Mirror...................................................................................................... 169 About The Mirror Tool ............................................................................. 169 All Feature Method .............................................................................. 170 Selected Feature Method ...................................................................... 171 About the Mirror User Interface................................................................ 171 Feature Icon ....................................................................................... 171 Dialog Bar .......................................................................................... 171 Slide-up Panels ................................................................................... 172 Shortcut Menu .................................................................................... 173 To Mirror Selected Features ..................................................................... 173 To Mirror All the Geometry in a Part.......................................................... 173 To Mirror Geometry ................................................................................ 174 Move....................................................................................................... 174 About the Move Tool............................................................................... 174 About the Move User Interface................................................................. 176 Feature Icon ....................................................................................... 176 Dialog Bar .......................................................................................... 176 Slide-up Panels ................................................................................... 176 xvi

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Shortcut Menu .................................................................................... 177 To Move Geometry ................................................................................. 178 To Move Features................................................................................... 179 To Move All Features in a Part.................................................................. 180 To Create Multiple Moves ........................................................................ 181 Example: Different Move Techniques ........................................................ 182 Selected Feature Move ......................................................................... 182 All Features Move ................................................................................ 182 Geometry Move................................................................................... 183 About Redefining Legacy Data that Uses Coordinate System or Two Datum Points as Direction Reference ............................................................................ 183 Redefining a Feature with Two Datum Points or Vertices as Direction Reference ........................................................................................................ 184 Redefining a Feature with a Datum Coordinate System as Direction Reference ........................................................................................................ 184 Merge ..................................................................................................... 184 About the Merged Feature ....................................................................... 184 Parental Hierarchy of Quilts .................................................................. 185 Accessing the Merge Tool ..................................................................... 185 Error Reporting ................................................................................... 186 Dynamic Preview................................................................................. 186 Undo and Redo ................................................................................... 186 About the Merged Feature User Interface .................................................. 186 Feature Icon ....................................................................................... 187 Dashboard.......................................................................................... 187 Slide-up Panels ................................................................................... 187 Shortcut Menus................................................................................... 187 To Create a Merged Feature .................................................................... 187 To Merge More Than Two Quilts ............................................................... 188 Example: Merging Two Quilts................................................................... 189 Trim........................................................................................................ 190 About the Trim Feature ........................................................................... 190

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About the Trim User Interface.................................................................. 191 Feature Icon ....................................................................................... 191 Dialog Bar .......................................................................................... 191 Slide-up Panels ................................................................................... 191 Shortcut Menus................................................................................... 192 To Trim a Curve or Quilt.......................................................................... 192 To Trim Surfaces with a Quilt................................................................... 193 To Trim Surfaces with Thin Trim............................................................... 193 About Silhouette Trim ............................................................................. 194 To Trim Using Silhouette Edges................................................................ 194 Pattern .................................................................................................... 194 About the Pattern Feature ....................................................................... 194 Pattern Types ..................................................................................... 195 About Dimension Patterns ....................................................................... 196 About Direction Patterns ......................................................................... 196 About Axis Patterns ................................................................................ 197 About Table Patterns .............................................................................. 198 About Reference Patterns ........................................................................ 198 About Fill Patterns .................................................................................. 198 About Curve Patterns.............................................................................. 200 About Pattern Regeneration Options ......................................................... 200 Identical Patterns ................................................................................ 201 Variable Patterns................................................................................. 201 General Patterns ................................................................................. 201 Example: Patterns.................................................................................. 202 Pattern Directions................................................................................ 202 Pattern Configurations ......................................................................... 203 About the Pattern User Interface .............................................................. 203 Feature Icon ....................................................................................... 203 Dashboard.......................................................................................... 203 Slide-up Panels ................................................................................... 207 xviii

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Shortcut Menus................................................................................... 210 To Create a Dimension Pattern................................................................. 210 Varying the Location and Size of Instances ................................................ 211 Using Negative Increment in a Dimension Pattern ...................................... 211 Using Relations in Dimension Patterns ...................................................... 212 Example: Creating a Unidirectional Linear Pattern ...................................... 213 Example: Creating a Bidirectional Linear Pattern ........................................ 214 Example: Creating a Rotational Pattern of Holes......................................... 216 Example: Creating a Rotational Pattern of Sketched Features....................... 218 Example: Creating a Dimension Pattern Using Relations .............................. 221 To Create a Direction Pattern................................................................... 223 Example: Creating a Direction Pattern ...................................................... 224 To Create an Axis Pattern........................................................................ 226 Example: Creating an Axis Pattern ........................................................... 228 Pattern Directions................................................................................ 228 Two Methods for Locating Members in the Angular Direction ..................... 229 Method 1: Using the number of members and increment ....................... 229 Method 2: Using the number of members and angular extent of the pattern ...................................................................................................... 229 Example: Creating a Spiral Pattern ........................................................... 230 To Create a Table Pattern........................................................................ 231 Example: Creating a Table Pattern ........................................................... 232 To Modify a Table Pattern by Editing its Tables ........................................... 234 To Redefine Various Pattern Types as a Table Pattern ................................. 235 To Create a Reference Pattern ................................................................. 236 Example: Creating a Reference Pattern ..................................................... 236 Example: Creating a Fill Pattern ............................................................... 237 To Create a Fill Pattern ........................................................................... 239 Example: Making Fill Pattern Members Follow a Surface Shape..................... 240 To Change the Origin of the Fill Pattern ..................................................... 242 To Create a Curve Pattern ....................................................................... 243

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Example: Patterning a Hole Using Curve Pattern ........................................ 244 To Create a Pattern of a Feature Pattern ................................................... 247 To Delete the Pattern of a Feature Pattern................................................. 247 To Unpattern the Pattern of a Feature Pattern ............................................ 247 Project .................................................................................................... 248 About the Project Feature........................................................................ 248 About the Project User Interface .............................................................. 248 Feature Icon ....................................................................................... 248 Dialog Bar .......................................................................................... 248 Slide-up Panels ................................................................................... 249 Shortcut Menus................................................................................... 249 To Create a Projected Datum Curve by Sketching ....................................... 250 To Create a Projected Datum Curve by Selecting Chains.............................. 250 Example: Creating a Projected Datum Curve.............................................. 251 Wrap....................................................................................................... 253 About the Wrap Feature .......................................................................... 253 Origin of Wrapped Datum Curve ............................................................ 253 Options Slide-up Panel ......................................................................... 254 About the Wrap User Interface................................................................. 254 Feature Icon ....................................................................................... 254 Dialog Bar .......................................................................................... 254 Slide-up Panels ................................................................................... 254 Shortcut Menus................................................................................... 255 To Create a Wrapped Datum Curve .......................................................... 256 Example: Creating a Wrapped Datum Curve .............................................. 256 Using the Options Panel .......................................................................... 258 Ignoring Intersection Surfaces .............................................................. 258 Trimming at Boundary ......................................................................... 259 Extend .................................................................................................... 260 About the Extend Feature........................................................................ 260 About the Extend User Interface .............................................................. 261 xx

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Feature Icon — ................................................................................... 261 Dialog Bar .......................................................................................... 261 Slide-up Panels ................................................................................... 261 Shortcut Menu .................................................................................... 262 To Create a Same Surface Extension ........................................................ 263 To Create a Tangent Surface Extension ..................................................... 264 To Create an Approximate Surface Extension ............................................. 264 To Create a To Plane Surface Extension .................................................... 265 To Create a Multi-point Extension ............................................................. 265 Intersect.................................................................................................. 266 About the Intersect Feature ..................................................................... 266 About the Intersect User Interface............................................................ 266 Feature Icon ....................................................................................... 267 Dialog Bar .......................................................................................... 267 Slide-up Panels ................................................................................... 267 Shortcut Menus................................................................................... 267 To Intersect Sketches or Surfaces ............................................................ 267 To Redefine Intersecting Sketches or Surfaces ........................................... 268 To Unlink and Edit Sketches in the Intersect Feature................................... 268 Fill .......................................................................................................... 268 About the Fill Feature ............................................................................. 268 Fill Feature ...................................................................................... 269 About the Fill User Interface .................................................................... 269 Feature Icon ....................................................................................... 269 Dialog Bar .......................................................................................... 269 Slide-up Panels ................................................................................... 269 To Create a Fill Feature ........................................................................... 270 To Create a Fill Feature by Using a Sketch Feature ..................................... 271 Redefining a Fill Feature.......................................................................... 271 Properties Slide-up Panel...................................................................... 272 Offset...................................................................................................... 272 xxi

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About the Offset Feature ......................................................................... 272 Offset Surface ....................................................................................... 272 About the Offset Surface User Interface ................................................. 272 Feature Icon .................................................................................... 273 Dialog Bar ....................................................................................... 273 Slide-up Panels ................................................................................ 273 Shortcut Menus ................................................................................ 274 To Create Standard Offset Surfaces ....................................................... 275 Example: Using Different Offset Methods ................................................ 276 Example: Creating an Offset Surface with Side Surfaces ........................... 279 To Create Offset Surfaces by Expansion ................................................. 281 To Constrain an Offset with a Sketch...................................................... 282 To Create Offset Surfaces with a Draft ................................................... 282 Working with Draft Offsets.................................................................... 283 Example: Normal Offset and Translate Offset .......................................... 284 To Create an Offset Using Replace ......................................................... 286 Using Replace Offsets .......................................................................... 286 Example: Creating an Offset Using Replace............................................. 286 Offset Curve .......................................................................................... 289 About the Offset Curve User Interface .................................................... 289 Feature Icon .................................................................................... 289 Dialog Bar ....................................................................................... 289 Slide-up Panels ................................................................................ 290 Shortcut Menus ................................................................................ 290 To Offset a Curve Normal to Surface ...................................................... 290 To Offset a Curve Along a Surface ......................................................... 291 Using Graphs to Offset a Curve ............................................................. 291 Example: Offsetting a Curve ................................................................. 293 Measurement Types for Offset Curves .................................................... 295 To Create a Fan Curve Offset ................................................................ 296 Offset Boundary Curves .......................................................................... 296 xxii

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About the Offset Boundary Curve User Interface...................................... 296 Feature Icon .................................................................................... 296 Dialog Bar ....................................................................................... 297 Slide-up Panels ................................................................................ 297 Shortcut Menu ................................................................................. 297 To Offset a Boundary Curve .................................................................. 298 To Create a Variable Offset Surface Boundary Curve ................................ 298 Using the Measurements Table.............................................................. 298 Thicken ................................................................................................... 300 About the Thicken Feature....................................................................... 300 About the Thicken Feature User Interface .................................................. 301 Feature Icon ....................................................................................... 301 Dialog Bar .......................................................................................... 301 Slide-Up Panels ................................................................................... 302 Shortcut Menus................................................................................... 303 To Create a Thicken Feature .................................................................... 303 To Create a Scaled Thicken Feature .......................................................... 304 Solidify .................................................................................................... 305 About the Solidify Feature ....................................................................... 305 About the Solidify Feature User Interface .................................................. 307 Feature Icon ....................................................................................... 307 Dialog Bar .......................................................................................... 307 Slide-Up Panels ................................................................................... 307 Shortcut Menus................................................................................... 308 To Create a Solidify (Protrusion) Feature ................................................... 308 To Create a Solidify (Cut) Feature ............................................................ 309 To Create a Solidify (Patch) Feature ......................................................... 309 Solidify (Patch) Feature Conditions ........................................................... 310 Remove ................................................................................................... 311 About the Remove Feature ...................................................................... 311 General Rules for Creating a Remove Feature.......................................... 311 xxiii

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Accessing the Remove Surface tool........................................................ 311 Undo and Redo ................................................................................... 312 About the Remove Feature User Interface ................................................. 312 Feature Icon ....................................................................................... 312 Dashboard.......................................................................................... 312 Slide-up Panels ................................................................................... 312 To Create a Remove Feature ................................................................... 314 Remove Surface Tutorial ......................................................................... 315 About the Remove Surface Tutorial ........................................................ 315 Removing a Surface from a Solid or Quilt ............................................... 315 Closing Gaps in a Quilt ......................................................................... 316 Selecting and Removing Multiple Surfaces or Gaps for Removal ................. 318 Querying for Additional Solutions........................................................... 320 Using Remove Twice to Remove an Overhang ......................................... 322 Using Remove Twice to Uncover an Extrude Feature ................................ 325 Using Remove Once to Attain the Required Result.................................... 327 Engineering Features ................................................................................... 329 Hole ........................................................................................................ 329 About the Hole Feature ........................................................................... 329 Hole Features vs Cut Features............................................................... 329 About the Hole Feature User Interface ...................................................... 330 Feature Icon ....................................................................................... 330 Dashboard.......................................................................................... 330 Simple Holes.................................................................................... 330 Standard Holes................................................................................. 332 Slide-Up Panels ................................................................................... 334 Placement Slide-up Panel................................................................... 334 Shape Slide-up Panel ........................................................................ 336 Intersect Slide-up Panel .................................................................... 339 Note Slide-up Panel .......................................................................... 339 Properties Slide-up Panel ................................................................... 339 xxiv

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Shortcut Menus................................................................................... 339 Hole Placement References...................................................................... 342 Placement Reference ........................................................................... 342 Offset References ................................................................................ 342 Selecting the Axis of a Hole as Secondary Reference ............................. 342 Verifying and Modifying Hole Placement References ................................. 343 Hole Placement Types............................................................................. 344 To Create a Simple Hole.......................................................................... 346 To Define Simple Hole Depth by Snapping to a Reference ............................ 348 To Create a Linear Hole by Referencing an Axis .......................................... 349 To Create a Sketched Hole ...................................................................... 350 Sketched Hole Requirements ................................................................... 351 To Relocate a Hole by Snapping to a Reference .......................................... 351 To Create a Standard Hole ...................................................................... 352 To Create a Standard Coaxial Hole ........................................................... 354 To Create a Tapped Hole ......................................................................... 355 To Create a Tapered Hole ........................................................................ 356 To Create a Clearance Hole ..................................................................... 357 To Create a Drilled Hole .......................................................................... 358 Using Hole Charts .................................................................................. 359 Formatting Thread Notes......................................................................... 361 Shell ....................................................................................................... 364 About the Shell Feature .......................................................................... 364 About the Shell User Interface ................................................................. 364 Feature Icon ....................................................................................... 364 Dialog Bar .......................................................................................... 365 Slide-up Panels ................................................................................... 365 Shortcut Menus................................................................................... 366 To Create a Shell Feature ........................................................................ 366 To Create a Shell Feature by Excluding Surfaces ........................................ 367 Restrictions on Creating Shell Features ..................................................... 368 xxv

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Example: Shell and Feature Order ............................................................ 369 Example: Creating a Shell Feature............................................................ 370 Example: Creating a Shell Feature by Excluding Surfaces ............................ 372 Example: Prevent Shell from Penetrating at Concave Corners ...................... 375 Example: Prevent Shell from Penetrating at Convex Corners ........................ 377 Rib.......................................................................................................... 379 About the Rib Feature ............................................................................. 379 About the Rib Feature User Interface ........................................................ 380 Feature Icon ....................................................................................... 380 Dialog Bar .......................................................................................... 380 Slide-Up Panels ................................................................................... 381 Shortcut Menus................................................................................... 381 Sketching Rib Features ........................................................................... 382 Defining Rib Features ............................................................................. 383 To Create a Rib Feature by Creating an Internal Section .............................. 385 To Create a Rib Feature by Using a Sketch feature ..................................... 386 Draft ....................................................................................................... 387 About the Draft Feature .......................................................................... 387 About Split Draft .................................................................................... 388 About Variable Draft ............................................................................... 389 About the Draft User Interface ................................................................. 390 Feature Icon ....................................................................................... 390 Dashboard.......................................................................................... 391 Slide-up Panels ................................................................................... 391 Shortcut Menus................................................................................... 394 To Create a Draft Feature........................................................................ 395 Example: Creating a Basic Draft............................................................... 396 Example: Excluding Surface Loops ........................................................... 398 Example: Extending Intersect Surfaces ..................................................... 399 To Create a Variable Draft ....................................................................... 402 Example: Creating a Variable Draft........................................................... 404 xxvi

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To Create a Split Draft ............................................................................ 407 Example: Creating a Split Draft................................................................ 408 Example: Creating a Split Draft Using Sketch............................................. 410 To Create a Split Draft with Two Hinges .................................................... 412 Example: Creating a Split Draft with Two Hinges ........................................ 413 Round ..................................................................................................... 415 About the Round Feature ........................................................................ 415 Anatomy of a Round ............................................................................ 415 Round Sets and Transitions................................................................ 416 About Round Types and References .......................................................... 416 Round Placement References ................................................................ 417 About Creation Methods and Cross-Section Shapes..................................... 420 Creation Methods ................................................................................ 420 Cross-Section Shapes .......................................................................... 420 About the Round User Interface ............................................................... 420 Feature Icon ....................................................................................... 421 Dashboard.......................................................................................... 421 Set Mode......................................................................................... 421 Transition Mode................................................................................ 422 Slide-up Panels ................................................................................... 424 Sets Slide-up Panel ........................................................................... 424 Transitions Slide-up Panel.................................................................. 427 Pieces Slide-up Panel ........................................................................ 427 Options Slide-up Panel ...................................................................... 428 Properties Slide-up Panel ................................................................... 429 Shortcut Menus................................................................................... 429 Set Mode: Collector Commands .......................................................... 429 Transition Mode: List and Collector Commands ..................................... 431 To Create a Constant Round .................................................................... 432 To Create a Variable Round ..................................................................... 433 To Relocate a Radius Using a Reference .................................................... 434 xxvii

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To Create a Surface-to-Surface Variable Round .......................................... 435 To Define a Radius Using a Reference ....................................................... 437 To Create a Round Driven by a Curve ....................................................... 438 Example: Round Driven by a Curve .......................................................... 439 To Create a Full Round............................................................................ 439 To Create a Surface-to-Surface Full Round ................................................ 440 Rules for Creating a Full Round ................................................................ 441 To Create a Conic Round ......................................................................... 441 To Create a D1 x D2 Conic Round............................................................. 443 Setting Ratio Grid Interval for the Conic Parameter Handle .......................... 444 To Create a Normal to Spine Round .......................................................... 444 To Rename a Round Feature.................................................................... 445 To Retrieve Round Feature Information ..................................................... 445 Transitions ............................................................................................ 446 About Round Transitions ...................................................................... 446 Round Transitions ............................................................................. 446 Defining Round Transitions ................................................................... 458 To Define a Round Transition ................................................................ 458 To Define a Patch Transition ................................................................. 461 To Define a Stop at Reference Transition ................................................ 462 To Define a Stop Case Transition ........................................................... 464 To Define a Corner Sphere Transition ..................................................... 465 Example: Corner Transitions ................................................................. 467 About Deleting Transitions and Making a Transition.................................. 468 To Delete Transitions and Make a Transition ........................................... 470 Advanced Topics .................................................................................... 471 Piece Management .............................................................................. 471 About Piece Management................................................................... 471 About Round Patches and Round Pieces ............................................... 471 About Excluding Round Pieces ............................................................ 472 To Exclude Round Pieces ................................................................... 473 xxviii

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About Trimming Round Geometry ....................................................... 474 To Trim Round Geometry................................................................... 477 About Extending Round Geometry ...................................................... 477 To Extend Round Geometry ............................................................... 480 About Round Placement Ambiguity...................................................... 481 To Address Round Placement Ambiguity .............................................. 483 Attachments ....................................................................................... 484 About Round Attachment Types.......................................................... 484 To Define a Round Attachment Type ................................................... 485 To Resolve Failed Rounds Using End Surfaces....................................... 486 Round References and Attachment Types............................................. 487 Auto Round .............................................................................................. 489 About the Auto Round Feature ................................................................. 489 About the Auto Round User Interface ........................................................ 490 Feature Icon ....................................................................................... 490 Dashboard.......................................................................................... 490 Slide-up Panels ................................................................................... 491 To Create an Auto Round Feature............................................................. 492 To Create an Auto Round Feature on Selected Edges .................................. 493 Example: Narrow Pair of Chains ............................................................... 494 Narrow pair of chains with same convexity........................................... 494 Narrow pair of chains with different convexity ...................................... 495 Edges of the same convexity but sharing a vertex that belongs to a narrow pair of chains ................................................................................... 496 To Display Auto Round Members on the Model Tree .................................... 497 Using the Auto-Round Player ................................................................... 497 Considerations for Creating an Auto Round Feature .................................... 497 About Excluding Edges from an Auto Round............................................... 498 To Select Edges Using a Datum Reference and the Graphics Window............. 499 To Select Edges Using a Datum Reference and the Search Tool .................... 499 To Select Edges Using the Search Tool ...................................................... 500

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To Select Edges to Exclude Directly in the Graphics Window......................... 501 Example: Creating an Auto Round on Selected Holes Using a Datum Reference Feature................................................................................................. 501 Example: Creating an Auto Round on Selected Holes Using the Search Tool ... 503 Example: Excluding Edges Where a Quilt Intersects a Part........................... 505 Chamfer .................................................................................................. 508 About the Chamfer Feature ..................................................................... 508 Corner Chamfers ................................................................................. 508 Edge Chamfers ................................................................................... 508 Anatomy of an Edge Chamfer................................................................ 508 Chamfer Sets and Transitions............................................................. 509 About Chamfer Types and References ....................................................... 509 About Chamfer Dimension Schemes ......................................................... 512 Example: Chamfer Dimension Schemes .................................................... 513 About the Chamfer User Interface ............................................................ 514 Feature Icon ....................................................................................... 514 Dialog Bar .......................................................................................... 514 Set Mode......................................................................................... 515 Transition Mode................................................................................ 517 Patch Transition Options .................................................................... 518 Stop Transition Options ..................................................................... 518 Slide-up Panels ................................................................................... 518 Sets Slide-up Panel ........................................................................... 518 Transitions Slide-up Panel.................................................................. 519 Pieces Slide-up Panel ........................................................................ 520 Options Slide-up Panel ...................................................................... 521 Properties Slide-up Panel ................................................................... 521 Shortcut Menu .................................................................................... 522 Set Mode: Collector Commands .......................................................... 522 Transition Mode: List and Collector Commands ..................................... 523 To Create a D x D Chamfer...................................................................... 524

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To Create a 45 x D Chamfer .................................................................... 525 To Create an Angle x D Chamfer .............................................................. 526 To Create a D1 x D2 Chamfer .................................................................. 527 To Create a O x O Chamfer ..................................................................... 528 To Create a O1 x O2 Chamfer .................................................................. 529 To Define the Chamfer Distance Using a Reference ..................................... 531 About Chamfer Creation Methods ............................................................. 532 To Create a Corner Chamfer .................................................................... 532 Example: Corner Chamfer ....................................................................... 533 To Rename a Chamfer Feature................................................................. 533 To Retrieve Chamfer Feature Information .................................................. 533 Transitions ............................................................................................ 534 About Chamfer Transitions ................................................................... 534 Chamfer Transitions .......................................................................... 534 Defining Chamfer Transitions ................................................................ 542 To Define a Chamfer Transition ............................................................. 542 To Define a Patch Transition ................................................................. 545 To Define a Stop at Reference Transition ................................................ 546 To Define a Stop Case Transition ........................................................... 548 About Deleting Transitions and Making a Transition.................................. 549 To Delete Transitions and Make a Transition ........................................... 551 Advanced Topics .................................................................................... 552 Piece Management .............................................................................. 552 About Piece Management................................................................... 552 About Chamfer Patches and Chamfer Pieces ......................................... 552 About Excluding Chamfer Pieces ......................................................... 553 To Exclude Chamfer Pieces ................................................................ 554 About Trimming Chamfer Geometry .................................................... 555 To Trim Chamfer Geometry................................................................ 557 About Extending Chamfer Geometry ................................................... 558 To Extend Chamfer Geometry ............................................................ 562 xxxi

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About Chamfer Placement Ambiguity................................................... 562 To Address Chamfer Placement Ambiguity ........................................... 563 Attachments ....................................................................................... 564 About Chamfer Attachment Types....................................................... 564 To Define a Chamfer Attachment Type ................................................ 565 To Resolve Failed Chamfers Using End Surfaces.................................... 566 Chamfer References and Attachment Types.......................................... 567 Construction Features .................................................................................. 569 Features: Shaft, Neck, and Flange............................................................... 569 To Create a Shaft ................................................................................... 569 Example: Creating a Shaft....................................................................... 569 To Create a Neck ................................................................................... 569 Example: Neck Feature ........................................................................... 570 To Create a Flange ................................................................................. 571 Example: Creating a Flange ..................................................................... 571 Pipes....................................................................................................... 572 To Create a Pipe .................................................................................... 572 Pipes .................................................................................................... 574 Creating Pipes in Assembly Mode........................................................... 575 Creating a Part Consisting Only of a Pipe Feature..................................... 575 Creating Pipe Connections .................................................................... 575 How to Create Pipe Connections ............................................................ 575 Specifying Part Accuracy for Pipes ......................................................... 576 Creating Pipes with Multiple Radii .......................................................... 576 Example: Pipe ....................................................................................... 577 Creating a Pipe Feature in Assembly Mode .............................................. 577 Sketched Cosmetic Features....................................................................... 578 About Sketched Cosmetic Features ........................................................... 578 To Create a Regular Section Cosmetic Feature ........................................... 579 Regular Section Sketched Cosmetic Feature............................................... 579 Example: Creating a Regular Section Cosmetic Feature ............................... 579 xxxii

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To Create a Projected Section Cosmetic Feature ......................................... 579 Example: Creating a Projected Section Cosmetic Feature............................. 580 Cosmetic Threads ..................................................................................... 580 About Cosmetic Threads ......................................................................... 580 Types of Cosmetic Threads ................................................................... 580 Cosmetic Thread Starting Surfaces ........................................................ 581 To Create Cosmetic Threads .................................................................... 581 Cosmetic Thread Parameters ................................................................... 582 Using the Parameter File to Define Cosmetic Threads .................................. 582 Example: Creating Cosmetic Threads ........................................................ 583 To Create Custom Cosmetic Threads......................................................... 584 Creating Custom Cosmetic Threads .......................................................... 586 Grooves................................................................................................... 586 To Create a Groove ................................................................................ 586 Example: Creating a Groove .................................................................... 587 User-Defined Cosmetic Features ......................................................... 587 Advanced Features ...................................................................................... 588 Sweeps ................................................................................................... 588 About Sweeps........................................................................................ 588 Rules for Defining a Trajectory .............................................................. 588 To Create a Swept Feature ...................................................................... 589 Sweep Geometry ................................................................................... 590 Non-Tangent Trajectory Segments......................................................... 590 Three-Dimensional Sweeps ................................................................... 591 Example: Sweeps................................................................................... 591 Solid Sweeps with Closed Trajectories .................................................... 591 Constant Section Sweep ....................................................................... 592 To Create a Three-Dimensional Sweep ...................................................... 593 Example: Three-Dimensional Sweep ......................................................... 593 Helical Sweeps ......................................................................................... 594 About Helical Sweeps.............................................................................. 594 xxxiii

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To Create a Helical Sweep with a Constant Pitch Value ................................ 594 Example: Creating a Helical Sweep........................................................... 595 Profile for a Helical Sweep.................................................................. 596 To Create a Helical Sweep with a Variable Pitch Value ................................. 596 Creating a Helical Sweep with a Variable Pitch Value ................................... 597 Example: Creating a Helical Sweep with a Variable Pitch ............................. 597 Types of Helical Sweep Features............................................................ 598 Boundary Blend ........................................................................................ 600 About the Boundary Blend Feature ........................................................... 600 About the Boundary Blend User Interface .................................................. 601 Feature Icon ....................................................................................... 601 Dialog Bar .......................................................................................... 601 Slide-up Panels ................................................................................... 601 Shortcut Menus................................................................................... 603 About Boundary Blend Reference Entities .................................................. 603 To Create a Boundary Blend in One Direction ............................................. 604 To Create a Boundary Blend in Two Directions ........................................... 604 To Create a Boundary Blend .................................................................... 604 Example: Blended Surface....................................................................... 605 To Create a Boundary Blend Surface Using Approximate Curves ................... 606 About Defining Boundary Conditions ......................................................... 606 Setting Boundary Conditions.................................................................... 607 To Define Boundary Conditions ................................................................ 607 About Boundary Blend Control Points ........................................................ 608 Using Boundary Blend Control Points ........................................................ 608 To Specify Boundary Blend Control Points.................................................. 609 Example: Specifying Boundary Blend Control Points.................................... 610 About Side Curves and Boundary Blends ................................................... 611 One-Directional Blended Surface ........................................................... 611 Two-Directional Blended Surface ........................................................... 612 Tip: Working with Antitangent and Tangent Boundaries............................... 613 xxxiv

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Parallel Blends.......................................................................................... 614 About Parallel Blends .............................................................................. 614 Sections Used for Parallel Blends ........................................................... 614 Modifying Blend Sections ...................................................................... 615 Projected Section Blends ...................................................................... 615 To Create a Parallel Blend with a Regular Section ....................................... 615 To Create a Parallel Blend with a Projected Section ..................................... 616 Non-Parallel Blends ................................................................................... 616 About Non-Parallel Blends ....................................................................... 616 Sketched Versus Selected Sections ........................................................ 616 Open and Closed Blends ....................................................................... 617 Specifying Tangent Surfaces ................................................................. 617 To Specify Tangency Conditions for Non-Parallel Blends .............................. 617 Example: Specifying Tangency Conditions for Non-Parallel Blends................. 617 Before............................................................................................. 617 After ............................................................................................... 618 To Import a Section for a Non-Parallel Blend.............................................. 618 Creating Non-Parallel Blend with an Imported Section ................................. 618 To Cap a Blend ...................................................................................... 619 Capping a Blend..................................................................................... 619 To Create a Rotational Blend ................................................................... 619 Creating a Rotational Blend ..................................................................... 620 Example: Creating a Rotational Blend ....................................................... 621 To Create a General Blend....................................................................... 621 Example: Creating a General Blend .......................................................... 622 Swept Blends ........................................................................................... 623 About the Swept Blend User Interface....................................................... 623 Feature Icon ....................................................................................... 624 Slide Up Panels ................................................................................... 624 References ...................................................................................... 624 Sections .......................................................................................... 625 xxxv

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Tangency ........................................................................................ 626 Options ........................................................................................... 626 Properties........................................................................................ 627 Dialog Bar .......................................................................................... 627 Shortcut Menu .................................................................................... 627 About Swept Blends ............................................................................... 629 Terminology ....................................................................................... 630 To Create a Swept Blend (basic) .............................................................. 630 Example: Creating a Swept Blend............................................................. 631 Completed Swept Blend..................................................................... 631 Section Definition ............................................................................. 632 To Modify a Swept Blend Using Area Control .............................................. 632 Example: Controlling the Perimeter of a Swept Blend .................................. 633 Using the Set Perimeter Option .......................................................... 633 About Blend Vertices .............................................................................. 633 Example: Creating a Blend Vertex ............................................................ 633 To Control the Perimeter of a Swept Blend ................................................ 634 Tweak Features ........................................................................................... 635 About Tweak Features ............................................................................... 635 Local Pushes ............................................................................................ 635 To Create a Local Push............................................................................ 635 Defining a Local Push.............................................................................. 635 Defining the Local Push Height .............................................................. 636 Example: Local Push............................................................................... 636 Radius Domes .......................................................................................... 637 To Create a Radius Dome ........................................................................ 637 Example: Radius Dome ........................................................................... 638 Original part .................................................................................... 638 Radius Dome feature......................................................................... 638 Section Domes ......................................................................................... 639 About Section Domes ............................................................................. 639 xxxvi

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To Create a Section Dome (basic) ............................................................ 639 To Create a Swept Section Dome ............................................................. 640 Example: Swept Section Dome ................................................................ 640 Original part .................................................................................... 640 Part with Swept Section Dome ........................................................... 641 To Create a Blended Section Dome with No Profile...................................... 641 Example: Blended Section Dome without a Profile ...................................... 642 Original Part .................................................................................... 642 Part with Blended Section Dome without a Profile ................................. 642 To Create a Blended Section Dome with a Single Profile .............................. 642 Blended Section Dome with a Single Profile ............................................... 643 Example: Blended Section Dome with a Single Profile ................................. 644 Original Part .................................................................................... 644 Part with Blended Section Dome with a Single Profile ............................ 644 Ears ........................................................................................................ 644 To Create an Ear Feature ........................................................................ 644 Sketching the Ear Section ....................................................................... 645 Example: Dimensioning an Ear Feature ..................................................... 645 Ear Feature...................................................................................... 645 Dimensioning an ear to a part ............................................................ 646 Bend dimensions of an ear feature ...................................................... 646 Lips......................................................................................................... 646 About a Lip Feature ................................................................................ 646 To Create a Lip Feature........................................................................... 647 Example: Lip Feature.............................................................................. 648 Toroidal Bends ......................................................................................... 649 About Toroidal Bends.............................................................................. 649 To Create a Toroidal Bend ....................................................................... 650 Example: Creating a Toroidal Bend ........................................................... 651 Spinal Bends ............................................................................................ 652 To Create a Spinal Bend.......................................................................... 652 xxxvii

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Example: Creating and Modifying a Spinal Bend ......................................... 654 Before Spinal Bend ........................................................................... 654 After Spinal Bend.............................................................................. 654 Cosmetic Mesh View of Linear Spinal Bend ........................................... 655 Modifying or Redefining a Spinal Bend ................................................. 655 To Redefine a Spinal Bend ....................................................................... 656 UDFs and Groups......................................................................................... 657 Creating a UDF ......................................................................................... 657 About User-Defined Features ................................................................... 657 Subordinate UDFs................................................................................ 657 Standalone UDFs................................................................................. 657 UDF Recommendations ........................................................................ 657 UDF Restrictions.................................................................................. 658 Dimension Types ................................................................................. 658 About Creating a UDF Library................................................................... 658 To Create a UDF (basic) .......................................................................... 658 To Define Variable Elements in a UDF ....................................................... 660 To Define Variable Dimensions in a UDF .................................................... 661 To Define Variable Parameters in a UDF .................................................... 662 To Activate Pro/PROGRAM in a UDF .......................................................... 662 To Use Database Commands on UDFs ....................................................... 663 About Variable Annotation Element Parameters in UDFs .............................. 664 Placing a UDF ........................................................................................... 665 About Placing a UDF in a Model ................................................................ 665 To Place a UDF Using Reference Mapping .................................................. 665 Preserving Feature Properties on UDF Placement ........................................ 666 Placing a UDF with Restricted Parameters.................................................. 666 To Alter Variable Values in a UDF ............................................................. 667 To Specify UDF Placement Options ........................................................... 667 To Specify UDF Placement Relations ......................................................... 668 To Rename a UDF .................................................................................. 669 xxxviii

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To Place a UDF by Redefining Features...................................................... 669 Previewing a UDF ................................................................................... 670 Browsing UDFs by Parameters............................................................... 670 Defining Skipped References.................................................................... 670 Redefining a Missing Reference Used by Several Features ......................... 671 Feature, Dimension, and Parameter Names in a Group ................................ 671 Renaming Annotation Elements in UDFs .................................................... 672 To Change the Group Type ...................................................................... 672 To Replace a UDF Group ......................................................................... 673 Replacing a UDF Group With Family Table Instances ................................... 673 To Resolve a Placement Failure ................................................................ 673 Creating a Local Group .............................................................................. 674 About Local Groups ................................................................................ 674 To Create a Local Group.......................................................................... 674 To Create a Local Group Using the Shortcut Menu.................................... 674 To Create a Local Group Using the Menu Manager.................................... 675 To Select a Local Group Feature from the Graphics Window ......................... 675 Operations on Groups................................................................................ 676 About Working with Groups ..................................................................... 676 Replacement Conditions .......................................................................... 676 Replacing a Group .................................................................................. 676 Deleting a Replacement Group .............................................................. 677 To Copy a Group .................................................................................... 677 To Copy a Group and Vary Dependency .................................................... 678 To Pattern a Group ................................................................................. 679 Tip: Patterning a Group........................................................................... 679 To Use Groups to Copy Features Quickly ................................................... 679 Rules for Patterning Groups ..................................................................... 680 About Deleting and Suppressing Members of a Group ................................. 680 To Delete or Suppress an Individual Group Member .................................... 680 To Delete or Suppress Individual Members.............................................. 680 xxxix

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To Delete or Suppress an Individual Group Member with Children................. 680 Modifying the Part ....................................................................................... 682 About Editing Parts ................................................................................... 682 About States of Editing .............................................................................. 682 General Editing......................................................................................... 683 To Make Features Read-Only ................................................................... 683 To Rename a Feature ............................................................................. 683 To Rename a Feature from the Model Tree.............................................. 683 To Rename a Feature Name Using the Menu Manager .............................. 683 To Modify Features with Multiple Sections.................................................. 684 To Move the Text of Datum Planes and Coordinate Systems......................... 684 To Move the Text Using the Shortcut Menu in Part and Assembly ............... 684 To Move the Text Using the Menu Manager ............................................. 685 To Edit Datum or Axis Properties .............................................................. 685 To Edit Datum or Axis Properties Using the Shortcut Menu ........................ 685 To Edit Datum or Axis Properties Using the Menu Manager........................ 685 To Edit Datum Curve Line Style................................................................ 685 Editing Dimensions ................................................................................... 686 About Editing Dimensions........................................................................ 686 Negative Dimensions ........................................................................... 686 To Edit Dimension Properties, Text, or Text Style ....................................... 687 To Change Dimension Values ................................................................... 688 To Change Overall and Dimension Tolerances ............................................ 689 Using the Menu Manager to Edit ............................................................... 690 To Modify Dimension Values Using the Menu Manager .............................. 690 To Modify Dimension Cosmetics ............................................................ 690 To Modify the Dimension Format ........................................................... 691 Modifying the Dimension Format ........................................................... 691 To Add Text to a Dimension .................................................................. 692 To Modify a Dimension Symbol.............................................................. 692 Modifying a Dimension Symbol.............................................................. 692 xl

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To Modify Dimension Locations.............................................................. 693 To Modify the Number of Decimal Places in a Dimension ........................... 693 To Move Dimension Text ...................................................................... 694 To Switch Dimension Arrowheads .......................................................... 694 To Make Copied Feature Dimensions Independent.................................... 694 Making Copied Feature Dimensions Independent ..................................... 694 Redefining Sections................................................................................... 695 Redefining Section Geometry ................................................................... 695 To Replace Section Entities...................................................................... 695 Example: Replacing Section Entities ......................................................... 696 Modification Example ........................................................................ 696 To Add or Remove a Section in a Blend ..................................................... 696 Removing a Section ............................................................................. 697 Adding a Section ................................................................................. 697 To Redefine a Section in a Parallel Blend ................................................... 698 To Add or Remove a Section in a Non-Parallel Blend ................................... 698 Removing a Section ............................................................................. 698 Adding a Section ................................................................................. 698 To Redefine a Dimensioning Scheme ........................................................ 699 Side Effects of Modifying a Dimensioning Scheme....................................... 699 To Create Incomplete Features ................................................................ 700 Redefining Features .................................................................................. 700 About Redefining Features....................................................................... 700 To Redefine Features with Elements ......................................................... 701 To Redefine Features with No Elements..................................................... 701 To Redefine a Merged Part ...................................................................... 702 Redefining Datum Curves From File ............................................................. 702 To Redefine Imported Datum Curves ........................................................ 702 Creating New Curves .............................................................................. 703 To Decrease the Number of Spline Points Using Deviation............................ 703 To Make a Spline Smoother ..................................................................... 704 xli

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To Add Points to a Spline ........................................................................ 704 To Decrease the Number of Spline Points by Deleting Points ........................ 704 To Move Curve Points ............................................................................. 704 To Adjust a Curve .................................................................................. 705 Example: Adjusting the Curve.................................................................. 706 To Split a Curve ..................................................................................... 707 To Trim or Extend a Curve....................................................................... 707 To Merge Curves .................................................................................... 707 Example: Merging Curves........................................................................ 707 Inserting and Reordering Features .............................................................. 708 To Insert Features.................................................................................. 708 To Reorder Features ............................................................................... 709 Reordering Features ............................................................................... 709 Suppressing. Deleting, and Resuming Features ............................................. 710 About Suppressing and Resuming Features................................................ 710 About Deleting Features.......................................................................... 710 To Suppress or Delete Features................................................................ 710 To Delete or Suppress One or More Features........................................... 711 Side Affects of Features .......................................................................... 712 To Resume Features ............................................................................... 713 To Select a Suppressed Feature Using the Model Tree ................................. 713 To Select a Suppressed Feature Using the Search Tool ................................ 713 Rerouting Features.................................................................................... 714 About the Reroute Command ................................................................... 714 To Reroute Features ............................................................................... 714 Working with Simplified Representations ...................................................... 716 About Simplified Representations ............................................................. 716 To Create a Simplified Representation (basic) ............................................ 716 To Include or Exclude Features ................................................................ 717 To Edit a Simplified Representation Using the Model Tree ............................ 717 To Create a Work Region......................................................................... 718 xlii

Table of Contents

To Create a Simplified Representation from Part Surfaces............................ 718 To Update an Accelerated Simplified Representation ................................... 719 To Create a Geometric Snapshot .............................................................. 719 To Create an Accelerated Simplified Representation .................................... 720 To Erase a Simplified Representation ........................................................ 720 To Erase using the View Manager .......................................................... 720 To Erase Using the Menu Manager ......................................................... 721 Working with Part Accuracy ........................................................................ 721 About Changing Part Accuracy ................................................................. 721 Working with Absolute and Relative Accuracy .......................................... 722 To Specify Relative Accuracy ................................................................... 722 To Specify Absolute Accuracy................................................................... 723 Flexible Parts ........................................................................................... 723 About Flexible Parts................................................................................ 723 To Prepare Varied Items ......................................................................... 724 To Define a Flexible Part ......................................................................... 724 Copying Features ...................................................................................... 725 Copying Features ................................................................................... 725 About the Copy Command .................................................................... 725 Terms and Definitions ....................................................................... 725 Rules for Copying Features ................................................................ 726 Using the Copy Command in Assembly Mode........................................ 727 To Copy Features ................................................................................ 727 Using the COPY FEATURE Menu ............................................................. 727 Specifying the Placement Method........................................................ 728 Specifying Features to Copy ............................................................... 728 Specifying Dependent or Independent ................................................. 729 To Copy Features within the Same Model................................................ 729 Copying Features Using New References................................................. 730 To Copy Features with SameRefs, FromDifVers........................................ 730 To Copy Features by Mirror................................................................... 731 xliii

Table of Contents

To Copy Features with New Refs, FromDifModel or FromDivVers ................ 731 Copying Features by Mirror ................................................................... 732 To Copy Features by Moving ................................................................. 732 Copying Features by Translating............................................................ 733 To Redefine the Copied Element ............................................................ 733 To Make a Dependent Copy Independent ................................................ 734 Mirroring the Model ................................................................................ 734 To Mirror the Model ............................................................................. 734 Example: Mirroring the Model ............................................................... 734 Original part .................................................................................... 734 Original part mirrored once ................................................................ 735 Original part mirrored twice ............................................................... 735 Resolving Feature Failures ............................................................................ 735 About Resolving Feature Failures ................................................................ 735 About Backing Up the Model and References................................................. 736 Working with the Backup Model ............................................................... 736 Creating Backup References .................................................................... 736 To Troubleshoot a Feature Failure ............................................................... 737 To Diagnose and Resolve Feature Failures .................................................... 738 The INVESTIGATE Menu ............................................................................ 739 The FIX MODEL Menu ................................................................................ 740 Relation Constraint Violation .............................................................. 741 Reducing Regeneration Time ...................................................................... 741 To Step Through Feature Creation............................................................... 742 Using Geometry Checking .......................................................................... 744 What May Cause a Geometry Check Warning? ........................................... 744 To Use the FEAT FAILED Menu .................................................................... 744 Feature Relations......................................................................................... 745 About Feature Relations............................................................................. 745 Glossary ..................................................................................................... 746 Glossary for Part....................................................................................... 746 xliv

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Index ......................................................................................................... 749

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Part Overview
The Part Modeling Help describes the design intent and the basic procedures of feature-based modeling. Refer to these topics for high-level information on using the Part Modeling environment, tools, and basic techniques for the first phase of designing, that is, part creation. For a detailed overview, skim the Help contents. Using Part Modeling, you can start with the creation of simple geometric features and progress to the creation of complex features and parts. Tasks for Part Applying Design Concepts Understanding Design Concepts Planning Your Design Establishing Parametric Relationships Starting the Modeling Process Creating Engineering Features Using Elementary Tools Working in Part Mode Using Datum Planes as References Adding Datum Axes to the Feature Defining Directions with Coordinate Systems Using Sections to Define Geometry Creating User-Defined Features Working with Groups Defining Features Extruding Sections Revolving Geometry Sweeping Variable Sections Blending Planar Sections Modifying the Parts Editing Dimensions Deleting Features Suppressing Features from Regeneration Resolving Feature Failures Editing Features Moving Geometry and Features Merging Quilts Trimming Quilts, Curves, and Surfaces Projecting Curves on Surfaces Offsetting Curves and Surfaces Simplifying Parts and Part Accuracy Simplifying Representations Changing Part Accuracy Redefining Features and References Drilling a Hole Hollowing Out a Solid Drafting a Surface Feature Defining Rounds Replicating Features Copying and Pasting Features Mirroring Geometry and Features Patterning Features

Using User-Defined Features and Groups

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Using Part
About Part
Pro/ENGINEER Part enables you to design models as solids in a progressive threedimensional solid modeling environment. Solid models are geometric models that offer mass properties such as volume, surface area, and inertia. If you manipulate any model, the 3-D model remains solid. Pro/ENGINEER provides a progressive environment in which you create and change your models through direct graphical manipulation. You drive the design process for your project by selecting an object (geometry) and then choose a tool to invoke an action on that object. This object-action workflow provides greater control over the design of your models while allowing you to express your creativity. The user interface provides further support for this design process As you work with your model, the context sensitive user interface guides you through the design process. After you choose an object and an action, Pro/ENGINEER interprets the current modeling context and presents requirements and optional items to complete the task. This information is displayed in a non obtrusive user interface called the dashboard that enhances your ability to directly work with your models by assessing your actions and guiding you through the design process. The Pro/ENGINEER progressive modeling environment streamlines the design process enabling you to concentrate on product development and drive your designs to new levels of creativity.

Design Concepts
You can design many different types of models in Pro/ENGINEER. However, before you begin your design project, you need to understand a few basic design concepts: • Design Intent—Before you design your model, you need to identify the design intent. Design intent defines the purpose and function of the finished product based on product specifications or requirements. Capturing design intent builds value and longevity into your products. This key concept is at the core of the Pro/ENGINEER feature-based modeling process. Feature-Based Modeling—Pro/ENGINEER part modeling begins with creating individual geometric features one after another. These features become interrelated to other features as you reference them during the design process. Parametric Design—The interrelationships between features allow the model to become parametric. So, if you alter one feature and that change directly affects other related (dependent) features, then Pro/ENGINEER dynamically changes those related features. This parametric ability maintains the integrity of the part and preserves your design intent. Associativity—Pro/ENGINEER maintains design intent outside Part mode through associativity. As you continue to design the model, you can add parts, assemblies, drawings, and other associated objects, such as piping, sheet metal, or electrical wiring. All of these functions are fully associative within

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Pro/ENGINEER. So, if you change your design at any level, your project will dynamically reflect the changes at all levels, preserving design intent.

Planning Your Design
You can immediately begin designing models in Pro/ENGINEER, and with product deadlines, it is tempting to jump-in and start creating models. However, to build value in your designs, you need to create products that can keep up with the constant design changes driven by market demands. You need to build flexibility in your designs. Flexibility is the key to a friendly robust product design while maintaining design intent, and you can accomplish it through planning. To plan your design, you need to have a basic understanding of your model from a broad perspective. In other words, understand the overall function, form, and fit of the product. This understanding includes the following points: • • • • • Overall Size Basic model characteristics The way in which the model can be assembled Approximate amount of components the assembly would contain The way in which the model can be manufactured

Design Approaches
Even the best plans are imperfect. However, you can eliminate many future modeling issues if you think out your model before starting your design. The following two design approaches can help you in determining your planning strategy: • Top Down Design—You analyze your product from the finished product and work down. So, you begin with the master assembly and break it down into assemblies and subassemblies. Then, identify the main assembly components and their key features. Finally, understand the relationships within and between assemblies, and assess how the product will be assembled. With this information, you can plan a design and leverage overall design intent into your models. Top down design is the industry paradigm for companies that design products that undergo frequent design modifications or for those companies that design diverse products. Bottom Up Design—You analyze your product from the component level and work up to the master assembly. Note that successful bottom up design demands a basic understanding of the master assembly. Designs based on the bottom up approach do not fully leverage design intent. Even though the end result can be the same as using top down design, you increase your risk for design conflicts and errors that result in a less flexible design. Bottom up design remains the most used paradigm in the design industry today. Companies that design similar products or products that do not demand frequent modifications during their life cycle use bottom up design approach.

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The Modeling Process
The following graphic illustrates the modeling process and the role design intent plays:

Features and Parts
All models that you build contain the following fundamental anatomical attributes: • Features—Individual geometry created one at a time. Features include datums, extrusions, holes, rounds, chamfers, surface features, cuts, patterns, sweeps, etc. You can have multiple features in a part. Parts—Collection of geometric features that define the geometric entity called the part. Parts are referred to as components in an assembly. You can have multiple components in an assembly. Assemblies—Collection of components assembled together to create the model. You can have multiple assemblies and subassemblies in a hierarchical order according to their relationships with other assemblies and the master assembly.

Parent-Child Relationships
You can use various types of Pro/ENGINEER features as building blocks in the progressive creation of solid parts. Certain features, by necessity, precede other 4

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more dependent features in the design process. Those dependent features rely on the previously defined features for dimensional and geometric references. This is known as a parent-child relationship. The parent-child relationship is one of the most powerful aspects of Pro/ENGINEER and parametric modeling in general. This relationship plays an important role in propagating changes across the model to maintain the design intent. After a parent feature in a part is changed, all children are dynamically altered to reflect the changes in the parent feature. If you suppress or delete a parent feature, Pro/ENGINEER prompts you for an action pertaining to the related children. You can also minimize the cases of unnecessary or unintended parent-child relationships. It is therefore essential to reference feature dimensions so that Pro/ENGINEER can correctly propagate design changes throughout the model. When working with parent-child relationships, it can be helpful to remember that parent features can exist without child features. However, child features cannot exist without their parents.

Putting It All Together
Using the bottom up design approach, you incorporate features and parts of a complex design into assemblies and subassemblies, and ultimately into the master assembly. If you work in a top down direction, you break down a master assembly into subassemblies, parts, and features. Whichever design approach you use, your task is to properly capture the design intent to provide some level of flexibility. The more flexibility that you built into your models, the fewer issues that will arise as you change the design during the product life cycle. Remember that each Pro/ENGINEER parametric model is a careful synthesis of physical and intellectual design.

Starting Out in Part Mode
The first feature you create in the model can be a solid, datum, or a group of features copied from your UDF (User-Defined Feature) library.

Creating the Initial Solid Feature
The first solid feature is the working block of material that is refined and modified until the final design. The first feature extrusions are always extruded in the positive direction (out of the screen towards you).

Creating a User-Defined Feature as the First Feature
You can create a group from your UDF library as the base feature as long as it has no references to other features. For example, you might have a UDF that is a solid feature that references two datum planes, which reference the default coordinate system (created as the base feature). All the features must then be included in the UDF to become the base feature for a new part.

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Creating Features
There are many kinds of features that you can create on a part. There are solid features and surface features, and features specific to applications. Part modeling refers to the creation of solid features and some user-defined features. Some features add material and some remove material. The most basic way to add material is through a protrusion. The most basic way to remove material is through a cut. Tip: A feature is the smallest building block in a Pro/ENGINEER part model. If you build your models with simple features, your parts become more flexible.

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Configuring Pro/ENGINEER for Using Part
About Configuration Options for Part
You can customize the way you model parts by entering config.pro configuration file options and their values in the Options dialog box (Tools > Options). Part Modeling Help provides a list of configuration options arranged in alphabetical order. Each option contains the following information: • • • Configuration option name. Default and available variables or values. All default values are in italic. Brief description and notes describing the configuration option.

To Set Configuration Options for Part
1. Click Tools > Options. The Options dialog box opens. 2. Click the Show only options loaded from file check box to see currently loaded configuration options or clear this check box to see all configuration options. 3. Select the configuration option from the list or type the configuration option name in the Option box. 4. In the Value box type or select a value. Note: The default value is followed by an asterisk (*). 5. Click Add/Change. The configuration option and its value appear in the list. A green status icon confirms the change. 6. When you finish configuring, click Apply or OK.

accuracy_lower_bound
value (between 1.0e-6 and 1.0e-4) Enter an accuracy value to override the default lower limit of 0.0001. The upper limit is fixed at 0.01.

allow_anatomic_features
yes, no Setting this configuration option to yes makes the following commands available when you click Insert > Advanced: • • • Local Push Radius Dome Section Dome

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Part – Help Topic Collection • • • • • •

Ear Lip Slot Shaft Flange Neck

Setting this configuration option to yes also makes Evaluate available when you click Insert > Model Datum.

allow_move_view_with_move
yes, no Disallows the movement of drawing views with the mouse.

allow_udf_style_cosm_threads
yes, no Defines the Cosmetic Thread User Interface. yes—Creates a Cosmetic Thread as a UDF. no—Creates a Cosmetic Thread as a Cosmetic Thread feature.

angle_grid_interval
1.000000 Set angle_grid_interval when you want to modify grid space in angular units for handle movement.

autohide_copied_group_af
yes, no When set to yes, any annotation feature that is contained in the copied group, is hidden in the new group. In the new group, the Annotation Feature will not be visible in the Graphics window.

autoround_max_n_chains_per_feat
value (1 through 10, default is 5) Specifies the maximum number of edge chains that each Auto Round Member (ARM) of an Auto Round feature can contain.

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blended_transparency
yes, no yes—Transparent colors will appear using alpha blending (if supported) when the model is shaded.

centimeter_grid_interval
0.100000, value Set centimeter_grid_interval when you want to modify grid space in centimeter units for handle movement.

datum_point_symbol
cross, dot (filled), circle, triangle, square Modifies the display of datum point symbols in Part or Assembly mode.

default_abs_accuracy
value Defines the default absolute part accuracy.

default_dec_places
value (default = 2 for non-angular dimensions) Sets the default number of decimal places (0-14) to be displayed in all model modes for non-angular dimensions. It does not affect the displayed number of digits of dimensions as modified using Num Digits. The number of decimal places of dimensions created in Sketcher is controlled by the option sketcher_dec_places.

dim_fraction_denominator
value (default = 32) Sets the largest denominator to be used for fractional dimensions. If the fraction can be reduced, then it converts to the lowest possible denominator (for example, 4/32 converts to 1/8).

display_coordinate_sys
yes, no Sets the default for displaying or not displaying the coordinate systems. yes—Coordinate systems display. no—Coordinate systems do not display.

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display_dwg_sketch_constraint
yes, no yes—Parametric sketching constraints, such as V for vertical, are displayed when a drawing object is selected.

dm_cache_mode
none, modified, all Indicates which objects are written to local cache when objects in Pro/ENGINEER memory are saved.

dm_cache_size
4000 Enter the amount of disk space (in megabytes) to allocate for local file storage.

dm_remember_server
yes, no yes—You must set primary server and/or workspace for each Pro/ENGINEER session.

dm_upload_objects
automatic, periodically, explicit Indicates when modified Pro/ENGINEER objects are moved from the local cache to the user workspace on the server.

enable_absolute_accuracy
yes, no Controls the display of the ACCURACY menu, from which you can choose Relative Accuracy or Absolute Accuracy. yes—The ACCURACY menu always appears when you choose Accuracy from the PART SETUP or ASSEMBLY SETUP menus. no—The menu appears only if the part is currently defined with absolute accuracy.

fail_unattached_feature
yes, no Handles unattached protrusion and cuts, when retrieving pre-Release 15 models. yes—When a part is retrieved, the system fails an unattached protrusion or cut. no—When a part is retrieved, the system does not fail an unattached protrusion or cut.

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feature_create_auto_begin
yes, no In feature creation, determines whether or not Define is automatically activated when you open the dialog box. yes—Button is activated automatically. no—You must click Define.

feature_create_auto_ok
yes, no In feature creation, determines whether or not the system activates OK automatically when the last required element is defined. yes—Button is automatically activated. no—You must click OK.

flip_arrow_scale
1.000000, value Sets a scale factor for enlarging the size of the flip arrow that appears for feature creation direction (default = 1).

foot_grid_interval
0.083333, value Set foot_grid_interval when you want to modify grid space in foot units for handle movement.

group_repl_with_recycle
yes, no Controls the method of UDF replacement. yes—Removes the group to be replaced from the model and performs group member replacement. When the group is replaced by a Family Table instance, the children of the old group are automatically mapped to the replacement Family Table instance. no—Suppresses the group to be replaced, and then places the replacement group using the same references.

group_replace_rename
yes, no Controls the renaming of replaced groups. yes—Changes the existing group name to that of the new group.

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no—Preserves the existing group name, if it is a user-defined name.

hole_diameter_override
yes, no yes—In the Hole dashboard, you can change the diameter of a suggested default diameter for standard tapped and clearance holes. Set this to yes if you are familiar with available drills and need to change the system default value. no⎯Pro/ENGINEER displays a diameter value (based on the table lookup function) and grays out the value so you cannot change it.

hole_parameter_file_path
fastener_directory Enables you to use a local hole table instead of the system hole table.

inch_grid_interval
0.125000, value Set inch_grid_interval when you want to modify grid space in inch units for handle movement.

info_output_format
text, html Sets up the default format type for information output. text⎯Information output is in text. html⎯Information output is html.

keep_info_datums
yes, no Sets the initial state of how the system treats datums and features created at run time.

mark_approximate_dims
yes, no yes—Displays a tilde (~) in front of a dimension if that dimension: • • Is set to display as a fraction Has an actual value that has not been rounded to equate exactly to the displayed fractional value (in other words, the fraction shows 7/32 but the actual value is .22, not 0.21875)

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Note: The second case is a general case that does not always require a relation in order to occur.

meter_grid_interval
0.001000, value Set meter_grid_interval when you want to modify grid space in meter units for handle movement.

millimeter_grid_interval
1.000000, value Set millimeter_grid_interval when you want to modify grid space in millimeter units for handle movement.

new_parameter_ui
yes, no Enables the Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire parameter editor and user interface

new_relation_ui
yes, no Enables the Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire relations editor and user interface.

pro_group_dir
<directory name> Sets the default directory for the user-defined feature (UDF) library. If not specified, your current working directory is the default. Use the full path name to avoid problems. For example, /home/users/library/groups.

ratio_grid_interval
0.050000, value Set ratio_grid_interval when you want to modify grid space in percentage units for handle movement.

regenerate_read_only_objects
yes, no Determines whether an object from a Pro/INTRALINK database with blocking status can be regenerated in a Pro/Engineer session.

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select_on_dtm_edges
all_modes, sketcher_only A datum plane can be selected by picking on its visual boundary. If you have to select frequently, you might want to set this option to sketcher_only so that the selection mode is active only in Sketcher.

show_axes_for_extr_arcs
yes, no Determines if axes are created for newly extruded arcs.

show_dim_sign
yes, no Shows negative or positive values for dimensions. no—Dimension values appear positive; if you enter a negative value, the system creates the geometry to the opposite side. yes—If the dimension you modify is negative, and if you enter a negative value, the system creates the geometry to the same side (with the exception of dimensions created with respect to coordinate systems and datum point offsets—these dimensions display the negative/positive value even if this option is set to no).

show_geom_checks_on_creation
yes, no yes—The SHOW ERRORS menu appears at the end of feature creation when the feature has geometry checks.

system_curves_color
Specifies the default color of curve entities. The three decimal values specify (in order) a percentage of red, green and blue in the resulting color. For example, 0 0 49 specifies a medium blue.

user_defined_grid_interval
0.500000, value Set user_defined_grid_interval when you want to modify grid space in user defined length units for handle movement.

use_pre_wildfire_text_font
yes, no yes—Use the old stroke-based PTC font as the default font. 14

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no—Use a True Type font as the default font.

web_browser_homepage
Enter the location of Pro/ENGINEER browser home page.

web_enable_javascript
on, off on—Enable the Javascript API for Pro/ENGINEER. off—Disable the Javascript API for Pro/ENGINEER.

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Datum Features
Datum Planes
About Datum Planes
Datum planes are used as a reference on a part where a datum plane does not already exist. For example, you can sketch or place features on a datum plane when there is no other appropriate planar surface. You can also use a datum plane as a reference to place set datum tag annotations. If no datum plane exists, selecting the planar surface to which the datum tag annotations are associated, automatically creates an internal datum plane. The set datum tags are placed on the reference datum plane or the coplanar surface associated with the datum plane. You can also dimension to a datum plane as if it were an edge. When you are constructing an assembly, you can use datums with assembly commands. Datum planes are infinite, but you can size them to fit a part, feature, surface, edge, or axis, or specify values for the height and width of the display outlines of datum planes. Alternatively, you can use the handles that are displayed to drag the boundaries of datum planes to resize their display outline. Note: The values that you specify as the height and width of the display outlines of datum planes are not Pro/ENGINEER dimension values and are not displayed. You can create a datum plane by specifying constraints that position it with respect to existing geometry. The constraints you choose must position the datum plane relative to the model without ambiguity. Datum Plane Colors and Names By default, datum planes have two sides: brown and gray. You use the colors when you assemble components, orient views, and sketch references. Pro/ENGINEER displays datum planes as brown or gray, depending on which side is facing the screen. When you create datum planes, the system assigns them names in sequential order (DTM1, DTM2, and so on). If desired, you can set an initial name for a datum plane during the creation process by using the Properties tab in the DATUM PLANE dialog box. Or if you want to change the name of an existing datum plane, you can right-click on the datum feature on the Model Tree and select Rename from the shortcut menu or double-click the name of the datum plane on the Model Tree. Selecting Datum Planes To select a datum plane, you can pick on its name, select one of its boundaries or select it on the Model Tree. The visual boundaries of the datums sometimes get in the way of selecting surfaces or edges of the model. If this happens, use Query Sel, or set the

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select_on_dtm_edges configuration option to sketcher_only so that the visual edges of the datum are selectable only when you dimension sketched sections. Creating Datum Planes On the Fly In the process of feature creation, the system lets you create a datum plane on-thefly by clicking on the Datum toolbar or Insert > Model Datum > . Plane.

Datum planes are represented on the Model Tree by

About the Datum Planes User Interface
The datum plane user interface consists of the following: DATUM PLANE dialog box Shortcut menus Handles

DATUM PLANE Dialog Box
The DATUM PLANE dialog box contains the following tabbed pages: • • • Placement Display Properties

The Placement tabbed page contains the following: • References collector—Allows you to place a new datum plane by referencing existing planes, surfaces, edges, points, coordinate systems, axes, vertices, sketch-based features, face facets, edge facets, vertex facets, curves, sketched datum curves, and channels. You can also select intent objects, datum coordinate systems, or noncylindrical surfaces as placement references for the creation of datum planes. Additionally, you can set a constraint for each of the selected references. The constraint types available on the Constraint Type Options menu are as follows: o Through—Places the new datum plane through the selected reference. When you select a datum coordinate system as the placement reference, the Planes Options menu appears with the following options: XY—Places the datum plane through the XY plane YZ—Places the datum plane through the YZ plane and is the default ZX—Places the datum plane through the ZX plane o Offset—Places the new datum plane at an offset from the selected reference. It is the default constraint type when you select a datum coordinate system as the placement reference. Depending on the

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references you have selected, you can use the Constraint list box to enter a transitional offset value or a rotational offset value for the new datum plane. o o o Parallel—Places the new datum parallel to the selected reference. Normal—Places the new datum plane normal to the selected reference. Tangent—Places the new datum plane tangent to the selected reference. The Tangent constraint is added to the newly created datum plane when the datum plane is tangent to a noncylindrical surface and passes through a datum point, vertex, or an endpoint of an edge that is selected as a reference.

Section list—Allows you to specify the section of a sketch-based feature through which the datum plane passes.

The Display tabbed page contains the following: • • Flip—Flips the normal direction of the datum plane. Adjust Outline check box—Allows you to adjust the size of the datum plane's outline. When selected, the following options are available on the Outline Type Options menu: o o Reference—Allows you to size the datum plane to the selected reference such as a part, feature, edge, axis, or surface. Size—Allows you to size the datum plane or adjust its outline display size to specified values of width and height and is the default. When selected, the following options are available: Width—Allows you to specify a value as the width of the datum plane outline display. Is available when you select the Adjust Outline check box and Size. Height—Allows you to specify a value as the height of the datum plane outline display. Is available when you select the Adjust Outline check box and Size. Note: When you redefine a legacy datum plane that uses the radius as the outline dimension, the radius dimension is changed to the height and width values of the displayed outline of the legacy datum plane. These values are displayed in the Width and Height boxes when you select the Adjust Outline check box and select Size in the Display tabbed page. o Lock aspect ratio—Allows you to maintain the proportion between the height and the width of the datum plane outline display. Is available when you select the Adjust Outline check box and Size.

o

o

In the Properties tabbed page you can view information about the current datum plane feature in the Pro/ENGINEER browser. Additionally, you can use the Properties tabbed page to rename the datum feature.

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Shortcut Menus
When you right-click in the graphics window, the Feature menu appears with the following options: • • • Flip Normal direction—Flips the normal direction of the datum plane. Clear—Clears the active collector. Switch to Offset—Available when you snap an offset drag handle to a specific location. Allows you to unsnap an already snapped handle and changes the constraint from Parallel to Offset by removing the Through constraint. Maintains the location of the datum plane and displays the offset handle.

When you select the Adjust Outline check box on the Display tabbed page, select Reference, and right-click in the graphics window, a shortcut menu appears with the following options: • • Placement References—Activates the Placement collector and allows you to specify the placement references to which the datum plane is constrained. Fit Outline—Activates the Fit Outline collector and allows you to specify the reference to which the datum plane display outline is sized.

When you right-click in the Reference collector, a shortcut menu appears with the following options: • • Remove—Clears the reference that you select in the Reference collector. Information—Allows you to view information about the selected reference in the Pro/ENGINEER embedded browser or the Information window.

Handles
The following are the types of handles that are displayed: • Two-Dimension Outline Handle—Available when you specify the width and height values to resize the display outline of a datum plane in the Display tabbed page of the DATUM PLANE dialog box. The outline handle is located at each corner of the preview of the current datum plane being created or redefined. You can move any one of the handles to resize the datum plane outline display. Offset Handle—Displayed when you select datum planes or planar surfaces as references for the creation of datum planes, and when the default constraint is Offset. You can use the offset handle to manually translate the datum plane to the required offset distance, snap the handle to a point, linear edge, axis, or curve, and also unsnap the handle that is snapped to a location. The offset handle is automatically locked when you add a relation to drive the Offset dimension.

About Using Datum Planes with Legacy Data
For datum planes created in the earlier versions of Pro/ENGINEER, the datum plane adjusts its boundaries as follows:

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Radius values specified The size of the selected references, such as a part, feature, edge, axis, or surface

Using Legacy Datum Planes with Size Adjusted to Specified Radius
For legacy datum planes with radius dimensions that determine their size: • The radius dimensions of the legacy datum planes are not retained if you have redefined the datum planes in the current version of Pro/ENGINEER. Note: When the radius, which is the outline dimension that drives a relation, is not retained but is changed to the height and width values during redefinition, the relevant relation is also no longer valid. • The radius dimensions of the legacy datum planes are retained if you have not redefined the legacy datum planes in the current version of Pro/ENGINEER.

When the radius dimensions of the legacy datum planes are retained, you can redefine and change the radius dimension in the current version of Pro/ENGINEER. The height and width values of the displayed outline of the legacy datum plane are displayed in Width and Height boxes when you select the Adjust Outline checkbox and select Size in the Display tabbed page of the DATUM PLANE dialog box. The outline handle is displayed and you can use the handle to enlarge the boundaries of the datum plane.

Using Legacy Datum Planes with Datum Coordinate Systems or Point Features as References
If you redefine legacy datum planes with datum coordinate systems or datum point features that include only single points, the current version of Pro/ENGINEER displays the datum coordinate systems or the datum point features in the Fit Outline collector as references to which the legacy datum planes adjust their size. If the datum point features consist of more than single points, you can retain a single point in each feature and delete the rest of the points. The datum planes adjust their size to the reference datum point features with single points. During the redefinition process, you can replace these datum point features with valid references.

About Modifying the Size of the Datum Planes
Datum planes, by default, are displayed scaled to the model size. You can resize the boundaries of the datum planes or adjust them to selected references or specific values. You can size datum planes to visually fit a selected reference which is a part, feature, surface, edge, or axis. Alternatively, you can specify values for the height and width of the datum planes to expand the display outlines of the datum planes beyond the model outlines when you create or redefine datum planes. View the display outlines of the datum planes in Drawing mode. Note: You cannot change the values of width and height by editing the datum plane dimensions.

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The values that you specify as the height and width of the datum plane boundaries are not Pro/ENGINEER dimension values and are not displayed. These values do not affect the regeneration of the model. Use the default_dec_places configuration option to set precise values. Alternatively, you can also use the two-dimension outline handles to resize the display outlines of datum planes. A handle is displayed at each corner of the previewed datum plane when you specify the width and height values for the display outline of a datum plane. You can lock the aspect ratio between the values of width and height such that a change in a value also changes the other value proportionally. When you drag one of the handles to change the height or width of the previewed datum plane, the values are automatically updated in the Width and Height boxes of the Display tabbed page. The movement of the handle in the direction of the width or height is correspondingly restricted and the location of the mirrored handle is maintained as follows: • • • • When you move the top right handle, the bottom left handle is not moved When you move the top left handle, the bottom right handle is not moved When you move the bottom right handle, the top left handle is not moved When you move the bottom left handle, the top right handle is not moved

Note: The movement of the handle is restricted to a point when the value of the width or height is equal to its upper limit. Model accuracy is maintained when the datum plane display outline changes. Pro/ENGINEER may refit the display outline, if required.

To Create a Datum Plane and Adjust Its Display by Size
1. Click the button in the Datum toolbar or click Insert > Model Datum >

Plane. The DATUM PLANE dialog box opens. 2. In the graphics window, select placement references for the new datum plane. Choose the required constraint option from the constraint list within the References collector. 3. To add multiple references to your select list, press CTRL while you select. As you select your references, they appear in the References collector in the DATUM PLANE dialog box. 4. Repeat Steps 2 and 3 until you have established the necessary constraints. If the references are incomplete, the system will wait for additional references until the datum is fully constrained. 5. Click the Display tab to adjust the size of the outline display of the datum plane. 6. Select the Adjust Outline check box. 7. Select Size to adjust the size of the outline display to the specified values. 21

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8. Specify values in Width and Height for the width and height of the datum plane outline display. Note: The height and width values of the datum plane outline display are not displayed in the graphics window. The two-dimension outline handles are displayed at each corner of the datum plane preview. Alternatively, drag one of the handles to change the width or height of the datum plane display outline. 9. Click Lock aspect ratio if you want to maintain the proportion of the height and width of the outline display. 10. Click OK to create the datum plane with its outline display adjusted to the specified height and width values.

To Adjust Datum Display by Reference
You can size all datum planes to visually fit a part, feature, surface, edge, axis, or radius. 1. Right-click on the datum plane in the Model Tree and select Edit Definition from the shortcut menu. Alternatively, select a datum plane in the graphics window and click Edit > Definition. The DATUM PLANE dialog box opens. Note: You can also adjust the size of the datum plane during the creation of the datum plane. 2. Click the Display tab. 3. Select the Adjust Outline check box. 4. Select Reference in the list box to size the datum plane to the selected reference. Note: To select a feature as the reference, set up the selection filter to exclusively select features and filter out datum coordinate systems and datum point features that include single points. 5. Select a part, feature, edge, axis, or surface as a size reference. 6. Click OK to adjust the datum display.

To Create an Offset Datum Plane
1. Click the button in the Datum toolbar. The DATUM PLANE dialog box Plane.

opens. Alternatively, click Insert > Model Datum >

2. Select an existing datum plane or planar surface from which to offset the new datum plane. The reference you select appears in the References collector along with its constraint type. 3. If Offset is not the default constraint for the selected reference, select Offset from the constraints list in the References collector.

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4. To adjust the offset distance, you can: o o In the graphics window, use the drag handle to manually translate the datum plane to the required distance. In the DATUM PLANE dialog box, type a distance value in the Offset Translation value box or select a value from a list of the most recently used values.

5. Click OK to create the offset datum plane.

To Create a Datum Plane with an Angular Offset
1. Click the button in the Datum toolbar. The DATUM PLANE dialog box Plane.

opens. Alternatively, click Insert > Model Datum >

2. Select an existing datum axis, straight edge, or straight curve. The reference you select appears in the References collector in the DATUM PLANE dialog box. 3. If Through is not the default constraint, select Through from the constraints list in the References collector. 4. Press CTRL and select a datum plane or planar surface that is normal to the selected datum axis. By default Offset is selected as the constraint. Note: You can also first select a planar surface to create the datum plane. 5. To adjust the angle of the datum plane: o o In the graphics window, use the drag handle to manually rotate the datum plane to the required angle. In the DATUM PLANE dialog box, type an angular value in the Offset Rotation value box or select a value from a list of the most recently used values.

6. Click OK to create the offset datum plane.

Snapping and Unsnapping of Handles
When you select datum planes or planar surfaces as references for the creation of datum planes, and when the default constraint is Offset, a handle is displayed with which you can manually drag the datum plane to the required offset distance. You can also snap the offset handles to the following locations: • • • • A point A linear edge An axis A curve

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These locations or references to which the handles are snapped have the constraint type Through while the constraint of the datum planes or the datum reference is set to Parallel. You can also unsnap handles that are already snapped to these locations so that references with the Through constraint, such as a vertex, datum point, straight edge, curve, or datum axis, are removed while the location of the datum plane or planar surface is maintained. To unsnap a handle, you must hold down the SHIFT key and move the handle with the mouse located close to the handle. Pro/ENGINEER displays the snapped handle when the Placement collector in the DATUM PLANE dialog box displays one of the following selections: • • • • A datum plane or planar surface with the Parallel constraint and a vertex or datum point with the Through constraint A vertex or a datum point with the Through constraint and a datum plane or planar surface with the Parallel constraint A datum plane or planar surface with the Parallel constraint and a parallel straight edge, curve, or datum axis with the Through constraint A parallel straight edge, curve, or datum axis with the Through constraint and a parallel datum plane or planar surface with the Parallel constraint

The offset handle is automatically locked when you add a relation to drive the Offset dimension.

About Creating a Datum Plane Using a Datum Coordinate System
You can select a datum coordinate system as a placement reference and place the datum plane along one of its axes, at an offset from the origin, or through one of the virtual planes. The constraints that are available are Offset and Through. Offset is the default. When the constraint type is Offset, the datum plane is placed along one of the axes of the datum coordinate system that is selected as a placement reference and is offset from the origin. If you set the show_dim_sign configuration option to no, the offset dimension is displayed as an absolute or positive value even if you have entered a negative value, and the datum plane flips to the opposite side of the reference datum coordinate system. When you set show_dim_sign to yes with a negative value, the offset dimension is displayed as the real value, and the datum plane retains its location on the same side as the reference datum coordinate system. When the constraint type is Through, you must select one of the following virtual planes defined by the selected datum coordinate system: • • • XY YZ ZX

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The default virtual plane is YZ. The datum plane is defined through the specified axes and placed through the selected virtual plane of the datum coordinate system. That is, if you select the XY virtual plane, the datum plane is defined through the x- and y-axes of the datum coordinate system.

To Create a Datum Plane Through a Datum Coordinate System
1. Click the button in the Datum toolbar. The DATUM PLANE dialog box Plane.

opens. Alternatively, click Insert > Model Datum >

2. Select a datum coordinate system as the placement reference. The selected datum coordinate system appears in the References collector along with its constraint type. 3. Change the constraint type to Through in the References collector. 4. Select one of the following Plane options: o o o XY—Places the datum plane through the XY plane and defined through the x- and y-axes of the datum coordinate axis. YZ—Places the datum plane through the YZ plane and defined through the y- and z-axes of the datum coordinate axis. This is the default. ZX—Places the datum plane through the XZ plane and defined through the z- and x-axes of the datum coordinate axis.

5. Click OK to create the offset datum plane offset in the specified direction along one of the axes of the datum coordinate system or through one of the virtual planes of the datum coordinate system.

About Creating a Datum Plane Tangent to a Surface
You can create a datum plane that is tangent to a noncylindrical surface and passes through one of the following references: • • • A datum point A vertex An endpoint of an edge

The following depend on whether you first select a noncylindrical surface or a reference: • If you first select a surface, then select any datum point on the selected surface or on an edge that is created by the selected surface. You can also select a vertex or the endpoint of an edge instead of the datum point. However, the vertex or the endpoint of an edge that you select must also belong to the selected surface.

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If you first select or create the datum point and then select the noncylindrical surface, you must have used the surface or one of its edges as the placement reference to create the datum point. If you first select a vertex or an endpoint of an edge and then select the noncylindrical surface, the surface must include the vertex or the endpoint of the edge.

The Tangent constraint is added to the newly created datum plane.

To Preselect Datum References
As a time-saving measure you can select any of the following combinations of references in the graphics window and click the button to define a fully constrained datum plane. This feature allows you to quickly define datum planes without using the DATUM PLANE dialog box. References Two coplanar edges or two axes (must be coplanar but not collinear) Three datum points or vertices (must not be collinear) A datum plane or planar surface and two datum points or vertices (points or vertices must not be collinear with the normal to the plane) A datum point and an axis or straight edge/curve (point must not be collinear with the axis or edge) Results Datum plane is created constrained through the references Datum plane is created constrained through each of the datum points / vertices. Datum plane is created normal to plane through the selected points.

Datum plane is created constrained through the datum point and the axis / edge.

Datum Axes
About Datum Axes
Like datum planes, datum axes can be used as references for feature creation. Datum axes are particularly useful for making datum planes, placing items concentrically, and creating radial patterns. You can use a datum axis as a reference to place set datum tag annotations. If no datum axis exists, selecting the geometry to which the set datum tags are associated, such as a circular curve or edge or the edge of a cylindrical surface, automatically creates an internal datum axis. The set datum tags are placed normal to the datum plane referencing the datum axis or the cylindrical surface associated with the datum axis.

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Datum axes, as opposed to feature axes, are individual features that can be redefined, suppressed, blanked, or deleted. They can be previewed during their creation. You can specify a value as the axis length or adjust the axis length to visually fit to an edge, surface, datum axis, a feature in Part mode, or a part in Assembly mode selected as a reference. The outline of the reference is used to determine the length of the datum axis. Datum Axes Names Pro/ENGINEER names datum axes A_#, where # is the number of datum axes that have been created. You can set an initial name for a datum axis during the creation process by using the Properties tab in the DATUM AXIS dialog box. Or, if you want to change the name of an existing datum axis, you can right-click on the datum feature in the Model Tree and select Rename from the shortcut menu.

About the Datum Axes User Interface
The datum axis user interface consists of the following: DATUM AXIS dialog box Shortcut menus

DATUM AXIS Dialog Box
The DATUM AXIS dialog box contains the following tabbed pages: Placement Display Properties Placement The Placement tabbed page contains the following: • References Collector—Places a new datum axis. Use this collector to select a reference on which to place the new datum axis, then select the reference type. To select additional references, hold down the CTRL key as you select. The reference types are: o o Through—Indicates that the datum axis extends through the selected reference. Normal—Places the datum axis normal to the selected reference. This type of reference requires you to either define references in the Offset References collector or add an additional point or vertex to fully constrain the axis. Tangent—Places the datum axis tangent to the selected references. This type of constraint requires you to add an additional point or vertex as

o

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reference. An axis is created parallel to the tangent vector at the location of the point or vertex. o Center—Places the datum axis through the center of the selected planar circular edge or curve and normal to the plane on which the selected curve or edge lies.

Offset References Collector—Activates the Offset References collector if Normal is selected as a reference type in the References collector. Use this collector to select offset references.

Display The Display tabbed page contains the Adjust Outline check box. Adjust Outline allows you to adjust the length of the datum axis outline so that the datum axis outline fits to a specified size or to a selected reference. When selected, the following options are available on the DATUM AXIS dialog box: o Size—Allows you to adjust the length of the datum axis to a specified length. You can use the handle to manually adjust the length of the datum axis to a desired value or specify a value in the Length value box. Reference—Allows you to adjust the length of the datum axis so that it fits to the selected reference such as an edge, surface, datum axis, a feature in the Part mode, or a part in the Assembly mode. The References collector displays the selected reference type.

o

Properties From the Properties tabbed page you can view information about the current datum axis feature in the Pro/ENGINEER browser. Additionally, you can use the Properties tabbed page to rename the datum feature.

Shortcut Menus
When you right-click in the References collector, a shortcut menu appears with the following options: • • Remove—Clears the reference that you select in the Reference collector. Information—Allows you to view information about the selected reference in the Pro/ENGINEER browser or the Information window. When you select a feature in the graphics window and right-click, a shortcut menu appears with the following options: • • • Placement References—Specifies the references through which the datum axis is created. Offset References—Specifies the references from which the datum axis is offset. Fit Outline—Specifies the reference to which the size of the datum axis outline fits. It activates the collector that allows you to specify the reference for the

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datum axis. This option is available only when you click the Adjust Outline check box in the Display tabbed page of the DATUM AXIS dialog box and select Reference. • Clear—Clears the active collector.

To Create a Datum Axis and Adjust Its Size
1. Click the button in the Datum toolbar. The DATUM AXIS dialog box opens. Alternatively, click Insert > Model Datum > Axis. 2. In the graphics window, select up to two placement references for the new datum axis. You can select planes, surfaces, edges, vertices, curves, and datum points. The references appear in the References collector in the DATUM AXIS dialog box. You can preview the datum axis during creation, even though it is not fully defined. Note: To add multiple references to your select list press CTRL while you select. 3. Select the required constraint option from constraint list in the References collector. The constraints are Through, Normal, and Tangent. 4. Repeat Steps 2 and 3 until you have established the necessary constraints. If the references are incomplete, the system waits for additional references until the datum is fully constrained. 5. Click the Display tab. 6. To change the size of the datum axis, select the Adjust Outline check box and then click one of the following options from the Outline Type Options menu: o Size—Adjusts the size of the datum axis to a specified length. Type a value in the Length value box. The length of the datum axis is the distance between the two ends of the previewed datum axis. Reference—Adjusts the size of the datum axis to the selected reference. Select an edge, surface, datum axis, feature in the Part mode, or Part in the Assembly mode as the reference. The References collector displays the selected reference type. You can also set up the selection filter.

o

7. Click OK to create the datum axis and adjust its length.

To Create a Datum Axis Normal to a Surface Using Two Offset References
1. Click the button in the Datum toolbar. The DATUM AXIS dialog box opens. Alternatively, click Insert > Model Datum > Axis. 2. Select a surface in the graphics window. The selected surface with the constraint type set to Normal appears in the References collector. You can preview the datum axis normal to the selected surface. A handle appears on the surface. Two offset reference handles also appear.

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3. Drag the offset reference handles to select two references or graphically select two references such as a plane and a planar surface or straight edges. The two selected offset references appear in the Offset references collector. 4. Click OK to create the datum axis normal to the selected surface.

To Create a Datum Axis Selecting a Circular Curve or Edge
1. Click on the Datum toolbar or click Insert > Model Datum > Axis. The DATUM AXIS dialog box opens. 2. Select a circular edge or curve, a datum curve, or the edge of a cylindrical surface that is coplanar as the placement reference for the datum axis. o o The selected reference appears in the References collector in the DATUM AXIS dialog box. The constraint type for the selected reference is Center, by default. A preview of the datum axis is displayed.

Note: If you change the constraint type of the selected reference to Tangent, you must select an additional reference, such as a vertex or datum point with Through as its constraint. 3. Optionally, adjust the length of the datum axis outline so that it fits to a specified size or to a selected reference using the Adjust Outline check box on the Display tabbed page. 4. Click OK. o If the constraint type is Center, the datum axis is created through the center of the selected circular edge or curve and normal to the plane on which the selected curve or edge lies. If the constraint type is Tangent, with Through as the constraint for the vertex or datum point that is the additional reference, the datum axis that is created is constrained tangent to the curve or edge and through the vertex or the datum point.

o

To Preselect Datum Axis References
As a time-saving measure you can select any of the following combinations of references in the graphics window and click to automatically define a fully constrained datum axis. This feature allows you to quickly define datum axes without using the DATUM AXIS dialog box. The datum axis includes handles for specific sets of references, such as a datum point and planar surface, or a vertex and a datum plane. Hold down the SHIFT key to snap a handle. References Results

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References One straight edge or axis Two datum points or vertices A datum point or vertex and a datum plane or planar surface

Results A datum axis is created through the selected edge.

A datum axis is created constrained through each of the datum points or vertices. The datum axis is created through the datum point or vertex and perpendicular to the datum plane or planar surface. A handle is displayed at the intersection of the datum axis and the datum plane or planar surface. If the planes intersect, a datum axis is created through the line of intersection.

Two nonparallel datum planes or planar surfaces A curve or edge and one of its end points or a datum point A planar circular edge or curve, a datum curve, or the edge of a cylindrical surface

A datum axis is created constrained through the endpoint or the datum point and tangent to the curve or edge. A datum axis is created through the center of the planar circular edge or curve and normal to the plane on which the selected curve or edge lies. For the edge of a cylindrical surface, the datum axis is created along the center-line of the cylindrical surface. If the datum point is on the selected surface, a datum axis is created through the point and normal to the surface. If the datum point is not on the selected surface the DATUM AXIS dialog box opens.

A datum point and a surface

Example: Using Datum Axes in Modeling
Through edge

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Through cylinder

Intersection of two planes

Through two points

Normal through point on surface (normal to surface)

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Datum Points
About the Datum Point Feature
You can use datum points as a construction element when modeling geometry or as a known point for conducting computations and model analyses. You can add points to your model at any time—even while in the process of creating another feature. To add datum points to your model, use the Datum Point feature. A Datum point feature can contain multiple datum points that are created during the same operation. Datum points that belong to the same feature behave as follows: • • • In the Model Tree, all datum points appear under one feature node. All points in the Datum Point feature act as a group. Deleting a feature deletes all points in that feature. To delete individual points in the Datum Point feature, you must edit its definition.

Different Types of Datum Points
Pro/ENGINEER supports four types of datum point that vary depending on their method of creation and use. Note that the first three types are used in regular modeling. You can select from the following types of datum points: • • • • General point—A datum point created on an entity or at the intersection of entities, or offset from an entity. Sketched—A datum point created in Sketcher. Offset from a coordinate system—A datum point created by offsetting from a selected coordinate system. Field point—A point used in Behavioral Modeling for analysis purposes. A field point identifies a geometric domain.

Accessing Datum Points
To access the Datum Point tool, do one of the following: • • Click Insert > Model Datum > Point and select the desired type. On the Datums toolbar, click an arrow next to to open the datum point

, which displays icons for different types of datum palette point. Select an icon for the particular type of datum point that you want to create.

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Datum Points Display
Each point is identified by a label PNT#, where # is the consecutive number of the datum point. By default, Pro/ENGINEER displays a datum point as a cross. You can change the point symbol to appear as a dot, circle, triangle, or square using one of the following methods: • • By using the Datum Display dialog box. Click View > Display Settings > Datum Display and select an option from the Point Symbol list. By setting the configuration file option datum_point_symbol.

Point (General) About General Datum Points
To create datum points that lie on or are offset from the model geometry, use the general type of datum points. Depending on the existing geometry and your design intent, you can use different methods for specifying the point's location. Note: Within one Datum Point feature, you can add points using different placement methods. You can place a general datum point at the following locations: • • • • • • • On a curve, edge, or axis At the center of a circular or elliptical entity On a surface or quilt, or offset from a surface or quilt On a vertex or offset from a vertex Offset from an existing datum point Offset from a coordinate system. At the intersection of entities. For example, you can place a point at the intersection of three planes, at the intersection of a curve and a surface, or at the intersection of two curves.

Note: You cannot place a datum point on the axis of a coordinate system. However, you can use an axis of a coordinate system as the offset direction. Accessing a General Datum Point To access a general datum point, do one of the following: • • Click Insert > Model Datum > Point > Point. On the Datum Features toolbar, click .

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Using the Object-Action Workflow With certain types of datum points, you can first select feature references and then activate the Datum Points tools. You can select the following feature references before activating the tool: • • • • • • • A vertex Multiple vertices A curve An edge A surface or quilt A datum axis A coordinate system

You can select the following combinations of entities after activating the tool: • • • • • • • • • A datum point and a coordinate system or an axis of a coordinate system. A datum point and a straight curve, edge, or axis A datum point and a datum plane or planar surface A vertex and a straight curve, edge, or axis A vertex and a datum coordinate system or an axis of a coordinate system A vertex and datum plane or planar surface Two or three surfaces Two edges or curves Surface (or datum plane) and curve (or edge)

Creating a Group of Datum Points on a Surface or Quilt You can create a group of datum points on a surface or quilt by placing multiple points on the selected reference. All points created during one operation belong to the same group.

About the General Point User Interface
The user interface for general datum points includes: Feature icon Datum Point dialog box Shortcut menu

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Feature Icon The icon for the general datum points Datum Point Dialog Box The Datum Point dialog box has two tabs: • • Placement—Defines a point's location. Properties—Lets you edit the feature name and access feature information in the Pro/ENGINEER browser. is located on the Datums toolbar.

Using the Placement Tab The Placement tab of the Datum Point dialog box adapts to the particular placement method that you chose by providing options and fields that are required for constraining the point. Therefore, as you switch from one placement method (for example, at the intersection of three datums) to another (for example, on curve), the appropriate input fields become available. For details, refer to a specific datum point creation procedure. The Placement tab may include the following elements: • • Points list—Lists points that you have created within the current datum point feature. References—Lists primary placement references. For example, if you are creating a point at the intersection of three surface, the three selected surfaces appear in the list. You can remove or add references. Press CTRL while adding to the References list. To remove a reference, right-click the reference and click Remove, or unselect it from the graphics window. If appropriate, a reference may have specific placement constraint listed. For example, On or Offset, or On and At Center. • • Offset box—Lists an offset dimension for points placed at an offset distance. Offset references—Lists references that you select for dimensioning a point to the model geometry. To start adding references, click within the list and select a reference. To add another reference, press CTRL while selecting the next reference. To remove a reference, do one of the following: o o o Right-click the reference and click Remove. Unselect the reference from the graphics window. Use the offset reference handle.

For each selected reference, you can adjust the placement dimension (located to the right of the reference) by clicking the dimension value and typing a new one.

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Note: For points on a curve or edge, the Offset references section lists additional elements. For details, see the procedure for adding points on a curve. Shortcut Menus The options on the shortcut menu depend on the datum point you are creating. When you right-click a datum point, the shortcut menu may list the following options: • • • • • • • • • Placement References—Specifies new placement references. Offset References—Specifies new offset references. Offset—Changes the On location constraint to Offset. Next Curve End—Lets you select the other endpoint of a curve or edge to use as a reference. New Point—Lets you create a new point. Ratio—Lets you type a length ratio for placing a point on a curve or edge. Real—Lets you type a distance from the endpoint of a curve or edge. Duplicate—Create a datum point by applying the same placement constraints and references. Unsnap—Unselect an entity that was prehighlighted by the system.

To Work with the Points List in the Datum Points Dialog Box
As you add a new point, the new point appears on the points list on the Placement tab of the Datum Point dialog box. You can right-click a point on the list to access the following commands on the shortcut menu: • • • Delete—Delete the selected point. Rename—Rename the selected point. Duplicate—Create a new point using the same placement method.

To add a new point, do one of the following: • • Click New Point in the point list in the Datum Point dialog box. Select a point and click Duplicate on the shortcut menu. This creates a new point with the same references.

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To Create a Datum Point on a Curve, Edge, or Datum Axis
1. Select an edge, datum curve, or axis. 2. Click . A default point is added to the selected entity. The Datum Point dialog box opens. Notice that the new point is added to the point list, and the entity collected for the operation appears under References. 3. You can adjust the point's location manually by dragging the point's handle, or you can position the point using the Placement tab. When positioning a datum point using the Placement tab, you have two options: o End of curve—Measure the distance from the selected end of a curve or edge. To use another endpoint, click Next End. For a curve or edge, the End of curve option is selected by default. Reference—Measure the distance from a selected entity. Select a reference entity, for example, a solid surface.

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There are two ways to specify the offset distance: o By specifying the offset ratio—Type the offset ratio in the Offset dimension box. The offset ratio is a fraction of the distance from the datum point to the selected endpoint to the total length of the curve or edge. You can enter a value between 0 and 1. For example, entering the offset ratio of .25, places a datum point at 1/4 of the curve's length from the selected endpoint. By specifying the actual length—Change Ratio to Real by selecting from the pull-down list. In the Offset dimension box, type the actual curve length from the datum point to the endpoint or reference.

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4. Click New Point to add more points, or click OK.

Tip: Creating a Datum Point at the Extension of a Straight Edge or Curve
You can create a point on the invisible extension of a straight edge, straight curve, or datum axis. 1. Select a linear reference. 2. Click . The Datum Point dialog box opens.

3. Under Offset references, select Reference. 4. Drag the handle along the invisible extension of the selected edge, curve, or datum axis. Tip: You can adjust the placement dimension by using the Datum Point dialog box. Click a dimension value listed in Offset references and type a new one. 5. Click New Point to add more points, or click OK. 38

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To Create a Datum Point at a Curve's Intersection
You can use this procedure to create a datum point at the intersection of a curve, edge, or axis with another entity such as a plane, surface, curve, edge, or axis. 1. Select a curve, edge, or axis. 2. Click . A default point is added to the selected entity. The Datum Point dialog box opens, and the new point is added to the points list. The entity collected for the operation appears under References. 3. To move the point to the intersection with another entity, press CTRL while selecting the intersecting entity. When you click the intersecting entity, the datum point snaps to the intersection. Tips: o o You can snap to the intersection with another entity by pressing the SHIFT button while dragging the handle. You can unsnap the handle by right-clicking and selecting Unsnap on the shortcut menu.

4. Click New Point to add more points, or click OK.

To Create a Datum Point at the Center
You can create a datum point at the center of a circular or elliptical datum curve or edge. 1. Select a circular or elliptical edge or datum curve. 2. Click . The Datum Point dialog box opens. By default, the system creates a point that lies on the selected entity. The location constraint under References is set to On. 3. To place the point at the center of the selected entity, you must switch the On location constraint to At Center. In the Datum Point dialog box, click On in the table cell and select At Center from the pull-down list. The point is placed at the center. 4. Click New Point to add more points, or click OK.

To Create a Datum Point On or Offset from a Surface
You can add points to a surface or quilt. To place a point on a surface or quilt, you must dimension it to two references. In Pro/ENGINEER, these dimensions are considered offset reference dimensions. Each new point placed on a surface or quilt has a placement handle displayed at the pick location and two offset reference handles that you will use to dimension the point to the model geometry. Initially, the offset reference handles are not attached to any reference. Tip: To create an offset point, start by creating a point on a surface and then offset it from the surface by changing the On location constraint to Offset.

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1. Select a surface or quilt. 2. Click . The Datum Point dialog box opens. A new point is added to the points list, and the selected surface appears under References. In the graphics window, the new point is added to the model at the selected location. 3. Dimension the point to two offset references. For each direction, drag the offset reference handle to attach it to the appropriate reference entity (an edge, surface, or plane). When you release the handle, the system adds a placement dimension. Tip: Alternatively, you can click within the Offset references list in the Datum Point dialog box and hold down CTRL while selecting a reference for each direction. 4. To adjust placement dimensions, double-click a dimension value in the graphics area and type a new one. Tip: Alternatively, you can adjust dimensions by using the Datum Point dialog box. Click a dimension value listed under Offset references and type a new one. 5. If you are creating an offset point, you must change the default On location constraint to Offset. To do this, click On and select Offset from the list. Tip: You can right-click the point's placement handle and select Offset from the shortcut menu. 6. Type the offset value in the Offset dimension box or drag the offset handle to a desired location. 7. Click New Point to add more points, or click OK.

To Create a Datum Point On or Offset from a Coordinate System or Its Axis or a Vertex
1. Click on the Datum toolbar or click Insert > Model Datum > Point > Point. The Datum Point dialog box opens. Note: To create a datum point on a coordinate system, select the coordinate system in the graphics window or on the Model Tree and click OK. 2. Select a coordinate system or a vertex in the model in the graphics window. The selected coordinate system or vertex appears in the References collector of the Datum Point dialog box. 3. Holding down the CTRL key, select a coordinate system or an axis of a coordinate system in the graphics window. The selected coordinate system or the axis appears in the References collector of the Datum Point dialog box, below the selected coordinate system or vertex. Note: You can also select a combination of any of the following: 40

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Two coordinate systems. A coordinate system and an axis of a coordinate system. A coordinate system and a straight curve, edge, or axis. A coordinate system and a datum plane or planar surface. A vertex and a coordinate system or an axis of a coordinate system. A datum point and a coordinate system or an axis of a coordinate system.

4. Select one of the following offset types in the Offset type box: o o o Cartesian—Allows you to offset a coordinate system by specifying the X, Y, and Z values. Cylindrical—Allows you to offset a coordinate system by specifying Radius, Theta, and Z values. Spherical—Allows you to offset a coordinate system by specifying Radius, Theta, and Phi values.

Note: Three-dimensional offset is available only if you select a coordinate system as the second reference. If you select an axis of a coordinate system as the second reference, then you can offset the datum point only along the selected axis. 5. Double-click the offset dimension in the graphics window and type the required offset value or type the value in the offset box in the Datum Point dialog box. Alternatively, drag the offset handle to the required location. 6. Click OK to create the datum point offset from the coordinate system or at the center of the coordinate system or offset from the vertex.

Creating Multiple Datum Points on the Same Surface or Quilt
When you create multiple points on the same surface or quilt, you create a group of points that use the same offset references for all points in the group. To create a group of points: 1. Select a surface or quilt. 2. Click .

3. Select the locations of the points on the surface or quilt. 4. When you finish placing points, specify the offset references for one point in the group. The system dimensions all other points in the group to the same offset references.

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To Create a Datum Point Offset from Another Point
To define the offset direction, select the following geometry as a reference: • • • Straight edge, straight curve, datum axis or a coordinate system—Drag the point's handle parallel to the selected reference. Coordinate system—Select a coordinate system for a three-dimensional offset or select an axis (x, y, or z) of a coordinate system along which to offset the point. Datum plane or planar surface—Drag the point's handle normal to the selected reference.

1. Select a datum point or vertex in the model in the graphics window. 2. Click . The Datum Point dialog box opens. By default, Pro/ENGINEER adds a new point at the selected location. 3. Press CTRL while selecting a direction reference. Note: o Three-dimensional offset is available only if you select a coordinate system as the direction or second reference. Specify one of the offset types in the Offset type box: Cartesian—Allows you to offset from a coordinate system by specifying the X, Y, and Z values. Cylindrical—Allows you to offset from a coordinate system by specifying Radius, Theta, and Z values. Spherical—Allows you to offset from a coordinate system by specifying Radius, Theta, and Phi values. o If you select an axis of a coordinate system as the direction or second reference, then you can offset the point only along the selected axis.

4. Drag the offset handle to the required location. Tip: Alternatively, you can double-click the offset dimension in the graphics window and type the required offset value or type the value in the offset box in the Datum Point dialog box. 5. Click New Point to add more points, or click OK to quit the datum point tool.

To Create a Datum Point at the Intersection of Entities
1. Press CTRL while selecting intersecting entities. You can select one of the following combinations: o o o 42 Three surfaces or datum planes A curve, datum axis, or edge, intersecting with a surface or datum plane Two intersecting curves, edges, or axes

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Note: You can select two curves that do not intersect. In this case, the system places a point on the first curve at the location that is at the shortest distance to the second curve. 2. Click . The Datum Point dialog box opens. A new point is created at the intersection of the selected entities. 3. Click New Point to continue with the point creation, or click OK.

To Create a Datum Point Using an Intent Chain
1. Click on the Datum toolbar or click Insert > Model Datum > Point > Point. The DATUM POINT dialog box opens. 2. Select an intent chain in the model using one of the following methods: • In the graphics window: a. In the status bar, set the Smart filter type to Intent Chain. b. In the graphics window, move your pointer over the model. Pro/ENGINEER highlights the intent chains in the model. c. Select the required intent chain. The selected intent chain is added under References in the DATUM POINT dialog box. • By querying: a. In the graphics window, place your pointer near the required edge and right-click. A shortcut menu appears. b. Click Pick From List on the shortcut menu. The Pick From List dialog box opens. c. Select the required intent chain. Pro/ENGINEER highlights the selected intent chain in the graphics window. d. Click OK. The selected intent chain is added under References in the DATUM POINT dialog box and also appears selected in the graphics window. • Using the Search Tool: a. Click on the Edit toolbar. The Search Tool dialog box opens.

b. Under Look for, select Intent Chain. c. Under Look by, select Edge. d. In the Attributes tabbed page, under Rule select Type. e. Under Criteria, set Comparison to is equal to and Value to TwoSided. f. Click Find Now. All the intent chains in the model are listed under the list of items found in the Search Tool dialog box.

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g. Select the required intent chain under the list of items found and click to transfer the selected intent chain to the selected items area. h. Click Close in the Search Tool dialog box. The selected intent chain is added under References in the DATUM POINT dialog box and also appears selected in the graphics window. 3. To manually adjust the point's location, drag the point's handle in the graphics window, or position the point using the Placement tabbed page. The following options are available on the Placement tabbed page: • End of curve—Measures the distance from the selected intent edge or intent chain. To use another endpoint, click Next End. For an intent edge, End of curve is selected by default. Reference—Measures the distance from a selected entity. Select a reference entity, such as a surface, curve, edge, or point.

4. Click OK in the DATUM POINT dialog box to create the datum point using the selected intent chain as the reference.

Sketched About Sketched Datum Points
Sketched datum points are created in Sketcher by selecting their location on a twodimensional sketching plane. You can sketch multiple datum points at the same time. All sketched datum points that you create during one operation belong to the same Datum Point feature and lie on the same sketching plane. Accessing a Sketched Datum Point To access the Sketched Datum Point tool, do one of the following: • • Click Insert > Model Datum > Point > Sketched. On the Datums toolbar, click the arrow . Then click . to open the datum point palette

About the Sketched Datum Points User Interface
The user interface for sketched datum points includes: Feature icon Sketched Datum Point dialog box

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Feature Icon The sketched datum point icon is located on the Datums toolbar.

Sketched Datum Point Dialog Box The Sketched Datum Point dialog box has two tabs: • Placement—In this dialog box, you can define the following: o o o • Sketching plane—Select a planar surface or a datum plane, or click Use Previous. Sketch viewing direction—Accept the default viewing direction as indicated by the arrow, or click Flip. Sketch orientation—Specify how to orient the sketch by selecting an orientation reference and orienting it as Top, Bottom, Left, or Right.

Properties—Renames the feature and displays feature information in the Pro/ENGINEER browser.

The Sketch button places you in Sketcher mode.

To Create Sketched Datum Points
1. Click on the datum point palette ( Datum Point dialog box opens. ). The Sketched

2. Select a sketching plane and specify its orientation, or accept the default orientation. 3. Click Sketch. You are now placed in Sketcher. 4. Accept the default references or select different references for dimensioning the section. When finished, click Close on the References dialog box. 5. Click 6. Click and place a point. Add as many points as you need. to exit Sketcher.

Offset from a Coordinate System About Datum Points Offset from a Coordinate System
You can manually add points to a model by locating them with respect to a selected coordinate system or by creating an array of points by importing one or more files, or both. You can offset points using the Cartesian, Spherical, or Cylindrical coordinate system. To update the points table, you can do one or both of the following:

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Manually change values in the table—You can click a point’s value in the table and modify it, or drag the point’s handle in the graphics window to the required location. Alternatively, click Update Values and add, modify, or delete the points using a text editor. Import a file to add points—You can import a file with a .pts extension to add one or more points. When you import such a file, the points are always appended to the points table.

Accessing Points Offset from a Coordinate System To access datum points that are offset from the coordinate system, do one of the following: • • Click Insert > Model Datum > Point > Offset Coordinate System. On the Datums toolbar, click palette, adjacent to . Click . , to open the datum point

About the Datum Point Offset Coordinate System User Interface
The user interface for datum points that are offset from a coordinate system includes: Feature Icon Offset CSys Datum Point dialog box Feature Icon The icon for the offset coordinate system datum point, point palette , is located on the datum

on the Datum toolbar.

Offset CSys Datum Point Dialog Box The Offset CSys Datum Point dialog box has two tabs: • Placement—You can define the point location by specifying the following: o o o Reference coordinate system Type of the offset method for placing points Point's coordinates along the axes of the selected coordinate system

In addition, the Placement tab has the following buttons: o o Import—Imports a data file into the model. Update Values—Displays the values of all the points listed in the points table, using the text editor. You can also add a new point, update the existing values of a point, or delete points using the text editor. While

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redefining the datum point offset coordinate system, if you click Update Values and edit one or all of the point's values using the text editor, Pro/ENGINEER assigns the new values to the original point. o o Save—Saves the point's coordinates to a file with a .pts extension. Use Non Parametric Array—Removes dimensions and converts point data into a non-parametric array. Note: You can add, delete or modify the points in a non-parametric array using the points table or a text editor, but not through the Edit command on the shortcut menu. o • OK—Accepts the points that you have created and quits the dialog box.

Properties—Renames the feature and displays feature information in the Pro/ENGINEER browser.

To Create Datum Points Offset from the Coordinate System
You can start creating points by activating the tool and then selecting a coordinate system, or by first selecting a coordinate system and then activating the tool. on the datum point palette ( 1. Click Datum Point dialog box opens. ). The Offset CSys

2. In the graphics window, select a coordinate system that you want to use for points placement. 3. Select the type of coordinate system from the Type list. Choose from Cartesian, Cylindrical, or Spherical. 4. To start adding points, click a cell in the points table. Type the point's coordinates for each of the required axes. For example, for the Cartesian coordinate system, you must specify distances in the x, y, and z directions. After you have specified the point's coordinates, the new point appears in the graphics window, with a drag handle attached (identified by a white rectangle). The new point is dimensioned along the designated axes. Tip: o You can add a point by positioning the pointer in the graphics window, right-clicking, and selecting New Point on the shortcut menu. This adds another row to the points table. You can manually adjust the point's location by dragging the point's handle along each of the axes of the coordinate system.

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5. To add another point, click the next row in the table and type the point's coordinates. Alternatively, click Update Values and enter values in the text editor, with each value separated by a space.

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Note: To add points using the text editor, the point’s table must have at least one value. 6. When finished creating points, you can accept the points and quit by clicking OK, or do the following: o o To save the points to a separate file, click Save. Specify the file name and location. To convert points to a non-parametric array by stripping dimensions, click Convert to Non Parametric Array. Note: You can convert a non-parametric array back to a parametric one by editing the feature definition and selecting Convert to Parametric Array from the Offset CSys Datum Point dialog box .

To Import a Data File
1. Click on the datum point palette ( Datum Point dialog box opens. ). The Offset CSys

2. In the graphics window, select a coordinate system that you want to use for points placement. 3. Select the offset method from the Type list. Choose from Cartesian, Cylindrical, and Spherical. 4. Click Import. 5. Using the Open dialog box, select a *.pts file that you want to import. The points that you have imported are added to the table. Each row contains a point. 6. Click OK to accept the points and exit the dialog box.

To Update Values of the Datum Point Offset Coordinate System
1. Select a datum point on the Model Tree or in the graphics window. 2. Right-click and select Edit Definition. Alternatively, click Edit > Definition. The Offset CSys Datum Point dialog box opens. 3. Click Update Values. A text editor opens with all datum points listed. 4. To add a new point, specify values for the point in the text editor, with each value separated by a space. 5. To delete a point, select the entire row for that point and delete it. 6. To modify a point, replace the point’s existing values with new ones. 7. Save and close the file to return to the Offset CSys Datum Point dialog box. 8. Click OK.

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Field About Field Points
A field point is a type of datum point intended for use in conjunction with userdefined analysis (UDA). A field point defines a domain from which it was selected—curve, edge, surface, or quilt. The field point does not require dimensions because it belongs to the entire domain. To change the domain of the field point, you must edit the feature's definition. Note: You can use a field point only as a reference for features that are required to define a user-defined analysis. Do not use a field point as a reference for regular modeling. Field points have names FPNT# in parts and AFPNT# in assemblies. Accessing a Field Point To access a field point, do one of the following: • • Click Insert > Model Datum > Point > Field. On the Datums toolbar, click the arrow . Then click . to open the datum point palette

To Create a Field Point
Object/Action (Streamlined) Workflow 1. In the graphics window, select a curve, edge, surface of a solid, or quilt where you want to place a point. 2. On the Datums toolbar, click an arrow to open the datum point palette . 3. Click . A point with a name FPNT# is added to the selected reference.

Action/Object Workflow The following procedure presents an Action/Object workflow. 1. On the Datums toolbar, click an arrow to open the datum point palette . 2. Click . The Field Datum Point dialog box opens.

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3. In the graphics window, select a curve, edge, surface of a solid, or quilt where you want to place a point. A point is added to the selected reference. 4. To change the name of the field point, click the Properties tab on the dialog box. 5. Click OK.

Datum Curves
About Datum Curves
With the exception of imported geometry, the foundation of all 3d geometry in Pro/ENGINEER starts with a 2-D section. Datum curves allow you to create a 2-D section that can be used to create many other features such as an extrusion or a revolve. Also Datum curves can be used to create a trajectory for swept features. The Datum Curve tool can be accessed by clicking the toolbar. button on the Datum

About Sketched Datum Curves
You can sketch datum curves in the same manner as any other features. Sketched curves can consist of one or more sketched segments and of one or more open or closed loops. However, using datum curves for other features is usually restricted to a single curve (which can consist of many segments) of an open or closed loop. To sketch a datum curve in a sketch window, click in the Datum toolbar.

About the Sketched Datum Curves User Interface
The Sketch dialog box consists of: • • The Placement tabbed page The Properties tabbed page

The Placement tabbed page contains the following sections: • Sketch Plane—This section of the dialog box contains the sketch plane reference collector. Click on the collector to select or redefine the sketch plane reference at any time or click Use Previous to use a sketching plane that has already been used. Sketch Orientation—Before you start sketching, you must orient the sketching plane to the screen normal axis. To do this you must set the following: o Flip button—Click the Flip button to toggle the sketch orientation between the two sides of the sketch plane.

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Reference collector—The reference plane is a plane normal to the sketch plane that is used to orient your view of the sketch plane. Click on the collector to select or redefine the reference plane at any time. Orientation list—Use this list to select an orientation for the reference plane. You can choose to have the reference plane facing Right, Left, Top, or Bottom.

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In the Properties tabbed page you can view information about the current sketched datum curve feature in the Pro/ENGINEER browser. Additionally you can use the Properties tabbed page to rename the datum feature, set cross hatch lines, and set the spacing between cross hatch lines.

To Create a Sketched Datum Curve
1. Click Insert > Model Datum > Sketch... or click the button on the Datum toolbar. The Sketch dialog box opens with the Placement tab active. 2. You can select from the following options on the Placement tab: • Sketch Plane—This section of the dialog box contains the sketch plane reference collector. Click on the collector to select or redefine the sketch plane reference at any time. Sketch Orientation—Before you can sketch the datum curve you must orient the sketching plane so that it is normal. This section of the dialog box contains the Flip button, the Reference Plane collector and the Orientation list. o Click the Flip button to toggle the sketch orientation between the two sides of the sketch plane. o Click on the Reference collector to select or redefine the sketch plane. o Select an Orientation reference from the Orientation list. button, the system will Note: If you select a plane before clicking the attempt to find a default sketch orientation, which would allow you to skip step 2. 3. Click the Sketch button. The sketch window and the References dialog box open. 4. Click Close in the References dialog box if the Reference status shows Fully Placed. 5. Sketch the datum curve. 6. Click to exit Sketcher. The new sketched datum curve appears in the graphics window and the Model Tree.

About Imported Datum Curves
An imported datum curve can consist of one or more segments. Multiple segments are not necessarily connected. 51

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The From File option imports a datum curve from a Pro/ENGINEER ".ibl", IGES, SET, or VDA file format. Pro/ENGINEER does not automatically combine the curves imported using From File into a composite curve. Pro/ENGINEER reads all the curves from an IGES or SET file, then converts them to spline curves. When you import a VDA file, the system reads the VDA spline entities only. The ".ibl" file format is very much like that of a blend file, except you should precede the coordinates of each segment of the curve with both "begin section" and "begin curve". Two points in a section define a line, while more than two define a spline. To connect curve segments, make sure the coordinates of the first point are the same as the last point in the previous section. You can redefine datum curves that are created from a file and you can trim or split them with other curves that are imported from a file.

To Create a Datum Curve Using a Cross Section
You can use the Use Xsec option to create a datum curve from a planar cross section boundary (that is, the intersection of the planar cross section with the part outline). 1. Click Insert > Model Datum > Curve or click the toolbar. button on the Datum

2. In the menu manager, click Use Xsec and Done from the OPTIONS menu. 3. Select a planar cross section from the namelist menu of all the available cross sections. 4. The cross-section boundary is used to create a datum curve. If a cross section has more than one chain, each chain has a composite curve. Note: You can not use a boundary from an offset cross section to create a datum curve.

To Create a Datum Curve From Equations
You can create a datum curve from an equation using the option From Equation as long as the curve does not intersect itself. 1. Click Insert > Model Datum > Curve or click the toolbar. 2. Click From Equation and Done. 3. A curve creation dialog box open with the following elements: o o o 52 Csys—Defines the coordinate system. Csys Type—Specifies the type of the coordinate system. Equation—Enters an equation. button on the Datum

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4. Use options in the GET COORD S menu to create or select a coordinate system. 5. Use options in the SET CSYS TYP menu to specify the type of the coordinate system. The options are: Cartesian, Cylindrical, Spherical. 6. The system displays an editor window so that you can enter the curve equation as a regular feature relation. The editor window header contains instructions for specifying the equation, depending on the type of coordinate system you have chosen. The equation is specified in terms of parameter t, which varies from 0 to 1, and three coordinate system parameters: X, Y, and Z for Cartesian; r, theta, and Z for cylindrical; and, r, theta, and phi for spherical. Note: You cannot use the following statements in an equation that defines a datum curve: abs, ceil, floor, else, extract, if, endif, itos, and search.

Example: Importing a Datum Curve
This example shows you how to import a datum curve from an .ibl file. Sample .ibl file:

Note: • • You can create .ibl files using any text editor. The point numbering (the first column of numbers) in an .ibl file is optional.

Follow the steps below to import the .ibl file and create the datum curve as shown in the following illustration.

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1 Datum Curve created from a .ibl file 1. Click on the Datum toolbar. Alternatively, click Insert > Model Datum > Curve. The CRV OPTIONS menu appears. 2. Click From File > Done in the CRV OPTIONS menu. The GET COORD S menu appears. 3. Select a coordinate system in the graphics window or on the Model Tree. The Open dialog box appears. 4. Select the .ibl file and click Open. Note: If the .ibl file is not in the current directory, browse to the directory where the file is located and select the file. Pro/ENGINEER creates the datum curve with the instructions provided in the .ibl file.

Datum Curves Through Points To Create a Datum Curve Through Points
You can create a Thru Points datum curve as a spline, or a sequence of alternating tangent lines and arcs. 1. Choose Insert > Model Datum > Curve or click the toolbar. 2. In the menu manager, choose Thru Points, then Done. 3. Pro/ENGINEER displays the Datum Curve dialog box with the following elements: o o Attributes—Specifies whether the curve should lie on a selected surface. Curve Points—Selects points for the curve to connect. button on the Datum

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Tangency—(Optional) Sets up tangency conditions for the curve. Note: The Tangency element can be defined only if at least one end segment of the curve is a spline.

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Tweak—(Optional) Modifies the shape of the curve that goes through two points by using the polyhedron manipulation.

4. Use the CONNECT TYPE menu options to select and connect points. 5. When finished, choose Done from the CONNECT TYPE menu to create the curve, or Quit to abort the process. 6. To define tangency conditions, select the Tangency element and Define in the dialog box. Use the options in the DEF TAN menu to define tangency at the ends of the curve. 7. Specify the direction for the curve at this tangency location by choosing Flip or Okay from the DIRECTION menu. The system displays an arrow at the end of the curve. 8. If you created a datum curve through two points, you can "tweak" the curve in 3D space and dynamically update its shape. To manipulate the curve, choose the Tweak element in the dialog box and click on Define.

Creating a Curve by Connecting Points
The CONNECT TYPE and DEF TAN menus are used to create a curve and define tangency at the ends. Using the CONNECT TYPE Menu To create a curve, you select and connect points using options in the CONNECT TYPE menu. The options are as follows: • • • Spline—Constructs a curve using a three-dimensional spline that passes through the selected datum points and vertices. Single Rad—Constructs a curve using the same radius through all the bends. Multiple Rad—Constructs a curve by specifying a radius for each bend. Note: The Attributes element of the curve defined with either the Single Rad or Multiple Rad option cannot be changed to On Surface. • • • Single Point—Selects individual datum points and vertices. You could have created these points individually or as a datum point array. Whole Array—Selects all the points in a Datum Point/Offset Csys feature, in consecutive order. Add Point—Adds to the definition of the curve an existing point, vertex, or curve end through which the curve will pass.

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Delete Point—Deletes from the definition of the curve an existing point, vertex, or curve end through which the curve currently passes. Insert Point—Inserts a point between already selected points, vertices, and curve ends. This option modifies the curve definition to pass through the inserted point. The system prompts you to select a point or vertex before which to insert the point. Note: You can add, delete, or insert points during the creation or redefinition of the curve.

Using the DEF TAN Menu Options Use the DEF TAN menu options to define tangency at the ends of the curve. The options are as follows: • • • • • • Start—Applies tangency condition at the start point of the curve. The system displays a red point or circle cross-hair at the start of the curve. End—Applies tangency condition at the end point of the curve. The system displays a red circle cross-hair at the endpoint of the curve. Crv/Edge/Axis—Selects an edge, curve, or axis to specify tangency or normal direction at the start or end point, as prompted. Create Axis—Creates an axis to specify tangency or normal direction at the start or end point using the DATUM AXIS menu. Surface—Selects a surface or plane to specify the tangent or normal direction. Srf Nrm Edge—Selects a surface to which the curve will be tangent at its start or end point. Select an edge of that surface to which the curve will be perpendicular at its start or end point. Note: The start or end point of the curve must lie on the surface edge used for the normal reference. • • • • Clear—Removes the current tangency constraint at the selected end. To have no tangency constraint at either end, choose Clear for both ends. Tangent—Makes the curve tangent to the reference at this end. Normal—Makes the curve normal to the reference at this end. Curvature—Sets continuous curvature for the curve end where the tangency condition is specified. Activate this option by placing a checkmark in front of it. This makes the curvature at the end of the curve equal to that of the connecting end of the tangent entity.

To Create a Datum Curve Through Points that Lie on a Surface
To Create a Datum Curve Through Points that Lie on a Surface 1. To create a curve that lies on a specific surface, redefine the Attributes element in the dialog box. Choose Attributes and click Define.

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2. Choose the On Surface option from the CRV TYPE menu, followed by Done. The options in the CRV TYPE menu are: o o Free—Connects the points without requiring the curve to lie on a surface. This option is set by default. On Surface—Creates the curve so that it lies on a specific surface patch. Specify the surface to which the curve will belong using options in the GET SELECT menu. Select a surface or a datum plane.

Rules for Creating a Datum Curve with the On Surface Option
Consider the following rules for a curve through points: • • The On Surface attribute does not apply to a curve defined with the Single Rad or Multiple Rad option. Setting the On Surface attribute may conflict with some of the previous conditions that you defined for that curve. For example, the points selected to define the curve lie on the surface, and the tangency conditions must be possible for the selected surface. When the system detects a conflict, it prompts you to resolve it by removing invalid references. When you change the attribute from Free to On Surface, any tweaking of the curve is removed.

Coordinate Systems
About Coordinate Systems
Coordinate systems are reference features that can be added to parts and assemblies to do the following: • • • • • • Calculate mass properties. Assemble components. Place constraints for Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Provide manufacturing operation reference for tool paths. Use as a reference for locating other features (coordinate systems, datum points, planes, imported geometry, and so on). For most common modeling tasks you can use coordinate systems as direction reference.

Cartesian, Cylindrical, and Spherical Coordinate Systems Pro/ENGINEER always displays coordinate systems with an X-, Y-, and Z-axis. When referencing a coordinate system to make other features (for example, a datum point array), the system can interpret the coordinate system in three ways: • Cartesian—The system interprets the coordinate values as X, Y, and Z. 57

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Cylindrical—The system interprets the coordinate values as radius, theta (q), and Z. Spherical—The system interprets the coordinate values as radius, theta (q), and phi (f).

The following figure illustrates how these values are applied to the standard X, Y, and Z coordinate system. Cartesian Cylindrical Spherical

About Datum Coordinate System Names
Pro/ENGINEER names datum coordinate systems CS#, where # is the number of datum coordinate systems that have been created. If desired, you can set an initial name for a datum coordinate system during the creation process by using the Properties tab in the Coordinate System dialog box. Or if you desire to change the name of an existing datum coordinate system, you can right-click on the datum feature in the model tree and select Rename from the shortcut menu.

Default Datum Coordinate Systems
The default datum coordinate system that you create using Insert > Model Datum > Default Coordinate System is also named CS#, where # is the number of the datum coordinate system that is created. You can create multiple default datum coordinate systems. You cannot edit their definition or their references. You can define their orientation with respect to the default datum planes, if required.

About Coordinate Systems UI
The Coordinate System dialog box consists of: • • • 58 The Origin tabbed page The Orientation tabbed page The Properties tabbed page

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The Origin tabbed page contains the following sections: • References—This section of the dialog box contains the coordinate system reference collector. Click on the collector to select or redefine the placement references for the coordinate system at any time. Offset type—This list allows you to offset a coordinate system in the following ways: o o o o Cartesian—Allows you to offset a coordinate system by setting X, Y and Z values. Cylindrical—Allows you to offset a coordinate system by setting Radius, Theta and Z values. Spherical—Allows you to offset a coordinate system by setting Radius, Theta and Phi values. From File—Allows you to import a coordinate system's location from a transformation file.

In the Orientation tabbed page you can set the position of the coordinate system's axes, it contains the following options: • • References selection—This option allows you to orient the coordinate system by selecting direction references for any 2 of the coordinate system's axes. Selected CSYS axes—This option allows you to orient the coordinate system by rotating it about the axes of the coordinate system that is used as a placement reference. Set Z Normal To Screen—This button allows you to quickly orient the z axis to be perpendicular to your view screen.

In the Properties tabbed page you can view information about the current datum curve feature in the Pro/ENGINEER embedded browser. Additionally you can also use the Properties tabbed page to rename the datum feature.

To Locate a Coordinate System
1. Click Insert > Model Datum > Coordinate System or click the button on the Datum toolbar. The Coordinate System dialog box opens with the Origin tab active. 2. Select up to 3 placement references in the graphics window. These references can include planes, edges, axes, curves, datum points, vertices or a coordinate system. 3. Click the OK button to create the new coordinate system with the default orientation or click on the Orientation tab to manually orient the new coordinate system (see: To Orient a Coordinate System).

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Note: If you have select a vertex as an origin reference, the system will not be able to provide you with a default orientation and you will have to manually orient your coordinate system.

To Create an Offset Coordinate System
1. Click Insert > Model Datum > Coordinate System or click the button on the Datum toolbar. The Coordinate System dialog box opens with the Origin tab active. 2. Select a coordinate system in the graphics window. 3. In the Offset type list, select one of the following offset types: o o o o Cartesian—If you select a Cartesian offset, enter values for X, Y and Z. Cylindrical—If you select a Cylindrical offset, enter values for Radius, Theta and Z. Spherical—If you select a Spherical offset, enter values for Radius, Theta and Phi. From File—Allows you to import a coordinate system's location from a transformation file.

4. To adjust the offset distance, you can: o In the graphics window, use the drag handle to manually position the coordinate system to your desired location. Note: The drag handle at the center of the coordinate system allows you to drag the coordinate system along each of the reference coordinate system's axes. To change directions, hover the cursor over the drag handle and then move the cursor toward one of the axes. As you move the cursor toward the axes, the drag handle changes direction. o In the Origin tab of the Coordinate System dialog box, type a distance value in the Offset Translation value box or select a value from a list of the most recently used values.

5. Click the OK button to create the offset coordinate system with the default orientation or click on the Orientation tab to manually orient the new coordinate system (see: To Orient a Coordinate System).

To Orient a Coordinate System
1. If you are currently creating a coordinate system and have the Coordinate System dialog box open, then skip to step 2. Otherwise, in the Model Tree, rightclick on a coordinate system and select Edit Definition from the shortcut menu. The Coordinate System dialog box opens with the Origin tab active. 2. Click the Orientation tab. 3. In the Orient by section, click one of the following options: 60

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References selection—This option allows you to orient the coordinate system by selecting references for 2 of the axes. For each of the direction collectors, select a reference and select a direction name from the drop-down list. Note: By default, the system assumes that the first direction of the coordinate system will be parallel to the first origin reference. If the reference is a straight edge, curve or axis then the coordinate system axis will be oriented parallel to that reference. If a plane is selected then the first direction of the coordinate system will be oriented normal to the plane. The system calculates the second direction by projecting the second reference to be orthogonal to the first direction.

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Selected CSYS axes—This option allows you to orient the coordinate system by rotating it about the axes of the coordinate system that is used as a placement reference. For each of the axes, enter a desired degree value or right-click in the graphics window and select Orient from the shortcut menu. Then use the drag handle to manually position each axis. Note: The drag handle at the center of the coordinate system allows you to rotate the coordinate system about each of the reference coordinate system's axes. To change directions, hover the cursor over the drag handle and then move the cursor toward one of the axes. As you move the cursor toward the axes, the drag handle changes direction.

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Set Z Normal To Screen—This button allows you to quickly orient the z axis to be perpendicular to your view screen.

4. Click the OK button to finish orienting the coordinate system.

About Creating a Coordinate System from a File
A coordinate system that is created using a transformation matrix uses a data file to construct a new coordinate system relative to an existing coordinate system. The file data defines two vectors, as follows: • • The first vector specifies the X-axis direction. The second vector, which is in the XY-plane (in the general direction of the new Y-axis), determines the new coordinate system origin. Pro/ENGINEER constructs the Z-axis using the right-hand rule.

The following figure illustrates the transformation of the coordinate system.

Coordinate System Transformation
The X-axis direction is determined from the matrix file and is then translated to the new coordinate system origin. The XY-plane is constructed from the second vector in the file and translated to the new coordinate system origin. 61

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To Create a Coordinate System from a File
1. In the graphics window, select an existing coordinate system. 2. Click Insert > Model Datum > Coordinate System or click the button on the Datum toolbar. The Coordinate System dialog box opens with the Origin tab active. 3. In the Offset type list, select From File. The Open dialog box opens. 4. Select the transformation file (.trf) that you want to load and click the Open. The system shows you a preview of the new coordinate system at the location specified in the transformation file. 5. Click the OK to create the new coordinate system.

Example: Transformation File Format
The transformation file, with the name filename.trf, has the following format: Transformation File Format

a. Determines the X-axis direction. b. Determines the vector that lies in the XY-plane and the general direction of the Y-axis. c. Can be anything, because the Z-axis is determined using the right hand rule. d. Translation coordinate locates the origin of the new coordinate system. For example, the following file creates a new coordinate system with the origin at (200, 0, 150), as determined from the reference coordinate system. The new X-axis is pointing in the negative X-direction and the new Y-axis is pointing in the positive Z-direction, all relative to the reference coordinate system. Sample Transformation File

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Note: the coordinate system offset type is Cartesian.

Datum References
About Datum Reference Features
Datum reference features are user-defined surface sets, edge chains, datum planes, datum axes, datum points, or datum coordinate systems. You can use datum reference features to create intent objects and to place user-defined features. When creating a datum reference feature, you can use the Search tool to find the following types of queries and save them to the Reference collector: • • • Intent surfaces or intent chains by the type of feature that creates them Edges that belong to or coincide with specific quilts Intent objects by intent name

After you have created the datum reference feature, you can edit the definition, modify the references, and change the properties. You can redefine a datum reference feature created in an earlier release of Pro/ENGINEER. However, you cannot redefine the type of reference—surface, chain, or datum—it creates. You cannot edit the references of a datum reference feature defined exclusively by saved queries.

About the Datum References User Interface
The user interface for datum reference features includes: Feature icon Datum Reference dialog box Shortcut menus

Feature Icon
The icon for the datum references tool is located on the Datum toolbar.

Datum Reference Dialog Box
You can set the following properties using the Datum Reference dialog box:

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Type—Specifies the type of intent datum: Intent Chain, Intent Surface, Intent Datum Plane, Intent Datum Axis, Intent Datum Point, or Intent Datum Coordinate System. Intent Name—Sets a name for the intent object. User-defined intent names can be based on the design intent and instance for that object. Single Item—Limits the number of intent chain or intent surface references that you can enter into the reference collector to one. Placement—Collects references to define the datum reference and intent object. Properties—Renames the datum reference feature.

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Using the Placement Tab Use the reference collector in the Placement tab to select or redefine edge chains or surface sets and to designate the datum plane, datum axis, datum point, or datum coordinate system that define an intent object. The reference collector displays the type of selection, such as a one-by-one chain of edges, single surfaces, loop surfaces, seed and boundary surfaces, and so on. You can search for references using the Search tool while the reference collector is open, and you can save the search queries in the reference collector.

Shortcut Menus
When you right-click the graphics window, the shortcut menu lists the following options: • • • • • Next—Selects the next surface or edge. Previous—Selects the previous surface or edge. Pick From List—Lists surfaces or edges to select. Solid Surfaces—Selects solid surfaces. Clear—Clears all selected surfaces and chains from the Reference collector.

When you right-click the Reference collector, the shortcut menu lists the following options: • • • • Remove—Clears the selected reference. Remove All—Clears all references. Edit—Edits a saved query. Update—Updates a saved query.

About Intent Objects
An intent object is a datum, a chain, or a surface set with a descriptive name. Use intent objects as references when creating the following Pro/ENGINEER features:

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Type of Intent Object Intent datum plane, point, axis, or coordinate system

Use Create datum points, datum axes, datum coordinate systems, or datum planes Define the scope of an Auto-Round feature (selected edges or excluded edges) Create several Pro/ENGINEER features, including sweeps and boundary blends Create datum reference features

Intent chains defined by datum references with saved queries

Intent chains and intent surfaces

All intent objects

About Intent Object Names
When you create and name an intent object, you add an explanatory note to a model. You can use an intent object name to help you do the following: • • • • Annotate your design intent Search for intent objects with the Search tool Define saved queries Automatically place user-defined features (UDFs)

When you name an intent object, make the name of the object correspond to its purpose—your design intent—and instance. For example, you might name an intent datum plane for use as a sketch plane for a mounting boss SKETCH_PLANE:MOUNTING_BOSS. Instances can also be letters and numbers, such as SKETCH_PLANE:1 or SKETCH_PLANE:2C. Each intent object in a model must have a unique intent name, although intent objects may share an intent or an instance. For example, several datum planes can be used as sketch planes for different features of the model. If you do not select the Intent Name box in the Datum Reference dialog box, the intent object does not receive a descriptive name or a default name. On the Properties tab of the Datum Reference dialog box, you can change the feature name that appears in the Model Tree, but you cannot use this name to search for intent objects or to automatically place UDFs.

Default Names for Intent Objects
The default names for intent objects follow: • • • Intent Chain—INTENTEDG Intent Surface—INTENTSRF Intent Datum Point—INTENTPNT 65

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Intent Datum Plane—INTENTPLN Intent Coordinate System—INTENTCSYS Intent Datum Axis—INTENTAXIS

They appear in the Datum Reference dialog box when you create an intent object if the Intent Name box has been selected. The default names are not descriptive. The instance numbers of the default intent object names are automatically generated and start at 1 for each type of intent object.

Defining Intent Sufaces and Chains
You can define intent chains and surfaces by selecting one or more kinds of intent objects and geometry. The following references are valid for creating these intent objects: Intent Object Intent chain Valid Edge Reference Quilt edge Solid edge Other intent chains Intent surface Edge chain Quilt edge Solid edge Intent chain Surface set Quilt surface Solid surface Intent surface Valid Surface Reference

You can define intent surfaces using one or more edges or intent chains. When you create an intent surface defined only by edges or intent chains: o Edges or chains must divide the quilt or surface into at least two regions. The selections must reside on the same surface or quilt and must not intersect. Your selections may define multiple intent surfaces. If the automatically selected surface is not the one you intended, click Flip in the reference collector to toggle the selection.

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To Create an Intent Datum Using Datum Reference Features
1. Click on the Datum toolbar or click Insert > Model Datum > Reference. The Datum Reference dialog box opens. 2. Under Type, select one of the following options: o 66 Intent Datum Plane

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Intent Datum Point Intent Datum Axis Intent Datum Coordinate System

3. In the graphics window, select a datum plane, a datum axis, a datum point, or a datum coordinate system to define the datum reference feature. Note: You can also select geometry in the graphics window first, and then click on the Datum toolbar or click Insert > Model Datum > Reference to open the Datum Reference dialog box. An intent object type appears in the Type box, according to the type of datum you selected. 4. To name the intent datum, select the Intent Name box. The Intent and Instance boxes become available. Note: If you do not select it, the intent object does not receive a descriptive name or a default name. On the Properties tab, you can change the name that appears in the Model Tree, but you cannot use this name to search for intent objects or to automatically place UDFs. 5. In the Intent box, accept the default name or type a descriptive name, for example, SKETCH_PLANE. 6. In the Instance box, accept the instance number or type a descriptive name, for example, MOUNTING_BOSS. 7. Click OK.

To Create an Intent Chain Using a Datum Reference Feature
1. Click on the Datum toolbar or click Insert > Model Datum > Reference. The Datum Reference dialog box opens. 2. Under Type, select Intent Chain. 3. In the graphics window or in the Model Tree, select one or more edges or intent chains to define the datum reference feature. The selection appears in the reference collector as an Edge Chain. on the Note: You can also select edges or intent chains first, and then click Datum toolbar or click Insert > Model Datum > Reference to open the Datum Reference dialog box. Intent Chain appears in the Type box. 4. To name the intent datum, select the Intent Name box. The Intent and Instance boxes become available. Note: If you do not select it, the intent object does not receive a descriptive name or a default name. On the Properties tab, you can change the name that appears in the Model Tree, but you cannot use this name to search for intent objects or to automatically place UDFs.

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5. In the Intent box, type an intent name, for example, OUTER_EDGE. 6. In the Instance box, accept the instance number or type a descriptive name, for example, MOUNTING_BOSS. 7. To limit the references defining the intent object to one: o o Select the Single Item check box. Select an edge or intent chain to define the datum reference feature.

Note: When you select the Single Item check box, your previous reference selection or selections is cleared. 8. Click OK.

To Create an Intent Surface Using Datum Reference Features
1. Click on the Datum toolbar or click Insert > Model Datum > Reference. The Datum Reference dialog box opens. 2. Under Type, select Intent Surface. 3. Select one or more edges, intent chains, or surfaces to define the datum reference feature. The selections appear in the reference collector as Surfaces and Chains. Note: You can also select geometry to define the datum reference feature first, on the Datum toolbar or click Insert > Model Datum > and then click Reference to open the Datum Reference dialog box. Intent Surface appears in the Type box. 4. To name the intent surface, select the Intent Name box. The Intent and Instance boxes become available. Note: If you do not select it, the intent object does not receive a descriptive name or a default name. On the Properties tab, you can change the name that appears in the Model Tree, but you cannot use this name to search for intent objects or to automatically place UDFs. 5. In the Intent box, type an intent name, for example, DRAFT_SURFACE. 6. In the Instance box, accept the instance number or type a descriptive name, for example, MOUNTING_BOSS. 7. To limit the references defining the intent object to one: o o Select the Single Item check box. Select a surface, an edge, or an intent chain to define the datum reference feature.

Note: When you select the Single Item check box, your previous reference selection or selections is cleared.

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8. Click the Dynamic Preview box for a preview. 9. Click OK.

To Display Intent Object Names in the Model Tree
1. In the Model Tree, click Settings > Tree Columns. The Model Tree Columns dialog box opens. 2. Under Not Displayed, select Info from the Type box. 3. Select Intent Name from the list. 4. Click , and then click OK.

To Edit an Intent Object Name
1. In the Model Tree, right-click the datum reference feature that defines the intent object that you want to rename. 2. Select Edit from the shortcut menu. The intent object name is displayed. 3. Double-click the intent name (the first part of the name) or the instance (the second part of the name) and type a new intent name or instance in the box.

To Edit References of a Datum Reference Feature
1. Select a datum reference feature in the Model Tree. 2. Click Edit > Reference. Alternatively, select the datum reference feature in the Model Tree, right-click, and choose Edit References on the shortcut menu. The REROUTE REFS menu appears. Pro/ENGINEER prompts you to roll back the model. 3. Click YES or NO. The REROUTE menu appears. o o Accept Alternate to select an alternate reference to reroute. Click Same Ref to keep the original references.

4. Click Done on the REROUTE menu.

To Redefine a Datum Reference Feature
Note: You cannot switch the feature type when redefining datum reference features. 1. Select a datum reference feature in the Model Tree. 2. Click Edit > Definition. Alternatively, select the datum reference feature in the Model Tree, right-click, and select Edit Definition on the shortcut menu. The Datum Reference dialog box opens. 3. Select objects to redefine or add references. The reference collector shows the added reference type.

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Note: When redefining intent surfaces or intent chains, you can click Details in the Reference collector. The Chain or Surface Sets dialog box opens displaying the edge chains or the surface sets. Add or remove references or redefine the properties of the selected edge chains or surface sets manipulating them in the graphics window. 4. Click OK.

To Automatically Place UDFs Using Datum Reference Features
Repeat the steps below to create pairs of datum reference features that define intent objects of the same type with the same intent names. When the UDF is placed, the correct references are matched automatically. 1. In the source part, create a datum reference feature with a descriptive intent name a the feature that will define the UDF: Intent Datum, Intent Chain, or Intent Surface. to create a datum reference feature in the part to be placed. The 2. Click Datum Reference dialog box opens. 3. On the Placement tab, click the reference collector. 4. Click to open the Search tool. Find the intent object created in step 1 and save the query. 5. Create another feature of the same type as in step 1 using the saved query as a reference. Note: You must create all the intent objects before creating the corresponding UDFs. 6. Create the UDF: a. Click Tools > UDF Library > Create. b. Type a name in the UDF Name box and click c. Select Stand Alone or Subordinate d. Click Done. e. Define the UDF using the datum reference feature created in step 1 and the feature created in steps 2-5. f. Click Done/Return. g. Click OK. .

Placing Features with Saved Queries
A saved query in the reference collector of a datum reference feature has no external references. Because it has no references, when copying it or placing it as part of a UDF, the following can occur:

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The query finds a single result. This result automatically replaces the original. The datum reference feature is regenerated. The query finds no results. The number of references determines the outcome: o o If the datum reference feature has one reference, the Rule Editor dialog box opens. Select a result and click OK. If the datum reference feature has more than one reference, a feature with an empty query is created and the Geom. Check dialog box opens.

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The query finds more than one result: o If one of the results' intent:instance name is an exact match, and its instance is not a purely numerical value, it automatically accepts this intent object. The datum reference feature is regenerated. If there are no exact matches, or if the exact match includes a purely numerical instance, the Rule Editor dialog box opens. Select one of the results and click OK. The datum reference feature is regenerated.

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Asynchronous Datums
About Creating Asynchronous Datum Features
The creation or redefinition of features require datum features, such as planes, points, axes, or coordinate systems, as geometric references. You can select existing datum features of the model as the reference datum features or create these reference datum features during the creation or redefinition of the feature. Use the commands from Insert > Model Datum or the Datum toolbar and the relevant geometry as references to create the reference datum features while the featurecreation tool for the main feature is open. The datum features that are created asynchronously during the creation or redefinition of a feature may or may not be used as references by the feature that is being created or redefined. The asynchronous datum features, when used as references by the feature, are automatically embedded in the feature and are displayed as sub-nodes of the feature on the Model Tree when the creation or the redefinition of the feature is complete. They are automatically hidden after their creation. To view them in the graphics window, you must use Unhide on the shortcut menu or View > Visibility > Unhide or Unhide All. Note: In addition to the asynchronous datum features, a feature can also consist of regular internal datum features, such as datum axes and datum planes, as references. Regular datum features are internally created during the creation of certain features, such as a hole, extrude, revolve, or a sketch-based feature. Pro/ENGINEER automatically creates them when the corresponding geometry is referenced, but they are not embedded in the features that use them as references. Asynchronous datums are not internal to a feature like some regular datum features that are internal to a feature. You can, therefore, drag and drop asynchronous datums outside the main feature in which they are embedded. You can also drag and drop an existing datum feature that was created before the feature into the feature if 71

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the feature references the datum features. Another embedded datum of the same feature or a feature of another model too can reference the asynchronous datums embedded in the main feature. Asynchronous datum features that are not used by a feature, and asynchronous datum features that are used by several features, but are not datums of the feature, are not embedded. An asynchronous datum is not intrinsic to the feature. You can delete, edit, or redefine its definition, references, dimensions, or constraints. Regular datum features are intrinsic to the feature and you cannot delete or redefine the feature to change its constraints though you can edit its dimensions and reroute its references.

Model Tree Display of Asynchronous Datum Features
The Model Tree displays the features in their collapsed state after their creation or redefinition. The embedded datum features that are referenced by a feature are displayed as sub-nodes of the feature when you expand the feature. They are displayed in their order of creation with feature numbers that are lower than the number of the main feature in which they are embedded. The asynchronous datum features that are not referenced by the feature are displayed above the corresponding feature on the Model Tree. During the creation or the redefinition of the feature, the asynchronous datum features are displayed as nodes above the main feature so that you can use them as references for creating new asynchronous datums. The patterned, mirrored, or moved features are automatically grouped when you embed datum features in them. They are displayed in the Model Tree with labels that include the tool names, such as Patterned Features, Mirrored Features, or Moved Features. The embedded datum features are displayed as sub-nodes of the group header, above all other group members. If an embedded datum is used as a reference by another embedded datum in the same feature, the Model Tree displays a flat structure of the feature. The secondlevel embedded datum reference is also displayed as a sub-node of the feature.

Embedding Asynchronous Datums
The asynchronous datum features that are referenced by a feature are embedded in the feature only after the creation or the redefinition of the main feature or after you perform feature operations such as, reroute, feature copy, pattern, and so on. Pro/ENGINEER validates the reference datum features before they are embedded as sub-nodes in the feature based on the parent-child relationship. A referenced datum feature that is embedded in a feature is not available for referencing or embedding by other features of the same model. It is available to be used as a reference by other embedded datums of the same feature or a feature of a different model. For a feature that is copied and pasted with transformations, the datum features embedded in the original feature are copied, but not transformed, while the original parent feature is copied with transformations. The duplicated datum features without transformations retain their relevant embedded locations in the resultant copied and transformed instances of the original feature. Their locations in the feature geometry 72

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are similar to the datum features that are embedded in the original feature. The copied and transformed instances reference their corresponding copied datums that are embedded in them. Similarly, for patterns of a patterned feature, the embedded datums of the patterned feature are also patterned without transformations. The patterned datum features retain their relevant embedded locations in the resultant patterns and are embedded in the first member of each pattern. The patterned instances reference their relevant and corresponding patterned datums. The following types of asynchronous datums are not embedded in a feature: • • Datum features that are created asynchronously during the creation or definition of the feature but are not referenced by the feature. Datum features that were previously referenced and embedded in the feature, but are currently not referenced. An embedded datum feature that has lost its reference to the main feature, because of an operation such as redefinition of the main feature, is automatically converted to a standalone datum feature. An asynchronous datum feature that is used as a reference by two features of the same model. Datum features that belong to a feature that is located in the footer of the Model Tree. The datum features are not embedded any more when the main feature is placed in the footer. Datum curves, including the sketched datum curves.

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You cannot embed datum features in a feature while performing a manufacturing operation. In addition, tail-end features of merge operations cannot have embedded datum features.

Display Order of Embedded Datums and other Sub-Nodes
For a feature that consists of embedded datum features and other elements, the order of display of the sub-nodes of the feature on the Model Tree is as follows: • • • • A feature sub-node, such as the sketch of a sketch-based feature, is the first subnode that is displayed. Annotation features, if any, are listed next as sub-nodes of the feature. The embedded datum features are listed next as sub-nodes in their order of creation. The group of patterned, mirrored, or moved entities or components is last displayed with labels that include the tool names.

Displaying Legacy Data
The Model Tree displays legacy data as it was created. The automatically grouped datum features are displayed as members of a group.

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To Create a Feature with Embedded Datums
1. Click on the Datum toolbar or click Insert > Model Datum > Plane. The DATUM PLANE dialog box opens. You are prompted to select placement references, such as an existing plane, surface, edge, or point, for the datum plane feature. 2. Instead of selecting an existing datum point as one of the placement references, on the Datum toolbar or Insert > Model Datum > Point > use and the relevant references to create a datum point. Note: You can create second-level asynchronous datum features by again creating the relevant references for the datum point. o The References collector of the DATUM PLANE dialog box shows the datum point as a placement reference for the datum plane feature that you are creating. The datum point appears as a node on the Model Tree, above the datum plane feature that you are creating and the Insert Here prompt. Point

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Note: If you click Cancel on the DATUM POINT dialog box during the creation of the asynchronous datum point, Pro/ENGINEER removes the corresponding node for the datum point from the Model Tree without closing the creation tool of the main feature, that is, the DATUM PLANE dialog box. 3. Create an additional placement reference for the datum plane feature, such as another datum plane, using on the Datum toolbar or Insert > Model

Datum > Plane and the relevant references. You can again create secondlevel asynchronous datum features as the relevant references for the datum plane. o The References collector of the DATUM PLANE dialog box shows the newly-created datum plane as an additional reference for the datum plane feature that you are creating. The reference datum plane appears as a node on the Model Tree, above the datum plane that you want to create and the Insert Here prompt.

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4. Click OK on the DATUM PLANE dialog box. The Model Tree displays the newlycreated datum plane feature in its collapsed state with a (+) sign adjacent to it. Note: If you click Cancel on the DATUM PLANE dialog box, Pro/ENGINEER removes the corresponding node of the main datum plane feature from the Model Tree without deleting its asynchronous datum references. The datum point and the plane that you had created as asynchronous datums or placement references for the datum plane feature, in addition to second-level datums, if any, are not deleted. Instead, they are displayed as nodes on the Model Tree. 5. Click the plus sign (+) adjacent to the datum plane feature to expand the feature.

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The datum point and the datum plane references are displayed as embedded sub-nodes of the datum plane feature. Second-level asynchronous datums, if any, that you had created as references for the asynchronous datum point and the datum plane references, are also displayed as sub-nodes of the main datum plane. The embedded datum features have feature numbers that are lower than the feature number of the main datum plane feature. The embedded datum features are hidden in the graphics window.

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Note: You can also create an embedded datum reference or sub-node by dragging a standalone datum into a feature on the Model Tree. 6. Select an embedded datum feature on the Model Tree, right-click, and click Unhide to make the embedded datum feature visible in the graphics window.

To Convert a Standalone Datum to an Embedded Datum
1. Select a standalone datum feature on the Model Tree that is referenced by a feature. Additionally, a datum feature of the feature into which the standalone datum feature is to be embedded can also reference the standalone datum. 2. With the pointer placed over the selected datum feature on the Model Tree, press the left mouse button, and drag the datum feature into the feature that references it. The target feature into which you want to drop the dragged datum, if found valid for embedding, is highlighted when you pass the pointer over it. 3. Release the left mouse button over the feature. 4. Click the plus sign (+) adjacent to the feature or group on the Model Tree to view the feature or group in the expanded state. o The Model Tree displays the datum feature that you have dragged into the feature or group. Note: If the feature is not in a collapsed state, you can place the dragged datum as a sub-node of the feature at a location of your choice within the constraints of the parent-child relationship and following the order of display of the feature elements. o If the standalone datum feature that you converted into an embedded datum feature includes embedded datum features, these embedded datum features are also displayed as sub-nodes of the main feature in the Model Tree after the drag-and-drop operation. The standalone datum feature that you converted into an embedded datum is in a hidden state. The standalone datum feature that you converted into an embedded datum has a feature number that is lower than the number of the main feature in which it is embedded. 75

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5. Select an embedded datum of the feature on the Model Tree, right-click, and click Unhide to make the embedded datum feature visible in the graphics window. You can right-click again and click Hide to hide the embedded datum feature. 6. Reorder the embedded datums within the feature, if necessary, using the same drag-and-drop method.

To Convert an Embedded Datum to a Standalone Datum
1. Click the plus sign (+) adjacent to a feature on the Model Tree to view the embedded datum references of the feature in the expanded state. 2. Select an embedded datum of the feature. 3. Press the left-mouse button and drag the embedded datum feature to the Insert Here prompt on the Model Tree. 4. Release the left-mouse button. o o o The datum feature is placed as a standalone feature at the location where you have released the left-mouse button. The Model Tree displays the datum feature as a node parallel to the main feature. Pro/ENGINEER displays the datum feature in the graphics window.

Note: If you drag a datum sub-node outside and below the main feature, the main feature and all its sub-nodes are selected, dragged, and located below other feature nodes on the Model Tree.

Dragging and Dropping Embedded Datums
You can drag and drop a standalone datum into a feature if it is referenced by the feature or by another embedded datum of the same feature and no other feature is using the datum as a reference. Similarly, you can also convert an embedded datum to a standalone datum using the drag-and-drop method and reorder the embedded datums in a feature or group, if required. If you drag and drop a standalone datum into a feature that is in its collapsed state, the datum feature is embedded in the feature and is displayed as a feature subnode. If the feature also includes other feature elements, such as sketches, annotation features, and groups of patterned, mirrored, or moved entities, as subnodes, the dragged-and-dropped datum feature is displayed in the order of display of sub-nodes that also includes the feature element sub-nodes. If the feature is in its expanded state, you can place the dragged datum at a specified location within the constraints of the parent-child relationships, considering that the feature is a child or grand-child of the datum. All drag-and-drop, relocation, and reorder operations are performed within the constraints of the parent-child relationships that exist between the datum sub-nodes and the features and with respect to other features in the model.

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If you drag a datum sub-node outside and below the main feature, the main feature and all its sub-nodes are selected, dragged, and located below other feature nodes on the Model Tree. Note: Because of the parent-child relationship constraints, you cannot drag the embedded datums of patterned, mirrored, or moved group of features out of the group, above the cosmetic group header.

Editing and Redefining Features with Embedded Datums
You can edit the references, dimensions, and definition of the feature with the embedded datums as well as the references, dimensions, and definition of the individual embedded datums. You can also delete the main feature or its embedded datums and view information about the feature, the embedded datum, the model, or the parent-child relationship. Select the feature or the embedded datums and rightclick to access the commands, such as Delete, Suppress, Edit Definition, Edit References, Info, and Hide or Unhide, or use the same commands from the Edit, View, and Info menus on the Pro/ENGINEER menu bar.

Editing References
While editing the references of the main feature, you can replace the embedded datum references. The embedded datums that are not used as references by the feature are converted to standalone datum features. While editing an embedded datum, you can only replace the used references of the embedded datum that you are editing.

Editing Dimensions
While editing the dimensions of a feature with embedded datums, the dimensions of the embedded datums and the feature are visible. However, while editing the dimensions of an embedded datum, only the dimensions of the embedded datum are visible. To view all dimensions of the group, you must edit the references, definition, or the dimensions of the group header.

Redefining Features
While redefining a feature, the embedded datums are displayed as nodes above the feature and the corresponding datum creation tools are available so that you can use the embedded datums to create additional asynchronous datums as in the creation of features. You can roll back the main feature, but you cannot roll back the embedded datum features. The structure of the feature with the asynchronous datums is maintained after the redefinition.

Copying Features with Embedded Datums
You can copy the feature with the embedded reference datums and paste the copied feature and the embedded datums into the same model or a different model. You

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can select suitable references for the embedded datum features while pasting the copied feature or retain the original references. If you are pasting the copied feature in a different model, you can redefine the references by selecting new references in the new model. If you copy and paste a feature with transformations and if the feature includes embedded datum features, the embedded datum features are also instanced or duplicated during the copy and paste operation. The datum features embedded in the original feature are not transformed whereas the original feature is copied with transformations. The duplicated datum features without transformations retain their relevant embedded locations in the resultant copied and transformed instances of the original feature. Their locations in the feature geometry are similar to the datum features that are embedded in the original feature. That is, the Model Tree displays the duplicated embedded datums as sub-nodes of the copied and transformed instances of the original feature. The copied and transformed instances of the original feature reference their corresponding duplicated datums that are embedded in them. A feature with embedded datums that is copied using the Fully Dependent with options to vary option on the Paste Special dialog box creates fully dependent copies of the main feature and the embedded datums. The new instances of the embedded datums reference the original embedded datums.

About Patterning, Mirroring, or Moving Features with Embedded Datums
You can pattern, mirror, or move features that include embedded datums. While patterning, mirroring, or moving the feature: • • • The main feature that includes the embedded datums is patterned, mirrored, or moved to create instances with transformations. The datum features embedded in the main feature are also duplicated and their instances created, but without transformations. The instances of the datum features without transformations retain their relevant embedded locations in the resultant patterned, mirrored, or moved and transformed instances of the main feature. The locations of the duplicated datum features in the feature geometry of the instances of the main feature are similar to the locations of the datum features that are embedded in the main feature. The Model Tree displays the duplicated embedded datums as sub-nodes of the transformed instances of the main feature. The patterned, mirrored, and moved instances of the feature are not grouped to form the cosmetic group, but are collectively represented by a group header.

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After the pattern, mirror, or move operation, you can drag and drop the reference standalone datum that you used for the pattern, mirror, or move operation into the group header if found valid as reference for the group header. The patterned,

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moved, or mirrored features are automatically grouped into a cosmetic group. The reference datum that you dragged and dropped into the group is embedded in the patterned, mirrored, or moved group header. The cosmetic group of the patterned, mirrored, or moved features is displayed in the collapsed state as a node on the Model Tree. The cosmetic group header uses the corresponding tool name, such as Patterned Features, Mirrored Features, or Moved Features. Note: You cannot drag the duplicated embedded datums of the patterned, mirrored, or moved features out of the group, above the group header. The parent-child constraints do not allow you to drag the embedded datum out of the group. The cosmetic group is only a cosmetic folder that holds together the group members. The cosmetic group header is not considered as a feature and is not identified by a feature number.

About Patterning, Mirroring, or Moving Features with Asynchronous Datums
You can create asynchronous datum features as references while patterning, mirroring, or moving features. The asynchronous datums that are created are embedded in the features that are patterned, mirrored, or moved. Additionally, the features that are patterned, mirrored, or moved may also include embedded datum features. While patterning, mirroring, or moving: • • • • Instances of the main feature are created with transformations. The datum features embedded in the main feature are also duplicated and their instances created, but without transformations. The patterned, mirrored, or moved instances of the main feature form the cosmetic group. The instances of the datum features without transformations retain their relevant embedded locations in the resultant patterned, mirrored, or moved and transformed instances of the main feature. The locations of the duplicated datum features in the instances of the main feature are similar to the locations of the datum features that are embedded in the main feature. The patterned, mirrored, or moved instances of the main feature reference their relevant and corresponding duplicated datums in the cosmetic group header.

Note: If you drag these embedded datums outside the patterned, mirrored, or moved group, the resultant patterned, mirrored, or moved instances lose the display of the cosmetic group. Patterning Features While creating a pattern of a feature, you can select an existing datum feature as the pattern reference. After patterning, you can drag and drop the reference datum feature into the pattern header. You cannot drag or move the dragged and dropped 79

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datum feature that is embedded in the pattern header out of the pattern header. The patterned instances form a cosmetic feature group and the Model Tree displays this group as a feature node with the patterned instances as the sub-nodes. Alternatively, you can asynchronously create a reference datum feature while patterning a feature, especially for pattern types, such as direction and axis, that require datum features as references. The patterned instances form the cosmetic group referencing the datums embedded in the cosmetic pattern header. Note: While redefining a patterned feature with embedded datums, if you use the dimension of an embedded datum as the reference for patterning and if the embedded datum is not referenced, then Pro/ENGINEER prompts you to confirm whether you want to abort the redefinition process. Creating a Pattern of a Pattern If the original feature is a pattern and has a reference datum embedded in its pattern header with datums embedded in its individual pattern members, and if you are creating a pattern of a pattern: • • The first-level datums that are embedded in the pattern leader of the original pattern are not instanced or duplicated. All intermediary or second-level embedded datums are duplicated without transformations. The duplicated datums retain their relevant embedded locations. You cannot drag the duplicated embedded datums out of their relevant cosmetic groups.

About Deleting or Suppressing Features with Embedded Datums
When you delete or suppress a feature that has embedded datum features, you can delete or suppress the embedded datums before deleting or suppressing the main feature. When you select a feature and select the Delete or Suppress commands, the feature and all its children are selected. You must confirm the deletion or suppression of the feature along with its children in the standard Delete or Suppress confirmation dialog box. This confirmation dialog box displays the additional Options button only when the feature that is being deleted or suppressed or the automatically selected children include embedded datum features. You can choose to retain the embedded datum features while deleting the main feature. The retained embedded datums are converted to standalone datums after the main feature is deleted. If you do not retain the embedded datums while deleting the main feature, the following embedded datums of the feature are deleted: • • Datums that are embedded in the main feature selected for deletion. Datums that are embedded in a feature, but this main feature is a child of the main feature selected for deletion.

Note: The option to retain the embedded datum features is available when deleting a feature that has embedded datums or when deleting a feature whose children have

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embedded datums. It is not available while suppressing a feature with embedded datums. When the feature selected for deletion or suppression includes embedded datum features and is also a parent of another main feature with embedded datums, you can selectively delete or suppress the embedded datum features in the Children Handling dialog box that opens for such features. The Children Handling dialog box does not list the embedded datums of the main feature that is a child of another main feature although it lists this main feature that is a child of the other main feature. The delete and suppress operations follow standard Pro/ENGINEER functionality.

To Delete a Feature while Retaining the Embedded Datums
1. Select the feature or its embedded datums from the Model Tree or the graphics window. 2. Right-click and click Delete on the shortcut menu or click Edit > Delete > Delete. o o o The selected feature and the embedded datums that are its sub-nodes are highlighted. The Delete confirmation dialog box opens prompting you to select the advanced options that are available when you click Options. The Keep embedded datum features check-box is checked by default.

3. Click OK on the Delete confirmation dialog box. The main feature is deleted while its embedded datums are retained and displayed as nodes in the Model Tree. Note: If you clear the Keep embedded datum features check-box, and click OK, the main feature and its embedded datum features are deleted. If you click Options, the Children Handling dialog box opens. You can follow the standard Pro/ENGINEER functionality to delete features with sub-nodes or children, that is, reroute the child sub-nodes before deleting the main feature. You can also similarly suppress features with embedded datums using the Children Handling dialog box.

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Base Features
Extrude
Basics of the Extruded Feature About the Extruded Feature
Extrusion is a method of defining three-dimensional geometry by projecting a twodimensional section at a specified distance normal to the sketching plane. as one of the basic creation methods that allows you to Use the Extrude tool create a solid or surface, and to add or remove material. You can create the following extrusion types with the Extrude tool: • • • • Protrusion—Solid, Thickened Cut—Solid, Thickened Extruded surface Surface trim—Regular, Thickened

Typically, to create an extrusion, you select a sketched datum curve that you want to use as a section and then activate the Extrude tool. Pro/ENGINEER shows you preview of the feature. You can adjust the feature as needed by changing the extrusion depth, switching between a solid or surface, protrusion or cut, or assigning a thickness to the sketch to create a thickened feature. Note: You can only create a solid cut, surface, or surface trim in Assembly mode. Creating a Two-Sided Feature You can create a two-sided feature that is constructed on both sides of the sketching plane, with a depth option defined for each side. To create a two-sided feature, start creating an extrusion with a depth option defined for one side. Then click the Options slide-up panel and define the depth option for the second side. Accessing the Extrude Tool To access the Extrude tool, click > Extrude. on the Base Features toolbar or click Insert

There are several ways to activate the Extrude tool: • (Preferred) Select an existing sketched datum curve and click is referred to as object-action. . This method

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• •

Click object.

and create a sketch to extrude. This method is referred to as action-

Select a datum plane or planar surface to use as the sketching plane and then click .

About the Extrude User Interface
The user interface for the Extrude tool includes: Feature icon Dialog bar Slide-up panels Shortcut menus Feature Icon To access the Extrude tool, click Extrude. Dialog Bar The dialog bar consists of the following elements: Common Extrusion options • • • • —Creates a solid. —Creates a surface. Depth options—Constrains the depth of the feature. Depth box and Reference collector—Specifies a depth value for the extrusion that is controlled by the depth dimension. If a depth reference is required, the text box acts as a collector and lists the reference summary. —Flips the direction of feature creation with respect to the sketching plane. on the Base Features toolbar or click Insert >

Options used for creating a cut • • —Creates a cut using the extruded volume. —Changes the side to be removed when creating a cut.

Options used with the Thicken Sketch option • —Creates a feature by assigning a thickness to the section outline.

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• •

—Changes the side where a thickness is added, or adds a thickness to both sides. Thickness box—Specifies a thickness value to apply to the section outline.

Options used for creating a Surface Trim • • • —Trims a surface using a projected section. —Changes the side of the quilt to be removed, or keeps both sides. Quilt collector—If both sides of the quilt are kept, specifies the side to retain the quilt id of the original quilt.

Slide-up Panels The Extrude tool provides the following slide-up panels: • Placement—Use this slide-up panel to redefine the feature section. Click Define to create or change the section. Click Unlink to make the section independent of the sketched datum curve. Options—Use this slide-up panel to do the following: o o • Redefine the depth of the feature for each side of the sketching plane. Create a surface feature with capped ends by selecting the Capped Ends option.

Properties—Use this slide-up panel to edit the feature name and open feature information in the Pro/ENGINEER browser.

Shortcut Menus When you right-click an extruded feature, the shortcut menu lists the following feature options: • • • • • • • Surface—Switches from solid geometry to surface. Solid—Switches from surface geometry to solid. Remove Material—Switches the extrusion between protrusion and cut. Thicken Sketch—Creates the extrusion by adding a thickness to the sketched section. Define Internal Sketch—Create a feature section or select a different section. Flip Depth Direction—Switches the direction of the feature creation with respect to the sketching plane. Flip Material Side—Switches the side of the sketch where material will be removed when creating a cut or where material will be added when creating a thickened feature.

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Clear—Clears the active collector.

When you right-click an extruded feature, you can access the following collectors: • • • • • Placement collector—Selects another sketched datum curve to extrude. Depth side 1 collector—Changes a reference for the To Selected or Through Until depth option for Side 1. Depth side 2 collector—Changes a reference for the To Selected or Through Until depth option for Side 2. Trim Quilt collector—Selects another quilt to trim. Intersection Components Collector—In Assembly mode, defines the feature visibility and select the components that the feature will intersect.

When you right-click a directional arrow, the shortcut menu lists Flip, allowing you to switch the direction of feature creation. When you right-click a drag handle, the shortcut menu lists the following depth options: • • • • • • • Flip Depth Direction—Switches the direction of the feature creation with respect to the sketching plane. Blind—Extrudes a section from the sketching plane by the specified depth value. Symmetric—Extrudes a section on each side of the sketching plane by half of the specified depth value. To Next—Extrudes a section up to the next surface. Use this option to terminate a feature at the first surface it reaches. Through All—Extrudes a section to intersect with all surfaces. Use this option to terminate a feature at the last surface it reaches. Through Until—Extrudes a section to intersect with a selected surface or plane. To Selected—Extrudes a section to a selected point, curve, plane, or surface.

Example: Different Types of Extrude Feature
The next table shows different types of geometry that you can create with the Extrude tool.

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Extruded Solid Protrusion

Extruded Solid Protrusion with an assigned thickness (Thickened)

Extruded Cut, created with Through Next

Extruded Surface

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Extruded Surface Trim A section is projected onto quilt to cut out a hole in the quilt.

Surface trim with an open section A section is projected on the quilt to create a trim line and cut the quilt.

a) original

b) resulting

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About Sections Used for Extrusions
The Extrude tool requires you to define a section to extrude. You can define a section using one of the following methods: • • • Select a sketched datum curve before activating the Extrude tool. Activate the Extrude tool and sketch a section. To create a section, click the Placement slide-up panel, and then click Edit. While in the Extrude tool, create a sketched datum curve for use as a section. To create a datum curve, click • on the Base Features toolbar.

Activate the Extrude tool and select a sketched datum curve.

Sections for Solid Extrusions Note: These rules do not apply to cuts, thickened features, and surfaces. Consider the following rules for creating sections: • • • Extruded sections can be open or closed. Open sections can have only one contour. All open ends must be aligned to the part edges. Closed sections may consist of the following: o o Single or multiple closed loops that do not overlap. Nested loops, where the largest loop is used as an outside loop and each other loop is considered to be a hole in the larger loop. The loops can not intersect each other.

Sections for Cuts and Thickened Extrusions Consider the following rules for creating sections: • • • You can use an open or closed section. You can use an open section with ends that are not aligned. A section cannot have intersecting entities.

Sections for Surfaces Consider the following rules for creating sections: • • You can use an open or closed section. A section can have intersecting entities.

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Using Sections with Multiple Contours When you add an extrusion to an existing part geometry, you can sketch several contours on the same sketching plane. These contours may not overlap, but they can be nested. All extruded contours share the same depth option and are always selected together. You can also sketch multiple loops within the section outline to create voids (islands) inside a protrusion.

Preselecting a Sketching Plane
You can select a sketching plane before you enter the Extrude or Revolve tool. When you select a datum plane or a planar surface and activate the Extrude or Revolve tool, the selected planar reference is used as the default sketching plane. Therefore, when you enter Sketcher, the Section dialog box opens with the sketching plane defined. You can change the selected sketching plane if needed. Note: If you select a planar reference and then select a sketched datum curve for use as a feature section, only the datum curve selection is used by the feature tool.

Using a Sketched Datum Curve as a Feature Section
You can use an existing sketched datum curve as a section for the extruded or revolved feature. The default feature type depends on the selected geometry: • • If you select an open sketched datum curve, the Extrude or Revolve tool by default creates a surface. If you select a closed sketched datum curve, the Extrude or Revolve tool by default creates a solid protrusion. You can later change solid geometry to surface geometry.

Note: In Assembly mode, the default feature type is solid cut. Consider the following rules on using an existing sketched datum curve as a feature section: • • You cannot select a copied sketched datum curve. If more than one valid sketched datum curve was selected or if the selected geometry was invalid, the Extrude or Revolve tool opens with no geometry collected. The system displays an error message and asks you to select new references.

Associativity between the Selected Curve and the Feature By default, when you select a sketched datum curve to use as a feature section, the section becomes associative with the original curve. You can break this associativity and make the curve independent by clicking the Placement slide-up panel, and then

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clicking Unlink. When you unlink the section, the sketched datum curve is copied into the feature and becomes and an internal sketch. The Model Tree reflects whether the sketch used is internal or external. If you selected a datum curve to use as the feature section, clicking on the feature node shows the node for the sketched datum curve. If you redefine the feature and unlink the datum curve, its node under the feature node changes to that of an internal sketch. If you created a sketched datum curve while in the Extrude or Revolve tool, Pro/ENGINEER creates a group that includes the curve and the feature.

About the Depth Options
You can specify the depth of an extruded feature by selecting one of the following depth options: Blind—Extrudes a section from the sketching plane by the specified depth value. Note: Specifying a negative depth value flips the depth direction. Symmetric—Extrudes a section on each side of the sketching plane by half of the specified depth value. Through Until—Extrudes a section to intersect with a selected surface or plane. For a terminating surface, you can select the following: o o o o A part surface, which is not required to be planar A datum plane, which is not required to be parallel to the sketching plane A quilt composed of one or several surfaces In an assembly, you can select geometry of another component.

To Next—Extrudes a section to the next surface. Use this option to terminate a feature at the first surface it reaches. Note: You cannot use a datum plane as a terminating surface. Through All—Extrudes a section to intersect with all surfaces. Use this option to terminate a feature at the last surface it reaches. To Selected—Extrudes a section to a selected point, curve, plane, or surface. Rules for Terminating Features Using the Part Entities • • For Through Until and To Next depth options, the outline of the extrusion must lie within the boundaries of the terminating surface. Features that terminate at the intersection with another entity do not have a depth parameter associated with them. Modifying the terminating surface alters the depth of the feature.

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Tips for Changing the Depth Options Using Snapping You can use snapping to the nearest reference to change the depth option from Blind to To Selected. Hold down SHIFT and drag the depth handle to a reference that you want to use to terminate the feature. You can change the depth option back to Blind by holding down SHIFT and dragging the depth handle. As you drag the handle, the depth dimension is displayed.

About the Thicken Sketch Command
Use the Thicken Sketch command to create a thin solid by applying a specified thickness to the section outline. The Thicken Sketch command is useful when creating simplified features with a uniform thickness. Consider these rules for adding a thickness: • • You can apply the thickness value to either side of the sketch or to both sides. For the thickness dimension, you can specify only a positive value.

Note: You cannot include text in a section sketch.

About an Extruded Cut
You can use the Extrude tool to remove material by projecting a sketched section normal to the sketching plane. You can use open or closed sections to create a cut. Removing material using a closed section creates a slot. To create a cut, use the same depth options as for extruded protrusions. While defining a cut, you can switch between the following feature attributes: • • • Cut and protrusion by clicking Remove Material Flip Material Side

The side where material is removed by clicking Solid and thin cut by clicking Thicken Sketch

About an Extruded Surface
With the Extrude tool, you can create an extruded surface by extruding a sketched section to a specified depth in the direction normal to the sketching plane. To define the depth of the extruded surface, use one of these depth options: Blind—Extrudes a section from the sketching plane by the specified depth value. Symmetric—Extrudes a section on both sides of the sketching plane by half of the specified depth value. To Selected—Extrudes a section to a selected point, curve, plane, or surface.

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Creating an Extruded Surface with an Open or Closed Volume An extruded surface can have open or closed ends. To create an extruded surface with a closed volume, select the Capped Ends option in the Options slide-up panel to create an additional surface to close off the feature. Note: The Capped Ends option requires a closed section.

About a Surface Trim Created with the Extrude Tool
You can use the Extrude tool to trim a quilt by projecting a sketched section onto a quilt normal to the sketching plane. Note: To create a surface trim, you must have a quilt in your model. A section outline defines the trim boundary in a quilt. A section can be open or closed. Consider the following rules about sections: • • A closed section can lie within or intersect the quilt boundaries. An open section must intersect the quilt boundaries.

Depth Options for Trim Surface To define the depth of the extruded surface trim, use one of these depth options: • Blind—Extrudes a section from the sketching plane by the specified depth value. Symmetric—Extrudes a section on each side of the sketching plane by half of the specified depth value. To Next—Extrudes a section to the next surface. Use this option to terminate a feature at the first surface it reaches. Note: You cannot use a datum plane as a terminating surface. Through All—Extrudes a section to intersect with all surfaces. Use this option to terminate a feature at the last surface it reaches. To Selected—Extrudes a section to a selected point, curve, plane, or surface. Note: The terminating plane must be parallel to the sketching plane.

Selecting the Portion of the Quilt to Keep When you trim a quilt with a projected section, you can choose which portion of the quilt to keep, or you can keep both portions of the quilt. Note: If you keep both sides of the quilt, you must select which portion of the trimmed quilt inherits the quilt ID.

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Tips for Creating a Revolved Feature Using the Object/Action Workflow
With this method, you first create a section and then activate the Revolve tool ). When you use an existing datum curve as a feature section, the selected ( datum curve is copied into the feature section. A warning dialog box informs you that the feature section will not be associative with the original datum curve. The Revolve tool analyzes the selected geometry and creates default geometry. The default feature type depends on the selected geometry (for example, an open sketched datum curve produces a surface). To create a revolved feature using the Object/Action method: 1. Click on the Datums toolbar, define references, and sketch a datum curve. on the Sketcher the toolbar, and sketch

2. To define an axis of revolution, click an axis.

3. Click OK to complete the datum curve creation. to activate the Revolve tool. A warning dialog box informs you that the 4. Click feature section will not be associative with the original datum curve. The sketched datum curve that you have created is collected as a section. The Revolve tool constructs a default revolved feature.

Tips for Creating an Extrusion Using the Object/Action Workflow
With this method, you first select a sketched datum curve and then activate the ). The selected datum curve is copied into the feature section. A Extrude tool ( warning dialog box informs you that the feature section will not be associative with the original datum curve. The Extrude tool analyzes the selected geometry and creates a default extrusion. The default feature type depends on the selected geometry (for example, an open sketched datum curve produces a surface). You can then change the feature type and options as needed.

Working with the Extruded Feature To Create a Solid Protrusion
1. Select a sketched datum curve to use for extrusion. on the Base Features toolbar. The system creates a default solid 2. Click extrusion using the Blind depth option. Spin the model to see it in a 3D view. 3. You can now adjust the geometry as needed:

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To flip the direction of feature creation with respect to the sketching plane, click on the dialog bar.

Tip: Alternatively, you can right-click the feature and click Flip Depth Direction on the shortcut menu. o To change the depth dimension, double-click the depth dimension in the graphics area and type a new one in the dimension box. Tip: To manually adjust the feature depth, click and hold the depth handle and drag it up to the desired depth. o To change the depth option from the default Blind option, click the appropriate depth icon on the dialog bar. For example, to switch to To and select a point, curve, plane, or surface that will Selected, click intersect the feature. Tip: Alternatively, you can right-click the depth handle and select a different depth option form the shortcut menu. You can use snapping to any valid entity with the To Selected option. Hold down the SHIFT key and drag the depth handle until you reach a reference that you want to use to terminate the feature. When the system highlights the desired reference, you can release the handle. 4. (Optional) The section used for the extrusion is associative with the sketched datum curve you selected. If you want to break this associativity and copy the section into the extrusion, click the Placement slide-up panel and then click Unlink. 5. To verify the feature, click . .

6. If you are satisfied with the geometry you created, click

To Create a Thickened Extrusion
Note: If you want to use an open section to create a thin extrusion that is the first before you start sketching the section. Otherwise, feature in the model, click Sketcher will consider the open section invalid. 1. Select a sketched datum curve to use for extrusion. on the Base Features toolbar. The system creates a default extrusion 2. Click using the Blind depth option. Spin the model to see it in a 3D view.

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on the dialog bar or right-click the 3. To add thickness to the sketch, click feature and select Thicken Sketch on the shortcut menu. Type the thickness value in the dimension box to the right of the icon.

to the right of the 4. To change the side where the thickness is added, click thickness dimension box. You can toggle between three modes: o o o Add thickness to Side 1 Add thickness to Side 2 Add thickness to both sides

5. You can now adjust the geometry as needed: o To flip the direction of feature creation with respect to the sketching plane, click on the dialog bar.

Tip: Alternatively, you can right-click the feature and click Flip Depth Direction on the shortcut menu. o To change the depth dimension, double-click the depth dimension in the graphics area and type a new one in the dimension box. Tip: To manually adjust the feature depth, click and hold the depth handle and drag it up to the desired depth. o To change the depth option from the default Blind option, click the appropriate depth icon on the dialog bar. For example, to switch to To and select a point, curve, plane, or surface that will Selected, click intersect the feature. Tip: Alternatively, you can right-click the depth handle and select a different depth option form the shortcut menu. Tip: You can use snapping to the nearest entity with the To Selected option. Hold down the SHIFT key and drag the depth handle until you reach a reference that you want to use to terminate the feature. When the system highlights the desired reference, you can release the handle. 6. To verify the feature, click . .

7. If you are satisfied with the geometry you created, click

To Create a Cut
1. Select a sketched datum curve to use for extrusion. 2. Click on the Base Features toolbar.

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3. Click 4.

on the dialog bar.

The system creates a default solid cut using the Blind depth option. Spin the model to see it in a 3D view.

5. You can now adjust the geometry as needed: o To flip the direction of feature creation with respect to the sketching plane, click on the dialog bar.

Tip: Alternatively, you can right-click the feature and click Flip Depth Direction on the shortcut menu. o To flip the side where material is removed, click the right of . on the dialog bar to

Tip: Alternatively, you can right-click the feature and click Flip Material Side on the shortcut menu. o o To change the depth dimension, double-click the depth dimension in the graphics area and type a new one in the dimension box. To change the depth option from the default Blind option, click the appropriate depth icon on the dashboard. Tip: You can use snapping to the nearest entity with the To Selected option. Hold down the SHIFT key and drag the depth handle until you reach a reference that you want to use to terminate the feature. When the system highlights the desired reference, you can release the handle. 6. (Optional) The section used for the cut is associative with the sketched datum curve you selected. If you want to break this associativity and copy the section into the extrusion, click the Placement slide-up panel and then click Unlink. 7. (Optional) The section used for the extrusion is associative with the sketched datum curve you selected. If you want to break this associativity and copy the section into the extrusion, click the Placement slide-up panel and then click Unlink. 8. To verify the feature, click . .

9. If you are satisfied with the geometry you created, click

To Create an Extruded Surface
1. Select a sketched datum curve to use for extrusion. 2. Click 3. Click 96 on the Base Features toolbar. on the dialog bar.

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4. The system creates a default surface extrusion using the Blind depth option. Spin the model to see it in a 3D view. 5. You can now adjust the geometry as needed: o To flip the direction of feature creation with respect to the sketching plane, click on the dialog bar.

Tip: Alternatively, you can right-click the feature and click Flip Depth Direction on the shortcut menu. o o To change the depth dimension, double-click the depth dimension in the graphics area and type a new one in the dimension box. To create a double-sided feature, click the Options slide-up panel on the dialog bar and define the depth for the second side. To do this, select the depth option for Side 2 and select an intersecting reference, if needed.

6. If you used a closed section for the extrude feature, you can close the ends of the extruded surface. Click the Options slide-up panel on the dialog bar and select Capped Ends. 7. (Optional) The section used for the extrusion is associative with the sketched datum curve you selected. If you want to break this associativity and copy the section into the extrusion, click the Placement slide-up panel and then click Unlink. 8. To verify the feature, click . .

9. If you are satisfied with the geometry you created, click

To Create a Surface Trim
Note: To create a surface trim, you must have a quilt present in your model. 1. Select a sketched datum curve to use for extrusion. 2. Click 3. Click 4. Click menu. on the Base Features toolbar. on the dialog bar or click Surface on the shortcut menu. to create a surface trim or click Remove Material on the shortcut

5. To define a trim boundary, create a section to extrude. Click bar or on the Placement slide-up panel.

on the dialog

6. Select a sketching plane and specify its orientation or accept the default orientation. 7. Click Sketch. You are now placed in Sketcher.

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8. Accept the default references or select different references for dimensioning the section. When finished, click Close on the References dialog box. 9. Sketch a section. Click 10. Select a quilt to trim. 11. The system extrudes a section to intersect the selected quilt. Spin the model to see the feature in a 3D view. 12. To preview how the quilt will be trimmed, click . to exit Sketcher.

13. To change the depth option from the default Blind option, click the appropriate depth icon on the dialog bar. on the dialog bar to 14. To change the portion of the quilt to be removed, click the left of the Quilt collector. Notice that the arrow that lies within the sketching plane points to the side that will be removed. Click modes: o o o Remove Side 1 Remove Side 2 Keep both sides to toggle between three

Tip: Alternatively, you can change the portion of the quilt to be removed by right-clicking the feature and clicking Flip Material Side on the shortcut menu. 15. If both sides are kept, you must select the side that will inherit the original quilt ID by clicking (located to the right of the Quilt collector).

16. (Optional) The section used for the extrusion is associative with the sketched datum curve you selected. If you want to break this associativity and copy the section into the extrusion, click the Placement slide-up panel, and then click Unlink. 17. To verify the feature, click . .

18. If you are satisfied with the geometry you created, click

To Create an Internal Sketch
Follow this procedure to create an internal sketch while you are in the Extrude or Revolve tool. 1. Activate the tool. 2. Click the Placement slide-up panel. 3. Click Define.

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4. Select the sketching plane and specify its orientation, or accept the default orientation. 5. Click Sketch on the Sketch dialog box. You are now in Sketcher. 6. Accept the default references or select different references for dimensioning the section. When finished, click Close on the References dialog box. 7. Sketch a section. For the revolved feature, sketch a centerline. 8. Click to exit Sketcher. A preview of the feature geometry appears.

9. Adjust the feature geometry as needed.

Tip: Creating a Datum Curve While in the Feature Tool
Occasionally, you may need to create a sketched datum curve to use as a feature section after you have already activated the Extrude or Revolve tool. 1. With the feature tool active, click 2. Create a sketched datum curve. 3. When finished sketching, click to exit Sketcher. on the Datums toolbar.

4. To reactivate the Extrude or Revolve tool, click at the bottom-right corner of the graphics window. Pro/ENGINEER uses newly created sketched datum curve as the feature section and creates default geometry. 5. Adjust the feature as needed.

Making Changes to an Extruded Feature
With the Extrude tool, you can switch between different feature options while creating an extrusion. You can also edit the feature after it has been created using one of the editing tools: • • • Edit Definition—Redefine the feature. Edit References—Change the existing references by replacing them with new. Edit—Modify feature dimensions.

Note: When you redefine the feature type from solid to surface or vice versa, these changes are not propagated to the dependent copies of that feature. Using Direct Section Edit You can access a feature section in the Model Tree and make changes to the section without entering the feature Edit mode. This lets you work directly with the section and its placement references without opening the Extrude tool. To edit a section from the Model Tree: 99

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1. Click the feature icon in the Model Tree.

in the Model Tree. The section subnode (

) appears

2. Right-click the section subnode and choose one of the options: o o Edit—Modify the section dimensions. Edit Definition—Modify the section placement and the section geometry.

Redefining a Copied Feature If you edit a section while redefining a copied extruded feature, the redefined feature is no longer associative with the original feature.

Revolve
Basics of the Revolved Feature About the Revolved Feature
The Revolve tool creates a feature by revolving a sketched section around a centerline. Use the Revolve tool as one of the basic creation methods that allows you to create a revolved geometry as a solid or surface, and to add or remove material. You can create different types of revolved feature with the Revolve tool: • • • • Revolved protrusion—Solid, Thickened Revolved cut—Solid, Thickened Revolved surface Revolved surface trim—Regular, Thickened

Typically, to create a revolved feature, you activate the Revolve tool and specify the feature type, solid or surface. Then you select or create a sketch. A revolved section requires an axis of revolution that can be created either with the section or defined by selecting model geometry. After the Revolve tool shows you preview of the feature geometry, you can change the angle of revolution, switch between a solid or surface, protrusion or cut, or assign a thickness to the sketch to create a thickened feature. Note: Legacy revolved features that were defined using the Constant angle option are automatically converted to Variable. Creating a Two-Sided Feature You can create a two-sided feature that is constructed on both sides of the sketching plane, with a depth option defined for each side.

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To create a two-sided feature, start creating a revolved feature with an angle option defined for one side. Then select the Options slide-up panel and define the angle of revolution for the second side. Accessing the Revolve Tool To access the Revolve tool, click Revolve. on the Base Features toolbar or click Insert >

There are several ways to activate the Revolve tool: • (Preferred) Preselect a section—Create a section to use and then click method is referred to as object-action. and create a sketch to revolve. This method is referred to as Click action/object. Preselect a datum plane—Select a datum plane or planar surface to use as the sketching plane and then click . . This

• •

About the Revolve User Interface
The user interface for the Revolve tool includes: Feature icon Dialog bar Slide-up panels Shortcut menus Feature Icon To access the Revolve tool, click > Revolve. Dialog Bar The dialog bar consists of the following elements: Common Revolve options • • • —Creates a solid feature. —Creates a surface feature. Angle options—Lists options to constrain the angle of revolution for the feature. Choose one of these options: Selected. Variable, Symmetric, or To on the Base Features toolbar, or click Insert

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Angle box/Reference collector—Specifies an angle value for the revolved feature. If a reference is required, the text box acts as a collector and lists the reference summary. —Flips the direction of feature creation with respect to the sketching plane.

Options used for creating a cut • • —Creates a cut using the revolved feature volume. —Changes the side to be removed when creating a cut.

Options used with the Thicken Sketch option • • • —Creates a feature by assigning a thickness to the section outline. —Changes the side where a thickness is added or adds a thickness to both sides. Thickness box—Specifies a thickness value to apply to the section outline.

Options used for creating a Revolved Surface Trim • • • —Trims a surface using a revolved section. —Changes the side of the quilt to be removed, or keeps both sides. Quilt collector—If both sides of the quilt are kept, select the side to retain the quilt id of the original quilt.

Slide-up Panels The Revolve tool provides the following slide-up panels: • Placement—Use this slide-up panel to redefine the feature section and specify the axis of revolution. Click Define to create or change the section. Click inside the Axis collector to define the axis of revolution. Click Unlink to make the section independent of the sketched datum curve. Options—Use this slide-up panel to do the following: o o • Redefine the angle of revolution for one or both sides of the sketch. Create a surface feature with capped ends by selecting the Capped Ends option.

Properties—Use this slide-up panel to edit the feature name and open feature information in the Pro/ENGINEER browser.

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Shortcut Menus When you right-click a revolved feature, the shortcut menu lists the following feature options: • • • • • • • Surface—Switches from solid geometry to surface. Solid—Switches from surface geometry to solid. Remove Material—Switches the feature between protrusion and cut. Thicken Sketch—Applies a thickness to the sketch. Define Internal Sketch—Create a feature section or select a different section. Flip Angle Direction—Switches the direction of the feature creation with respect to the sketching plane. Flip Material Side—Switches the side of the sketch where material will be removed when creating a cut, or adds material when creating a thickened feature. Clear—Clears the active collector.

When you right-click an extruded feature, you can access the following collectors: • • • • • Placement collector—Selects another sketched datum curve to use as a section. Angle side 1 collector—Changes a reference for the To Selected option for Side 1. Angle side 2 collector—Changes a reference for the To Selected option for Side 2. Trim Quilt collector—Selects another quilt to trim. Intersection Components Collector—In Assembly mode, defines the feature visibility and select the components that the feature will intersect.

When you right-click a drag handle, the shortcut menu lists the following angle options: • • Flip Angle Direction—Switches the direction of the feature creation with respect to the sketching plane. Variable—Revolves the section from the sketching plane by the specified angle value. Type the angle value in the text box, or select one of predefined angles (90, 180, 270, and 360). Symmetric—Revolves the section on each side of the sketching plane by half of the specified angle value. To Selected—Revolves the section up to a selected point, curve, plane, or surface.

• •

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Example: Different Types of Revolved Feature
The next table shows different types of geometry that you can create with the Revolve tool. Revolved Solid Protrusion

Revolved Protrusion with an assigned thickness (created using a closed section)

Revolved Protrusion with an assigned thickness (created using an open section)

Revolved Cut

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Revolved Surface

About Sections Used for Revolved Features
Creating a revolved feature requires you to define a section that you want to revolve and the axis of revolution. The axis can be a linear reference or a Sketcher centerline. Consider the following rules for defining revolved sections: • • You can use open or closed sections to create revolved surfaces. Geometry must be sketched only on one side of the axis of revolution.

About the Axis of Revolution
To define an axis of revolution for a revolved feature, you can use one of the following: • • External reference—Use an existing part geometry of a valid type. Internal centerline—Use a centerline created in Sketcher.

While defining a revolved feature, you can change the axis of revolution, for example, select an external axis instead of the centerline. Consider these rules for defining the axis of revolution: • • Geometry must be sketched only on one side of the axis of revolution. The axis of revolution (a geometric reference or a centerline) must lie in the sketching plane of the section.

Using Model Geometry as an Axis of Revolution You can select an existing linear geometry as an axis of revolution. You can use the following entities as a reference: • • • Datum axis Straight edge Straight curve

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An axis of a coordinate system

Using a Sketcher Centerline as the Axis of Revolution In Sketcher, you can draw a centerline to use as the axis of revolution. Consider the following information about a centerline: • • If a section contains one centerline, the centerline is used as the axis of revolution. If a section contains more than one centerline, the system uses the first centerline as the axis of revolution. You can declare any centerline as the axis of revolution.

About the Angle of Revolution
In a revolved feature, a section is revolved around an axis of revolution to a specified angle. You can define the angle of revolution by selecting one of the following angle options: Variable —Revolves a section from the sketching plane by the specified angle value. Type the angle value in the text box, or select one of predefined angles (90, 180, 270, 360). If you select one of the predefined angle values, the system creates an angle dimension. Symmetric—Revolves a section on each side of the sketching plane by half of the specified angle value. To Selected—Revolves a section up to a selected datum point, vertex, plane, or surface. Note: The terminating plane or surface must contain the axis of revolution. Tips for Changing the Angle Option Using Snapping You can use snapping to the nearest reference to change the angle option from Variable to To Selected. Hold down SHIFT and drag the handle to a reference that you want to use to terminate the feature. You can change the angle option back to Variable by holding down SHIFT and dragging the handle. As you drag the handle, the angle dimension is displayed.

About a Revolved Cut
You can use the Revolve tool to remove material by revolving a sketched section about a centerline. To create a cut, use the same angle options as for protrusions. For solid cuts, use closed sections. For cuts created with Thicken Sketch, you can use both closed and open sections. While defining a cut, you can switch between the following feature attributes: • Cut and protrusion by clicking Remove Material

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• •

The side where material is removed by clicking Solid and thin cut by clicking Thicken Sketch

Flip Material Side

About a Revolved Surface
With the Revolve tool, you can create an extruded surface by revolving a sketched section about a centerline. To define the depth of the extruded surface, use one of these depth options: Blind—Extrude a section from the sketching plane by the specified depth value. Symmetric—Extrude a section on both sides of the sketching plane by half of the specified depth value. To Selected—Extrude a section to a selected point, curve, plane, or surface. Creating an Extruded Surface with an Open or Closed Volume An extruded surface can have open or closed ends. To create an extruded surface with a closed volume, select the Capped Ends option in the Options slide-up panel. The system creates an additional surface to close off the feature.

Working with the Revolved Feature To Define an Axis of Revolution
You can use one of the following methods to define an axis of revolution: Select model geometry to use as an external axis of revolution Sketch a centerline when you sketch a section Using an external axis of revolution 1. Make sure the model contains geometry that you want to use as an axis of revolution. 2. Create a section that you want to revolve. 3. Click on the Base Features toolbar. .

4. Click the Axis collector

5. Select a feature or geometric reference to use as an axis of revolution. 6. Continue defining the revolved feature.

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Using an internal centerline as an axis of revolution 1. Create a sketch that includes a section and a sketched centerline. 2. Click on the Base Features toolbar.

3. Continue defining the revolved feature.

To Create a Revolved Solid
Use this procedure when you want to create a revolved solid using an existing sketched datum curve as a feature section and a linear reference as an axis of revolution. 1. Select a sketched datum curve to use as a revolved section. 2. Click on the Base Features toolbar. .

3. If the section did not contain a centerline, click the Axis collector 4. Select a linear reference to use as the axis of revolution.

5. The system by default creates a solid feature that is revolved by 360°. Spin the model to see it in a 3D view. You can now adjust the geometry as needed: o You can create a solid feature from an open section by using the Thicken Sketch ( o ) option.

To adjust the angle of revolution, double-click the angle dimension on the model and type a new one in the dimension box. Tip: To manually adjust the feature depth, click the angle handle and drag it up to the desired angle.

o

To change the angle option, click the appropriate angle icon on the and select a dashboard. For example, to switch to To Selected, click point, curve, plane, or surface that will intersect the feature.

o

To flip the direction of feature creation with respect to the sketching plane, click on the dialog bar. . .

6. To verify the feature, click

7. If you are satisfied with the geometry you created, click

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To Create a Thickened Revolved Feature
Note: To create a thin solid using an open section, click before you start sketching the section. Otherwise, Sketcher will consider the open section invalid. 1. Click on the Base Features toolbar.

2. To create a section to revolve, click the Placement slide-up panel on the dashboard. Then click Define. The Sketch dialog box opens. 3. Select a sketching plane, specify its orientation, or accept the default orientation. 4. Click Sketch. You are now placed in Sketcher. 5. Accept the default references or select different references for dimensioning the section. When finished, click Close on the References dialog box. 6. Sketch an open or closed section. Sketch a centerline to use as an axis of revolution. 7. Click to exit Sketcher. The system creates default geometry using the Blind depth option. Spin the model to see it in a 3D view. on the dialog bar or right-click the 8. To add thickness to the sketch, click feature and select Thicken Sketch on the shortcut menu. Type the thickness value in the dimension box to the right of the icon.

to the right of the 9. To change the side where the thickness is added, click thickness dimension box. You can toggle between three modes: o o o Add thickness to Side 1 Add thickness to Side 2 Add thickness to both sides

10. You can now adjust the geometry as needed: o To adjust the angle of revolution, double-click the angle dimension on the model and type a new one in the dimension box. Tip: To manually adjust the feature depth, click the angle handle and drag it up to the desired angle. o To change the angle option, click the appropriate angle icon on the and select a dashboard. For example, to switch to To Selected, click point, curve, plane, or surface that will intersect the feature. o To change the thickness, double-click the thickness dimension in the graphics area and type a new value.

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To flip the direction of feature creation with respect to the sketching plane, click on the dialog bar. . .

11. To verify the feature, click

12. If you are satisfied with the geometry you created, click

To Create a Revolved Cut
1. Click 2. Click on the Base Features toolbar. on the dialog bar.

3. To create a section to revolve, click the Placement slide-up panel, and then click Edit. 4. Select a sketching plane and specify its orientation, or accept the default orientation. 5. Click Sketch. You are now placed in Sketcher. 6. Accept the default references, or select different references for dimensioning the section. When finished, click Close on the References dialog box. 7. Sketch a closed section that you want to revolve. 8. Using on the Sketcher toolbar, sketch a centerline to use as the axis of revolution. to exit Sketcher. The system creates a default solid cut using the 9. Click Variable angle option. Spin the model to see it in a 3D view. 10. You can now adjust the geometry as needed: o To flip the direction of feature creation with respect to the sketching plane, click o on the dashboard. on the dialog bar.

To flip the side where material is removed, click

Tip: Alternatively, you can right-click the feature and click Flip Material Side on the shortcut menu. o To change the angle dimension, double-click the angle dimension in the graphics area and type a new one in the dimension box. . .

11. To verify the feature, click

12. If you are satisfied with the geometry you created, click

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To Create a Revolved Surface
Note: A revolved section must contain an axis of revolution. 1. Click 2. Click on the Base Features toolbar. on the dialog bar.

3. To create a section to revolve, click the Placement slide-up panel, and then click Edit. 4. Select a sketching plane and specify its orientation, or accept the default orientation. 5. Click Sketch. You are now placed in Sketcher. 6. Accept the default references or select different references for dimensioning the section. When finished, click Close on the References dialog box. 7. Sketch an open or a closed section that you want to revolve. 8. Using on the Sketcher toolbar, sketch a centerline to be used as the axis of revolution. to exit 9. When you finish creating both the section and the centerline, click Sketcher. The system creates a surface feature that is revolved by 360°. Spin the model to see it in a 3D view. You can now adjust the geometry as needed: o To flip the direction of feature creation with respect to the sketching plane, click o o on the dialog bar.

To adjust the angle dimension, double-click the angle dimension on the model and type a new one in the dimension box. To create a double-sided feature, click the Options slide-up panel on the dialog bar and define the angle for the second side. To do this, select the angle option for Side 2 and select an intersecting reference, if needed. If you used a closed section for the revolved feature, you can close the ends of the revolved surface. Click the Options slide-up panel on the dashboard and select Capped Ends. . .

o

10. To verify the feature, click

11. If you are satisfied with the geometry you created, click

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To Create a Revolved Surface Trim
Note: To create a surface trim, you must have a quilt present in your model. 1. Click 2. Click 3. Click menu. on the Base Features toolbar. on the dialog bar or click Surface on the shortcut menu. to create a surface trim or click Remove Material on the shortcut

4. To define a trim boundary, create a section to revolve. Click the Placement slide-up panel, and then click Edit. 5. Select a sketching plane and specify its orientation or accept the default orientation. 6. Click Sketch. You are now placed in Sketcher. 7. Accept the default references or select different references for dimensioning the section. When finished, click Close on the References dialog box. 8. Sketch a section and centerline. Click 9. Select a quilt to trim. 10. The system revolves a section to intersect the selected quilt. Spin the model to see the feature in a 3D view. 11. To verify how the quilt will be trimmed, click . to exit Sketcher.

12. To change the default angle option, click the appropriate angle icon on the dialog bar. on the dialog bar to 13. To change the portion of the quilt to be removed, click the left of the Quilt collector. Notice that the arrow that lies within the sketching plane points to the side that will be removed. Click modes: o o o Remove Side 1 Remove Side 2 Keep both sides to toggle between three

Tip: Alternatively, you can change the portion of the quilt to be removed by right-clicking the feature and clicking Flip Material Side on the shortcut menu. 14. If both sides are kept, you must select the side that will inherit the original quilt id by clicking (located to the right of the Quilt collector).

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15. To verify the feature, click

. .

16. If you are satisfied with the geometry you created, click

Making Changes to a Revolved Feature
With the Revolve tool, you can switch between different feature options while creating the feature. You can also edit the feature after it has been created using one of the editing tools: • • • Edit Definition—Redefine the feature. Edit References—Change the existing references by replacing them with new. Edit—Modify feature dimensions.

Note: When you redefine the feature type from solid to surface or vice versa, these changes are not propagated to the dependent copies of that feature. Using Direct Section Edit You can access a feature section in the Model Tree and make changes to the section without entering the feature Edit mode. This lets you work directly with the section and placement references without opening the Revolve tool. To edit a section from the Model Tree: 1. Click the feature icon in the Model Tree. in the Model Tree. The section subnode ( ) appears

2. Right-click the section subnode and choose one of the options: o o Edit—Modify the section dimensions. Edit Definition—Modify the section placement and the section geometry.

Redefining a Copied Feature If you edit a section while redefining a copied revolved feature, the redefined feature is no longer associative with the original feature.

Variable Section Sweep
About the Variable Section Sweep Feature
With the Variable Section Sweep feature, you can create a solid or surface feature. You add or remove material while sweeping a section along one or more selected trajectories by controlling the section’s orientation, rotation, and geometry. You can create a sweep using a constant section or a variable section. • Variable Section—Constrains the sketch entities to other trajectories (pivot plane or existing geometry) or use section relations with the “trajpar” parameter

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to make the sketch variable. The references to which the sketch is constrained changes the shape of the section. Also, defining the dimensioning scheme by a graph or relations (with trajpar) makes the sketch variable. Sketch regenerates at points along the trajectory and updates its shape accordingly. • Constant Section—Sketch does not change its shape as its being swept along the trajectories. Only orientation of the frame on which the section lies changes.

The main components of the variable section sweep tool are the section trajectories. The sketched section sits on a frame that is attached to the Origin trajectory and moves along its length to create geometry. The Origin trajectory, along with the other trajectories and other references such as the planes, axes, edges, or an axis of the coordinate system define the orientation of the section along the sweep. The frame is essentially a coordinate system that slides along the origin trajectory and carries with itself the section to be swept. Axes of the coordinate system are defined by auxiliary trajectories and other references. The Frame is important because it determines the orientation of the sketch as it is being moved along the origin trajectory. The Frame is oriented by additional constraints and references such as the Normal to Trajectory, Normal to Projection, and the Constant Normal Direction (along an axis, edge, or plane). Pro/ENGINEER places the sketched section in a certain orientation with respect to these references and attaches it to a coordinate system that moves along the Origin trajectory and sweeps the section. When creating cut, trim, or thin features, use the arrows in the graphic window to indicate the direction of the tool operation.

About the Variable Section Sweep User Interface
The Variable Section Sweep user interface consists of the following items: Feature icon Dialog bar Slide-up panels Shortcut menus

Feature Icon
To access the Variable Section Sweep tool, click Insert > Variable Section Sweep. in the Feature toolbar or click

Dialog Bar
The Variable Section Sweep dialog bar consists of the following elements: Solid—Sweep as solid. Surface—Sweep as a surface.

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Open the internal section sketcher to create or edit sweep section. Solid or Surface Cut. Thin Protrusion, Thin Solid or Surface Cut. Change the direction of the operation to add or remove material. Most recently used value box—Type or select a thickness value. Trim quilt box—Contains quilt references you selected to be trimmed. Note: A flip button appears after the trim quilt collector if you decide to keep both sides of the quilt after the trim operation. Use the flip button to specify which side retains or inherits the quilt ID from the trim quilt in the collector.

Slide-up Panels
The Variable Section Sweep dashboard displays the following slide-up panels: • References o Trajectories Collector—Displays the trajectory that you selected as the origin and allows you to specify types of trajectories.

Details—Opens the Chain dialog box so you can modify the chain properties. o Section Plane Control—Determines how the section plane is oriented.

Normal to Trajectory—Moving frame is always normal to a specified trajectory. Normal to Projection—Y axis of moving frame is parallel to a specified direction and Z axis is tangent to the projection of the original trajectory along the specified direction. The direction reference collector allows you to add or delete references. Constant Normal Direction—Z axis of moving frame is parallel to a specified direction. The direction reference collector allows you to add or delete references. o Horizontal/Vertical Control—Determines how the frame rotation around the sketch plane's normal is controlled along the variable section sweep.

Automatic—The section plane is automatically oriented in the XY direction. Pro/ENGINEER calculates the direction of the x-vector such that the swept geometry is minimally twisted. Automatic is the default for an origin trajectory without any referenced surfaces. The direction reference collector allows you to define the initial section or frame x-axis orientation at the start of the sweep. Sometimes it is necessary to specify the X-axis direction, for example, for straight line trajectories or trajectories that have a straight segment at the start. Normal to Surface—Y-axis of the section plane is normal to the surface on which the Origin trajectory lies. This is the default option when the Origin trajectory reference is a curve on surface, one sided edge of a surface, two sided

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edge of surface or solid edge, curve created though intersection of surfaces, or two projection curves. Next allows you to move to the next normal surface. X-Trajectory—X-axis of the section plane passes through the intersection point of the specified X-trajectory and the section plane along the sweep. • Options—Select variable or constant sweeps. Variable Section—Constrains the sketch entities to other trajectories (pivot plane or existing geometry) or use section relations with the “trajpar” parameter to make the sketch variable. The references to which the sketch is constrained changes the shape of the section. Also, defining the dimensioning scheme by a graph or relations (with trajpar) makes the sketch variable. Sketch regenerates at points along the trajectory and updates its shape accordingly. Constant Section—Sketch does not change its shape as its being swept along the trajectories. Only orientation of the frame on which the section lies changes. Cap ends check box—Add capped ends to the sweep. Note that you must select a surface reference with a closed section to use this option. Merge ends check box—Merge the ends of the sweep. There must be a solid surface at the ends of the sweep in order to perform a merge. Additionally, the sweep must have Constant Section selected with a single planar trajectory. Sketch want to point of Sketch • placement point—Specify the point on the Origin Trajectory where you sketch the section. The start point of the sweep is not affected. The start the sweep is used as the default location where you sketch the section if placement point is empty.

Tangency—Selection and control of surfaces with tangent trajectories. None—Disable the tangent trajectory. Side 1—Sweep section contains a center line tangent to surfaces on side 1 of the trajectory. Side 2—Sweep section a contains center line tangent to surfaces on side 2 of the trajectory. Selected—Manually specify surfaces for tangent center lines in the sweep section.

Properties—Rename the sweep feature or view information about the sweep feature in the Pro/ENGINEER embedded browser.

Shortcut Menus
In the graphics window, right-click for the Variable Section Sweep shortcut menu commands: • • Trajectory—Show and select the trajectory use for the variable section sweep. Start X Direction—Select a reference to define the initial section x-axis direction.

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Placement Point—Select a datum point along the origin trajectory for sketch placement. Clear—Clear any active collector. You cannot clear the Origin Trajectory reference or Normal, X, and Tangent trajectories. Normal to Trajectory—Moving frame is always normal to a specified trajectory. Normal to Projection—Y axis of moving frame is parallel to a specified direction and Z axis is tangent to the projection of the original trajectory along the specified direction. Constant Normal Direction—Z axis of moving frame is parallel to a specified direction. Automatic—The section plane is automatically oriented in the XY direction. Sketch—Open the internal section sketcher. Variable Section—Specify that the shape of the section can be changed as it is swept along the trajectory. Constant Section—Specify that the section shape does not change as it is swept along the trajectory. Remove—Remove a reference for the selected Trajectories collector. You cannot remove the Origin Trajectory reference. However, you can replace it by selecting a new Origin Trajectory reference in the graphics window. Next Surface—Move to the next normal surface.

• • • • • •

To Create a Variable Section Sweep
1. Click or Insert > Variable Section Sweep. The dashboard appears.

2. Click one of the following using the variable section sweep to create a: o o (default) surface solid

to use the Thin Trim options. These options are only available when 3. Click trimming a quilt or creating a solid protrusion and cut. 4. Select a trajectory to be used for the variable section sweep. Note: You can also select the trajectory or trajectories before using Insert > Variable Section Sweep. Use CTRL to select multiple trajectories. Use SHIFT to select multiple entities in a chain. 5. Click Options and specify the following: • Click Variable Section to specify that the shape of the section can be changed as it is swept along the trajectory

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or • • • Click Constant Section to specify that the section shape does not change as it is swept along the trajectory. Click the Cap ends check box to create the swept geometry with a capped ended surface. Click the Merge ends check box to merge geometry with the solid surface at the ends of the sweep. Note that there must be a solid surface at the ends of the sweep in order to perform a merge. There must be a solid surface at the ends of the sweep in order to perform a merge. Additionally, the sweep must have Constant Section selected with a single planar trajectory. Click inside the Sketch placement point box and select a point on the Origin Trajectory where you want to sketch the section. The start point of the sweep is not affected. The start point of the sweep is used as the default location where you sketch the section if Sketch placement point is empty.

6. Click References. 7. Under Trajectories, Pro/ENGINEER displays the trajectory that you selected as the origin trajectory. The selected trajectory is highlighted in red in the graphics window. Select another trajectory or select multiple trajectories using the CTRL key. Note: Right-click and select Remove to remove the trajectories for creating a variable section sweep. This is valid for all the trajectories except the Origin trajectory. Also, to remove trajectories selected as X-trajectory or Normal trajectory, clear the check boxes to remove the attributes for these and then remove the trajectory. You cannot replace or remove trajectories where tangent references exist. 8. Under Section plane control, the option that you select determines how the section plane is oriented, that is the Z direction of the sweeping coordinate system. Select one of the following from the list: • Normal to trajectory—Section plane is normal to the selected trajectory. This is the default for variable section sweep. If you select this option and Automatic horizontal and vertical control, specify XDirection reference at Start. You can select any datum plane or a datum curve, linear edges, or an individual axis of a coordinate system. Normal to projection—Section plane is normal to the projection of the Origin trajectory along a specified direction reference. If you select this option, select a Direction reference for the projection. To . If you selected an axis of the reverse the direction of the reference, click coordinate system as the reference, to select the next axis, click Next. • Constant normal direction—Section plane normal vector is parallel to the direction reference that you select.

• •

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If you select this option, select Direction reference for the projection. To reverse the direction of the reference, click .

• •

An arrow at the sketch placement point indicates the current direction for section plane control. The Horizontal direction for the section is decided by “Automatic“ orientation or the X Direction reference at Start. You can select any datum plane or a datum curve, linear edges, or an individual axis of a coordinate system.

9. Under Horizontal/Vertical control the option that you select determines how the section plane (the XY axis of the sweeping coordinate system) is oriented along the variable section sweep. Select one of the following from the list: • Normal to surface—Y-axis of the section plane is normal to the surface on which the Origin trajectory lies. This is the default option when the Origin trajectory reference is a curve on surface, one sided edge of a surface, two sided edge of surface or solid edge, curve created though intersection of surfaces, or two projection curves. Automatic—The section plane is automatically oriented in the XY direction. SURFACE calculates the direction of the x-vector such that the swept geometry is minimally twisted. For an Origin trajectory without any referenced surfaces, Automatic is the default.

Note: You cannot orient the sketched section for Automatic for straight edges unless they are sketched and X Direction reference at Start is specified. • X-Trajectory—X-axis of the section plane passes through the intersection point of the specified X-trajectory and the section plane along the sweep. to open Sketcher and sketch the section for sweeping along the to exit sketcher.

10. Click

selected trajectories. Click

Note: If Pro/ENGINEER does not start Sketcher, it means that the references chosen cannot successfully orient the sketch plane. 11. Click to preview geometry or click to complete the feature.

Note: If Pro/ENGINEER does not display the preview geometry, it means that the geometry cannot be constructed.

About Tangent Trajectories
When you assign a trajectory to be a tangent trajectory, Pro/ENGINEER adds a centerline to the sweep section's sketch. This centerline is tangent to the neighboring surfaces at the intersection point of the trajectory and the sketch plane. The tangency is maintained as you sweep the section. Hence, the angle of the centerline changes depending on the location of the section and the neighboring surfaces.

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When you select a sketch entity to be tangent to the centerline, you can make the resultant sweep geometry to be tangent to the surfaces adjacent to the trajectory.

About Specifying the Variable Section Sweep Trajectories
The Variable Section Sweep tool can have various types of trajectories such as: • • • • Origin trajectory Normal trajectory X-Trajectory Tangent Trajectory

To select and change the type of a trajectory, click References from the dashboard. Under Trajectories, the selected trajectories are listed. You can change the type of the selected trajectories as follows: • • • Click the X check box next to a trajectory to make that trajectory an XTrajectory. The trajectory that you select first cannot be the X-trajectory. Click the N check box next to a trajectory to make that trajectory a normal trajectory. Click the T check box next to a trajectory to make that trajectory a tangent trajectory.

Note: It is a good practice to keep the origin trajectory as the Normal trajectory. In some cases if the normal trajectory geometry conflicts with the flow of the sweep frame along the original trajectory, the section plane does not get oriented. • When one or more tangent surfaces exist for the trajectory, the T check box is selected. When there are two tangent surfaces, change the tangency condition for the trajectory, click Next.

Notes: • • • • • • All trajectories other than the Origin trajectory are auxiliary trajectories by default until you click the T, N, or X check boxes. Only one trajectory can be an X-Trajectory Only one trajectory can be a Normal trajectory. The same trajectory can be Normal and X-Trajectory at the same time. Any trajectory with a neighbouring surface can be a Tangent trajectory. You cannot remove the Origin trajectory. However, you can replace the Origin trajectory.

Workflow for Variable Section Sweeps
The following is the basic workflow for using using the Variable Section Sweep Tool: 1. Select the origin trajectory. 120

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2. Open the Variable Section Sweep tool. 3. Add trajectories as required. 4. Specify the section plane and the horizontal and vertical direction controls. 5. Sketch a section for sweeping. 6. Preview geometry and complete the feature.

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Workflow for a Normal Trajectory
1. Select the origin trajectory. 2. Enter the Variable Section Sweep tool. 3. Select additional trajectory. 4. Make the additional trajectory a normal trajectory. 5. Preview updates to the geometry as the frame changes. 6. Sketch a section for sweeping. Note: It is good practice to keep the origin trajectory as the normal trajectory. In some cases, if normal trajectory geometry conflicts with the flow of the sweep frame along the original trajectory, the section plane does not get oriented.

Workflow for Constant Section
1. Select the origin trajectory. 2. Open the Variable Section Sweep tool. The origin trajectory is in the first row of the Trajectories collector and the N checkbox is selected. 3. Assuming the trajectory has a neighboring surface, Normal to trajectory and Normal to Surface are selected. If the trajectory has no neighboring surface, Automatic is selected. 4. Set the Constant section in the Options slide-up panel. 5. Sketch a section for sweeping. 6. Preview geometry and complete the feature.

Workflow for Section Plane at a Constant Normal Direction
1. Select the origin trajectory. 2. Open the Variable Section Sweep tool. 3. Change the Section Plane Control to Constant Normal Direction and select a direction reference. 4. Sketch a section for sweeping. 5. Preview geometry and complete the feature.

Workflow for Sweeping with Default Settings - X-Trajectory
1. Select the origin trajectory. 2. Enter the Variable Section Sweep tool. 3. Preview geometry.

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4. Select additional trajectory 5. Make the additional trajectory an x-trajectory 6. Change the Horizontal/Vertical control to x-trajectory. 7. Sketch a section for sweeping. 8. Preview geometry and complete the feature. Note: If the section plane's horizontal direction is changed drastically and the section is too constrained (for example, section entities aligned to some trajectory intersection point), this might cause a loss of references. Start Sketcher to resolve the references.

Workflow for the Section Plane Normal to the Trajectory Projection
1. Sketch or select the origin trajectory. 2. Enter the Variable Section Sweep tool. 3. Change the Section plane control to Normal to projection and select a direction reference. 4. Sketch a section for sweeping. 5. Preview geometry and complete the feature.

To Create a Variable Section Sweep Using Relations
You can use section relations with the trajpar parameter to make the sketch variable. The references to which the sketch is constrained changes the shape of the section. Also, defining the dimensioning scheme by a graph or relations (with trajpar) makes the sketch variable. Sketch regenerates at points along the trajectory and updates its shape accordingly. 1. Click or Insert > Variable Section Sweep. The dashboard appears. to create a solid using a variable

2. Click (default) to create a surface or section sweep.

3. Select a trajectory to be used for the variable section sweep. Note: You can also select the trajectory or trajectories before using Insert > Variable Section Sweep. Press CTRL to select multiple trajectories. Use SHIFT to select multiple entities in a chain. 4. Specify the variable section option (default). 5. Specify variable section sweep references. 6. Click to open Sketcher and sketch the section for sweeping along the selected trajectories. 123

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7. Click Tools > Relations. The Relations dialog box opens. 8. Type section relations with the trajpar parameter to make the sketch variable. 9. Click to exit sketcher.

Example: Using Relations to Create a Variable Section Sweep
1. Click or Insert > Variable Section Sweep. The dashboard appears. to create a solid using a variable

2. Click (default) to create a surface or section sweep.

3. Select a trajectory to be used for the variable section sweep. Note: You can also select the trajectory or trajectories before using Insert > Variable Section Sweep. Use CTRL to select multiple trajectories. Use SHIFT to select multiple entities in a chain. 4. Specify a variable section option. 5. Specify variable section sweep references. 6. Click to open Sketcher and sketch a circle for sweeping along the selected trajectories. 7. Click Tools > Relations. The Relations dialog box opens. 8. Type the following section relations with the trajpar parameter to make the sketch variable: sd3=50*(1+2*trajpar) Note: sd3 is an example of the name assigned to the circle by Pro/ENGINEER. 9. Click OK to close the Relations dialog box. to exit sketcher. The sweep contains the characteristics specified by the 10. Click established options and relations.

Section Plane Orientation Normal to Trajectory (Automatic)
The Z axis is tangent at all points to the trajectory. X and Y are calculated by Pro/ENGINEER along the trajectory. Note that you can orient the X direction at the start as an option.

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Normal to Trajectory (Automatic): Start X Direction
The Z axis is tangent at all points to the origin trajectory. You can select the X direction at the start to sketch the section in a preferred orientation. For some trajectories, for example, some straight lines (or non sketched lines), there is no intrinsic default orientation. Therefore, you must select an X direction at the start. Pro/ENGINEER cannot automatically set the initial X axis position. The X-Y direction is determined by the projection of the direction defined by the reference along the Z axis.

1. Straight datum curve selected as an X direction reference and projected on the sketch plane along the Z axis.

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Normal to Trajectory - Normal to Surface
The Z axis is tangent at all points to the origin trajectory. The Y direction is set by the surface normal direction. Therefore, the X axis is determined by the intersection of the section plane and the surface tangent plane at each point.

Normal to Trajectory - X Trajectory
The positive X axis goes through the intersection of the section plane (normal to the tangent at the point) and the X trajectory.

1. Origin Trajectory 2. X Trajectory

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Normal to Other Trajectory (Automatic)
The normal direction is set to a trajectory other than the origin trajectory. The Z axis is parallel to the tangent of the normal trajectory. The X-Y axis is calculated by the system along the trajectory. You can select the X direction at the start to sketch the section in a preferred orientation.

1. Origin Trajectory 2. Other Trajectory

Normal to Projection
The Z axis is tangent at all points to the projected curve along the projection direction. The Y axis of the section plane is always normal to the defined referenced plane.

1. Projection Direction Reference 2. Projected Curve 3. Origin Trajectory

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Constant Normal (Automatic)
The Z axis is along the direction defined by the constant normal reference. X and Y are calculated by Pro/ENGINEER along the trajectory. For some trajectories, for example, some straight lines (or non sketched lines), there is no intrinsic default orientation. Therefore, you must select an X direction at the start. Pro/ENGINEER cannot automatically set the X axis.

1. Constant Normal Reference 2. Origin Trajectory

Constant Normal (X Trajectory)
The Z axis is along the direction defined by the constant normal reference. The X axis goes through the intersection of the section plane (normal to the tangent at the point) and the X trajectory.

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Constant Normal (Automatic) - Start X Direction
The Z axis is along the direction defined by the constant normal reference. The X and Y orientation is determined by the projection of the direction defined by the reference along the Z axis. 1. Constant Normal Reference 2. Origin Trajectory 3. Straight datum curve selected as an X direction reference. Projected on a sketch plane along the Z axis.

Constant Normal (Normal to Surface)
The Z axis is along the direction defined by the constant normal reference. The Y direction is set by the projection of the surface normal in the constant normal direction.

1. Constant Normal Plane 2. Projected surface is normal along the constant normal reference. 3. Actual surface normal direction. 4. Origin Trajectory

Blends
About Blends
A blended feature consists of a series of at least two planar sections that Pro/ENGINEER joins together at their edges with transitional surfaces to form a continuous feature.

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Blend Types
• • Parallel—All blend sections lie on parallel planes in one section sketch. Rotational—Blend sections are rotated about the Y-axis, up to a maximum of 120 degrees. Each section is sketched individually and aligned using the coordinate system of the section. General—Sections of a general blend can be rotated about and translated along the X-, Y-, and Z-axes. Each section is sketched individually, and aligned using the coordinate system of the section.

To Create a Blend (basic)
1. Click Insert > Blend and then click the type of blend you want. The BLEND OPTS menu appears. 2. Click one of the following commands from the BLEND OPTS menu, then click Done. o o Parallel—All blend sections lie on parallel planes in one section sketch. Rotational—The blend sections are rotated about the Y-axis, up to a maximum of 120°. Each section is sketched individually and aligned using the coordinate system of the section. General—The sections of a general blend can be rotated about and translated along the X-, Y-, and Z-axes. Each section is sketched individually and aligned using the coordinate system of the section. Regular Sec—The feature uses the sketching plane. Project Sec—The feature uses the projection of the section on the selected surface. This option is used for parallel blends only. Select Sec—Select section entities. This option is not available for parallel blends. Sketch Sec—Sketch section entities.

o

o o o o

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Example: Different Blend Geometries
Starting Points and Blend Shape

1 Start points Smooth Blend

Straight Blend

Modifying Blends
Consider the following when modifying blends: • Pro/ENGINEER displays general blend sections, other than the first section, in a subwindow.

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You can modify rotation angles for all blend sections except the first. The first section is fixed in the sketching plane. To move the complete blend feature at one time, modify the location of the coordinate system relative to the part. If you did not use the coordinate system to locate the dimensions, use Redefine > Scheme to change the dimensioning scheme of the coordinate system.

To Add a Blend Vertex
1. Choose Adv Geometry from the GEOMETRY menu in Sketcher. 2. Choose Blend Vertex from the ADV GEOMETRY menu. 3. Select the vertex of an existing geometry entity. A circle will be placed there. More than one blend vertex can be created at the same point. Each additional vertex will create a concentric circle of increasing diameter.

Using a Blend Vertex
With the exception of capping a blend, each section of a blend must always contain the same number of entities. For sections that do not have enough geometric entities, you can add blend vertices. Each blend vertex adds one entity to the section. However, a blend surface can be made to disappear using a blend vertex on a sketched or selected section. A blend vertex acts as a terminator for the corresponding surface of the blend, but is counted in the total number of entities for a section. You can use a blend vertex in either a straight or smooth blend (including parallel smooth blends), but only in the first or last section.

Example: Adding a Blend Vertex

To Import a Blend
1. Click ADV FEAT OPT > From File. 2. Select or create a coordinate system to locate the imported blend data. 3. Enter the file name. The file's extension must be .ibl. 132

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Importing a Blend Feature
Blends can be created by reading in data points from an ASCII file. The data file defines the type of blend, as well as the Cartesian coordinates of all the blend section points. All blend section points are located relative to a single coordinate system.

Notes on Creating Blends:
• • Two points in a curve define a line; more than two points define a spline. The endpoint of one curve and the start point of the next curve must be coincident. For closed sections, this is true for the last point of the last curve and the first point of the first curve. There can be only one closed curve for each section, and that curve must consist of at least two segments. When the points that are used to create a blend section from a file do not all lie on a plane, the system creates the best fit plane and projects the points down onto the plane.

Modifying an Imported Blend
To modify the blend created from the imported data, choose Modify and edit the blend data file. This creates a new file, feat_#.ibl, in your current working directory. Modifications of a blend feature do not affect the original file from which it was created.

Creating a Blend from Imported Curves
If you are importing data points from a measuring device, you should import them as curves first to insure smoothness. You can then make the imported curves smooth and create a blended surface from the smoothed curves.

Blend File Format
The imported blend data file, with the file extension .ibl, is in the following format. Comments are contained between /* and */

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Example: Importing Blend File
Sample Blend File

The following figure shows the resulting imported blend.

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Sections in Sketch-Based Features
About Sections in Sketch-based Features
Sketch-based features use a Sketch feature (sketched datum curve) to define their shape, dimensions, and general placement. You use a Sketch feature to create sketch-based features in the following ways: • Create an Internal Section—You can create an internal section (also known as a section) while the sketch-based feature tool is open. Using the Sketch dialog box, you use Sketcher to sketch the datum curve, thus defining the internal section. This internal section is independent and is not associative with any Sketch features. So, the changes that you make to an independent internal section affect only the sketch-based feature using that internal section. This independence is further indicated by a unique name that is assigned to each independent internal section. Select a Sketch Feature—You can select an existing Sketch feature (sketched datum curve) to create a sketch-based feature. The Sketch feature can reside in the current model or in a different model. You can also use a Sketch feature that has already been used as a reference for a different sketch-based feature. After you create a sketch-based feature by selecting a Sketch feature, Pro/ENGINEER uses the Sketch feature placement, orientation, and sketch references to create a dependent internal section for the sketch-based feature. This dependent internal section is fully associative with the parent (referenced) Sketch feature. It also shares its name with the parent. So, if you redefine the parent Sketch feature, all dependent internal sections (children) that reference this Sketch feature will dynamically change. This changes the respective sketchbased features. Conversely, if you redefine a dependent internal section, Pro/ENGINEER automatically rolls back to the parent Sketch feature enabling you to redefine it.

Valid and Invalid Sections
Sketch-based features may have requirements such as a closed loop section (sketched datum curve), a vertical axis, or a coordinate system. Pro/ENGINEER tracks these feature-specific requirements against the section that you are using. If the section does not satisfy these requirements, Pro/ENGINEER does one of the following: • • If you are creating an independent section, Pro/ENGINEER warns you that the section is invalid. If you are creating a dependent section by attempting to select an invalid Sketch feature, the Pro/ENGINEER selection filters will prohibit the Sketch feature from being selected.

Note: • If you delete a parent Sketch feature (one that is being used as a reference for a dependent section), Pro/ENGINEER displays a warning and provides options for

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you to resolve the broken parent-child relationships resulting from deleting a parent feature. • You can use sketch-based features from previous Pro/ENGINEER releases. However, if an older sketch-based feature cannot be fully referenced, the Section Selection dialog box opens warning you that Use Edge technology will be used to acquire the necessary sketch geometry for the internal section.

About the Section User Interface
The Section user interface consists of: Section Icons Dialog boxes Dialog bar Slide-up panels Shortcut menus

Section Icons
Sections for sketch-based features use the following Model Tree icons: • • • —Indicates a Sketch feature (sketched datum curve) that has not being referenced by a section. —Indicates a Sketch feature that is being referenced by a section. —Indicates a section for a sketched-based feature. Note that the section is always (indented) within the sketch-based feature. You may need to expand the sketch-based feature to view the section.

Dialog Boxes
Pro/ENGINEER uses the following dialog boxes that inform you about a section or enable you to create or redefine a section for a sketch-based feature: • Sketch—Enables you to use Sketcher to create an independent section or to redefine an independent or a dependent section. Refer to About Sketched Datum Curves UI topic in the Datum Curves book for UI descriptions. Section Selection—Opens if you are using a Sketch feature to create a sketchbased feature. The following two types of Section Selection dialog boxes can open: o Warns that you have selected a Sketch feature that will replace the existing section. If you click OK, Pro/ENGINEER deletes the existing section and creates a new section based on the data from the selected Sketch feature. Note that this warning displays only if you are working with a sketch-based feature that uses an independent section and you select a (parent) Sketch feature (in the Model Tree) to use as the new reference for the section. This results in a dependent section. 137

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Warns that you have selected a Sketch feature that cannot be referenced fully. In this case, Pro/ENGINEER uses Use Edge technology to acquire the necessary sketch geometry for the section. This situation may occur if you are using sketch-based features from previous Pro/ENGINEER releases.

Unlink—Informs that you are about to break the association between the dependent section and the parent Sketch feature. After you click OK, Pro/ENGINEER copies the references from the parent Sketch feature and creates an independent section. You can then change this section without changing the Sketch feature. You must click Unlink from the slide-up panel to display this dialog box.

Dialog Bar
In some sketch-based feature tools such as Fill, Pattern, and Intersect, Pro/ENGINEER displays the following section UI element on the dialog bar: Sketch collector—Indicates that a valid Sketch feature has been selected for the sketch-based feature. You can use Remove from the shortcut menu (pointer in the collector) to remove the indicator. The corresponding section reference in the slide-up panel collector is also removed.

Slide-Up Panels
You can use the following sketch-based feature slide-up panels to redefine sections or to obtain section and parent Sketch feature information. Remember that the sketch-based feature tool must be open to access slide-up panels.

Placement, Reference, or Options slide-up panels
• Sketch collector—Contains the section references for the sketch-based feature. The collector can contain dependent or independent sections. Note that dependent sections have the same name as its parent Sketch feature. Pro/ENGINEER assigns unique names to independent sections. The No Items label in the collector indicates that the sketch-based feature tool was opened without defining a section. You can use the following shortcut menu command from within the Sketch collector: Remove—Removes the section from the collector and removes the corresponding indicator from the dialog bar collector in tools that display this dialog bar collector. The following options are available only under certain conditions: • Define button—Opens the Sketch dialog box enabling you to use Sketcher to define an independent section. Note that Define is available only if the Sketch collector is empty (no section defined or sketch selected). You can also use the Define Internal Sketch shortcut menu command from the graphics window.

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Edit button—Opens the Sketch dialog box enabling you to use Sketcher to redefine the independent section. Note that Edit is available only for sketchbased features that use an independent section. If you want to edit a dependent section, you can either edit the parent sketch or break the section dependency by using Unlink. You can also use the Edit Internal Sketch shortcut menu command from the graphics window. Unlink button—Breaks the association between the dependent section and the parent Sketch feature. Pro/ENGINEER copies the Sketch feature references to the new independent section. Note that Unlink is available only if the sketch-based feature uses a dependent section.

Properties slide-up panel
—Provides detailed sketch-based feature information in the Pro/ENGINEER browser. The following tables pertain to sections: o Parents—Contains the parent Sketch feature name. Note that a parent Sketch feature is listed only for sketch-based features that use dependent sections. If you open a sketch-based feature tool and create an independent section, this table will not list a parent Sketch feature because one simply does not exist. Children—Lists the child features. This includes child sketch-based features. Dependent sections are not listed here. Feature Element Data—Indicates if the section is defined or not. Section Data—Lists the dependent or independent section name.

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Shortcut Menus
You can use shortcut menu commands to quickly perform an action. Different sketch-based feature section shortcut menu commands appear depending on the following conditions: • A sketch-based feature tool is open and you place your pointer anywhere in the graphics window except over a handle, and right-click. Pro/ENGINEER provides the following section shortcut menu command: o o Define Internal Sketch—Opens the Sketch dialog box enabling you to use Sketcher to define an independent section. Edit Internal Sketch—Opens the Sketch dialog box enabling you to use Sketcher to redefine an independent section. Note that the sketch-based feature tool must be open and you must be working with an independent section.

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A sketch-based feature tool is closed and you select a section from the Model Tree and right-click. Pro/ENGINEER provides the following section shortcut menu commands:

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Edit—Changes only the section dimensions for the sketch based feature. Note that for dependent sections, the parent Sketch feature dimensions also changed. Edit Definition—Opens the Sketch dialog box enabling you to redefine the section. Note that for dependent sections, Pro/ENGINEER rolls back to the parent Sketch feature. So, all changes are applied to the parent Sketch feature and then copied to the dependent section.

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Sketch-based Features in the Model Tree
If you create a section or select a parent Sketch feature, the resulting independent or dependent section resides within its respective sketch-based feature. This is illustrated in the table below: Model Tree Description Sketch 2 is the parent Sketch feature to the Fill feature, Fill 1. Notice that the different sketch icon indicating a parent (referenced) Sketch feature. Sketch 1 is not being referenced by a sketchbased feature. Protrusion id 39 uses an independent section (S2D0012). Notice the section name is different. Fill 1 (Fill feature) uses a dependent section (Sketch 2) copied from the parent Sketch feature having the same name.

Customizing the Model Tree Display For Sketch-based Features
As you work with sketch-based features, you may want to view only certain types of Sketch features in the Model Tree. In the Model Tree Items dialog box (in the Model Tree pane, click Settings > Tree Filters) click the General tab. Pro/ENGINEER provides the following Sketch feature check boxes: • • Sketch—Displays or hides all Sketch features that have not been referenced by sketch-based features. Used Sketch—Displays or hides all parent Sketch features. Those Sketch features that have been referenced by sketch-based features.

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To Create a Section
Using this topic, you can create a sketch-based feature that uses an independent section. This section is not associative with any Sketch feature. If you want to create a dependent (associative) section, refer to To Select a Sketch Feature. 1. Open the sketch-based feature tool. The Dashboard appears. 2. Place your pointer in the graphics window, right-click, and select Define Internal Sketch from the shortcut menu. The Sketch dialog box opens. Note that you can also use Define from either the Placement or Reference slide-up panel, depending on the tool used. 3. In the dialog box, define the sketch plane and the sketch orientation, and click Sketch. Sketcher activates and the model orients. 4. In Sketcher, sketch and constrain the desired section. Make sure you include any feature specific requirements, such as a closed loop, vertical axis, or a coordinate system. on the Sketcher toolbar. The sketched5. After the sketch is complete, click based feature tool resumes and preview geometry appears in the graphics window. Notice that an independent section is created and placed in the Sketch collector on the slide-up panel and on the Model Tree (under the new sketched based feature). 6. Continue designing the sketch-based feature as necessary. . Pro/ENGINEER creates the sketch-based feature and 7. After you finish, click the section, and closes the tool. Remember that this section is not associative with any Sketch feature. Tip: • • If you want to undo or redo any or all changes, simply press CTRL+Z or CTRL+Y respectively. You can always identify the section type from the Model Tree. Dependent sections share the same name of the parent Sketch feature. Independent sections have unique names.

To Select a Sketch Feature
Using this topic, you can create a sketch-based feature that uses a dependent section. This section is fully associative with the parent Sketch feature. 1. If you want to select an existing Sketch feature to use as a reference, select one of the following Sketch feature types and then proceed to step 3. Note: The Sketch feature must be valid for the type of sketch-based feature that you want to create. You can use the following types of Sketch features: o Non-parent Sketch feature that is currently in your model (displays in the Model Tree) or that resides in a different model.

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Parent Sketch feature that is currently in your model or that resides in a different model.

2. If you want to create a new Sketch feature, you need to use the Sketch tool ). Refer to To Create a Sketched Datum Curve in the Datum Curves book for ( more information on creating a Sketch feature. Remember that you need to select the new Sketch feature before open the sketch-based feature tool. 3. Open a sketch-based feature tool. Pro/ENGINEER immediately displays preview geometry of the feature and displays the feature in the Model Tree. 4. Continue to define the sketch-based feature. . Pro/ENGINEER creates the sketch-based feature and 5. After you finish, click the section, and closes the tool. This section is dependent and fully associative with the parent Sketch feature. So, if you redefine the section, Pro/ENGINEER rolls back to the parent Sketch feature enabling you to redefine it. Tip: • • If you want to undo or redo any or all changes, simply press CTRL+Z or CTRL+Y respectively. If you want to select a different Sketch feature on-the-fly while working in a sketch-based feature tool, simply select the new Sketch feature from the Model Tree. Pro/ENGINEER dynamically displays preview geometry for the feature. You can always identify the section type from the Model Tree. Dependent sections share the same name of the parent Sketch feature. Independent sections have unique names. You can quickly select geometry and references from the graphics window by using the selection filters. These filters are located in the Filter box at the bottom of the Pro/ENGINEER interface.

To Redefine a Section
A sketch-based feature tool must be closed to redefine a section using this topic. If you want to work within a sketch-based feature tool, see Tip below. 1. With a sketch-based feature tool closed, select the section to redefine in the Model Tree and right-click. The shortcut menu appears. 2. If you want to change only the section dimensions, follow the steps below: o o Click Edit. Pro/ENGINEER displays the section dimensions in the graphic window. Double-click the dimension to redefine and type a new dimension in the box or select a recently used dimension from the list. Pro/ENGINEER dynamically redefines the section to the new dimensions.

3. If you want to redefine the section, follow the steps below:

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Click Edit Definition. Pro/ENGINEER opens the Sketch dialog box. Notice that for dependent sections, Pro/ENGINEER rolls back to the parent Sketch feature in the Model Tree enabling you to redefine the parent feature. In the Sketch dialog box, select the sketch plane and the sketch orientation, and click Sketch. Sketcher opens and orients the model. on the Using Sketcher, redefine the section. After you finish, click Sketcher toolbar. Sketcher closes and the new section is highlighted. Click OK in the Sketch dialog box. Pro/ENGINEER closes the dialog box and displays the feature geometry in the graphics window. The section is also displayed in the Model Tree.

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Note: • • If you want to redefine a dependent section by redefining the parent Sketch feature, refer to To Create a Sketched Datum Curve in the Datum Curves book. When redefining a dependent section, all changes are applied to the parent Sketch feature and then copied to the dependent section.

Tip: • You can redefine the section as you work within a sketch-based feature tool. Simply, click Edit from the References slide-up panel to use Sketcher. You can also use Edit Internal Sketch from the shortcut menu. Remember that if you are redefining a dependent section, you must click Unlink from the slide-up panel to break the association with the parent Sketch feature. Otherwise, Edit will not be available and you must exit the tool to redefine the section. You can use sketch-based features from previous Pro/ENGINEER releases. However, if an older sketch-based feature cannot be fully referenced, the Section Selection dialog box opens warning you that Use Edge technology will be used to acquire the necessary sketch geometry for the section. To apply the new dimensions to the feature geometry, simply regenerate the feature (Edit > Regenerate). If you want to undo or redo any or all changes, simply press CTRL+Z or CTRL+Y respectively. You can double-click a section (in the graphics window) to quickly display its dimensions. You can quickly select geometry and references from the graphics window by using the selection filters. These filters are located in the Filter box at the bottom of the Pro/ENGINEER interface.

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To Make a Dependent Section Independent
Dependent sections are fully associative with their parent Sketch feature. If you redefine a dependent section, Pro/ENGINEER rolls back enabling you to make all changes to the parent Sketch feature. Pro/ENGINEER then links the dependent section to the parent Sketch feature. Because you can use previously referenced Sketch features as references for other sketch-based features, you may not want to change the parent Sketch feature. If this case arises, you need to make the dependent section independent in order to redefine your sketch-based feature. 1. From the graphics window or from the Model Tree, select a sketch-based feature that uses a dependent section, and right-click. 2. Click Edit Definition from the shortcut menu. Pro/ENGINEER opens the sketchbased feature tool and highlights the feature. 3. In the slide-up panel, click Unlink. The Unlink dialog box opens informing you that you are about to break the association between the dependent section and the parent Sketch feature. 4. Click OK. Pro/ENGINEER breaks that association and copies the Sketch feature references to the new independent section. This enables you to use the references as the basis for further redefinition. Notice that the Edit replaces Unlink in the slide-up panel. Note: If you select a Sketch feature as the parent feature to the independent section, the Section Selection dialog box opens to inform you that the selected Sketch feature will replace the independent section. If this occurs, click Cancel. 5. In the slide-up panel, click Edit. The Sketch dialog box opens containing the section references. You can change these references if needed. You can also use the Edit Internal Sketch shortcut menu command from the graphics window. 6. Click Sketch. After Sketcher opens, redefine the section as needed. After you finish, click highlighted. on the Sketcher toolbar. Sketcher closes and the new section is

7. Click OK in the Sketch dialog box. Pro/ENGINEER closes the dialog box and displays the feature preview geometry in the graphics window. 8. Continue to redefine the sketch-based feature as needed. . Pro/ENGINEER redefines the sketch-based feature using 9. When finished, click the new independent section, and closes the tool. Notice that the new independent section is displayed in the Model Tree with a unique name. Tip: • • If you want to undo or redo any or all changes, simply press CTRL+Z or CTRL+Y respectively. You can always identify the section type from the Model Tree. Dependent sections share the same name of the parent Sketch feature. Independent sections have unique names.

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You can quickly select geometry and references from the graphics window by using the selection filters. These filters are located in the Filter box at the bottom of the Pro/ENGINEER interface.

To Delete a Section
Both dependent and independent sections function as the blueprint for a sketchbased feature. The sketch-based feature cannot exist without the section. So, in order to delete the section, you must delete the sketch-based feature. 1. From the graphics window or the Model Tree, select the sketch-based feature to delete. 2. Right-click and select Delete from the shortcut menu. The Delete dialog box opens. 3. If child features exist for the sketch-based feature, click Options. In the Children Handling dialog box, resolve the child feature dependencies. 4. Click OK. Pro/ENGINEER deletes the selected sketch-based feature and its section. Tip: • • If you want to undo or redo any or all changes, simply press CTRL+Z or CTRL+Y respectively. You can quickly select geometry and references from the graphics window by using the selection filters. These filters are located in the Filter box at the bottom of the Pro/ENGINEER interface.

To Delete a Sketch Feature
1. From the graphics window or the Model Tree, select the Sketch feature to delete. 2. Right-click and select Delete from the shortcut menu. The Delete dialog box opens. 3. If the selected Sketch feature is a parent feature to one or more sketch-based features, click Options. In the Children Handling dialog box, resolve the child feature dependencies. 4. Click OK. Pro/ENGINEER deletes the selected Sketch feature. Tip: • • If you want to undo or redo any or all changes, simply press CTRL+Z or CTRL+Y respectively. You can quickly select geometry and references from the graphics window by using the selection filters. These filters are located in the Filter box at the bottom of the Pro/ENGINEER interface.

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To Report Sketch-based Feature Information
1. If you are not working in a sketch-based feature tool, select a sketch-based feature (not a section) from the graphics window or from the Model Tree. Rightclick and select Info > Feature. Proceed to step 3. 2. If you working in a sketch-based tool, click the Properties tab. After the Properties slide-up panel appears, click .

3. The Pro/ENGINEER browser opens providing many tables including the following that pertain to sections: o Parents—Contains the parent Sketch feature name. Note that a parent Sketch feature is listed only for sketch-based features that use dependent sections. If you open a sketch-based feature tool and create an independent section, this table will not list a parent Sketch feature because one simply does not exist.. Children—Lists the children (dependent) features including child sketchbased features. Note that dependent sections are not listed. Feature Element Data—Indicates if the section is defined or is undefined. Section Data—Lists the dependent or independent section name.

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Tip: You can quickly select geometry and references from the graphics window by using the selection filters. These filters are located in the Filter box at the bottom of the Pro/ENGINEER interface.

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Edit Features
Copy and Paste
About Copying and Pasting
You can use the Copy, Paste, and Paste Special commands to duplicate and place features or sets of features, geometry, curves, and edge chains within the same model or across models. Using this functionality, you can: • Create many instances of a feature, a set of features, or geometry, without copying the feature or geometry after each paste operation, as long as the copied feature, feature set, or geometry is available on the clipboard. Copy and paste features between two different models or between two different versions of the same part. Create independent, partially dependent, or fully dependent instances of the original feature or the set of features. Retain or change the references, settings, and dimensions of the original feature in one or all instances of its copy. Create dependent copies and vary the dependency of attributes and elements, such as dimensions, sketches, annotations, references, and parameters.

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If the original set of features is grouped, the copied instances are also automatically grouped, but features that were not grouped previously are not automatically grouped after a copy-paste operation.

Copying to the Clipboard
When you copy a feature or geometry, it is copied to the clipboard and is available for pasting with its references, settings, and dimensions, by default, until another feature is copied to the clipboard. The features in the clipboard retain their original references, settings, and dimensions when you change the references, settings, and dimensions of any one of the instances or all the instances during a multiple paste operation, without the intermittent copy of the feature. Pasting the feature in a different model also does not affect the references, settings, and dimensions of the copied features in the clipboard. Repeated pasting of a copied feature or the cancellation of a paste operation does not clear the copied feature from the clipboard. The copied feature is cleared from the clipboard when a feature operation, such as delete, move, or edit, changes the model. The copied feature is also cleared from the clipboard when the model with the copied feature fails regeneration because of invalid or missing references, enters the Resolve Mode, and you then use the Fix Model option on the RESOLVE FEAT menu to replace references.

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Accessing Copy-Paste Commands
The Copy, Paste, and Paste Special commands are accessible from the Edit menu in the Pro/ENGINEER menu bar. Paste and Paste Special are available only if features are available for pasting in the clipboard. You can also use the tool bar icons ), Paste ( ), and Paste Special ( ). Alternatively, you can for Copy ( invoke the copy and paste functions by using the keyboard shortcuts: • • CTRL+ C—Copies the selected items onto the clipboard. CTRL+ V—Pastes the selected items. The paste user interface depends on whether you are attempting to paste features, geometry, or a chain.

Note: Copy is not available when you select a pattern member. Copy is available only when the pattern header is selected.

Two Methods for Pasting Features
The following are the two workflows for pasting: When you use Edit > Paste, the feature-creation tool opens and allows you to redefine the copied feature. When you use Edit > Paste Special, you can: o Create fully-dependent copies of a feature with their dependency varying on specific elements or attributes of the original feature, such as dimensions, sketch, annotation elements, references, and parameters. Create copies of a feature that are only dependent on the dimensions or the sketch, or both, and the annotation elements. Retain the references of the original feature or replace the original references with new references in the copied instances. Apply move or rotational transformations to the pasted instances.

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About Dependent and Independent Copies
You can create a copy of a feature or a set of features that is dependent or independent from the original feature or feature set. A copied feature that is dependent on the original feature is only dependent on the dimensions and sketch, or both, or is fully dependent on all elements and attributes of the original feature.

Fully-Dependent Copies
When you create a dependent copy within the same model or across models, the references, settings such as constraints, and the dimensions of the copied feature, depend on the original feature or a set of features. The copied instances and the original feature or feature-set are associative with respect to the attributes, parameters, and feature-elements and changes in the instances or the original

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feature or feature-set are associatively reflected in the original feature or feature-set or the copied instances, respectively. When the original feature or feature set is in a different model, the original source model must also be in session for the associative propagation of the changes in the original feature or the copied instances. Fully-Dependent Copies with Varying Dependency You can vary the dependency of certain feature attributes, elements, and parameters of fully-dependent copies. Use the Fully Dependent with options to vary option on the Paste Special dialog box to create fully-dependent copies of the original feature. In addition, you can vary the dependency of the copied features on the feature attributes and elements such as sketches, dimensions, annotations, references, and parameters after pasting the copied features. Note: You cannot redefine a fully-dependent feature.

Copies Dependent on Dimensions
Copied features that are dependent on the original feature can be only dependent on the dimensions or sketch, or both, unlike fully-dependent copies that are dependent on all attributes and elements of the feature, such as the references, parameters, and annotations too. Dimension dependency remains whether the copied is fully dependent on all attributes, elements, and parameters or only on the dimensions or sketch. Use the Dimensions and Annotation Element Details Only option on the Paste Special dialog box to create copied features that are dependent only on the dimensions or the sketch, or both, or the annotation elements of the original features.

Independent Copies
When you create an independent copy, the copied feature is not associative with the original feature. If the original feature is sketch-based, the copied feature also loses its association with the original sketch.

Using Paste About the Paste User Interface for Features
The Paste and Paste Special commands are available only if there are features available for pasting in the clipboard. Using the Edit > Paste command after copying a feature invokes the creation tool of the feature-type that you are trying to paste. For example, if you are trying to paste an extrusion, the extrusion-creation tool opens. If you are pasting a datum feature, the appropriate datum-creation dialog box opens. The dashboard of each feature-creation tool contains a slide-up panel highlighted in red. You must modify the settings of the highlighted slide-up panel to place the pasted feature. You can use the object-action or the action-object method for the paste. 149

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Pasting Multiple Features When copying multiple features, the first feature in the group determines the user interface that opens: • • If the first feature is a dashboard feature, then the feature tool opens for each feature in the group sequentially, so that you can paste the copied feature. If the first feature is a non-dashboard, old style feature, then the Group Elements dialog box opens and you can define all placement references of the copied features on the WHICH REF menu selecting Alternate or Same references.

The copied instances, by default, retain the references, settings, and dimensions of the original feature. While pasting, you can change the references, settings, and dimensions of any one of the copied features or all the copied features in the corresponding feature-creation tool.

To Paste Using the Object-Action Workflow
1. Select a feature to copy. 2. Click Edit > Copy. 3. Select a primary reference, for example, for a hole, select a placement surface. 4. Click Edit > Paste. Note: You must only preselect the primary reference. If you preselect all the references, the feature is pasted with references that are missing. If you have selected the same primary reference as the one used by the original feature, the system places the feature using the same references as the original feature. If you have selected a different primary reference, the system lets you place the feature using new references if the references are valid for the first instance of the paste operation.

Pasting Using the Same or New References
Consider these rules for pasting using the same or new references for the objectaction method of copy and paste. Using Same References The original feature references are used in the following instances: • When you select the same primary reference as the one used for the original feature, the feature is placed using the same references and the pasted instances are identical to the original feature. You can then adjust the placement dimensions as needed. When the references of the copied feature are the same as that of the first pasted instance of the feature, the remaining copied instances are pasted with

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the same references. The references of the copied feature are included in the selection buffer and are displayed in the relevant default active collector. • While pasting features between models too, the original references are used if the pasted features find references in the target model that are the same as the references in the source model.

Replacing References When the original references are replaced by the selected references, the original settings are retained in the following instances: • • The number of references in the selection buffer is the same as the number of references in the original feature. The selected references are of the same type as the references of the original features.

Missing References The feature is pasted without any references in the following instances: • • • The number of references in the selection buffer is not the same as the number of references in the original feature The selected references are not of the same type as the original feature Any of the selected references are not valid and the selection buffer is empty

The missing references are marked by a red dot in the collector. If you select a different valid primary reference, the system uses the new reference, but other references will be missing. Using New References New references are used when the references of the copied feature are not the same as the references of the first pasted instance of the feature, as displayed in the selection buffer and the relevant default active collector of the feature-creation tool. If references for the first instance that is pasted are found valid, then these references which are new, are used for the first instance and all other instances. If the references are not valid for the first instance, then all the references are cleared, and the instances are pasted without any references. Note: When pasting, if you change a reference, and other features are using it, then the new reference is propagated to all features that depend on it. If you change the reference for the second or subsequent instances, then only the instance for which you changed the reference is updated, while other instances are not affected. Skipping References For an action-object method of paste, if you select a reference and the selection buffer is empty, then the new reference is used by the first instance and is skipped by all other instances. 151

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Using Common References If you select a reference that is used by other pasted features, all features that are using this common reference are updated when you paste the feature. Any changes to the common reference is a local change and is not propagated across features.

Copying and Pasting Features
To Copy and Paste a Feature 1. Select the feature that you want to copy. 2. Click Edit > Copy. The feature is copied to the clipboard. 3. Click Edit > Paste. The feature creation tool of the original feature opens. 4. Edit the placement settings as required. 5. Click on the dashboard or OK on the dialog box if the paste item is a datum feature. Pro/ENGINEER places the copied feature according to the references specified. 6. Clear the selection buffer, if required. 7. Click Edit > Paste to copy the feature again. 8. Edit the placement references in the feature-creation tool that opens to place the copied instance of the feature. 9. Repeat steps 3 through 5 to paste the copied feature a number of times and create multiple copies of it. To Copy and Paste Multiple Features 1. Select a set of features you want to copy. 2. Click Edit > Copy. The features are copied to the clipboard. 3. Click Edit > Paste. The feature-creation tool of the original feature opens. 4. Edit the placement settings as you see fit. 5. Click on the dashboard.

6. Repeat steps 4 and 5 for each of the features that you are pasting. 7. When finished with the final feature, click on the dashboard. Pro/ENGINEER places the copied features according to the references specified. To Copy and Paste Between two Different Sources When copying and pasting between two different parts you may encounter a situation where the two different parts use two different systems of measurement 152

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units (one part may be in inches the other in centimeters). Pro/ENGINEER takes this into account when pasting a feature and provides you with several different scaling options. 1. Select the feature you want to copy. 2. Click Edit > Copy. The feature is copied into the clipboard. 3. Open the target model or activate the window with a model in which you want to paste the copied features. 4. Click Edit > Paste. The Scale dialog box opens. 5. Select one of the following options in the Scale dialog box: o Keep dimension values—select to keep the dimension values of the copied feature. For example, a dimension value of 1 will remain 1 regardless of the differing measurement systems. This is the default. Keep feature sizes—select to convert the dimension values of the copied feature to the measurement system used in the window in which you are pasting. For example if the copied feature uses inches as units and the paste window uses centimeters, a dimension value of 1 inch is converted to 2.54 centimeters. Scale by value—select to scale the paste item by a specified value. Type a value in Scaling factor.

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6. Click OK in the Scale dialog box. The feature-creation tool of the feature type you are trying to paste opens. 7. Edit the placement settings as you see fit. 8. Click on the dashboard. Pro/ENGINEER copies the original feature and places it according to the references specified. To Cancel a Paste Operation You can cancel the paste operation any time during the paste process by clicking or the Cancel button on the feature-creation tool. The Cancel Paste dialog box that opens displays the following options that are specific to your requirements, depending on the number of copied instances pasted and the number of features that are available on the clipboard for pasting at the time of the cancellation of the current paste operation: • If the paste operation being canceled is that of a feature that is the only one being pasted, then the Cancel Paste dialog box only asks for the confirmation of the cancel operation. Quit pasting this feature and continue—Cancels the pasting of the current feature and continues with the pasting of the next feature on the clipboard. Select this option when you are pasting two or more features.

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This option is not available when the current feature is the last one to be pasted. • Keep already pasted feature and quit the Paste operation—Keeps the feature that is already pasted and cancels the paste of the current feature or the remaining features on the clipboard. Select this option when you are pasting multiple features or if the current feature is the last one to be pasted. This option is not available when the current feature being pasted is the first one to be pasted. • Remove already pasted features and continue—Cancels the pasting of all features that are pasted so far and continues pasting the remaining features on the clipboard. Select this option when you are pasting multiple features. This option is not available when the current feature is the first or the last feature to be pasted. • Cancel the Paste operation—Cancels the pasting of all features.

Copying and Pasting Surfaces and Curves
About Copying and Pasting Surfaces and Curves Geometry, such as quilts and chains, when copied and pasted, results in the creation of features. You can either use the object-action or the action-object workflow. While pasting the copied geometry, the user interface relevant to the geometry type opens, for example, if you have copied quilts, the dashboard for quilt opens. The paste user interface is slightly different depending on whether you are pasting a surface or a curve. In Copy Surface mode, you can create a quilt directly on top of selected surfaces. The resulting quilt contains surfaces that are the same shape and size as their parent surfaces. In Copy Curve mode, you can create an exact or approximate copy of a selected datum curve. About the Paste User Interface for Surfaces and Curves The Copy Surface and Curve user interface consists of the following: Feature icon Dialog bar Slide-up panels Shortcut menu Feature Icon All copied surfaces and curves are represented in the Model Tree by the icon.

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Dialog Bar • In Copy Surface mode, the dialog bar consists of one collector that contains the Copy reference. You can click the collector to select or replace the Copy reference at any time. In Copy Curve mode, the dialog bar contains the Curve type list. You can select one of the following options: o o Exact—Creates an exact copy of the selected datum curve. Approximate—Creates a datum curve that approximates a chain of tangent curves by a single continuous curvature spline. Note: Approximate curves cannot be created on joint angles greater then 5 degrees. Slide-up Panels In Copy Surface mode, the dashboard displays the following slide-up panels: • References—In the References slide-up panel you can change the copy reference. Click Details to review and modify the surface properties in the Surface Sets dialog box. Options—In the Options slide-up panel you can change the following settings: o o Copy all surfaces as is—Creates an exact copy of the selected surfaces. This is the default. Exclude surfaces and Fill holes—When this command is selected, the following two collectors become active: Exclude surfaces collector—Selects surfaces to exclude from the current copy feature. Fill holes/surfaces collector—Selects holes to fill on the selected surfaces. o Copy Inside boundary—When this command is selected, the Boundary curve collector becomes active. Use this collector to define a boundary containing the surfaces to copy.

Properties—In the Properties slide-up panel, you can o o View information about the current Copy Surface feature in the Pro/ENGINEER browser Rename the Copy Surface feature

In Copy Datum Curve mode, the dashboard displays the following slide-up panels: • References—In the References slide-up panel, you can change the copy reference. Click Details to review and modify the chain properties in the Chain dialog box that opens. Properties—In the Properties slide-up panel, you can

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View information about the current Copy Curve feature in the Pro/ENGINEER browser Rename the Copy Curve feature

Shortcut Menu Right-click to access the shortcut menu with the following commands: Copy Surface Mode • • • Solid Surfaces—Selects individual surfaces to copy on the model. Use the Solid Surfaces command to select all surfaces of a solid object at once. Copy all surfaces as is—Creates an exact copy of the selected surfaces. Exclude surfaces and Fill holes—Copies some of the selected surfaces with an option to fill holes within the surface. This option is useful if you need a refined version of the original surface. Copy Inside boundary—Copies only the surfaces that lie within a boundary. This option is useful if you need to copy only a portion of the original surfaces.

Copy Datum Curve Mode • • Exact—Creates an exact copy of the selected datum curve. Approximate—Creates a datum curve that approximates a chain of tangent curves by a single continuous curvature spline.

To Copy a Surface 1. In the graphics window, select the surface or surfaces to copy. 2. Click Edit > Copy. The selected surfaces are copied to the clipboard. Note: You can also copy the surface by pressing CTRL+C. 3. Click Edit > Paste. The copy surface dashboard opens. Note: You can also paste the surfaces by pressing CTRL+V. 4. Click the button on the dashboard. Pro/ENGINEER creates an exact copy of the selected surfaces. To Copy a Surface Excluding Patches and Holes 1. In the graphics window, select the surface or surfaces to copy. 2. Click Edit > Copy. The selected surfaces are copied to the clipboard. Note: You can also copy the surface by pressing CTRL+C. 3. Click Edit > Paste. The copy surface dashboard opens. Note: You can also paste the surfaces by pressing CTRL+V.

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4. Right-click in the graphics window, and select Exclude surfaces and Fill holes from the shortcut menu. Note: You can also select this command from the Options slide-up panel in the dashboard. 5. Select a closed loop of edges surrounding the hole you want to exclude. 6. Click on the dashboard. Pro/ENGINEER copies the selected surface or surfaces and excludes the specified holes. To Copy Surfaces Inside a Closed Sketched Curve 1. In the graphics window, select the surface or surfaces to copy. 2. Click Edit > Copy. The selected surfaces are copied to the clipboard. Note: You can also copy the surface by pressing CTRL+C. 3. Click Edit > Paste. The copy surface dashboard opens. Note: You can also paste the surfaces by pressing CTRL+V. 4. Right-click in the graphics window, and click Copy Inside boundary from the shortcut menu. Note: Alternatively, you can select this command from the Options slide-up panel in the dashboard. 5. Select a closed curve, or set of curves that will close, that lies on a quilt. 6. Click on the dashboard. Pro/ENGINEER copies the specified inside boundary.

To Convert a Copied Surface to an Inner Boundary Copy 1. Select an existing copied surface in the Model Tree. 2. Right-click the Copy Surface and Curve feature, and click Edit Definition from the shortcut menu. The Copy Surface and Curve tool opens. 3. Click the Options slide-up panel in the dashboard, and click Copy Inside boundary. 4. Select a closed curve, or set of curves that will close, that lies on a quilt. 5. Click on the dashboard. Pro/ENGINEER copies the specified inside boundary.

To Copy Curves or Edges 1. In the graphics window, select the curves or edges to copy. 2. Click Edit > Copy. The selected items are copied to the clipboard. Note: You can also copy the items by pressing CTRL+C. 157

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3. Click Edit > Paste. The copy curves dashboard opens. Note: You can also paste the items by pressing CTRL+V. 4. By default, the curve type is set to Exact. To change the curve type to Approximate, right-click in the graphics window, and click Approximate from the shortcut menu. Alternatively, you can click Approximate from the Curve type list in the dashboard. 5. Click on the dashboard. Pro/ENGINEER copies the specified curve or edge.

Using Paste Special About Paste Special
Using Paste Special provides options that are not possible through Paste for pasting features. To access Paste Special, select a feature and click Edit > Copy and Edit > Paste Special. Clicking Edit > Paste Special opens the Paste Special dialog box with the following options: • Dependent copy—Creates dependent copies of the original feature. The copied features are dependent on the dimensions or the sketch of the original feature or are fully dependent on all attributes, elements, and parameters of the original feature. This option is selected by default. Note: You can create independent copies of the original feature or the feature set if you clear the Dependent copy check box. The following two options of Dependent copy are mutually exclusive: o Fully Dependent with options to vary—Creates copies of the original feature that are fully dependent on all attributes, elements, and parameters of the original feature, but allows you to vary the dependency of dimensions, annotations, parameters, sketches, and references. Set the default_dep_copy_option configuration option to full_dep to make this the default copy option of Dependent copy. When you copy features across models, the Make Fully Dependent copies with options to vary option is available on the Paste Special dialog box instead of Fully Dependent with options to vary. Copied and pasted instances of a feature that are fully dependent on the original feature are identified in the Model Tree by their corresponding labels, for example, Copied Hole 2. o Dimensions and Annotation Element Details Only—Creates copies of the original feature that are dependent on the dimensions or the sketch, or both, or the annotation elements of the original feature. It is the default Dependent copy option.

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Use Make copies dependent on dimensions of original when Dependent copy and its options are not available for some features, such as patterns. Note: Dimensions and Annotation Element Details Only is not available When you copy features across models. • Apply Move/Rotate transformations to copies—Moves the copy by translation or rotation, or both. You can create a fully dependent moved copy of a feature. This option is not available when pasting features across models. This option is valid for all pattern types, including curve patterns and transform patterns, such as direction, axis or fill, but not for group patterns or pattern of patterns. Advanced reference configuration—Pastes the copied features using the original or new references within the same model or across models. Lists references of the original feature and allows you to retain these references or replace them with new references in the pasted feature. It allows you to reroute and replace references while pasting the copied features instead of separately rerouting the references after the copy-paste. Note: Advanced reference configuration is not available for a style feature that is being copied using the Paste Special dialog box.

About Dimension Dependency and Copying Sketch-Based Features
Copied features that are dependent on the original feature may be dependent only on the dimensions or the sketch, or both, of the original feature. You can use the Dimensions and Annotation Element Details Only option on the Paste Special dialog box to set the dependency of the copied features on the dimensions or the sketch. Selecting Dimensions and Annotation Element Details Only makes copied features dependent only with respect to dimensions or the sketch, or both, or the annotation elements of the copied and the original features. All other feature attributes, elements, and parameters of the copied feature are independent whereas fully-dependent copies are also dependent on other attributes and elements of the feature, such as the references, parameters, and annotations, in addition to the dimensions. Alternatively, use Make copies dependent on dimensions of original when Dependent copy and its options are not available for some features, such as patterns. Dimension dependency remains regardless of whether you create fully-dependent instances of the original feature or instances that are dependent only on the dimensions or the sketch of the original feature or whether you copy the feature in the same model or across models. Copied features that are dimension-dependent do not have Copied as part of their corresponding labels in the Model Tree unlike fully-dependent copied features that are identified in the Model Tree by their labels, for example, Copied Hole 2. Like independent copied features and unlike fully-dependent copied features, if you select a dimension-dependent copied feature, and right-click, Copied feature and its

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options are not available because you cannot break the dimension-dependency of the copied feature. Copying Sketched-Based Features When copying sketched-based features, such as extrusions or revolved features, if you create a dependent copy, the copied feature preserves its association with the original sketch. Modifying the sketch dimensions of the copied features with Dimensions and Annotation Element Details Only selected changes the dimensions of the original feature, and vice-versa. That is, modifications made to the original or the copied feature are propagated to the copied or original feature, respectively. You can change or replace the sketches of section-based features in the source model. This change, along with the new dimensions of the replaced sketch, is associatively propagated to the dependent copied features. Note: You can create dependent copies of features with external sketches. But you cannot vary the dependency of the dimensions of the external sketch.

About Varying the Dependency of Pasted Features
You can create dependent copies of features or a set of features and vary their dependency on the original feature or feature set with respect to specific attributes, such as annotations, references, and parameters. After copying the feature or feature set into the same model or across models, you can make these specific feature attributes, elements, and parameters independent of the original feature or source while the copied feature remains dependent. Select Fully Dependent with options to vary on the Paste Special dialog box to set this varying degree of dependency between the copied features and the original feature or source model on attributes such as dimensions, annotations, parameters, and references. After individually editing the dimensions, parameters, references, and annotations, you can store their changed values in the corresponding varied items tables, access the Varied Items dialog box, and use the changed values to make these attributes independent. While editing the references of the dependent copy, you can reroute or change references. If you select annotation features, annotation elements such as geometric tolerances, notes, symbols, and surface finish are added to the varied items table in addition to references, parameters, and dimensions. The changes that you make through the Varied Items dialog box are not associatively propagated to the source. When you copy features from the regeneration footer section of the Model Tree with Fully Dependent with options to vary, the copied features are placed immediately after the parent feature in the footer section. Features such as zones, publish geometry, annotation and datum reference features, and component interfaces are regenerated at the end of the feature list and are placed in the footer of the Model Tree. The Fully Dependent with options to vary option is not available when you select a combination of footer and Model Tree features. Note: You cannot pattern fully-dependent copies of features. You cannot create fully-dependent instances of transformed groups and sets of features, assembly features, flexible components, manufacturing features, and anatomic features.

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Deleting a feature in the source model makes the corresponding copied feature in the target model independent. Suppressing the original feature or the source model does not break the dependency of the copies. The copies remain dependent and they update according to the status of the local references because the original feature or source references are not available. They remain dependent even after resuming them because of the local references. A copy of an already copied instance can be dependent or independent, irrespective of whether the source copy is dependent or independent.

To Create a Dependent Copy in a Model with Paste Special
1. Select a feature or a set of features. 2. Click Edit > Copy. The feature or the feature set is copied to the clipboard. 3. Click Edit > Paste Special. The Paste Special dialog box opens with Dependent copy selected by default. Note: Although you can create copies of the original feature with Edit > Paste, the Paste Special command offers additional options. o The Dimensions and Annotation Element Details Only option is the default copy option and is mutually exclusive with the Fully Dependent with options to vary option. The Apply Move/Rotate transformations to copies and the Advanced reference configuration options are also mutually exclusive.

o

4. Retain the default selection of Dimensions and Annotation Element Details Only or switch to Fully Dependent with options to vary. o Retaining the selection of Dimensions and Annotation Element Details Only creates a copy that is dependent only on the dimensions or the sketch, or both, or the annotation elements, and no other feature-attribute or parameters. Selecting Fully Dependent with options to vary creates a fullydependent copy and you can vary its dependency with respect to its sketches, annotations, dimensions, parameters, and references after pasting the copied feature.

o

5. Select Apply Move/Rotate transformations to copies to move the copied feature by translation or rotation, or both, or the Advanced reference configuration to retain or change the references of the copied feature. 6. Click OK. o If you select Apply Move/Rotate transformations to copies, the Move dashboard opens and you must select the direction reference for the move or rotate translation. If you select Advanced reference configuration, the Advanced Reference Configuration dialog box opens. Replace the original

o

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references from the list of References of Original Features with new ones, or select Use Original Reference to keep the original references. o o You can identify a fully-dependent copy of the feature or feature set in the Model Tree by its corresponding label, for example, Copied Hole 2. The Copied feature and its options, Varied items, Break dependence, and Remove dependence,are not available for a copied feature that is only dependent on the dimensions or the sketch, or both, or the annotation elements.

To Create a Fully-Dependent Feature and Vary Dependency
1. Select a feature or a set of features. 2. Click Edit > Copy. The feature or the feature set is copied to the clipboard. 3. Click Edit > Paste Special. The Paste Special dialog box opens. Dependent copy and Dimensions and Annotation Element Details Only are selected by default. 4. Switch to Fully Dependent with options to vary from Dimensions and Annotation Element Details Only. Note: If you set the default_dep_copy_option configuration option to full_dep, Fully Dependent with options to vary is the default option of Dependent copy. You can optionally click Advanced reference configuration and change the references of the copied feature or select new references which are automatically added to the varied items table. 5. Click OK. The fully-dependent copied feature is created and is identified by its corresponding label in the Model Tree, for example, Copied Hole 7. 6. Select the copied feature on the Model Tree and right-click. 7. Click Edit. Pro/ENGINEER prompts you to select dimensions, sections, trajectories, tolerances, surface finish, or other attributes of the copied feature. 8. Select one of the dimensions in the graphics window, double-click or right-click and click Value. A warning dialog box prompts you to confirm whether you want to add the dimension being modified to the varied items table of the copied feature. 9. Click Yes on the warning dialog box. 10. Change the dimension value in the graphics window. 11. Select the copied feature, right-click, and click Copied feature > Varied items. The Varied Items dialog box opens. The edited dimension is listed under the Dimension tab with its original and edited values displayed under Orig Value and New Value.

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Note: If you delete a varied dimension value under New Value in the Varied Items dialog box, you must type the asterisk sign (*) in place of the deleted value in the Dimension tab before closing the Varied Items dialog box. This is to ensure that the Varied Items dialog box reverts to the original dimension value the next time you open the Varied Items dialog box. For an annotation feature, the Varied Items dialog box displays tabs specific to annotation elements such as 3D Notes, 3D Symbols, Surf.Finish, and Geom Tols, in addition to Dimensions, References, and Parameters. Note: For fully-dependent copies of annotation features with varied annotations, if you set the status of the varied annotations to No Copy, the varied annotations are not copied, but are deleted along with their references, if any. The references are not locked when the status is set to No Copy. They are also not resumed when you again set the status of the annotations to Copy. Instead, the original references are used in place of the deleted references. 12. Select a feature attribute or element tab in the Varied Items dialog box and click to add items to the relevant varied items table.

13. Select the relevant feature attribute, dimension, or element in the graphics window. The selected item with its value is added to the varied items table and is listed in the Varied Items dialog box. Note: When you add references to the varied items table you can choose to reroute references through the REROUTE REFS menu. 14. Select an item in the Varied Items dialog box and click from the relevant varied items table. to remove the item

15. Edit the value of an item listed in the Varied Items dialog box. 16. Select a feature attribute tab and select All, Modified, or Unchanged from the Filter list to list all the corresponding feature attribute items or only the changed or original items. 17. Click OK on the Varied Items dialog box.

To Create an Independent Copy of a Feature or Feature Set
1. Select a feature or a set of features. 2. Click Edit > Copy. The feature or the feature set is copied to the clipboard. 3. Click Edit > Paste Special. The Paste Special dialog box opens. Dependent copy and Dimensions and Annotation Element Details Only are selected by default. Note: Although you can create an independent copy with Edit > Paste, the Paste Special command offers you more flexibility because of additional options. 4. Clear the Dependent copy check box.

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The Fully Dependent with options to vary and the Dimensions and Annotation Element Details Only options become unavailable. The Apply Move/Rotate transformations to copies and the Advanced reference configuration options are available and are mutually exclusive.

5. Click Apply Move/Rotate transformations to copies to move the copied feature by translation or rotation, or both, or the Advanced reference configuration to retain or change the references of the copied feature. 6. Click OK. 7. Select the copied feature on the Model Tree and right-click to verify if the copy of the feature or feature set is independent. Note: Copied feature and its options, Varied items, Break dependence, and Remove dependence, are not available on the resultant menu because the copied feature is independent. 8. Repeat steps 3 through 6 to create many more independent copies of the feature or feature set. Note: Alternatively, you can select a fully-dependent feature, right-click the selected feature, and select Copied feature > Remove dependence to permanently break the dependence of the selected copied feature on the original feature. The Copied feature and its options, Varied items, Break dependence, and Remove dependence, are only available when the copied feature is fully dependent on the original feature.

To Break, Restore, or Remove Dependency
1. On the Model Tree, select a copied feature that is fully dependent on the original feature. You can identify copied features that are fully dependent on the original feature by their corresponding labels, for example, Copied Hole 2. 2. You can break, restore, or remove dependency as follows: o Right-click the selected fully-dependent feature and click Copied feature > Break dependence to temporarily switch off the dependency of the selected feature on the original feature. Note: Copied feature and its options, Varied items, Break dependence, and Remove dependence, are only available when the copied feature is fully dependent on the original feature. Copied feature and its options are not available for features that are dimension-dependent because you cannot break the dependency on dimensions. Copied feature and its options are also not available for copied features that are independent from the original feature. o Right-click the feature again. The options that are available on the resultant menu are Restore dependence and Remove dependence.

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Click Restore dependence to restore the dependency of the feature that was temporarily broken. The feature whose dependency is restored is automatically regenerated. Right-click the fully-dependent copied feature and click Copied feature > Remove dependence to permanently break the dependence of the selected copied feature on the original feature. Click Yes on the warning dialog box that prompts you to confirm whether you want to permanently remove the dependence of the selected copied feature on the original feature. Note: You cannot restore the dependency of a feature that you have permanently removed. Copied feature and its options, including Restore dependence, are not available for a copied feature that has been permanently made independent with Copied feature > Remove dependence.

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To Copy a Feature Across Models Using Paste Special
1. Select the feature that you want to copy. 2. Click Edit > Copy. The feature is copied onto the clipboard. 3. Open the target model in another Pro/ENGINEER window. 4. Click Edit > Paste Special. The Paste Special dialog box opens with the Make Fully Dependent copies with options to vary and the Advanced reference configuration options available. Note: To create independent instances of the copied feature, clear the Make Fully Dependent copies with options to vary check box. 5. Click OK. The Scale dialog box opens. 6. Select one of the following options in the Scale dialog box: o Keep dimension values—Retains the dimension values of the copied feature, irrespective of the different measurement systems. This is the default. Keep feature sizes—Converts the dimension values of the copied feature to the measurement system used in the target model. Scale by value—Scales the paste feature by a specified value. Type a value in Scaling factor.

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7. Click OK in the Scale dialog box. The Advanced Reference Configuration dialog box opens listing the placement references of the original feature. 8. Select and replace all references for the copied feature in the Advanced Reference Configuration dialog box. Note: If you are pasting more than one feature, the second feature can use the references of the first feature.

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9. Click . Pro/ENGINEER places the copied feature according to the references specified.

To Create a Dependent Copy of Sketch-Based Features
Copying a sketched-based feature using Paste Special creates a dependent copy that preserves the dependency of the section dimensions. Copying Features that Use an Internal Sketch 1. Select a sketch-based feature to copy. 2. Click Edit > Copy. 3. Click Edit > Paste Special. The Paste Special dialog box opens with Dimensions and Annotation Element Details Only as the default option. 4. Select Advanced reference configuration. 5. In the Advanced Reference Configuration dialog box, replace the original references with new as needed or keep original references. Note: You must specify the sketching plane, view orientation, and sketch dimensional references using the Advanced Reference Configuration dialog box. If not, the dimension dependency of the section is not preserved. Copying Features that Use an External Sketch 1. Select a sketch-based feature to copy. 2. Click Edit > Copy. 3. Click Edit > Paste Special. The Paste Special dialog box opens with Dimensions and Annotation Element Details Only as the default option. 4. In the Paste Special dialog box, select Advanced reference configuration. 5. In the Advanced Reference Configuration dialog box, select the sketch in the References of Original Features, and then select the Use Original Reference option. Note: You cannot vary the dimension dependency of the external sketch.

To Create an Independent Copy of Sketch-Based Features
Copying a sketched-based feature using Paste creates an independent copy that is no longer associative with the original sketch. Copying Features that Use an Internal Sketch 1. Select a sketch-based feature to copy. 2. Click Edit > Copy.

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3. Click Paste. The feature creation tool of the feature being copied opens. 4. In the dashboard, click the Placement slide-up panel. 5. Click Edit. The Sketch dialog box opens. 6. Specify the sketching plane and the view orientation reference. 7. Click Sketch. 8. Drag the section to new location or create a new section. 9. Click to exit Sketcher.

Copying Features that Use an External Sketch 1. Select a sketch-based feature to copy. 2. Click Edit > Copy. 3. Click Paste. The feature creation tool of the feature being copied opens. 4. Select a new sketch. 5. Click to complete the copy.

About the Advanced Reference Configuration User Interface
The Advanced Reference Configuration dialog box that opens when you click Advanced reference configuration on the Paste Special dialog box allows you to paste a feature by mapping references of the original feature to the new references. It allows you to use the original or new references within the same model or use new references when the copied feature is pasted across models. You can only retain or change the references of the copied instances and not their settings or dimensions through the Advanced Reference Configuration dialog box. The Advanced Reference Configuration dialog box has the following options: • References of Original Features—Lists external references of the original feature. You can select a reference to replace it with a new one. You can also choose to preserve an original reference. Use Original Reference—Indicates whether you want to keep an original reference or select a new reference. Clear this option if you want to replace an original reference with a new one. By default, this option is not selected. The selected reference is listed in the collector below the Use Original Reference option. To remove the listed item, right-click in the collector and click Remove. To obtain information about the selected item, right-click in the collector and click Information. Note: If you leave this collector empty, then the pasted feature that uses this reference fails, and the feature-creation tool opens to resolve the reference. • Used By—Lists the features that use the selected reference.

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For a set of features that is copied and pasted across models, the Advanced Reference Configuration dialog box opens for individual external references. You must specify the external references of each copied feature in the feature set. For multiple features that are dimension-dependent, the Advanced Reference Configuration dialog box lists all the references. You are not prompted to specify references that are internal to the set of features. For example, when an extruded feature with embedded datums is copied and pasted across models, you can only specify the references of the embedded datums and not the references of the extrude feature.

To Copy Features Using the Advanced Reference Configuration
Use this technique to copy features by changing the placement references of the original feature. 1. Select a feature to copy or move. 2. Click Edit > Copy, the entire feature is copied into the clipboard. 3. Click Edit > Paste Special. The Paste Special dialog box opens. 4. Click Advanced reference configuration and click OK. The Advanced Reference Configuration dialog box opens. The placement references of the original feature are listed in a table. 5. You can now replace the original placement references with the new ones, or keep some of the original references. To replace a reference, select a row from a list of References of Original Features, clear the checkmark for the option Use Original Reference, and select a new reference in the graphics window. Note: If you are pasting more than one feature, the second feature can use the references of the first feature. 6. Click . When there are alternative orientation options to place the copied feature, the Preview dialog box opens. Specify datum plane directions, silhouette edges, and hole location as relevant: a. Select the features orientation direction and click Flip or Next to change the feature placement orientation. b. Click to update the preview of the feature in the new orientation. to

c. Click to accept the orientation and place the feature or cancel the operation.

Note: If the regeneration fails during the initial preview, only the successfully regenerated features are displayed. You can change feature orientations and update the preview display to attempt resolving the failure. Alternatively, you can redefine the failed feature.

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To Verify the Availability of Original References
1. Select a copied feature on the Model Tree. 2. Click Settings > Tree Columns. The Model Tree Columns dialog box opens. 3. Under Not Displayed, select Copied Refs and move the selected item to Column Name under Displayed. 4. Click OK. The Status column added to the Model Tree displays the following status of the copied references: o o o o MISSING when the references are deleted. This status is also displayed when the feature is copied across models and the source is in session. FROZEN when the feature is copied across models and the source is not in session. SUPPRESSED when the source feature is suppressed. EXCLUDED when the source feature is excluded in a simplified representation of a part.

default_dep_copy_option
dep_dim, full_dep
Sets Dimensions and Annotation Element Details Only or Fully Dependent with options to vary as the default option of Dependent copy in the Paste Special dialog box. Dimensions and Annotation Element Details Only and Fully Dependent with options to vary are mutually exclusive. • dep_dim—Sets Dimensions and Annotation Element Details Only as the default Dependent copy option in the Paste Special dialog box. This option is the default. It allows you to create copies of the original feature that are only dependent on the dimensions or the sketch, or both, or the annotation elements. full_dep—Allows you to switch to the Fully Dependent with options to vary option from the default Dimensions and Annotation Element Details Only option on the Paste Special dialog box. Dependent copy with Fully Dependent with options to vary allows you to create copies of the original feature that are fully dependent on all elements and attributes of the original feature. After pasting the copied features, you can vary the dependency of certain feature elements and attributes of the copied features, such as dimensions, sketches, annotations, references, and parameters.

Mirror
About The Mirror Tool
The Mirror tool enables you to create copies of features and geometry that are mirrored about a planar surface. You can use this tool to save time by mirroring

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simple parts into more complex designs. In addition to part geometry, the Mirror tool allows you to copy surfaces, curves, patterns, and datum features about a mirror plane. Note: You can also mirror curve patterns and transform patterns, such as direction, axis, or fill, but you cannot mirror group patterns or a pattern of a pattern. There are several methods of creating a mirror: • Feature Mirror—Allows you to mirror features using two methods: o All Features—This method duplicates features and creates a merged feature that contains the geometry of all features of the model. To use this method, you must select all features and the part node on the Model Tree. Selected Features—This method duplicates only the selected feature.

o •

Geometry Mirror—Allows you to mirror geometry items such as datums, quilts, and surfaces. You can also mirror an entire part by selecting its node on the Model Tree.

The following examples show how you can use the Mirror tool to create a complex design from a relatively small amount of geometry:

All Feature Method
Original part Original Part Mirrored using the All Feature method

1. Mirror plane

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Selected Feature Method
Original part with a single feature selected Single feature mirrored using the selected Feature method

1. Original feature 2. Mirror plane 3. Mirrored feature

About the Mirror User Interface
The Mirror user interface consists of the following: Feature icon Dialog bar Slide-up panels Shortcut menu

Feature Icon
All Mirrored features are represented in the Model Tree by Mirror tool is represented by . Additionally, the

in the Edit Features toolbar.

Dialog Bar
The Mirror dialog bar consists of the Mirror plane collector. You can click the collector to select or replace the mirror plane reference at any time.

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Slide-up Panels
The slide-up panels available on the Mirror dashboard vary depending on the type of object selected and the method in which it was selected. If you are mirroring a feature or a group of features the dashboard contains the following: • • References—Use this panel to change the Mirror plane reference. Options—Use this panel to make the mirror feature's dimensions independent of the original item by clearing the checkmark from the Copy as dependent option. Properties—In the Properties slide-up panel, you can: o o View information about the Mirror feature in the Pro/ENGINEER browser. Rename the feature.

If you are mirroring geometry the dashboard contains the following: • References—In the References slide-up panel, you can: o o • Change the Mirror items reference. Change the Mirror plane reference.

Options—Use this panel to select Hide original geometry. If it is selected, upon completion of the mirror feature, the system shows only the new mirrored geometry and hides the original geometry. Properties—In the Properties slide-up panel, you can: o o View information about the Mirror feature in the Pro/ENGINEER browser. Rename the feature.

If you are mirroring all the geometry in the part, the dashboard contains the following: • References—In the References slide-up panel, you can: o o • Change the Mirror items reference. Change the Mirror plane reference.

Properties—In the Properties slide-up panel, you can: o o View information about the Mirror feature in the Pro/ENGINEER browser. Rename the feature.

Note: The Options slide-up panel is not available for this operation.

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Shortcut Menu
If you are mirroring all the geometry in a part you can right-click in the graphics window to access the following commands: • • Mirror Items Collector—Selects or redefines an item to be mirrored. You can select a part, surface, axis, or datum curve. Mirror Plane Collector—Selects or redefines the mirror plane about which the mirror item is copied.

To Mirror Selected Features
Note: You must select the items you wish to mirror before you can invoke the Mirror tool. 1. Select one or more features to mirror. Pro/ENGINEER highlights each feature in the graphics window. Note: To mirror a pattern, select the pattern header and not a pattern member because the Mirror tool is not available if you select a pattern member. 2. Click opens. in the Edit Features toolbar or click Edit > Mirror. The Mirror tool

3. Select a mirror plane. Tip: You can redefine the Mirror plane by clicking on any other plane in the graphics window. 4. Open the Options slide-up panel and clear Copy as dependent if you want to make the mirrored features independent of the original. 5. Click on the dashboard to accept and create the new mirror feature.

The number of members in a mirrored pattern is the same as in the original pattern feature. If you vary the number of members in the mirrored pattern that is created with Copy as dependent selected, the change is associatively propagated to the original pattern feature. The dependency is only on the dimensions. Note: To redefine the mirror item, you must cancel the current mirror operation. Select alternate items to mirror and then restart the mirror tool.

To Mirror All the Geometry in a Part
Note: You must select the items you wish to mirror before you can invoke the Mirror tool. 1. Select the part name at the top of the Model Tree. 2. Click in the Edit Features toolbar.

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3. Select a mirror plane. Pro/ENGINEER displays preview geometry of the new Mirror feature in the graphics window. Note: You can redefine the Mirror plane by clicking on any other plane in the graphics window. 4. Click in the dashboard to accept and create the new mirror feature.

Tip: To switch the mirror item from part geometry to a surface, plane, or axis, you must first open the References slide-up panel in the dashboard, right-click the part reference in the Mirror items table, and click Remove from the shortcut menu. After the Mirrored Item reference is removed, you can select a plane, surface, or axis to mirror. Alternatively, you can use the shortcut menu and activate the Mirror Items Collector. Then you can open the shortcut menu again and click Clear.

To Mirror Geometry
Note: You must select the items you wish to mirror before you can invoke the Mirror tool. 1. Select either Geometry or Datums from the selection filter in the bottom right of the Pro/ENGINEER window. 2. Select any geometry or datum. 3. Click in the Edit Features toolbar. The mirror tool opens.

Note: You can also click Edit > Mirror to invoke the Mirror tool. 4. Select a mirror plane. Pro/ENGINEER displays a preview of the new Mirror feature in the graphics window. Note: You can redefine Mirror plane by clicking on any other plane in the graphics window. 5. (Optional) In the Options slide-up panel check the Hide original geometry box. If selected, upon completion of the mirror feature, the system shows only the new mirrored geometry and hides the original geometry. 6. Click in the dashboard to accept and create the new Mirror feature.

Note: To redefine the mirror item, use the Mirror items collector in the References slide-up panel. Select alternate items to mirror and then restart the mirror tool.

Move
About the Move Tool
The Move tool is only accessed through the Copy and Paste Special functions. With the Move tool, you can:

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Translate features, surfaces, quilts, datum curves, and axes in a direction specified by a reference. You can translate along a linear edge or curve, axis, perpendicular to a plane or planar surface, or along one of the axes of the coordinate system. Rotate features, surfaces, quilts, datum curves, and axes about an existing axis, linear edge, curve, or about one of the axes of the coordinate system. Apply multiple translation and rotation transformations in a single move feature.

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You can also use the Move tool to create and move a copy of an existing surface or curve rather than moving the original. You can also move curve patterns and transform patterns, such as direction, axis, or fill, in addition to most pattern types, but you cannot move group patterns or patterns of patterns. For patterns, you must select the pattern header instead of the pattern member. To move an item relative to its original position, you must first select the item to move, activate the Move tool, and then select the direction reference. You can also use asynchronous datums as direction references. When translating an object, the direction reference is typically a plane or edge that determines the direction in which you want to translate the moved feature. When rotating an object, the direction reference is typically an axis or edge about which you want to rotate the moved feature. The following items can be used as direction references: • In Translate mode you can choose: o o o o o o • Linear curve Linear edge Planar surface Datum axis Datum plane Axis of datum coordinate system

In Rotate mode you can choose: o o o o Linear curve Linear edge Datum axis Axis of datum coordinate system

Note: You cannot select a coordinate system or two datum points or vertices as direction references. Instead, you can directly select an axis of the datum coordinate system as the direction reference or create an asynchronous datum axis that passes through these two datum points or vertices.

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About the Move User Interface
The Move user interface consists of the following: Feature icon Dialog bar Slide-up panels Shortcut menu

Feature Icon
Moved features are represented in the Model Tree by .

Dialog Bar
The Move dialog bar consists of the following elements: • (Translate)—Switches the Move tool from the Rotate mode to the Translate mode. (Rotate)—Switches the Move tool from Translate mode to Rotate mode. Direction reference collector—Specifies the direction reference at any time during creation or redefinition. You can select the x-, y-, or z-axis of the datum coordinate system in the graphics window to specify the direction of translation or rotation. The Direction reference collector shows which of the axes is used. For a feature created in an earlier release of Pro/ENGINEER, that uses a coordinate system as the reference direction, the Direction reference collector shows the used axis of that coordinate system. For a legacy feature that uses two datum points or vertices as the direction reference, if you remove one of the datum points or vertices, Pro/ENGINEER removes both the datum points or vertices and clears the Direction reference collector. If you choose to retain the datum points or vertices, the Direction reference collector shows both the datum points or vertices as the direction references. • Value list—Specifies the move value. In Translate mode the value represents the distance you wish to translate the moved feature. In Rotate mode, the value represents the angle in degrees that you wish to rotate the moved feature about the move reference.

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Slide-up Panels
The Move dashboard has two modes, a Geometry mode and a Features mode. When moving geometry the Move dashboard displays the following slide-up panels: • References—In the References slide-up panel, you can select or change the items you wish to move.

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Transformations—In the Transformations slide-up panel, you can: o o o o Create additional translations and rotations Create or change the direction reference Switch between Translate and Rotate mode Enter values for each translation or rotation movement

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Options—In the Options slide-up panel, you can choose whether to hide or display the original geometry. Properties—In the Properties slide-up panel, you can: o o View information about the current moved feature in the Pro/ENGINEER browser or the Information Window. Rename the moved feature.

When moving entire features, the Move dashboard displays the following slide-up panels: • Transformations—In the Transformations slide-up panel, you can: o o o o • Create additional translations and rotations Create or change the direction reference Switch between Translate and Rotate mode Enter values for each translation or rotation movement

Properties—In the Properties slide-up panel, you can: o o View information about the current moved feature in the Pro/ENGINEER browser Rename the moved feature

Shortcut Menu
In the graphics window, right-click to access the Move shortcut menu. The following options are available on the Move shortcut menu in the Geometry mode: • • Move Items—Activates the Reference collector and specifies the selection of one or more items as references to move or rotate. Direction Reference—Activates the Direction reference collector and specifies the direction reference that is an edge, curve, surface, plane, axis, or axis of a datum coordinate system. Clear—Deletes the references in the active Direction reference collector. Move—Translates the move item perpendicular or parallel to the direction reference. Rotate—Rotates the move item about the direction reference.

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New Move—Applies another translation or rotation move to the move item.

The following options are available on the Move shortcut menu in the Features mode: • • • • Clear—Deletes the references in the active Direction reference collector. Move—Translates the move item perpendicular or parallel to the direction reference. Rotate—Rotates the move item about the direction reference. New Move—Applies another translation or rotation move to the move item.

To Move Geometry
1. Set the selection filter to Geometry. 2. Select the following geometry: o o o o o o Datum planes Datum points Datum axes Datum coordinate systems Datum curves Quilts or surfaces

3. Click Edit > Copy. The selected geometry is copied to the clipboard. 4. Click Edit > Paste Special. The Paste Special dialog box opens. 5. Click Apply Move/Rotate transformations to copies. 6. Click OK. The Move dashboard opens. 7. Click to translate the move item or click to rotate the move item.

8. Select a direction reference: o o o o o o Datum axis Linear edge Plane or flat surface Straight curve Datum plane Axis of datum coordinate system

Note: When translating, the direction reference is perpendicular to the direction in which you want to move when you specify a plane or flat surface as the direction reference. If you select an edge, curve, or axis, the direction reference 178

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is parallel to the selected edge, curve, or axis. When rotating, the direction reference is usually an axis or straight edge about which the move item pivots. 9. To move the selected item: o o In the graphics window, use the drag handle to manually translate/rotate the move item to the desired distance. In the Move dashboard, type a distance or angle value in the value box, or select a value from a list of the most recently used values.

10. If you want to create additional translation or rotation transformations, see To Create Multiple Moves. Otherwise, click to complete the move feature.

To Move Features
1. In the Model Tree, select the items that you want to move. 2. Click Edit > Copy. The entire feature is copied onto the clipboard. 3. Click Edit > Paste Special. The Paste Special dialog box opens. 4. Click Apply Move/Rotate transformation to copies. 5. Click OK. The Move dashboard opens. 6. Click to translate the move item or click to rotate the move item.

7. Select a direction reference: o o o o o Datum axis Edge Plane or flat surface Straight curve Axis of datum coordinate system

Note: When translating, the direction reference is perpendicular to the direction in which you want to move when you specify a plane or flat surface as the direction reference. If you select an edge, curve, or axis, the direction reference is parallel to the selected edge, curve, or axis. When rotating, the direction reference is usually an axis or straight edge about which the move item pivots. 8. To move the selected item: o o In the graphics window, use the drag handle to manually translate or rotate the move item to the desired distance or angle. On the Move dashboard, type a distance or angle value in the value box, or select a value from a list of the most recently used values.

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9. If you want to create additional translation or rotation transformations, see To Create Multiple Moves. Otherwise, click to complete the move feature.

To Move All Features in a Part
Note: Moving with this method creates a duplication of the entire part and also a merge feature that contains all the geometry of the features of the part. 1. In the Model Tree, select all features in the part and the part header. 2. Click Edit > Copy. The entire feature is copied into the clipboard. 3. Click Edit > Paste Special. The Paste Special dialog box opens. 4. Click Apply Move/Rotate transformations to copies. You can choose whether to make the copy dependent or not. 5. Click OK. The Move dashboard opens. 6. Click to translate the move item or click to rotate the move item.

7. Select a direction reference: o o o o o Datum axis Edge Plane or flat surface Straight curve Axis of datum coordinate system

Note: You cannot select a plane or flat surface if you are rotating the selected item. When translating, the direction reference is perpendicular to the direction in which you want to move when you specify a plane or flat surface as the direction reference. If you select an edge, curve, or axis, the direction reference is parallel to the selected edge, curve, or axis. When rotating, the direction reference is usually an axis or straight edge about which the move item pivots. 8. To move the selected item: o o In the graphics window, use the drag handle to manually translate/rotate the move item to the desired distance or angle. In the Move dashboard, type a distance or angle value in the value box, or select a value from a list of the most recently used values.

9. If you want to create additional translation or rotation transformations see To Create Multiple Moves. Otherwise, click to complete the move feature.

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To Create Multiple Moves
The Move tool allows you to create multiple translation and rotation transformations in a single move feature. To create multiple moves: 1. Click the Transformations tab on the Move dashboard. The Transformations slide-up panel appears. 2. Click New Move in the Move list. A new move is added to the Move list. 3. Select a transformation type from the Type list, either Move (to translate) or Rotate. 4. Select a direction reference: o o o o o Datum axis Edge Plane or flat surface Straight curve Axis of datum coordinate system

Note: You cannot select a plane or flat surface if you are rotating the selected item. 5. Use the drag handle in the graphics window to manually translate or rotate the move item or enter a distance or angle value in the value box. 6. Repeat steps 1-5 to create additional transformations. 7. Click to complete the move feature.

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Example: Different Move Techniques Selected Feature Move

1. Move Items consisting of a single protrusion and a hole 2. Datum axis used as direction Reference

1. Original Move Items 2. Datum axis used as direction Reference 3. Resulting moved Items rotated about the direction reference 90 degrees.

All Features Move

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1. Move item consisting of all features in the part. 2. Datum plane used as direction reference

1. Original Move Item 2. Datum plane used as direction Reference 3. Resulting moved item

Geometry Move

1. Move item consisting of section geometry 2. Datum plane used as direction reference

1. Original move item 2. Datum plane used as direction reference 3. Resulting moved item.

About Redefining Legacy Data that Uses Coordinate System or Two Datum Points as Direction Reference
Features created in an earlier release of Pro/ENGINEER can have the following as direction references: • • Two datum points or vertices Datum coordinate system

Legacy parts with such features are redefined when opened in the current release of Pro/ENGINEER.

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Redefining a Feature with Two Datum Points or Vertices as Direction Reference
When you open a part with a feature that uses two datum points or vertices as the direction reference in the current version of Pro/ENGINEER, the Reference Selection dialog box opens stating that the use of two datum points or vertices as references is not supported. If you have deleted one of the datum points, it warns you that you have deleted one of the datum points. If you click OK in the Reference Selection dialog box to remove one of the datum points or vertices, Pro/ENGINEER removes both the datum points or vertices and clears the Direction reference collector. You can directly select a datum axis that passes through these two datum points or vertices. If you click Cancel in the Reference Selection dialog box, Pro/ENGINEER analyzes if either the datum points or vertices are used or both, datum points and vertices are used as the direction reference. The Direction reference collector displays the two datum points or vertices as the direction reference. Both the datum points or vertices are redefined such that the direction reference passes through these two datum points or vertices.

Redefining a Feature with a Datum Coordinate System as Direction Reference
When you open a part with a feature that uses the datum coordinate system as the direction reference in the current version of Pro/ENGINEER, the Direction reference collector displays the used axis of that datum coordinate system as the direction reference. You can also set the Direction reference collector to define an axis of a coordinate system as the direction reference.

Merge
About the Merged Feature
You can use the Merge tool to merge two quilts by intersecting or joining them or merge more than two quilts by joining them. The resultant quilt becomes the primary quilt and inherits the ID of the primary quilt. If you delete the merged feature, the original quilts remain. You can use one of the following methods on the Merge dashboard to merge two quilts: • • Use Intersect to create a quilt that consists of the trimmed portions of two intersecting quilts and for quilts with coincident one-sided edges. Use Join if the edges of one quilt lie on the surfaces of the other quilt.

Note: o In Assembly mode, you can merge only assembly-level quilts. If you want to create component-level merged features, you must first activate the component, and then merge the quilts in that component.

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To select more that two quilts to be merged, the quilts should have adjacent one-sided edges. You cannot select intersecting quilts if you merge more than two quilts. You can merge more than two quilts only if all the edges of the selected quilts are adjacent to each other and do not overlap.

Parental Hierarchy of Quilts
When you merge two quilts, both these reference quilts become the parents of the merged feature. By default, the first quilt you select becomes the primary reference quilt, which determines the ID of the merged quilt. This ID of the primary quilt is important for dependents of the primary quilt and for operations such as suppress and resume or layer blanking. For example, if you suppress the primary reference quilt by selecting it on the Model Tree, the merged quilt is also suppressed. You can set any quilt in the quilt collector to be the primary quilt by selecting that quilt and clicking .

Note: The primary quilt is the first quilt listed under Quilts in the References panel. If you select more than two quilts to be merged, the Merge tool merges the quilts in their order of appearance in the quilt collector. For example, the primary quilt, that is, the first quilt in the quilt collector is merged with the second quilt and forms the primary quilt. The third quilt is then merged with the primary quilt and so on until all the quilts are merged. The order in which the quilts appear in the quilt collector is important to perform a successful merge operation, that is, the quilts in the quilt collector must be sequentially arranged based on their adjacency. For example, if the quilt collector has five quilts, the merge result of quilts one and two should be adjacent to quilt three and the merge result of quilts one, two, and three should be adjacent to quilt four and so on.

Accessing the Merge Tool
To access the Merge tool, select two or more quilts and click Features toolbar or click Edit > Merge. You can use one of the following methods to select the quilts: • • Select the quilts in the graphics window. Click in an empty area in the graphics window and drag the pointer over the required quilts to select them. This operation is called region selection. When you use region selection, the required quilts must be completely inside the region to be selected. The selected quilts are sorted in the quilt collector based on their feature number on the Model Tree. Note: You can use region selection only when you are within the Merge tool. on the Edit

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You can also use the Search Tool to select the quilts. To access the search tool, click Edit > Find. When you use the Search Tool to select quilts, the quilts are added to the quilt collector based on their chronological order on the Model Tree.

Error Reporting
The quilts in the quilt collector are merged sequentially. However, the first quilt that fails to merge with the previous quilt is marked with a red dot in the quilt collector, . Subsequent quilts are not merged. If the Merge tool for example, encounters an error, the error messages are displayed in the Troubleshooter dialog box and in the message area. To know why a particular quilt failed the merge operation, right-click the failed quilt and click What's wrong on the shortcut menu that appears. The Troubleshooter dialog box appears and displays the reason why that quilt could not be merged. You can remove the failed quilt from the quilt collector or reorder the quilt in the quilt collector and continue with the merge process. The merge feature could fail for one of the following reasons: • • Selected quilts do not have adjacent edges. Selected quilts are intersecting or overlapping.

Dynamic Preview
When you enter the Merge tool with more than two quilts selected, Pro/ENGINEER switches off dynamic preview. To switch on dynamic preview, click the checkbox adjacent to on the Merge dashboard. If you switch on dynamic preview, the graphics window is updated when you add or remove quilts to or from the merge feature. If the Merge tool encounters an error, Pro/ENGINEER displays a preview of the already merged quilts. For example, if the quilt collector has five quilts and the third one fails the merge operation, then Pro/ENGINEER displays a preview of the first and second quilts in the graphics window.

Undo and Redo
Undo and redo operations are available for all operations that you perform within the Merge tool, while the Merge dashboard is active. However, if you quit the Merge tool, you can only undo the merge operation as a whole and not operations performed within the Merge tool. For example, if you select a quilt to be added to the quilt collector, you can undo this operation within the Merge tool. After you quit the Merge tool, you cannot use the undo operation to remove the quilt from the quilt collector.

About the Merged Feature User Interface
The user interface for the Merge tool includes: Feature icon Dashboard Slide-up panels 186

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Shortcut menus

Feature Icon
To access the Merge tool, select two or more quilts and click Features toolbar or click Edit > Merge. on the Edit

Dashboard
The dashboard consists of the following elements: —For the first quilt, changes the side to be included in the merge. —For the second quilt, changes the side to be included in the merge. The above options are available only if you select two intersecting quilts.

Slide-up Panels
The Merge tool provides the following slide-up panels: • References—Lists quilts selected for the merge operation in the quilt collector. The quilt collector can collect an unlimited number of quilts but displays only 15 without a scroll bar. Options—Select Intersect or Join to specify the method of merging quilts. This option is not available for merging more than two quilts. Properties—Lets you edit the feature name and provides detailed information on the merged feature in the Pro/ENGINEER browser.

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Shortcut Menus
When you right-click a merged feature, click one of the following commands on the shortcut menu to specify the method of merging quilts: • • Intersect—Merges two quilts at their intersection point. Join—Joins two quilts.

These commands are available only if you select two intersecting quilts.

To Create a Merged Feature
Note: To access the Merge tool, you must first select two quilts to merge. 1. Select two quilts and click on the Edit Features toolbar. The first quilt selected becomes the default primary quilt, which provides the quilt ID for the merged quilt. 2. To select the method for merging, click the Options slide-up panel. Click Intersect or Join.

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Note: To be joined, the one-sided edges of one quilt must lie on the other quilt. 3. The arrows at the intersection of two quilts point to the sides of the quilts that will be included in the merged quilt. You can change the sides of the quilts to include in the resulting feature by doing the following: o When merging by intersecting—For each quilt, you can change the side of the quilt to include by clicking change the sides to keep. o . Notice how the arrows flip as you

When merging by joining— If one quilt extends beyond the other one, you can specify which side of the quilt is included by clicking .

4. (Optional) To change the primary quilt, click the References slide-up panel and click Swap. The two quilts under Quilts switch places. The top quilt is the primary quilt. 5. To verify the feature, click 6. Click . .

To Merge More Than Two Quilts
1. Select two or more quilts to be merged in the graphics window and click on the Edit Features toolbar or click Edit > Merge. Alternatively, select the quilts using the Search Tool or by region selection. Note: • • All the edges of the selected quilts must be adjacent to each other and must not overlap. The quilts are placed in the collector in the order of selection. However, if you use region selection, the quilts are sorted in the quilt collector based on their feature number on the Model Tree. Intersecting quilts cannot be merged. If the model contains intersecting quilts, trim them before the merge operation. The quilts in the quilt collector must be sequentially arranged based on their adjacency.

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2. Optionally, click the checkbox adjacent to on the Merge dashboard to switch on dynamic preview. However, Pro/ENGINEER switches off dynamic preview if you are performing a merge with more than two quilts. 3. To reorder the quilts in the quilt collector, click References on the dashboard, select the quilt from the quilt collector, and click one of the following: • —Moves the selected quilt to the top of the quilt collector. When you move a quilt to the top of the list, it becomes the primary quilt.

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• • Note: • • •

—Moves the selected quilt one level up in the quilt collector. —Moves the selected quilt one level down in the quilt collector.

You can also reorder the quilts by dragging them in the quilt collector. and are not available if the selected quilt is the first quilt in the list.

is not available if the selected quilt is the last quilt in the list.

4. To remove a quilt, right-click the quilt in the quilt collector and click Remove on the shortcut menu that appears. 5. Click on the Merge dashboard. Pro/ENGINEER merges the selected quilts.

Example: Merging Two Quilts
The next example illustrates merging two intersecting quilts.

1 Select these two quilts The next figure illustrates how to define which portion of the quilt to keep.

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1 Keep this surface The next figure shows the resulting merged quilt.

Trim
About the Trim Feature
With the Trim tool you can cut or split a quilt or curve. A quilt is a collection of surfaces. Use the Trim tool to remove material from quilts or curves to create a certain shape or to split material. You can trim quilts by: • • Trimming at an intersection with another quilt or datum plane Using a datum curve that lies on a quilt

You can trim a curve by clipping or splitting the curve at the point of an intersection with a surface, another curve, or datum plane. To trim a quilt or curve, select the quilt or curve to trim, activate the Trim tool, and then specify the trimming object. You can specify and change the trimming object during creation or redefinition. During the trimming process, you can specify what part of the trimmed surface or curve you want to keep. In addition, you can use the Thin Trim when you trim a quilt with another quilt. Thin Trim allows you to specify trim thickness dimensions and control fitting requirements for surfaces.

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To access the Trim tool, select the surface or curve to trim, then click Edit > Trim.

or click

About the Trim User Interface
The Trim user interface consists of the following items: Feature icon Dialog bar Slide-up panels Shortcut menus

Feature Icon
To access the Trim tool, click .on the Feature toolbar or click Edit > Trim.

Dialog Bar
The Trim dialog bar consists of three elements: • Trimming Object Collector—Adds, removes, or redefines the trimming object reference. —Flips between one side, other side, or both sides of the trimmed surface to keep. —Switches the Silhouette Trim option on or off.

Slide-up Panels
The Trim dashboard displays the following slide-up panels: • References—Adds or replaces the trimming objects references. o o o Swap—Selects which side of the result quilt takes the trimmed quilt ID. This button is enabled when the trimming directions are on both sides. Details—Opens the Chain dialog box so you can modify the chain set properties.

Options—Specifies trim thickness dimensions, surfaces to exclude from thin trim, and controlled fitting requirements for surfaces: o Normal to Surface—Thickens the surface in a direction normal to surface. Automatic Fit—Determines the scaling coordinate system and fit along all three axes. o Controlled Fit—Thickens the surface by a specific scaling coordinate system and controlled fitting motion.

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Properties—Renames the feature or displays information about the feature in the Pro/ENGINEER browser.

Note: Thin Trim options are only available if you use a surface as your trimming object. Exclude Surface—Lists surfaces from the original quilt excluded from the Thin Trim operation. Auto—Automatically excludes surfaces to result in a successful implementation of the trim feature. Original Quilt Side (Side 1 or 2)—Selects the primary quilt when both sides of the surface are kept after trimming.

Shortcut Menus
The Trim tool has shortcut menus for collectors and for direction arrows. For the collector shortcut menu, right-click in the graphics window for the following commands: • • • • • Trimmed Quilt—Activates the collector to specify the quilt to be trimmed. Trimming Object—Activates the collector to specify the object used as the trimmer. Clear—Clears the current active collector to make another choice. Flip—Specifies the direction of the arrow to indicate the portion of the surface to keep or where to apply the thickness value. Thin Trim—Selects the Thin Trim options. These options are only available when trimming a quilt. Note: When Thin Trim is selected, use the drag handles and the most recently used dimension box to: o o Resize the thickness of the trim surface Change a value. Changes are displayed in the graphics window and in the dialog bar.

For the direction-arrow shortcut menu, right-click the direction arrow for the following commands: • • Flip—Redirects the direction of the arrow to indicate the side of the surface to keep after trimming. Both sides—Adds another arrow and keeps both sides of the trimmed surface or applies the thickness value to both sides.

To Trim a Curve or Quilt
1. Select the curve or quilt to trim. 2. Click 192 or Edit > Trim. The Trim dashboard appears.

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3. Select any curve, plane, or quilt to use as the trimming object. Note: You can trim a curve with a datum point sitting on that particular curve. or the direction arrow located in the graphics window to specify the side 4. Click of the trimmed surface to keep. You can keep a specific side or both sides of the trimmed surface. 5. Click changes. to preview the trim geometry or click to accept and save

To Trim Surfaces with a Quilt
1. Select the surface to trim. 2. Click or Edit > Trim. The Trim dashboard appears.

3. Select the quilt to use as the trimming object. The Trim dashboard appears. Note: Thin Trim options are available only if you use a quilt as your trimming object. 4. Click Options. 5. Select the Thin Trim checkbox. 6. Specify the trim thickness dimensions and controlled fitting requirements. Alternatively, use the drag handles and the most recently used dimension box to specify the trim thickness. or in the graphics window, click the direction arrow to indicate which 7. Click side to apply the thickness value. 8. Click changes. to preview the trim geometry or click to accept and save

To Trim Surfaces with Thin Trim
1. Right-click the feature to redefine in the Model Tree. 2. Click Redefine. 3. The Trim dashboard appears with the trimming object collector as the active collector. 4. Select the quilt to use as the trimming object. Note: You can click References in the Dashboard dialog bar to see the trimming object change.

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About Silhouette Trim
The silhouette command allows you to view the outline edge of a curved surface in a particular view. You can use the silhouette command when selecting one of the following as a trimming object: • • Datum plane Planar surface

To Trim Using Silhouette Edges
1. Select the curved surface to trim. 2. Click or Edit > Trim. The Trim Dashboard appears.

3. Select any datum plane or planar surface to use as the trimming object. 4. Click 5. Click changes. . The silhouette of the curved surface appears. to preview the trim geometry or click to accept and save

Pattern
About the Pattern Feature
When you create a pattern, you create instances of the selected feature by varying some specified dimensions. When you pattern a feature, the result is a feature pattern. When you pattern this feature pattern, the result is a feature pattern pattern. You cannot pattern either a group pattern or a feature pattern pattern. The feature or feature pattern selected for patterning is called the pattern leader. After you pattern the selected feature or feature pattern, the pattern leader that you selected is the pattern header while the instances are pattern members. To copy, mirror, and move patterns, you must select the pattern header instead of the pattern members. You can mirror transform patterns such as direction, axis, or fill patterns, and curve patterns but you cannot mirror group patterns or a pattern of a pattern. The Mirror and Copy tools are not available if you select the pattern members instead of the pattern header. You can also apply move or rotational transformations to curve patterns and transform patterns. Patterns offer the following benefits: • • Creating a pattern is a quick way to reproduce a feature. A pattern is parametrically controlled. Therefore, you can modify a pattern by changing pattern parameters, such as the number of instances, spacing between instances, and original feature dimensions.

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Modifying patterns is more efficient than modifying individual features. In a pattern, when you change dimensions of the original feature, Pro/ENGINEER automatically updates the whole pattern. It may be easier or more effective to perform operations once on the multiple features contained in a pattern, rather than on the individual features. For example, you can easily suppress a pattern or add it to a layer.

Pro/ENGINEER allows you to pattern a single feature only. To pattern several features, create a "local group" and pattern this group. After you create this group pattern, you can ungroup the instances to modify them individually. When a feature pattern pattern is a dimension pattern or a table pattern, you can use Unpattern on the shortcut menu to modify the pattern members individually. When you unpattern a feature pattern pattern, the result is a set of feature patterns. If you delete a feature pattern pattern, then the result is a feature pattern. Note: • • Pro/ENGINEER does not transfer the line style attributes of a datum curve to its patterns. A thin feature "remembers" the surface to which it is attached and patterns to this surface.

Pattern Types
There are several ways to pattern a feature: • Dimension—Control the pattern by using driving dimensions and specifying the incremental changes to the pattern. Dimensional patterns can be unidirectional and bidirectional. Direction—Create a free-form pattern by specifying direction and using drag handles to set the orientation and increment of pattern growth. Direction patterns can be unidirectional and bidirectional. Axis—Create a free-form radial pattern by using drag handles to set the angular and radial increments of the pattern. The pattern can also be dragged into a spiral. Table—Control the pattern by using a pattern table and specifying the dimension values for every pattern instance. Reference—Control the pattern by referencing another pattern. Fill—Control the pattern by filling an area with instances according to a selected grid. Curve—Control the pattern by specifying either the distance between the pattern members or by specifying the number of pattern members along the curve.

• • • •

Pattern creation methods are different, depending on the pattern type.

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To access the Pattern functionality, select the feature or feature pattern that you want to pattern and click on the Edit Features toolbar or click Edit > Pattern, or right-click the feature name or feature pattern name on the Model Tree and click Pattern on the shortcut menu.

About Dimension Patterns
When you create a Dimension pattern, you select feature dimensions and specify the incremental changes to these dimensions and the number of instances of the feature in the pattern. Dimension patterns can be unidirectional (such as a linear pattern of holes) or bidirectional (such as a rectangular array of holes). In other words, bidirectional patterns place instances in rows and columns. Depending on what dimensions are chosen to vary, patterns can be linear or angular. When you create Dimension patterns, remember these tips: • You can use a feature as a pattern leader for a single pattern only. After you create the pattern, the leader becomes part of the pattern and can no longer act independently. When you create a pattern leader, think of the dimensions you may need to specify the location of the increments. Keep in mind that for rotational patterns, a feature must have a built-in angular dimension. For other patterns, create a pattern leader with meaningful dimensions that will be used later to control the location and size of the increments. An angular dimension controlling a centerline of a sketched feature should not be used to establish an angular reference. Use an asynchronously created datum plane to set an angular dimension of the feature. Asynchronous datum features are automatically grouped with the feature. You can then create the angular pattern of this group. When you select the pattern type, consider the regeneration time. For simple patterns, use the Identical or Variable options to speed up the regeneration of the model. Use relations to control the location of instances when you expect the number of instances to vary. In this case, whenever you modify the number of instances, the system calculates the spacing according to the formula you entered.

About Direction Patterns
Use the Direction pattern to add pattern members in one or two selected directions. In the Direction pattern, you can drag the placement handle in each direction to adjust the distance between pattern members or to flip the pattern in the opposite direction. While creating or redefining the Direction pattern, you can vary the following items:

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Spacing in each direction—Drag each placement handle to adjust spacing, or type the increment in the dashboard text box. Number of pattern members in each direction—Type the number of members in the dashboard text box or edit it by double-clicking in the graphics window. Feature dimensions—You can vary dimensions of the patterned feature by using the Dimension slide-up panel on the dashboard. For example, you can vary the hole diameter or depth. Skip pattern members—To skip a pattern member, click the black dot identifying that pattern member. The black dot turns white. To restore the member, click the white dot. Direction of pattern members—To change the direction of the pattern, drag the placement handle in the opposite direction, click for the increment in the dashboard text box. , or type a negative number

About Axis Patterns
Use the Axis pattern to create a pattern by revolving a feature around a selected axis. An axis pattern allows you to place members in two directions: • Angular—(First direction) Pattern members are revolved around the axis. The default Axis pattern places members equally spaced in the counterclockwise direction. Radial—(Second direction) Pattern members are added in the radial direction.

There are two ways to place pattern members in the angular direction: • • Specify the number of members, including the first member, and the distance between the members (increment). Specify the angular extent and the number of members, including the first member. The range for the angular extent is from –360 to +360 degrees. Pattern members are equally spaced within the specified angular extent.

While creating or redefining the Axis pattern, you can vary the following items: • • • • • Spacing in the angular direction—Drag the placement handle in the angular direction or type the increment in the dashboard text box. Spacing in the radial direction—Drag the placement handle in the radial direction or type the increment in the dashboard text box. Number of pattern members in each direction—Type the number of members in the dashboard text box or edit it by double-clicking in the graphics window. The angular extent of the members—Type the angular extent in the text box. Feature dimensions—You can vary dimensions of the patterned feature by using the Dimension slide-up panel. For example, you can vary the hole diameter or depth. Tip: You can create a spiral pattern by varying the radial placement dimension.

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Skip pattern members—To skip a pattern member, click the black dot identifying that pattern member. The black dot turns white. To restore the member, click the white dot. Direction of pattern members—To change the direction of the pattern, drag the placement handle in the opposite direction, click for the increment in the dashboard text box. , or type a negative number

About Table Patterns
You can pattern features using a table pattern. Pattern tables allow you to create complicated or irregular patterns of features or groups by letting you specify unique dimensions for each instance in the pattern through an editable table. Multiple tables can be established for a pattern, so you can change the pattern by switching the table that drives it. You can modify a pattern table at any time after you create the pattern. Suppressing or deleting a table-driven pattern suppresses or deletes the pattern leader as well. If you redefine dimension, direction, or axis pattern types as a table pattern, the table in the table pattern displays values only if the selected pattern has a secondary dimension. The table is empty if you select a fill pattern, curve pattern, direction pattern without a secondary dimension, or an axis pattern without a secondary dimension. You can use pattern tables in Assembly mode to pattern assembly features and components. Pattern tables are not family tables. Pattern tables can only drive pattern dimensions, and unless they are unpatterned, pattern instances cannot be made independent. You can also include pattern tables in family tables so a particular family instance can use a specified pattern table.

About Reference Patterns
A reference pattern patterns a feature "on top of" any other patterned feature. Some references to locate the new reference pattern feature must be to the original patterned feature only. The instance number is always the same as the original pattern; therefore, the pattern parameter is not used to control this pattern. If you add a feature that does not use the originally patterned feature to get its geometry references, you can not use reference patterning for the new feature.

About Fill Patterns
When you create a Fill pattern, you fill an entire area with instances of the feature, positioned in a grid. You can select one of several grid templates (such as 198

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rectangular, circular, triangular) and specify the grid parameters, such as the spacing between pattern member centers, radial spacing for circular and spiral grids, the minimum distance between the pattern member centers and the area boundary, and the rotation of the grid about its origin. To define the area to be filled by the pattern, you can either sketch it or select a sketched curve. Instead of filling the whole area with the pattern instances, you can also select the Curve grid to locate the pattern members along the border of the area. Fill patterns are created by transforming the member locations out from the origin according to the grid, the grid orientation, and the spacing between members. The sketched area and the border allowance determine which members are created. Any member whose center is within the sketch boundary will be created. The border allowance does not change the position of the members. You can change the origin of the fill pattern by specifying an alternative origin. This helps you to move certain pattern members into or outside the fill boundary. If the origin of the pattern members lies outside the fill area after you change the origin of the pattern, then those members are excluded from the pattern. Changing the origin of the pattern does not affect the pattern distribution except if you select Curve as the grid type on the pattern dashboard. You can also make pattern members follow the shape of a selected surface. The pattern members can either follow the selected surface or maintain constant orientation similar to the pattern leader. For pattern members to follow the shape of a selected surface, the pattern leader and the sketch plane must be tangent to the surface selected. If the sketch plane and pattern leader are tangent to the selected surface, then pattern members follow the selected surface according to the selected orientation type. While creating or redefining a fill pattern, you can change the following items: • • • • • Spacing—Specify a value for the spacing between the pattern members. Minimum Distance—Specify the minimum distance between the pattern member centers and the sketch boundary. Rotation Angle—Specify the rotation angle of the grid about the origin. Radial Spacing—Specify the radial spacing for circular and spiral grids. Skip pattern members—To skip a pattern member, click the black dot that identifies the pattern member. The black dot turns white. To restore the pattern member, click the white dot.

If you create a fill pattern by specifying values for these items, these values become a dimension after the pattern is created. You can edit these dimensions to modify the pattern. You can also use these dimensions in a relation. A relation controls a dimension when you use an expression instead of a dimension value while creating or redefining features.

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About Curve Patterns
A curve pattern creates instances of a feature along a sketched curve. When you create a curve pattern, you select a feature and pattern it along a sketched curve by specifying either the distance between the pattern members or the number of members and orientation. A curve pattern allows you to create complicated or irregular patterns of features. You can create a curve pattern only along a sketched curve. To create a curve pattern, you can either sketch a curve or select a sketched datum curve. The start point of curve pattern is always at the start of the curve. The direction of the curve pattern is always from the start of the curve towards the end of the curve. To accurately align the pattern members along the curve, the pattern leader should be placed at the start of the curve. A yellow direction arrow identifies the start point and direction of the curve pattern. You can create a curve pattern by: • • Specifying the distance between the pattern members along the sketched curve. Specifying the number of pattern members, including the pattern leader along the curve.

If you create a curve pattern by specifying the distance between the pattern members or the number of pattern members, this distance or number becomes a dimension, respectively, after the pattern is created. You can edit this dimension to modify the space between the members or the number of members. You can also use this dimension in a relation. A relation controls a dimension when you use an expression instead of a dimension value while creating or redefining features. While creating or redefining a curve pattern, you can change the following: • • • Spacing—Type the increment value between the pattern members, in the dashboard text box. Number of pattern members—Type the number of pattern members to be created, in the dashboard text box. Skip pattern members—To skip a pattern member, click the black dot that identifies the pattern member. The black dot turns white. To restore the pattern member, click the white dot.

About Pattern Regeneration Options
Pro/ENGINEER defines patterns based on the complexity of features and surfaces involved in the pattern creation. Moreover, the system makes certain assumptions for each type of pattern. The less complex the pattern is, the more assumptions Pro/ENGINEER can make and the faster it creates the pattern. Pro/ENGINEER categorizes patterns into three types, using the options Identical, Variable, and General (available in the Options slide-up panel).

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Identical Patterns
Identical patterns, the most simple, have the following restrictions: • • • All instances are identical in size. All instances are placed on the same surface. No instance intersects the edges of the placement surface, any other instance, or any feature other than the placement surface.

Identical patterns regenerate the fastest of the three options. For an identical pattern, the system generates the first feature, then copies it exactly, including all the intersections. Note: In identical patterns, the system does not check to make sure that there will be no overlap among the instances of the pattern. This kind of check would slow the regeneration of the pattern and defeat the advantage of using an identical pattern. You must check for overlaps yourself. To avoid having to check yourself, use a general pattern.

Variable Patterns
Variable patterns are more complicated than identical patterns. The system makes the following assumptions about variable patterns: • • • Instances can vary in size. Instances can be placed on different surfaces. No instance intersects any other instance.

For variable patterns, Pro/ENGINEER generates geometry for each feature individually, then generates all the intersections at one time. A variable pattern intersects part geometry as a whole group. As a result, if you were to use a varying pattern on a feature extruded up to the next surface, there would be only one creation direction for determining which is the next surface and you could get undesired results. To avoid this, use only general or identical patterns with features extruded up to the next surface.

General Patterns
General patterns allow you to create the most complex patterns. The system makes no assumptions about the instances of general patterns. Therefore, Pro/ENGINEER calculates the geometry of each individual instance and intersects each feature separately. Use this option when you expect the feature to touch other instances, intersect itself, or cross surface boundaries as it gets patterned. General patterns are required even if instances intersect inside the base feature and the intersection is not visible.

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Example: Patterns Pattern Directions
Unidirectional

1. direction 1 Bidirectional

1. direction 1 2. direction 2

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Pattern Configurations
Linear

Rotational

About the Pattern User Interface
The Pattern user interface consists of the following items: Feature icon Dashboard Slide-up panels Shortcut menus

Feature Icon
Patterns are identified by the icon in the model tree. icon in the Edit Features toolbar and by the

Dashboard
The Pattern dashboard contains a drop-down list box of pattern types:

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Dimension—Create the pattern by using driving dimensions and specifying the incremental changes to the pattern. Dimensional patterns can be unidirectional and bidirectional. Direction—Create the pattern by specifying direction and using drag handles to set the orientation and increment of pattern growth. Direction patterns can be unidirectional and bidirectional. Axis—Create the radial pattern by using drag handles to set the angular and radial increments of the pattern. The pattern can also be dragged into a spiral. Table—Create the pattern by using a pattern table and specifying the dimension values for every pattern instance. Reference—Create the pattern by referencing another pattern. Fill—Create the pattern by filling an area with instances according to a selected grid. Curve—Create the pattern along the sketched curve by specifying either the number of pattern members or the distance between the pattern members.

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The rest of the dashboard contents depends on the type of pattern selected. For Dimension patterns, the Pattern dashboard consists of the following: • User interface for patterning in the first direction, indicated by number 1: o A text box with a number of pattern members in the first direction, including the pattern leader. The default is 2. You can type any number. This text box becomes available after you select at least one dimension for patterning in this direction. A collector of dimensions for patterning in the first direction. Click the collector to activate it, then select the dimensions.

o o

Similarly, user interface for patterning in the second direction (optional), indicated by number 2: o o A text box with a number of pattern members in the second direction. A collector of dimensions for patterning in the second direction.

For Direction patterns, the Pattern dashboard consists of the following: • User interface for patterning in the first direction, indicated by number 1: o The first direction reference collector. Click the collector to activate it, then select the reference. You can select a plane (in which case the direction is normal to the plane), a straight edge, a datum axis, or an axis of the coordinate system. The icon, which flips the direction of pattern increment in the first direction.

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A text box with a number of pattern members in the first direction, including the pattern leader. The default is 2. You can type any number. This text box becomes available after you specify the direction. A combo box for specifying the first direction increment value. This box also becomes available after you specify the direction.

o o

Similarly, user interface for patterning in the second direction (optional), indicated by number 2: o The second direction reference collector. Click the collector to activate it, then select the reference. The icon, which flips the direction of pattern increment in the second direction. A text box with a number of pattern members in the second direction. A combo box for specifying the second direction increment value.

o o o

For Axis patterns, the Pattern dashboard consists of the following: • User interface for patterning in the first direction, indicated by number 1: o The first direction reference collector. Click the collector to activate it, then select an axis to be the center of the pattern. The icon, which flips the direction of pattern increment in the first direction. A text box with a number of pattern members in the first direction, including the pattern leader. The default is 4. You can type any number. This text box becomes available after you specify the axis. A combo box for specifying the first direction increment value. This box also becomes available after you specify the direction. The icon, which allows you to switch between two methods for specifying the placement in the angular direction.

o o

o

o o

Similarly, user interface for patterning in the second direction (optional), indicated by number 2: o The second direction reference collector. Click the collector to activate it, then select the reference. The icon, which flips the direction of pattern increment in the second direction. A text box with a number of pattern members in the second direction. A combo box for specifying the second direction increment value.

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For Table patterns, the Pattern dashboard consists of the following: • • A collector of dimensions to be included in the pattern table. Click the collector to activate it, then select the dimensions. The Active table list—Lets you select the active table. The active table is the table that drives the pattern. Initially this list contains only one table. Use the Tables slide-up panel to create additional tables. The Edit command—Lets you edit the active table.

For reference patterns, the pattern dashboard consists of the Reference type list. The options in the list allow you to reference the feature pattern, the group pattern, or both. This list is available only if: • • The pattern is part of a group that is also patterned. A reference pattern has references to a pattern or a group.

However, this list is not available if the reference pattern has references to more than one pattern or group.

For Fill patterns, the Pattern dashboard consists of the following: • —A collector of sketched sections indicating the area to be filled by the pattern. Can contain only one sketch. —Lets you select the grid template for the pattern: o o o o o o o o Square—Space the member in a square pattern. Diamond—Space the member in a diamond pattern. Triangle—Space the member in a triangular pattern. Circle—Space the member in a circular pattern. Curve—Space the member along the fill area boundary. Spiral—Space the member in a spiral pattern. —Sets the spacing between pattern member centers. —Sets the minimum distance between the pattern member centers and the sketch boundary. Negative value allows centers to lie outside the sketch. —Sets the rotation of the grid about the origin. —Sets the radial spacing for circular and spiral grids.

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For Curve patterns, the Pattern dashboard consists of the following: • —A sketch collector indicating the curve along which the pattern will be created. It can contain only one sketch. —Lets you specify the distance between the pattern member centers along the curve. —Lets you specify the number of pattern members along the curve.

Slide-up Panels
The Pattern dashboard displays the following slide-up panels: • Dimensions—Contains the collectors of dimensions used for patterning in the first and second direction. This slide-up panel is available only for Dimension patterns. Table Dimensions—Contains the collector of dimensions included in the pattern table. This slide-up panel is available only for Table patterns. References—Contains the name of the sketch used in the pattern and the Define button, which lets you sketch the area to be filled by the pattern. This slide-up panel is available only for Fill and curve patterns. Tables—Contains the collector of tables used for patterning. This slide-up panel is available only for Table patterns. Options—Contains the pattern regeneration options. Properties—Contains the feature name and an icon to access feature information.

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The Dimensions slide-up panel contains the following elements: • The Direction 1 collector—Contains the dimensions and increments used to pattern in the first direction. You have to include at least one dimension and specify the increment to create a pattern. You can also use the following to control dimension increments: o o The Define increment by relation checkbox—Lets you define the dimension increment by using a relation instead of a constant value. The Edit button—Lets you edit the relation driving the increment of selected dimension. This button is available only if the Define increment by relation checkbox is selected.

o

The Direction 2 collector—Contains the dimensions and increments used to pattern in the second direction. Use this collector if you want to create a bidirectional pattern. This collector also has associated controls for specifying dimension increments by using relations, similar to the Direction 1 collector. To

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activate the Direction 2 collector, use the Direction 2 Dimensions option on the shortcut (right-click) menu. The Table Dimensions slide-up panel contains the collector of dimensions to be included in the pattern table. The References slide-up panel contains the collector for the sketch used to define the Fill area of the pattern. It also contains the Define button that lets you sketch the area to be filled by the pattern. The Tables slide-up panel contains the collector of tables used for patterning. Each line contains a table index entry (starting with 1) and an associated table name. You can change the table name by typing a new one. If you right-click on a table index entry in the collector, the shortcut menu contains the following commands: • • • • Add—Lets you edit another table for the pattern. When you exit the editor, the new table is added at the bottom of the collector list. Remove—Removes the selected table from the collector. Apply—Activates the selected table. The active table is the table that drives the pattern. Edit—Lets you edit the selected table. While you are editing the table, you can save it on disk in a .ptb file, or read a previously saved .ptb file into it, by using the appropriate options under File. When you are done editing the table, click File > Exit. The table is then saved in the pattern. Read—Lets you read in a previously saved pattern table (a .ptb file). Write—Lets you save the selected pattern table. The table is saved in the current working directory in a file named <TableName>.ptb, where <TableName> is the name of the pattern table.

• •

The Options slide-up panel contains the pattern regeneration options: • Identical—Pro/ENGINEER assumes that all the pattern members are identical in size, are placed on the same surface, and do not intersect each other or part boundaries. Variable—Pro/ENGINEER assumes that the pattern members can vary in size, or be placed on different surfaces, but they can not intersect each other or part boundaries. General—This is the default. Pro/ENGINEER does not make any assumptions about the pattern members.

The Options slide-up panel for the Curve pattern has the following additional options: • Member orientation on sketch plane—Select one of the following to specify how the pattern members are to be oriented on the sketch plane. o Follow curve—This is the default. Specifies that each pattern member be oriented to follow the curve on the sketch plane, such that the relationship between the pattern leader and curve is maintained between each pattern

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member and the curve. For example, if the pattern leader is tangent to the curve, then the pattern members are also tangent to the curve. o Constant—Specifies that all the pattern members will have a constant orientation along the curve on the sketch plane. This orientation is similar to the pattern leader.

o

Project members on surface—Specifies that pattern members are to be projected onto the selected surface. Select one of the following to specify how pattern members are projected with respect to the selected surface. Pattern members that cannot be projected onto the selected surface are removed from the pattern. To accurately align the pattern members when they are projected onto the selected surface, the pattern leader and the sketch plane should be tangent to the projection surface. If the sketch plane and pattern leader are not tangent to the selected surface, then pattern members will follow the selected surface and curve according to the selected orientation type. o Follow surface—This is the default. Specifies that each pattern member be oriented to follow the surface such that the orientation relationship between the pattern leader and the surface is maintained between each pattern member and the surface. Constant—Specifies that all the pattern members will have a constant orientation on the selected surface. This orientation is similar to the pattern leader.

o

In addition to the Follow surface and Constant options under Project members on surface, the Options slide-up panel for Fill pattern also has the following additional options: • • Use alternate origin—Use this option to specify that an alternative origin be used for the Fill pattern. This option is not selected by default. Alternate origin collector—Use this collector to specify an alternative origin for the Fill pattern. This collector is available only if you have selected Use alternate origin.

The Options slide-up panel for the Axis pattern has the following additional options: • Member orientation on rotation plane—Select one of the following to specify how the pattern members are to be oriented on the rotation plane. o Follow rotation—This is the default. Pattern members are oriented following the rotation such that the relationship between the pattern leader and the axis is maintained for each pattern member. Constant—Specifies that all the pattern members will have a constant orientation same as the pattern leader.

o

The Properties slide-up panel contains the Name text box, where you can type a custom name for the pattern feature, to replace the automatically generated name. It also contains the feature. icon that you can click to display information about the

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Shortcut Menus
Right-click anywhere in the graphics window to access the Pattern shortcut menu, which contains the following commands: • Direction 1 Dimensions—Activates the collector of dimensions used for patterning in the first direction. Available only for Dimension and Direction patterns. Direction 2 Dimensions—Activates the collector of dimensions used for patterning in the second direction. Available only for Dimension and Direction patterns. Direction 1 Reference—Activates the collector for selecting a direction reference in the first direction. Available only for Direction patterns. Direction 2 Reference—Activates the collector for selecting a direction reference in the second direction. Available only for Direction patterns. Axis Reference—Activates the collector for selecting an axis. Available only for Axis patterns. Clear—Remove all references from the collector that is currently active. Show Dimensions—Displays dimensions of the feature being patterned (for example, after repainting the screen).

• • • • •

To Create a Dimension Pattern
This procedure describes how to pattern a feature by using driving dimensions and specifying the incremental changes to the pattern. Dimensional patterns can be unidirectional and bidirectional. 1. Select the feature you want to pattern and click on the Edit Features toolbar. The Pattern Dashboard appears, with the default pattern type set to Dimension. The collector of dimensions for patterning in the first direction is active. 2. Select a dimension for patterning in the first direction. A combo box opens in the graphic window, with the dimension increment initially equal to the dimension value. Type or select a value for the dimension increment. Note: Only the first time, you can specify the dimension increment in the graphics window. To modify it, use the appropriate Increment field in the Dimensions slide-up panel. 3. To select more dimensions for patterning in the first direction, hold the control key. Specify the increment for each selected dimension. 4. Type the number of pattern members in the first direction (including the pattern leader) in the text box adjacent to label 1 on the dashboard. The default number of pattern members is 2. 5. To create a bidirectional pattern, click on the collector of dimensions for patterning in the second direction to activate it, select the dimensions, specify

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the dimension increments, and type the number of pattern members in the second direction in the text box located between the label 2 and the collector of dimensions for patterning in the second direction. 6. Click on the dashboard. Pro/ENGINEER patterns the selected feature.

Varying the Location and Size of Instances
The following diagram shows how to vary both the location and size of instances when creating a Dimension pattern of holes: • • • • To locate the holes horizontally, select d5 as the driving dimension and enter the value for d6 (the incremental dimension). To locate the holes vertically, select d4 as the driving dimension and enter the value for d7 (the incremental dimension). To vary the diameter, select d3 as the driving dimension and enter the value for the increment in the diameter (d8 - d3). Enter the total number of instances (including the original) in this direction.

Use a bidirectional pattern to locate instances in rows and columns.

Using Negative Increment in a Dimension Pattern
A positive or negative value for the increment determines the direction in which pattern instances are added: • A positive increment causes the system to place instances in the same direction as the initial feature was placed.

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A negative increment reverses this direction.

You can reverse the direction in which instances are added to the pattern leader by specifying a negative increment.

Using Relations in Dimension Patterns
You can use relations to drive pattern increments. At the time you select a dimension to drive the pattern in a specific direction and specify the dimension increment, you can add a relation for that increment. This allows the incremental value to vary for each instance of the pattern. You can use the following pattern parameters inside a pattern relation: • LEAD_V—Parameter symbol for the leader value (the dimension you just selected to determine the direction)

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MEMB_V—Parameter symbol to locate the instances with respect to the reference entity of the pattern leader MEMB_I—Parameter symbol to locate an instance with respect to the previous instance IDX1 and IDX2 —Pattern instance index values, which are incremented for each calculated pattern instance. Note: MEMB_V and MEMB_I are mutually exclusive—they cannot appear in the same pattern relation together.

Example: Creating a Unidirectional Linear Pattern
This example shows creating a unidirectional pattern of holes. The original part is shown in the following illustration.

1. Select the Hole feature and click in the Edit Features toolbar. The system displays dimensions that control the Hole feature. 2. Select dimension (1), which controls the distance from the hole axis to the left edge of the part, as shown in the next illustration.

3. A combo box opens in the graphic window, with the dimension increment initially equal to 3.00 (the dimension value). Type 7 for the dimension increment. 213

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4. To specify the number of pattern members in the first direction, type 3 in the text box in the dialog bar that is located between the label 1 and the collector of dimensions for patterning in the first direction. in the dialog bar. The system patterns the hole, as shown in the 5. Click following illustration.

Example: Creating a Bidirectional Linear Pattern
This example shows creating a bidirectional pattern. The original part is shown in the following illustration.

1. Select the protrusion (1) and click in the Edit Features toolbar. The system displays dimensions that control the selected feature. 2. For the first direction, select dimension (1), which controls the distance from the protrusion to the left edge of the part, as shown in the next illustration.

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3. A combo box opens in the graphic window, with the dimension increment initially equal to 1.50 (the dimension value). Type 3.1 for the dimension increment. 4. To specify the number of pattern members in the first direction, type 6 in the text box in the dialog bar that is located between the label 1 and the collector of dimensions for patterning in the first direction. 5. Click the collector of dimensions for patterning in the second direction. Select dimension (2), which controls the distance from the protrusion to the front edge of the part. Type 3.5 for the dimension increment. 6. Hold down the CTRL key and select dimension (3), which controls the height of the protrusion. Type 1 for the dimension increment. 7. To specify the number of pattern members in the second direction, type 3 in the text box in the dialog bar that is located between the label 2 and the collector of dimensions for patterning in the second direction. in the dialog bar. The system creates the pattern, as shown in the 8. Click following illustration.

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Example: Creating a Rotational Pattern of Holes
To create a rotational pattern of holes, place the hole using the Radial placement option. This way, the hole has an angular dimension controlling its location, and you can use this dimension for patterning, as shown in this example. 1. Create the first hole. Select the top surface of the disk as the primary reference for hole placement. Open the Placement slide-up panel, select Radial as the placement option, click the Secondary references collector, and select the central axis and the FRONT datum plane as secondary references, as shown in the following illustration.

2. Select the Hole feature and click in the Edit Features toolbar. The system displays dimensions that control the Hole feature.

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3. Select the angular dimension (30.00 degrees) and type 60 for the dimension increment. 4. To specify the number of pattern members, type 6 in the text box in the dialog bar that is located between the label 1 and the collector of dimensions for patterning in the first direction. in the dialog bar. The system patterns the hole, as shown in the 5. Click following illustration.

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Example: Creating a Rotational Pattern of Sketched Features
To create a rotational pattern of a feature, the feature must have an angular placement dimension. Use a datum plane located at an angle as a sketching or reference plane for creating the sketched feature. Then use the angular dimension of the datum plane to create the rotational pattern. This example shows creating a rotational pattern of a sketched protrusion by pausing the Extrude tool to create the angular datum plane, then patterning the resulting group of features. The original part is shown in the following illustration.

1. Click

to start creating the protrusion.

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in the Datum toolbar. Select 2. Pause the tool to create a datum plane. Click the datum axis A_2 as the first reference. Hold the CTRL key and select the FRONT datum plane as the second reference. The system creates the datum plane DTM1 at a default angle of 45 degrees, as shown in the next illustration. Click OK.

3. Resume the paused tool. Click . Select the datum plane DTM1 as the sketching plane and the datum plane TOP as the reference plane, and sketch a circle, as shown in the following illustration. Exit Sketcher.

4. Adjust the depth of protrusion, as shown in the next illustration.

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. The system groups the protrusion and the datum plane, and blanks 5. Click the datum plane from display. 6. Select the group PROTRUSION in the model tree and click . The system displays the dimensions of all the features in the group, as shown in the following illustration.

7. Select the angular dimension (45.00 degrees) and accept the value 45 for the dimension increment. 8. To specify the number of pattern members, type 8 in the text box in the dialog bar that is located between the label 1 and the collector of dimensions for patterning in the first direction.

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in the dialog bar. The system patterns the protrusion group. The final 9. Click part geometry is shown in the next illustration.

Note: Another way to create this rotational pattern is to create the angular datum plane prior to creating the protrusion. Use this datum plane as a sketching plane for the protrusion. Pattern the datum plane by selecting the angular dimension and specifying the dimension increment. Then create a reference pattern of protrusion by referencing the datum plane pattern.

Example: Creating a Dimension Pattern Using Relations
This example shows using pattern parameters, such as MEMB_V and MEMB_I, to control the location of pattern members. When you are including other pattern parameters, such as the number of instances (p#) in the relation, you must build the relation in two steps. When you first define the pattern, you do not know the symbol that the system is going to assign to the number of pattern instances (in this example, p9). You can include the p9 parameter in the relation only after the pattern is created. Therefore, you can use a placeholder, such as 10 in the example below, and then redefine the pattern and change the relation to include p9. The original part, with all dimension symbols, is shown in the following illustration.

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1. Select the Hole feature and click

in the Edit Features toolbar.

2. Select dimension d5 in the graphics window, which controls the distance from the hole axis to the left edge of the part. Accept the default value of the dimension increment. 3. Open the Dimension slide-up panel and click the increment cell for the dimension. 4. Click Define increment by relation option below the collector. The dimension increment value changes to Relation. 5. Click Edit. The Relations window opens. 6. Add the following relation: memb_i = (d1-(2*d5))/10 7. Click Ok in the Relations window to quit the relations editor. 8. Hold the CTRL key and select dimension d4, which controls the distance from the hole axis to the front edge of the part. Repeat the steps to define the dimension increment by relation. Add the following relations: incr=10 memb_v = lead_v + 5 * sin(incr*idx1) 9. Click on the dashboard to create the pattern.

10. To view the pattern dimensions, place your cursor over the dimension that controls the number of pattern members (2 HOLES), the dimension symbol appears in the pop-up balloon. In this example, it is p9. 11. Edit the pattern definition and modify the relation for d5 as follows: memb_i = (d1-(2*d5))/(p9-1) Modify the first line of the relation for d4 as follows:

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incr = 180/(p9-1) 12. Change the number of pattern members to 10. on the pattern dashboard. The resulting pattern for these relations is 13. Click shown in the next illustration.

The pattern maintains the same relationship to the part, regardless of the change in the length d1, or the change to the number of instances in the pattern. If you modify the number of pattern members to 5, the resulting pattern is shown in the following illustration.

To Create a Direction Pattern
You can pattern a feature by using directional references and dragging the patterned features. Directional patterns can be unidirectional and bidirectional. 1. Select the feature you want to pattern and click The Pattern dashboard opens. in the Edit Features toolbar.

2. To set the pattern type to Direction, select Direction from the list box of pattern types in the dialog bar. The layout of the dialog bar changes. The collector of first direction becomes active. 3. Select one of the following entities to use as a direction reference: • Straight edge

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Plane or planar surface Linear curve Axis of Coordinate system Datum axis

The system creates a default pattern of two members, indicated by a black dot, in the selected direction. 4. Type the number of pattern members in the first direction. 5. To change the distance between the pattern members, drag the placement handle. Tip: You can also type the distance between the pattern members in the increment text box. 6. To add pattern members in another direction, click the second direction collector and select the second direction reference. Tip: You can select a collector by rightclicking in the in the graphics window and selecting from the shortcut 7. Type the number of pattern members in the second direction in the box, preceded by the label 2. 8. Adjust the distance between the members in the second direction by dragging the placement handle in the second direction or by typing the increment. 9. To reverse the direction of the pattern, click negative increment value. for each direction, or enter a

10. (Optional) To create a variable pattern, add dimensions to vary in the Dimension slide-up panel. 11. Click in the dialog bar. The system patterns the selected feature.

Example: Creating a Direction Pattern
Use the Direction pattern to create the hole pattern shown in the next figure.

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1. When patterning the hole in the first direction, select the highlighted edge as the pattern direction.

2. Specify the number of members and adjust the distance between the members by dragging the placement handle along the selected edge.

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3. To add members in the second direction, select another edge to use as the pattern direction. Specify the number of edges and adjust the distance between members by dragging the handle along the second direction. Note: You can flip the direction of the pattern by entering a negative value for the increment, or by dragging the placement handle in the opposite direction.

To Create an Axis Pattern
You can create a pattern by revolving a feature around an axis. Tip: You can create a datum axis while inside the Pattern tool by selecting toolbar. 1. Select the feature you want to pattern and click The Pattern dashboard opens. 226 from the Datum Features

in the Edit Features toolbar.

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2. To set the pattern type to Axis, select Axis from the list of pattern types in the dialog bar. The layout of the dialog bar changes. 3. Select or create a datum axis to be the center of the pattern. The system creates a default pattern in the angular direction. The pattern members are indicated by black dots. 4. You can adjust the pattern according to your design. To specify the number of pattern members in the angular direction, type the number in the text box on the dashboard. 5. Use one of these methods to space pattern members in the angular direction: o o To specify the angle between pattern members, type the angle in the number box, or select from the list or predefined angles. To specify the angular extent within which all pattern members are equally spaced, click and type the angle extent in the text box, or choose from a list of predefined angles. 6. To add pattern members in the radial (second) direction, type the number of members in the text box, preceded by the label 2. 7. To space members in the radial direction, type the distance between members in the text box. 8. To reverse the direction of the pattern, click negative increment value. for each direction, or enter a

9. (Optional) To create a variable pattern, add dimensions to vary in the Dimension slide-up panel.

10. To orient the pattern members perpendicular to the radial direction, click 11. Click in the dialog bar. The system creates the pattern.

.

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Example: Creating an Axis Pattern Pattern Directions
The next figure shows an axis pattern created in the angular (first direction). The axis A-4 was selected as the central axis for the pattern.

The next figure shows how the previous pattern was modified to add holes in the radial (second) direction.

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Two Methods for Locating Members in the Angular Direction
Method 1: Using the number of members and increment The next figure shows how a hole is patterned by specifying the number of members (8) and the angle between two members (increment of 30 degrees).

Method 2: Using the number of members and angular extent of the pattern The next figure shows how a hole is patterned by specifying the number of members (8) and the angular extent (270 degrees). The 8 pattern members are equally spaced within 270 degrees.

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Example: Creating a Spiral Pattern
To create a spiral pattern, use the Axis pattern and vary the radial placement dimension of each member (the distance between the member and the central axis of the pattern). 1. Define the pattern as usual by specifying the number of members and the increment between the members. 2. Click the Dimension slide-up panel. 3. On the panel, click the cell under Dimension to activate the selection. 4. On the model, select the radial placement dimension that you want to vary. In this case, it is R100.09.

5. Type the increment that will be used to increase the radial dimension for each member. In this example, enter 15. The resulting pattern appears as in the next figure.

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To Create a Table Pattern
This procedure describes how to pattern a feature by using a pattern table and specifying the dimension values for every pattern instance. 1. Select the feature you want to pattern and click in the Edit Features toolbar. The Pattern Dashboard opens, with the default pattern type set to Dimension. 2. To set the pattern type to Table, select Table from the drop-down list box of pattern types in the dialog bar. The layout of the dialog bar changes. The collector of dimensions to be included in the pattern table becomes active. 3. Select dimensions to be included in the pattern table. Hold down the CTRL key to select multiple dimensions. 4. Click Edit in the dialog bar. The table editor window opens. The table contains an index column, for specifying the index for each pattern member, and a column for each dimension selected in Step 3. The header for a dimension column contains the dimension symbol, with the default value, equal to the dimension value of the pattern leader, next to the symbol in parenthesis. 5. For each pattern member, add a row in the table, starting with the index number, and specify the dimension values for this pattern member. Use an asterisk (*) to retain the default dimension value. The pattern indices start from 1. They must be unique, but do not have to be sequential. You can import a previously saved pattern table by clicking File > Read in the top menu bar in the table editor window and typing the name of the table file.

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You can also save the current table for future use by clicking File > Save or by clicking File > Save As and typing the file name. 6. When finished editing the pattern table, click File > Exit in the top menu bar in the table editor window. 7. To create additional pattern tables, open the Tables slide-up panel, right-click in it, and select Add from the shortcut menu. The table editor window opens to let you edit the new table. When finished editing the pattern table, click File > Exit. 8. If you have more than one pattern table defined, select the active table from the Active table drop-down list in the dialog bar. 9. Click in the dialog bar. The system patterns the selected feature.

Example: Creating a Table Pattern
This example shows creating a table pattern. The original part is shown in the following illustration.

1. Select the protrusion (1) and click in the Edit Features toolbar. The system displays dimensions that control the selected feature. 2. Select Table from the drop-down list box of pattern types in the dialog bar. 3. Select dimensions to be included in the pattern table, as shown in the next illustration. Hold down the CTRL key to select multiple dimensions.

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4. Click Edit in the dialog bar. The table editor window opens. 5. For each pattern member, add a row in the table, specifying its dimension values. The finished pattern table is shown in the following illustration.

6. Click File > Exit in the top menu bar in the table editor window. in the dialog bar. The system creates the pattern, as shown in the 7. Click following illustration.

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To Modify a Table Pattern by Editing its Tables
1. Click Edit > Pattern Table. The TABLES dialog box opens. The TABLES dialog box shows all of the modifiable pattern tables in the current active object. The active object can be the top-level assembly, a subassembly, a part, or a feature. You can change the active object by using the active object menu. Depending on the active object selected, you may be required to make a selection on the screen (for example, in a part, if the active object is feature, you must select a feature that belongs to a table driven pattern). 2. Use icons at the bottom of the dialog box to modify the table pattern as follows: o To add another table to the pattern, select the pattern or one of its tables in the Pattern Table Tree, and click o .

To activate a table, select its name in the Pattern Table Tree and click .

o

. You can also select a table by To edit a table, select its name and click double-clicking on its name in the Pattern Table Tree. To delete a table, select its name and click To rename a table, select its name and click . . .

o o o o

To save a table to disk in a separate file, select its name and click

To retrieve a table from disk, select a pattern or one of its tables in the Pattern Table Tree, click dialog box. , and then select a .ptb file from the Open

3. If you want to save the changes and continue working with the TABLES dialog box, click Apply. To finish and save changes to the pattern tables, click OK. To cancel and remove any changes press Cancel.

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To Redefine Various Pattern Types as a Table Pattern
1. Select one of the following patterns on the Model Tree or in the graphics window. o o o o o Dimension Fill Pattern Direction Pattern Axis Pattern or Curve Pattern

2. Right-click the selected pattern on the Model Tree or in the graphics window and click Edit Definition on the shortcut menu. Alternatively, click Edit > Definition. The pattern dashboard opens. 3. Set the pattern type to Table by selecting Table from the list of pattern types on the pattern dashboard. 4. Click Yes in the Confirm dialog box to convert the selected pattern type to a table pattern. Note: o The table in the table pattern displays values only if you select one of the following pattern types with a secondary dimension. Dimension pattern Direction pattern Axis pattern o The table is empty if you select one of the following pattern types: Fill pattern Curve pattern Direction pattern without a secondary dimension Axis pattern without a secondary dimension 5. Select a dimension in the graphics window to be included in the table pattern. To select multiple dimensions, hold down the CTRL key and select the dimensions. 6. Click Edit on the dashboard. The Pro/TABLE window opens. 7. Modify the table dimensions as required. 8. Save and quit the Pro/TABLE window to return to the pattern dashboard. 9. Click on the dashboard. Pro/ENGINEER redefines the selected pattern to table pattern.

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To Create a Reference Pattern
This procedure describes how to pattern a feature by referencing another pattern. 1. Select the feature you want to pattern and click The pattern dashboard appears. Note: o o The selected feature must reference another patterned feature. If the selected feature is of a type that cannot be patterned any other way, such as a round or chamfer, Pro/ENGINEER creates a reference pattern of this feature. on the Edit Features toolbar.

2. If the selected feature can be patterned independently, such as a coaxial hole, the Pattern dashboard opens, with the default pattern type set to Reference. The pattern leader is identified by . 3. To exclude a pattern member at a certain location, click the corresponding black dot. The black dot changes to white ( ) to show that the pattern member has been excluded. To restore the pattern member, click the white dot again at any time while redefining the pattern. 4. Click on the dashboard. Pro/ENGINEER patterns the selected feature. and the pattern members are identified by

Example: Creating a Reference Pattern
This example shows chamfering the edges of a pattern of holes by creating a reference pattern. The original part, containing a pattern of holes, is shown in the following illustration.

1. Create a Chamfer feature and select one of the hole edges. The system chamfers the selected hole, as shown in the next illustration.

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2. Select the Chamfer feature and click in the Edit Features toolbar. The system creates a reference pattern of the Chamfer feature based on the Hole pattern and, as a result, chamfers all the holes in the pattern, as shown in the following illustration.

Example: Creating a Fill Pattern
This example shows creating a fill pattern to drill a pattern of holes in a plate. The original part is shown in the following illustration.

1. Select the hole and click

in the Edit Features toolbar.

2. Select Fill from the drop-down list box of pattern types in the dialog bar. 3. Click References > Define to sketch the fill area.

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4. Select the top surface of the part as the sketching plane. 5. Use the edges of the part to create the sketch. If you are using the Intent Manager in Sketcher, click Sketch > Edge > Use > Loop and select an edge of the part. This way, the fill area includes the whole part. When you exit Sketcher, the system displays the default grid, as shown in the next illustration.

6. Select Diamond from the drop-down list box of grid types in the dialog bar. Modify the value that sets the spacing between pattern member centers, if needed. Specify the minimum distance between the pattern member centers and the sketch boundary, equal to the distance of the original hole feature from the part edges. The system updates the pattern grid, as shown in the following illustration.

in the dialog bar. The system creates the pattern, as shown in the next 7. Click illustration.

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To Create a Fill Pattern
This procedure describes how to pattern a feature by filling an area with pattern members according to a selected grid. 1. Select the feature that you want to pattern and click on the Edit Features toolbar. The Pattern Dashboard appears, with the default pattern type set to Dimension. 2. To set the pattern type to fill, select Fill from the list of pattern types on the dashboard. The layout of the dashboard changes. 3. Select an existing sketched curve, or click References > Define and sketch the area to be filled by the pattern. Note: When you enter Sketcher, you cannot see the pattern leader. If you want to use the pattern leader location to dimension the sketch, make sure that you locate the leader to references, such as datum planes. You can then use these references to create the sketch. As soon as you select a curve or quit Sketcher, Pro/ENGINEER displays a preview of the pattern grid, based on the default values. Each pattern member is identified by a black dot ( ).

4. The default grid type is set to Square. If you want to use another grid type, select it from the box adjacent to on the dashboard.

5. To change the spacing between pattern member centers, type or select a value in the box adjacent to on the dashboard. Alternatively, in the graphics window, drag the handle or double-click the value associated with the Space label and type a new value. 6. To change the minimum distance between the pattern member centers and the sketch boundary, type or select a value in the box adjacent to on the dashboard. A negative value makes the center lie outside the sketch. Alternatively, in the graphics window, drag the handle or double-click the value associated with the handle and type a new value.

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7. To specify the rotation angle of the grid about the origin, type or select a value in on the dashboard. Alternatively, in the graphics window, the box adjacent to drag the handle or double-click the value associated with the handle and type a value. 8. To change the radial spacing for circular and spiral grids, type or select a value in on the dashboard. Alternatively, in the graphics window, the box adjacent to drag the handle or double-click the value associated with the handle and type a new value. 9. To project pattern members onto a surface and orient the members, click Options on the dashboard and select Follow surface shape. The surface collector becomes active. 10. Select a surface in the model along which the pattern members are to be projected. 11. Click Follow surface to specify that each pattern member is oriented to follow the surface or click Constant to specify that all the pattern members will have a constant orientation similar to the orientation of the pattern leader. 12. To exclude a pattern member at a certain location, click the corresponding black dot that identifies the pattern member, in the graphics window. The black dot changes to white ( ) to show that the pattern member has been excluded. You can click the white dot again at any time while redefining the pattern to restore the pattern member at the corresponding location. 13. Click on the dashboard. Pro/ENGINEER patterns the selected feature.

Example: Making Fill Pattern Members Follow a Surface Shape
This example shows you how to make pattern members follow the shape of a selected surface. Create a Fill Pattern as described in another example. Follow the steps below to make the pattern members follow the shape of a selected surface as shown in the following illustration.

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Note: For pattern members to follow the shape of a selected surface, make the pattern leader and the sketch plane tangent to the selected surface. However, it is not essential that the sketch plane and the pattern leader be tangent to the selected surface. 1. On the Pattern dashboard, click Options and select Follow surface shape. The surface collector becomes active. 2. Select a surface in the model along which the pattern members are to be projected.

1 Minimum distance between the pattern member center and the sketch boundary 2 Reference sketch 3 Pattern leader 4 Surface selected for the pattern members to follow 5 Spacing between pattern members

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3. Click Follow surface to specify that each pattern member is oriented to follow the shape of the surface. 4. If required, change the spacing between pattern member centers, by typing a new value in the box adjacent to on the dashboard. Alternatively, in the graphics window, drag the handle or double-click the value for Space and type a new value. 5. If required, change the minimum distance between the pattern member centers and the sketch boundary, by typing a new value in the box adjacent to on the dashboard. A negative value makes the center lie outside the sketch. Alternatively, in the graphics window, drag the handle or double-click the value associated with the handle and type a new value. 6. If required, exclude a pattern member at a certain location by clicking the corresponding black dot. The black dot changes to white to show that the pattern member has been excluded. on the Pattern dashboard. Pro/ENGINEER projects the pattern 7. Click members onto the selected surface, orients the pattern members to follow the selected surface, and patterns the selected feature.

To Change the Origin of the Fill Pattern
1. Select the feature that you want to pattern and click on the Edit Features toolbar. The pattern dashboard appears, with the default pattern type set to Dimension. 2. Set the pattern type to Fill by selecting Fill from the list of pattern types on the pattern dashboard. The layout of the pattern dashboard changes. 3. Click References > Define on the pattern dashboard and sketch the area to be filled by the pattern. Alternatively, select an existing sketch. 4. Select the required grid type from the Grid box. The default grid type is Square. Note: You can select a grid from the Grid box only after you select or sketch the area to be filled by the pattern. 5. Click Options > Use alternative origin on the pattern dashboard. The origin collector becomes active. 6. Select a datum point in the graphics window to be included as the alternative origin. You can select any one of the following as the alternative origin: o o o 242 Datum point Coordinate system A vertex

Part o

Sketched curve end

Note: You can only select features created before the pattern leader as the alternative origin. on the dashboard. Pro/ENGINEER patterns the selected feature based 7. Click on the alternative origin specified.

To Create a Curve Pattern
1. Select the feature that you want to pattern and click on the edit features toolbar. The pattern dashboard appears, with the default pattern type set to Dimension. 2. Set the pattern type to Curve, by selecting Curve from the list of pattern types on the pattern dashboard. The layout of the pattern dashboard changes and the sketch collector becomes active. 3. Select a sketched curve to be included in the Curve pattern. Alternatively, you can also sketch a curve along which the pattern will be created. To sketch a curve, click References > Define on the dashboard. Note: o You can also create a Curve pattern with more than one sketch curve section. To create successive sections, click Sketch > Feature Tools > Toggle Section in the Sketcher window. A Curve pattern can have all closed sections or all open sections, but not a combination of closed and open sections. As soon as you select a curve or sketch a curve, Pro/ENGINEER displays a preview of the pattern along the curve, based on default values. Each pattern member is identified by a black dot.

o o

4. To change the distance between the pattern members, type or select a value in the box adjacent to .

Note: By default the Curve pattern with specified member spacing ( ) is selected. If you want to specify the number of pattern members instead of specified member spacing, click the box. and type the number of pattern members in

5. To change the start point and direction of the curve, click References > Edit on the dashboard to enter the sketcher mode. 6. Select a curve end from the sketch as the start point for open sketches or select any vertex from the sketch for a closed sketch and click Sketch > Feature Tools > Start Point. The selected curve end or vertex is set as the start point.

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Note: o o o 7. Click For open sketches, the direction of the pattern is always from the start point of the curve towards the end point of the curve. For closed sketches, the direction of the pattern can be from either side of the selected vertex. For single entity closed sketches, divide the sketch to select the start point. to quit the sketcher mode.

8. To exclude a pattern member at a certain location, click the corresponding black dot ( ). The black dot changes to white ( ) to show that the pattern member has been excluded. To restore the pattern member, click the white dot again at any time while redefining the pattern. The pattern leader is identified by 9. Click on the dashboard. Pro/ENGINEER patterns the selected feature. .

Example: Patterning a Hole Using Curve Pattern
This example shows you how to pattern a hole along a curve using Curve Pattern, as shown in the following figure:

1. While patterning a hole, select the highlighted curve as the pattern reference along which the pattern is to be created.

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2. On the dashboard specify either the number of pattern members or the distance between the pattern members to be created along the selected curve.

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3. To exclude a pattern member at a certain location, click the corresponding black dot. The black dot changes to white to show that the pattern member has been excluded.

1 Pattern leader 2 Excluded pattern members 4. Pro/ENGINEER patterns the hole as shown in the following figure:

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To Create a Pattern of a Feature Pattern
1. Select the feature pattern that you want to pattern and click on the edit features toolbar or click Edit > Pattern. Alternatively, right-click the feature pattern and click Pattern on the shortcut menu. The pattern dashboard appears, with the default pattern type set to Dimension. 2. Set the required pattern type by selecting it from the list of pattern types on the pattern dashboard. 3. Perform the steps required to pattern the selected feature pattern. 4. To exclude a pattern member at a certain location, click the corresponding black dot ( ). The black dot changes to white ( ) to show that the pattern member has been excluded. To restore the pattern member, click the white dot again at any time while redefining the pattern. The pattern leader is identified by 5. Click pattern. on the dashboard. Pro/ENGINEER patterns the selected feature .

To Delete the Pattern of a Feature Pattern
1. Select the pattern of a feature pattern, that is, the feature pattern pattern that you want to delete, on the Model Tree and right-click. A shortcut menu appears. 2. Click Delete Pattern. The selected pattern of a feature pattern is deleted from the model. Note: o If you click Delete instead of Delete Pattern on the shortcut menu, then the feature pattern and the feature that was used to create the pattern are deleted. Deleting the pattern of a feature pattern permanently removes the pattern from the model.

o

To Unpattern the Pattern of a Feature Pattern
1. Select the pattern of a feature pattern, that is, the feature pattern pattern that you want to unpattern on the Model Tree and right-click. A shortcut menu appears. 2. Click Unpattern. The selected pattern of a feature pattern is unpatterned and the result is a set of feature patterns. Note: You can unpattern the pattern of a feature pattern only if the pattern is either a dimension pattern or a table pattern.

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Project
About the Project Feature
You can use the Project tool to create a projected datum curve on solid and nonsolid surfaces, quilts, or datum planes. You can then use the projected datum curve to trim a surface, to contour a sweep trajectory, or to create a cut in Sheetmetal Design. If you create a curve by sketching on a plane, it can be patterned. Projected curves cannot be crosshatched. If you select a crosshatched datum curve for projection, the system ignores the cross-hatching. There are two methods of projecting a curve: • • Project a Sketch—Creates a sketch or copies an existing sketch into the model to project. Project Chains—Selects a curve or chain to project. or click Edit > Project.

To access the Project tool, click

About the Project User Interface
The Project user interface consists of the following items: Feature icon Dialog bar Slide-up panels Shortcut menus

Feature Icon
All Project features are represented on the Model Tree by Additionally, .

identifies the Project tool in the Edit toolbar.

You can also click Edit > Project to start the Project tool.

Dialog Bar
The Project dialog bar consists of the following elements: • • • • Surfaces collector—Specifies the destination of the projection. Direction options—Sets the direction type to be in a specified direction or normal to the target surfaces. Direction reference summary collector—Specifies the direction reference. —Flips the direction of the projection.

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Slide-up Panels
The Project dashboard displays the following slide-up panels: • In the References panel, you can: o o Choose whether you select a chain or create a sketch to project. When Project chains is selected, use Define to open the Sketch dialog box to create a sketch to project, or copy one into the feature by selecting an existing sketched curve feature. You can also use Define Internal Sketch from the shortcut menu. Use Edit (after defining a sketch) to open the Sketch dialog box so you can edit the internal sketch. You can also use Edit Internal Sketch from the shortcut menu. Use Details to open the Surface Sets dialog box or Chain dialog box, so you can modify the surface set properties or chain properties. Specify the direction reference of the projected datum curve feature. Flip the direction of the projected datum curve.

o

o o o •

In the Properties panel, you can view information about the Project feature in the Pro/ENGINEER browser and enter a user-defined name for the feature.

Shortcut Menus
In the graphics window, you can use the shortcut menu to access the following options. Collectors • • • • Select Sketch—Activates the sketch collector if Project a Sketch is selected in the References slide-up panel. Select Chain—Activates the chain collector to select the chain or chains to project. Select Surfaces—Activates the surface collector to select the surfaces or datum planes on which to project the curve. Select Direction Reference—Selects the reference for the direction of the projection.

Actions • • • Clear—Clears the contents of the active collector. Define Internal Sketch—When Project a Sketch is selected, opens the Sketch dialog box so you can define an internal sketch. Edit Internal Sketch—When Project a Sketch is selected, opens the Sketch dialog box so you can edit an internal sketch.

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Options • • Along direction—Projects the selected chains or sketch in a specified direction. Normal to surface—Projects the selected chains or sketch normal to the target surface.

To Create a Projected Datum Curve by Sketching
1. With a model open, click Edit > Project. The Project dashboard appears. 2. Click the References tab. The Reference panel appears. 3. Select Project a sketch from the list. 4. Click the Sketch collector and either select a sketched curve in the graphics window or click Define and use the Sketch dialog box that opens to create a sketched curve to project. Note: If you are using an internal sketch and want to modify it, click Edit on the References slide-up panel and use the Sketch dialog box or click Edit Internal Sketch on the shortcut menu. 5. Click the Surfaces collector and click a surface in the graphics window on which to project the sketched curve. 6. The sketch plane is selected as the direction reference by default. To change the direction reference, click the Direction Reference collector and select a plane, an axis, an axis of a coordinate system, or a straight entity to use as the projection direction reference. 7. Click . The sketched curve is projected onto the selected surface. or

Note: You can also start the Project tool by selecting a sketch and clicking Edit > Project.

To Create a Projected Datum Curve by Selecting Chains
1. In the graphics window, select one or more curves or chains that you want to project. 2. Click Edit > Project. The Project dashboard appears. 3. Click the References tab. The References panel appears. 4. Select Project chains from the list. 5. Click a surface in the graphics window on which to project the curve or chain. 6. Click the Direction Reference collector and select a plane, an axis, an axis of a coordinate system, or a straight entity to use as the projection direction reference. 7. In the Direction box on the dialog bar, select the projection direction:

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Along direction—Projects the curve along a specified direction. Normal to Surface—Projects the curve normal to the curve plane or a specified plane or surface. . The sketched curve is projected onto the selected surface.

8. Click

Example: Creating a Projected Datum Curve
The next figure shows a sketched datum curve and an extruded surface:

1 Surface 2 Datum curve In the next figure, the datum curve has been selected to be projected onto the extruded surface:

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1 Surface 2 Original datum curve 3 Preview of projected datum curve The next figure shows the projected datum curve on the extruded surface:

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1 Surface 2 Original datum curve 3 Projected datum curve

Wrap
About the Wrap Feature
You can use the Wrap tool to create formed datum curves on destinations. You can then use the formed datum curves to simulate items such as labels or screw threads. The formed datum curve preserves the length of the original sketched curve, when possible.

Origin of Wrapped Datum Curve
The origin of a wrapped datum curve is the reference point around which the sketch is wrapped onto a destination. This point must be able to be projected onto the destination. Otherwise, the Wrap feature fails. You can select either the geometric center of the sketch or any coordinate system in the sketch as the origin. When you select the origin, one of the following symbols is displayed at the selected origin: • • Yellow arrow—Indicates that the Wrap feature can be created only in one direction. Handle—Indicates that the Wrap feature can be created in either the selected direction or in the opposite direction.

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The destination of the wrapped curve must be developable, that is, some type of ruled surface. Pro/ENGINEER automatically selects the first available destination. You can select another destination, if desired.

Options Slide-up Panel
When creating a new Wrap feature, you can define whether the wrapped curve should ignore any intersection surface by clicking Ignore intersection surface in the Options panel. If you do not select this option, separated curves will be wrapped on the intersecting surface. Also when creating a new Wrap feature, you can trim the portion of the curve that cannot be wrapped by clicking Trim at boundary in the Options panel. To access the Wrap tool, click or click Edit > Wrap.

About the Wrap User Interface
The Wrap user interface consists of the following items: Feature icon Dialog bar Slide-up panels Shortcut menus

Feature Icon
All Wrap features are represented on the Model Tree by Additionally, .

identifies the Wrap tool in the Edit toolbar.

You can also click Edit > Wrap to start the Wrap tool.

Dialog Bar
The Wrap dialog bar consists of the following elements: • • • —Specifies the destination of the wrap. —Sets the origin of the wrap. —Reverses the direction of the wrap.

Slide-up Panels
The Wrap dashboard displays the following slide-up panels: • In the References panel, you can: o 254 Create or select a sketch to wrap.

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Specify the destination of the wrap. Break the association between the feature and a sketch. Use Edit to open the Sketch dialog box so you can edit an internal sketch. This is available only if you first break (unlink) the association between the feature and the external sketch. You can also use Edit Internal Sketch from the shortcut menu.

In the Options panel, you can specify the following characteristics: • • Whether to ignore any intersection surface. Whether to trim a curve when the curve is too large to wrap on the destination object. Note: This panel is unavailable when you redefine features created in Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire and earlier versions.

In the Properties panel, you can view information about the Wrap feature in the Pro/ENGINEER browser and enter a user-defined name for the feature.

Shortcut Menus
In the graphics window, you can use the Wrap shortcut menu to access the following options. Collectors • • • Select Sketch—Activates the sketch collector to select the sketch to wrap. Select Destination—Activates the destination collector to select the surface on which to wrap. Edit Internal Sketch—Opens the Sketch dialog box so you can edit an internal sketch.

Actions • Clear—Clears the active collector.

List of Possible Origins (Center is the default if there are no coordinate systems in the sketch. Otherwise, a list of Sketcher coordinate systems is present.) • Center—Specifies the center of the sketch as the origin.

In the graphics window, you can use the handle shortcut menu to access the following option: • Flip—Reverses the direction of the wrap.

In filled collectors on the dashboard, you can use the Wrap shortcut menu to access the following options: • • Remove—Clears the active collector. Information—Displays a window with information about the item that you rightclicked. 255

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To Create a Wrapped Datum Curve
1. Select the sketched datum curve that you want to wrap onto another surface. 2. Click Edit > Wrap. The Wrap dashboard appears. 3. Preview geometry shows the wrapped datum curve on the first solid or quilt the tool finds in the default wrapping direction. Click Select Destination from the shortcut menu and select a different surface, if desired. The Wrap feature is displayed in preview geometry. 4. Click . The sketched datum curve is wrapped on the surface that you selected.

Tip: If you click Unlink on the References slide-up panel, the association between the feature and the sketch is broken, and an internal sketch is created. To modify the internal sketch, click Edit and use the Sketch dialog box. You can also use Edit Internal Sketch from the shortcut menu.

Example: Creating a Wrapped Datum Curve
The next figure shows a sketched datum curve and a solid surface:

1 Datum curve 2 Solid surface In the next figure, the datum curve has been selected to be wrapped onto the solid surface:

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1 Original datum curve 2 Preview of wrapped datum curve 3 Solid surface The next figure shows the wrapped datum curve on the solid surface:

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1 Original datum curve 2 Wrapped datum curve

Using the Options Panel
Note: This panel is unavailable when you redefine features created in Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire and earlier versions. When you create a Wrap feature, you can use the Options panel to specify whether or not to ignore intersection surfaces and to trim a curve at a boundary.

Ignoring Intersection Surfaces
When wrapping separated curves, select the Ignore intersection surface check box to ignore any intersecting surface, if possible. If you do not select this check box, separated curves will be wrapped onto the intersecting surface. This check box is selected by default. The following figures show the results of selecting and not selecting the Ignore intersection surface check box.

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Ignore intersection surface check box selected

Ignore intersection surface check box not selected

Trimming at Boundary
Select the Trim at boundary check box to trim the portion of a curve that cannot be wrapped. The following figure shows the result of selecting the Trim at boundary check box:

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1 Wrapped curve with portions of original curve trimmed at boundaries 2 Datum curve

Extend
About the Extend Feature
To activate the Extend tool, you must first select the boundary edge chain to be extended and then click Edit > Extend. You can extend a quilt by at a specified distance or up to a plane. Specify the desired method by selecting from the Extend dashboard: Along Surface ( surface. • )—Extends the surface boundary edge chain along the original

To Plane ( )—Extends the boundary edge chain up to a specified plane in the direction normal to this plane.

When Along Surface is used to create an Extend feature, choose one of the following options to determine how the extension is done: • Same—(Default) Creates the extension of the same type as the original surface (for example, plane, cylinder, cone, or spline surface). The original surface is extended past its selected boundary edge chain. Tangent—Creates the extension as a ruled surface that is tangent to the original surface. Approximate—Creates the extension as a boundary blend between the boundary edges of the original surface and the edges of the extension. This method is useful when extending the surface up to a vertex that does not lie along a straight edge.

• •

When extending quilts, consider the following information: • You can indicate whether you want to measure the extension distance along the extended surface or along a selected datum plane.

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You can add measurement points to the selected edge so you can vary the extension distance at different points along the boundary edge. You can enter a positive or negative value for extension distance. If the configuration option show_dim_sign is set to no, entering a negative value flips the extension direction. Otherwise, entering a negative value sets the extension direction pointing to the inner side of the boundary edge chain. Entering a negative value causes a surface to be trimmed.

About the Extend User Interface
The Extend user interface consists of the following: Feature icon Dialog bar Slide-up panels Shortcut menu

Feature Icon —
All Extend features are represented in the Model Tree by .

Dialog Bar
The Extend dialog bar consists of the following elements: • —Extends along the original surface. When selected, you can specify the extension distance in the text box for a constant extension. This is not available for variable extension. —Extends to a reference plane. When selected, you can select a reference plane using the reference plane collector. —Flips the direction of the extension relative to the boundary edge chain. This is not available for variable extensions.

Slide-up Panels
The Extend dashboard displays the following slide-up panels: • • References—Lets you change the edge/chain reference. To redefine the selection options, click Details. Measurements—This slide-up panel is enabled when Along Surface is selected. Lets you create a variable extension by adding and adjusting measurement points along the selected edge chain. By default, the system adds only one measurement point, which extends the entire chain by the same distance to create a constant extension.

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In addition, use this panel to specify how you want to measure the extension: o o • —Measure the extension distance along the extended surface. —Measure the extension distance in the selected datum plane.

Options—This slide-up panel is enabled when Along Surface is selected. Lets you do the following: o o Under Method, select the extension method by choosing Same, Tangent, or Approximate from a list. Under Extension side 1 or Extension side 2, for each side of the extension define the extension side by choosing from a list: Along—Choose this option to create the extension side along the selected side edge. If more than one side edges are available, use the next collector to select one. Normal to—Choose this option to create the extension side normal to the connected boundary edge.

Properties—Lets you do the following: o o View information about the current Extend feature in the Pro/ENGINEER browser. Rename the Extend feature.

Shortcut Menu
Right-click to access the Extend shortcut menu with the following commands: • • Boundary Edge —Activate the boundary edge collector for Along Surface or To Plane extension. Measurement Point—Activate the measurement point collector for the Along Surface extension. If there are more than one measurement point collectors, the last active measurement point collector is activated. This menu item is available only when the Measurements panel is open. Measurement Edge—Activate the measurement edge collector for the Along Surface extension. If there are more than one measurement edge collectors, the last active measurement edge collector will be activated. This menu item is available only when the Measurements panel is open and one or more measurement edge collectors are present. Measurement Plane—Activate the measurement plane collector for Along Surface extension. This menu item is available only when extension distance is measured in the measurement plane. Side Edge 1—Activate the side edge one collector for the Along Surface extension. This menu item is available only when more than one side edges exist for extension Side 1.

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Side Edge 2—Activate the side edge two collector for the Along Surface extension. This menu item is available only when more than one side edges exist for extension Side 2. Reference Plane—Activate the reference plane collector for To Plane extension. Clear—Empty the active collector. Normal to Edge—Extend the surface normal to the selected edge. Along Edge—Extend the surface along the side edge. To Vertex Parallel—Extend the surface at the vertex and parallel to the boundary edge. To Vertex Tangent—Extend the surface at the vertex and tangent to the next one-sided edge. Flip—Change the direction of the extension.

• • • • • • •

To Create a Same Surface Extension
Use this procedure to create an Along Surface extension using the Same option. 1. Select the boundary edge chain of the surface that you want to extend. 2. Click Edit > Extend. The Extend dashboard opens. 3. Using the Options slide-up panel, you can specify whether you want the extension side along the side edge or normal to the boundary edge. Select Along or Normal to for each extension side. 4. To extend the surface, you can: o o In the graphics window, use the drag handle to manually extend the selected boundary chain to the desired distance. In the dashboard, type a distance value in the value box or select a value from a list of the most recently used values. at any time to toggle between extending or trimming

Note: You can click the original surface.

5. To add measurement points, click the Measurements slide-up panel. Right-click inside the panel and click Add. Define the point's location and use the point to drag the extension in the graphics window or set the location and extension in the Measurements panel. You can add multiple points for finer control. Tip: You can also do it using the shortcut menu by right-clicking the handle. 6. Click to complete the Extend feature.

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To Create a Tangent Surface Extension
Use this procedure to create an Along Surface extension using the Tangent option. 1. Select the boundary edge chain of the surface that you want to extend. 2. Click Edit > Extend. The Extend dashboard opens. 3. Click the Options slide-up panel, and then select Tangent from a list under Method. 4. Using the same slide-up panel, you can specify whether you want the extension side along the side edge or normal to the boundary edge. Select Along or Normal to for each side. 5. To extend the surface you can: o o In the graphics window, use the drag handle to manually extend the selected boundary edge chain to the desired distance. In the dashboard, type a distance value in the value box or select a value from a list of the most recently used values. at any time to toggle between extending or trimming

Note: You can click the original surface.

6. To add measurement points, click the Measurements slide-up panel. Right-click inside the panel and click Add. Define the point's location and use the point to drag the extension in the graphics window or set the location and extension in the Measurements panel. You can add multiple points for finer control. Tip: You can also do it using the shortcut menu by right-clicking the handle. 7. Click to complete the Extend feature.

To Create an Approximate Surface Extension
Use this procedure to create an Along Surface extension using the Approximate option. 1. Select the boundary edge chain of the surface that you want to extend. 2. Click Edit > Extend. The Extend dashboard opens. 3. Click the Options slide-up panel, and then select Approximate from a list under Method. 4. Using the same slide-up panel, you can specify whether you want the extension side along the side edge or normal to the boundary edge. Select Along or Normal to for each side. 5. To extend the surface you can: o In the graphics window, use the drag handle to manually extend the selected boundary edge chain to the desired distance.

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In the dashboard, type a distance value in the value box or select a value from a list of the most recently used values. at any time to toggle between extending or Note: You can click trimming the original surface.

6. To add measurement points, click the Measurements slide-up panel. Right-click inside the panel and click Add. Define the point's location and use the point to drag the extension in the graphics window or set the location and extension in the Measurements panel. You can add multiple points for finer control. Tip: You can also do it using the shortcut menu by right-clicking the handle. 7. Click to complete the Extend feature.

To Create a To Plane Surface Extension
Use this procedure to extend a surface to a reference plane. 1. Select the boundary edge chain of the surface that you want to extend. 2. Click Edit > Extend. 3. Click .

4. Select a plane to which to extend the surface. 5. Click to complete the Extend feature.

To Create a Multi-point Extension
You can use multiple measurement points to create a variable distance extension. 1. Select the boundary edge chain of the surface that you want to extend. 2. Click Edit > Extend. The Extend dashboard opens. 3. Click the Options slide-up panel, select the extension method. 4. Drag the edge to create the extension. 5. To add measurement points, click the Measurements slide-up panel. Initially, the system adds only one measurement point, which extends the entire chain by the same distance to create a constant extension. 6. Right-click inside the panel and click Add. 7. Specify the points's location by typing a distance along the edge (from the first point to the point being added) under Location. 8. Type the extension distance under Distance or drag the point. 9. From the Distance Type list, select one of the extension options:

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Normal to Edge—Extend the surface normal to the selected edge. Along Edge—Extend the surface along the side edge. To Vertex Parallel—Extend the surface at the vertex and parallel to the boundary edge. To Vertex Tangent—Extend the surface at the vertex and tangent to the next one-sided edge.

10. To continue adding points, right-click again and select Add. To delete one of the measurement points, right-click that row, and then click Delete.

Intersect
About the Intersect Feature
With the Intersect tool you can create a curve where a surface intersects with other surfaces or a datum plane. You can also create a curve at the intersection of two sketches or sketched datum curves that become surfaces after they are extruded. You can use the Intersect feature in the following ways: • • • Create three-dimensional curves that can be used for other features such as sweep trajectories. Show if two surfaces are intersecting to avoid possible gaps. Diagnose unsuccessful cross sections and cuts.

Surfaces can only be intersected with other surfaces or datum planes and the same rule applies to two sketches. The option to specify or change the intersection object or reference is only available during redefinition. However, you should select the first intersection reference prior to activating the Intersect tool. The Intersect feature automatically completes after the steps are performed without opening the Intersect dashboard. Automatic completion occurs because the Intersect process is fully defined by preselecting references, and no tool progression or optional settings are possible.

About the Intersect User Interface
The Intersect user interface consists of the following items: Feature icon Dialog bar Slide-up panels Shortcut menus

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Feature Icon
To access the Intersect tool, click in the Feature toolbar or select the surface to intersect, then click Edit > Intersect.

Dialog Bar
The Intersect dialog bar consists of a message area.

Slide-up Panels
The Intersect dashboard displays the following Intersect slide-up panels: • References—Activates the References collector. o For Sketches—Selects an existing sketch to be copied into the feature. Unlink breaks the association with the sketch and allows you to make a copy as an internal sketch. For Surfaces—Selects surfaces or datum planes to intersect. To produce a curve, the surfaces must come from two different quilts that are intersecting, a quilt and a solid, or a datum plane with surfaces from a quilt or solid.

o

You must query and select SolidGeom in the smart filter to intersect all solid geometry with a datum plane, quilt, or specific surfaces of a quilt. • Properties—Displays or renames the intersect feature in the Pro/ENGINEER browser.

Shortcut Menus
In the graphics window, right-click to use the Intersect shortcut menu to quickly perform actions: • • Select sketches in the collector Clear selections in the collector

To Intersect Sketches or Surfaces
1. Select the sketch or surface. 2. Select the other sketch or surface to intersect while keeping both in selection. Note: Press Ctrl to select more than one sketch or surface. 3. Click Edit > Intersect.

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To Redefine Intersecting Sketches or Surfaces
1. Click Edit > Definition to redefine the feature. The Intersect Dashboard appears. 2. Collect the new sketch or surface. The new sketch or surface is used for the intersection, generating new preview geometry. 3. Click to accept and save changes.

To Unlink and Edit Sketches in the Intersect Feature
You can unlink reference sketches and edit internal sketches in the intersect feature. 1. Click Edit > Definition to redefine the feature. The Intersect Dashboard appears. 2. Click References. The collector appears with the two intersected sketches. 3. Click Unlink to break the association with the sketch and make a copy as an internal sketch. Unlink changes to Edit. 4. Click Edit. The Sketch dialog box opens. 5. Click Sketch. Sketcher opens allowing you to edit the internal sketch.

Fill
About the Fill Feature
You can create and redefine flat surface features called Fill features using the Fill tool (Edit > Fill). A Fill feature is simply a flat surface, closed-loop feature that is defined by its boundaries and is used to thicken surfaces. You create a Fill feature by doing one of the following: • Select an existing Sketch feature (sketched datum curve). You can select a Sketch feature from the current model or from another model. The resulting Fill feature uses a dependent section as a reference. This section is fully associative with the parent Sketch feature. Create an independent section for the Fill feature by Using Sketcher. You create this section while the Fill tool remains open.

For more information about sections, refer to About Sections in Sketch-based Features in the Sections in Sketch-Based Features book. Note: All Fill features must be based on a flat, closed-loop sketched section.

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Fill Feature 1 Closed-loop section (sketched datum curve) 2 Fill feature

About the Fill User Interface
The Fill user interface consists of the following items: Feature icon Dialog bar Slide-up panels

Feature Icon
The Fill tool uses the following icon: • • —Indicates a Fill feature in the Model Tree. This icon also identifies the Fill tool in the menu bar and the Fill mode in the dashboard. —Indicates a sketched section. Note that the section is always (indented) within the Fill feature. You may need to expand the Fill feature to view the section.

Dialog Bar
The Fill dialog bar consists of the following: Sketch collector—Indicates that a valid sketched section has been selected for the Fill feature.

Slide-up Panels
The Fill dashboard displays the following slide-up panels: • References—The References slide-up panel contains the following: o Sketch collector—Contains the section references for the sketch-based feature. The collector can contain dependent or independent sections. Note that dependent sections have the same name as its parent sketch feature. Pro/ENGINEER assigns unique names to independent sections.

The following options are available only under certain conditions: o Define button—Opens the Sketch dialog box enabling you to use Sketcher to define an independent section. Note that Define is available only if the Sketch collector is empty (no section defined or sketch selected). You can also use Define Internal Sketch shortcut menu command from the graphics window. Edit button—Opens the Sketch dialog box enabling you to use Sketcher to redefine the independent section. Note that Edit is available only if the Fill 269

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features use independent sections. If you want to edit a dependent section, you can either edit the parent sketch or break the section dependency by using Unlink. You can also use Edit Internal Sketch shortcut menu command from the graphics window. o Unlink button—Breaks the association between the dependent section and the parent Sketch feature. Pro/ENGINEER copies the Sketch feature references to the new independent section. Note that Unlink is available only if the Fill features use dependent sections.

Properties—The Properties slide-up panel contains the following: • Name box—Displays the current Fill feature name. You can type a new name to modify it. —Provides detailed Fill feature information in the Pro/ENGINEER browser.

To Create a Fill Feature
Using this topic, you can create a Fill feature that uses an independent section. This section is not associative with any Sketch feature. If you want to Fill feature that references a parent Sketch feature, refer to To Create a Fill Feature by using a Sketch Feature. 1. Click Edit > Fill from the menu bar. The Fill tool opens and dashboard appears. 2. Click the References tab. The References slide-up panel appears. 3. Click Define. The Sketch dialog box opens. Notice that you can also use the Define Internal Sketch shortcut menu command from the graphics window. 4. In the Sketch dialog box, define the sketch plane and the sketch orientation, and click Sketch. Sketcher activates and the model orients. 5. In Sketcher, sketch a flat, closed-loop section. Note that the section must be a flat, closed-loop section. on the Sketcher toolbar. Preview geometry appears in the graphics 6. Click window and Pro/ENGINEER displays the independent section in the Model Tree. 7. You can use the Properties slide-up panel to do the following: o Review and modify the Fill feature name—The Name box displays the current Fill feature name. You can type a new feature name to modify it. Display detailed Fill feature information—You can click and detailed information displays in the Pro/ENGINEER browser for the selected Fill feature.

o

8. Click . Pro/ENGINEER creates the Fill feature including the section, and closes the tool. Remember that this section is not associative with any Sketch feature.

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Tip: • • If you want to undo or redo any or all changes, press CTRL+Z or CTRL+Y, respectively. You can always identify the section type from the Model Tree. Dependent sections share the same name of the parent Sketch feature. Independent sections have unique names.

To Create a Fill Feature by Using a Sketch Feature
You can create a Fill feature that references a parent Sketch feature. The resulting Fill feature uses a dependent (associative) section. If you want to create a Fill feature that uses an independent section, refer to To Create a Fill Feature. 1. Select a flat, closed loop Sketch feature (sketched datum curve from the graphics window or from the Model Tree. Pro/ENGINEER highlights the selection. If a valid Sketch feature is not available, you can create one using Sketcher. 2. Click Edit > Fill from the menu bar. Pro/ENGINEER creates the Fill feature. Note that if the Fill tool opens and No Items displays in the Sketch collector, you selected an invalid Sketch feature. Make certain that you select a flat, closed-loop feature. Note: If you opened the Fill tool using Edit > Fill before selecting a Sketch feature, or did not select a valid Sketch feature, select a valid Sketch feature in the graphics window and click . Pro/ENGINEER creates the Fill feature.

Redefining a Fill Feature
You can redefine a Fill feature in the following ways: • Redefine the section while the Fill tool is closed—This includes changing the section geometry and making a dependent section independent. Refer to To Redefine a Section in the Sections in Sketch Based Features book for more information. This is the recommended method. Redefine the section while the Fill tool is open—Simply, click Edit from the References slide-up panel to use Sketcher. You can also use the Edit Internal Sketch shortcut menu command from the graphics window. Remember that if you are redefining a dependent section, you must click Unlink on the slide-up panel to break the association with the parent Sketch feature. Otherwise, Edit will not be available and you must exit the tool to redefine the section. Redefine the parent Sketch feature (sketched datum curve)—This method can be used only for Fill features that use a dependent section. Refer to To Create a Sketched Datum Curve in the Datum Curves book for more information. Note that after you redefine the parent Sketch feature, Pro/ENGINEER automatically redefines all other features that reference the parent Sketch feature.

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Properties Slide-up Panel
During redefinition, you can use the Properties slide-up panel to do the following: • Review and modify the Fill feature name—The Name box displays the current Fill feature name. You can type a new feature name to modify it. Display detailed Fill feature information—You can click and detailed information displays in the Pro/ENGINEER browser for the selected Fill feature.

Offset
About the Offset Feature
You can use the Offset tool to create a new feature by offsetting either a surface or a curve with a constant or variable distance. You can then use offset surfaces to build up geometry or to create patterned geometry, or you can use offset curves to build up a set of curves that you can then use to build a surface. Various options are available from within the Offset tool, such as adding drafts to offset surfaces and offsetting curves within a surface. You can create the following types of Offset features using the Offset tool: • • Standard—Offsets a single quilt, surface, or solid face. Expand—Creates a continuous volume between the selected faces of a closed quilt or solid sketch or, when using the Sketched region option, of an open quilt or solid surface. With Draft—Offsets the region of the quilt or surface that is included inside a sketch, and drafts the side surfaces. You can also create straight or tangent side surface profiles with this option. Replace—Replaces a solid face with a quilt or datum plane. Curve—Offsets a curve or the one-sided edge of a surface in a specified direction.

• •

Offset Surface About the Offset Surface User Interface
The Offset Surface user interface consists of the following items: Feature icon Dialog bar Slide-up panels Shortcut menus

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Feature Icon Offset Surface features are represented on the Model Tree by the following icons: —Offset (Standard) —Offset (With Draft) —Offset (Expand) —Offset (Replace) Additionally, identifies the Offset tool in the Edit toolbar. or Edit > Offset to start the Offset tool.

Select a surface and click either Dialog Bar

The Offset Surface dialog bar consists of the following elements: —Lists the types of offset feature you can create: • • • • —Standard —Expand —With Draft —Replace

—Specifies the offset value and provides a list of recently used values (Standard, Expand, and With Draft). —Flips the direction of the offset (Standard, Expand, and With Draft). —Activates the sketch collector (Expand and With Draft). —Activates the Replace quilt collector (Replace). —Specifies the angle for the offset (With Draft). Slide-up Panels The Offset Surface dashboard displays the following slide-up panels: • In the References panel, you can o Use Details (Expand and With Draft) to open the Surface Sets dialog box so you can modify the surface set properties. 273

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Use Define (With Draft) to open the Sketch dialog box so you can define an internal sketch. You an also use Define Internal Sketch from the shortcut menu. After defining an internal sketch, use EDIT (With Draft) to open the Sketch dialog box so you can edit the internal sketch. You can also use Edit Internal Sketch from the shortcut menu. Specify the surface to offset and the loops or patches to exclude from the offset (Expand). Specify the replacement quilt (Replace) in this slide-up panel.

o

o o •

In the Options panel, you can: o o Specify that the offset be normal to the reference surface. Use Define (Expand, with Sketched Region selected) to open the Sketch dialog box so you can define an internal sketch. You an also use Define Internal Sketch from the shortcut menu. After defining an internal sketch, use EDIT (Expand, with Sketched Region selected) to open the Sketch dialog box so you can edit the internal sketch. You can also use Edit Internal Sketch from the shortcut menu. Create side surfaces between the reference surface and the offset surface (Standard). Offset a specified region of a sketch (Expand and With Draft). Specify the side surface type and profile (With Draft). Specify the method of transformation for the offset surface. Keep a quilt as a separate feature from the offset feature (Replace).

o

o o o o o o

In the Properties panel, you can view information about the Offset feature in the Pro/ENGINEER browser and enter a user-defined name for the feature.

Shortcut Menus In the graphics window, you can use the Offset Surface shortcut menu to access the following options: Collectors • • • • Offset Reference—Activates the primary surface collector to select the surface to offset (Expand, With Draft, Replace). Surface Collection—Activates the surface collector (Expand, With Draft). Sketch Reference—Specifies a sketch to contain the offset area (Expand, With Draft). Replace Reference—Activates the Replace quilt collector.

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Actions • • • Clear—Clears the contents of the active collector. Define Internal Sketch—Opens the Sketch dialog box so you can define an internal sketch (Expand and With Draft). Edit Internal Sketch—Opens the Sketch dialog box so you can edit an internal sketch (Expand and With Draft).

To Create Standard Offset Surfaces
1. Select a surface, and click Edit > Offset. The default offset value is displayed in preview geometry, and the Offset dashboard appears. 2. Select as the type of offset. This is the default offset type.

3. Enter the required offset value in the offset value box. An offset surface is shown in preview geometry parallel to the referenced surface. 4. Adjust the offset distance and direction by dragging the handle or by doubleclicking the dimension and entering a new dimension in the box. 5. To reverse the direction of the offset, right-click and click Flip from the shortcut menu. 6. To define the direction in which to offset the surface, select one of the following options from the Options tab: o o o Normal to Surface—Offsets surface normal to the reference surface or quilt. Automatic Fit—Automatically determines a coordinate system and offsets the surface along its axes. Controlled Fit—Creates an “offset” that bests fits the normal offset by scaling the original surface about the specified coordinate system and translating the surface along the specified axes.

7. If you want to create the offset surface with side quilts, click the Create side surface check box in the Options panel. 8. Click to finish the feature.

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Example: Using Different Offset Methods
The following figure illustrates the difference in the offset geometry created through the Normal To Surf, Controlled Fit, and Auto Fit methods. In this example, the Controlled Fit method allows you to select the coordinate system for translation and restrict the translation of the scaled geometry along the Y-axis such that the resulting quilt terminates at the same level as the original quilt. Note that the resulting radius of curvature differs depending on the offset type used. Using different offset methods

1 Original quilt 2 Offsets from the original quilt 3 Using Normal to Surf 4 Using Controlled Fit 5 Using Auto Fit

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6 Using Controlled Fit 7 Using Normal to Surf 8 Using Auto Fit

Recommendations for using the offset methods: • If Norm To Surf fails, use Auto Fit. The Auto Fit method automatically calculates the best directions to translate the surfaces such that they appear as original ones. However, this method does not guarantee a uniform offset normal to surfaces. If the results of Auto Fit are not satisfactory, use Controlled Fit to aid in calculation. It is recommended that you use Auto Fit and Controlled Fit with convex geometry only. These methods involve scaling of geometry. For non-convex geometry, the offset distance may vary, as shown in the following figure. Offsetting Complex Surface Shapes

1 Original surface 2 Resulting surface using Auto Fit 3 Resulting surface using Normal To Surf • When you use Auto Fit or Controlled Fit to create an offset, Pro/ENGINEER attempts to make the distance between the original and the offset quilt no less than the input value. The location of the coordinate system that you select when using Controlled Fit affects how the quilt is scaled. In the following illustration, the offset quilt is created using Controlled Fit with the translation restricted along the X- and Yaxes. In illustration a, scaling is with respect to the CS0 coordinate system, while scaling is with respect to the CS3 coordinate system in illustration b. Note that the location of the coordinate system determines which edges remain coplanar.

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a. Offset created using CS0

1 Original quilt 2 Offset quilt 3 Coplanar vertices. Translation is not allowed along the X-axis 4 Original quilt 5 Coplanar vertices. Translation is not allowed along the Y-axis The edges and vertices on the plane that passes through the origin of the CS0 coordinate system (the YZ- and XZ-planes, respectively) remain fixed. This is because translation is not allowed along the X- and Y-axes.

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b. Offset created using CS3

1 Coplanar vertices. Translation is not allowed along the X-axis. 2 Original quilt 3 Coplanar vertices. Translation is not allowed along the Y-axis. The edges and vertices on the plane that passes through the origin of the CS3 coordinate system (the YZ- and XZ-planes, respectively) remain fixed. This is because translation is not allowed along the X- and Y-axes.

Example: Creating an Offset Surface with Side Surfaces
The next figure shows a part whose top surface is selected for the offset operation:

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The next figure shows the offset feature without side surfaces:

The next figure shows the offset feature with side surfaces:

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To Create Offset Surfaces by Expansion
Use the Expand option to create a continuous volume between the selected faces of a closed quilt or surface. You can also constrain the offset area of an open quilt or solid surface with a sketch. 1. Select a surface, and click Edit > Offset. The Offset dashboard appears. 2. Select as the type of offset.

3. Type the required offset value in the offset value box. An offset surface is created parallel to the reference surface. 4. Click the Options tab to specify the offset method: o o Normal to Surface—(default) Offsets the surface normal to the original surface. Translate—Translates the surface along the specified direction. Click the direction reference collector and select a plane, a flat face, a linear curve or edge, an axis, or a coordinate system as the reference.

Note: Changing the offset type from Normal to Surface to Translate, and vice versa, causes all children of the offset feature to fail. 5. Click Tip: • You can also open the Expand dashboard by selecting multiple surfaces and clicking Edit > Offset. If you select solid surfaces and closed quilt surfaces, the 281 to finish the offset.

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default Expand area type is Whole Surface. If you select open quilt surfaces, the default Expand area type is Sketched Region. • If Sketched Region is selected, you can click Define on the Options slide-up panel and use the Sketch dialog box. After defining an internal sketch, click EDIT (With Draft) to open the Sketch dialog box so you can edit the internal sketch. You can also use Define Internal Sketch and Edit Internal Sketch from the shortcut menu. If you are using a surface set as a reference and you want to modify it, click Details on the References slide-up panel and use the Surface Sets dialog box.

To Constrain an Offset with a Sketch
1. Select a surface, and click Edit > Offset. The Offset dashboard appears, and the surface is highlighted. 2. Select as the type of offset.

3. Type the required offset value in the offset value box. An offset surface is created parallel to the reference surface. 4. Click the Options tab to specify the offset method: o o Normal to Surface—(default) Offset the surface normal to the reference surface. Translate—Translates the surface along the specified direction. Click the direction reference collector and select a plane, a flat face, a linear curve or edge, an axis, or a coordinate system as the reference.

5. Also on the Options panel, specify the Expand area type: o Sketched Region—Offsets only the region inside the sketched boundary. Click Define to enter Sketcher or use Define Internal Sketch from the shortcut menu, and sketch a closed section for offsetting. You can also select an existing sketched datum curve. Whole Surface—Offsets the entire surface. This option is applicable only to a closed quilt surface or a solid surface.

o

6. To specify the Side surface type: o o Surface—Offsets the side surface normal to the surface. Sketch—Offsets the side surface normal to the sketching plane of the sketch. to finish the offset.

7. Click

To Create Offset Surfaces with a Draft
1. Select a surface, and click Edit > Offset. The Offset dashboard appears.

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2. Select

as the type of offset.

3. Select an existing sketch or click Define on the References slide-up panel and use the Sketch dialog box. You can also use Define Internal Sketch from the shortcut menu. 4. Enter the required offset value in the offset value box. An offset surface is shown in preview geometry parallel to the referenced surface. 5. Specify the offset method in the Options panel: o o Normal to Surface—(default) Offsets the surface normal to the reference surface. Translate—Offsets the surface and retains the shape and size of the reference surface.

6. Also in the Options panel, specify the side surface type: o o Surface—Offsets the side surface normal to the surface. Sketch—Offsets the side surface normal to the sketch.

7. Specify the side profile type o o Straight—Creates straight side surfaces. Tangent—Creates fillets for the side surfaces and neighboring surfaces.

8. Enter a value for the draft angle in the Draft Angle box, or drag the handle in the graphics window. 9. Adjust the dimensions and options, and click to finish the offset.

Note: You can also open the With draft dashboard by selecting a collection of surfaces and clicking Edit > Offset. The surface collection can include single surfaces, loop surfaces, boundary surfaces, intent surfaces, or any combination of these surfaces. Tip: • • If you are using a surface set as a reference and you want to modify it, click Details on the References slide-up panel and use the Surface Sets dialog box. If you want to modify an internal sketch click Edit on the References slide-up panel and use the Sketch dialog box. You can also use Edit Internal Sketch from the shortcut menu.

Working with Draft Offsets
Use the With Draft option to create an area offset with drafted side surfaces. The With Draft option is available for solid surfaces and quilts.

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You can apply a bevel angle to the side surfaces of the draft offset. Pro/ENGINEER uses the specified angle to draft all side surfaces relative to their default position, defined by either Surface or Sketch. The range for the draft angle is from 0 to 60 degrees. Several closed loops can be selected for the With Draft option, as shown in the next figure:

When creating a With Draft offset, consider these recommendations: • • When a With Draft offset spans several surfaces, the surfaces should be tangent. Otherwise, the top surface of the draft will be split by an edge. When you draft a section that has rounds, consider the height of the offset in relation to the draft angle. If the angle is too small, the drafted surfaces may overlap at corners and cause the feature to fail.

Example: Normal Offset and Translate Offset
When you offset a surface either with a draft or by expansion, you can specify the offset method as Normal to Surface or Translate. These options are available in the Options slide-up panel. Choosing Normal to Surface creates an offset surface that is normal to the reference surface. Choosing Translate creates an offset surface in that specific direction while retaining the size and shape of the reference surface The next figure shows an offset surface with Normal to Surface selected:

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1 Reference surface 2 Resulting surface The next figure shows an offset surface with Translate selected:

1 Reference surface 2 Resulting surface

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To Create an Offset Using Replace
1. Select a solid surface, and click Edit > Offset. The Offset dashboard appears. 2. Select as the type of offset.

3. Select a quilt or datum plane in the model. 4. If you want to keep the selected quilt in the model, click the Keep replace quilt check box on the Options panel. Note: If you select a datum plane as the replace quilt, the Keep replace quilt check box is unavailable. 5. Click . The offset is created by replacing the solid surface with the quilt.

Using Replace Offsets
Use the Replace option to replace a specified surface on a solid with a datum plane or quilt. A surface replacement differs from an extrusion or a cut because it can add material in some places and remove it in others. Quilts used to replace surfaces are consumed by the replacement feature unless you click the Keep replace quilt check box on the Options panel. The Keep replace quilt check box is not available when you select a datum plane for the replacement operation. A quilt that has replaced a feature's surface cannot in turn be replaced by another quilt. The replacement surface must be deleted first.

Example: Creating an Offset Using Replace
The next figure shows a solid part and a quilt:

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The next figure shows the quilt selected for the replace offset:

The next figure shows the replaced surface with the quilt consumed by the offset:

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The next figure shows the Replace Offset feature with the Keep replace quilt check box selected:

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Offset Curve About the Offset Curve User Interface
The Offset Curve user interface consists of the following items: Feature icon Dialog bar Slide-up panels Shortcut menus Feature Icon Offset Curve features are represented on the Model Tree by Additionally, identifies the Offset tool in the Edit toolbar. .

Select a curve and click Edit > Offset to start the Offset tool. Dialog Bar The Offset Curve dialog bar consists of the following elements: —Specifies whether the curve is offset along the reference surface or normal to the reference surface. Note: The option for the fan type curve is available only if you have set the enable_offset_fan_curve configuration option to yes. By default, enable_offset_fan_curve is set to no. collector—Indicates that a valid reference was selected. box—Contains the graph scale values. You can select a most recently used value from the list or type a new value and press ENTER. —Flips the direction of the offset (Along Surface) or flips the start point of the graph (Normal to Surface). Note: The following options of the fan type curve are available only if you have set the enable_offset_fan_curve configuration option to yes. —Activates the second reference curve collector (Fan curve) —Activates the measure plane collector (Fan curve) —Activates the value box for the number of curves (Fan curve)

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Slide-up Panels The Offset Curve dashboard displays the following slide-up panels: • In the References panel, you can specify the curve or curve chain to offset as well as the reference plane for the offset. You can also click Details (Along Surface, and Fan Curve) to open the Chain dialog box so you can modify the chain properties. In the Measurements panel, you can specify the offset distance in a direction normal to the curve or parallel to a selected plane. You can also add, edit, or delete reference points on the curve (Along Surface). In the Options panel, you can specify a graph and offset value (Normal to Surface). In the Properties panel, you can view information about the Offset feature in the Pro/ENGINEER browser and enter a user-defined name for the feature.

• •

Shortcut Menus In the graphics window, you can use the Offset shortcut menu to access the following options. Collectors • • • • • • Offset Curve—Activates the curve collector to select the curve to offset. Reference Quilt—Activates the surface collector to select a reference quilt, plane, or surface. Measurement Point—Edits the distances and locations of reference points. Graph—Activates the graph collector for normal to surface offset curves. Second Offset Curve—Activates the curve collector to select a second curve (Fan curve). Measurement Plane—Activates the surface collector to select a reference plane (Fan curve).

Actions • • Clear—Clears the contents of the active collector. Flip—Flips the direction of the offset when there is more than one valid direction possible.

To Offset a Curve Normal to Surface
1. Select a curve and click Edit > Offset. The curve is highlighted, and the Offset dashboard appears. The selected curve appears in the Offset curve collector on the References panel. 2. Select to offset the curve in a direction normal to the reference surface.

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3. Select a quilt or surface to act as a reference for the offset curve. By default, the quilt or surface on which the offset curve is located is selected as the reference. 4. Enter an offset value in the 5. Click 6. Click box.

to flip the direction of the offset. to complete the offset curve.

To Offset a Curve Along a Surface
1. Select a curve and click Edit > Offset. The surface is highlighted, and the Offset dashboard appears. The selected curve appears in the Offset curve collector on the References panel. 2. Select to offset the curve in the direction along the reference surface.

3. Select a quilt or surface to act as a reference for the offset curve. By default, the quilt or surface on which the offset curve is located is selected as the reference. 4. Enter an offset value in the 5. Click box.

to flip the direction of the offset, if necessary.

6. In the Measurements panel, specify the measurement type as either (normal to curve) or select a reference plane. 7. Click (parallel to plane). If you select , you must

to complete the offset curve.

Tip: If you are using a chain set as a reference and you want to modify it, click Details on the References slide-up panel and use the Chain dialog box.

Using Graphs to Offset a Curve
When you offset a curve normal to the reference surface, you can select a graph as a reference for the offset. On the Options panel, activate the Graph collector and either select a graph or pause the Offset Curve tool and create a graph. The default graph, the unit graph, is a constant line with a value of 1. to After you select or create a graph, enter a value in the Scale box. Click reverse the direction of the graph, if necessary. The following figure shows a curve offset using the unit graph as a reference:

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1 Reference curve 2 Offset curve You can also create a graph to use as a reference for the offset curve. The graph, which you create by pausing the Offset tool and entering Sketcher, does not appear in the graphics window but is represented in the Model Tree as a group ( offset curve. The following figure shows a user-defined graph: ) with the

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The following figure shows a curve offset using a custom graph as a reference:

1 Reference curve 2 Offset curve

Example: Offsetting a Curve
You can offset a curve in two directions, normal to a surface and along a surface. The following figure shows a curve offset normal to a surface: 293

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1 Offset curve 2 Original curve The following figure shows a curve offset along a surface:

1 Original curve 2 Offset curve

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Measurement Types for Offset Curves
You can measure the distance that a curve is offset either normal to the curve or parallel to a selected plane. The next figure shows a curve offset normal to the curve (the default setting):

1 Reference curve 2 Offset curve The next figure shows a curve offset parallel to a selected plane:

1 Reference curve

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2 Offset curve

To Create a Fan Curve Offset
Note: To create a fan curve offset, you must first set the configuration option enable_offset_fan_curve to yes. It is set to no by default. 1. Select a curve and click Edit > Offset. The curve is highlighted, and the Offset dashboard appears. The selected curve appears in the Offset curve collector on the References panel. 2. Click to create a fan curve offset.

3. Select a quilt or surface to act as a reference for the offset curve. 4. Select a second curve as a reference. Note: To create another curve, pause the Offset Curve tool by pressing Create another curve and press 5. Select a measurement plane. 6. Type the number of curves you want to create in the 7. Click to complete the offset curve. box. to resume the Offset Curve tool. .

Tip: If you are using a chain set as a reference and you want to modify it, click Details on the References slide-up panel and use the Chain dialog box.

Offset Boundary Curves About the Offset Boundary Curve User Interface
The Offset Boundary Curve user interface consists of the following items: Feature icon Dialog bar Slide-up panels Shortcut menus Feature Icon Offset features are represented on the Model Tree by Additionally, .

identifies the Offset tool in the Edit toolbar.

You can also click Edit > Offset to start the Offset tool.

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Dialog Bar The Offset Boundary Curve dialog bar consists of the following elements: —Specifies the offset value and provides a list of recently used values. —Flips the direction of the offset. Note: Neither element is available for a variable boundary curve offset. Slide-up Panels The Offset dashboard displays the following slide-up panels: • • In the References panel, you can specify the boundary edge chain to offset. In the Measurements panel, you can specify measurement points and references for the points of variable offsets. The choices for Distance type follow: o o o Normal to Edge—Measures the offset distance in the direction normal to the boundary edge. Along Edge—Measures the offset distance in the direction along the measurement edge. To Vertex—Creates an offset to the vertex, parallel to the boundary edge.

A shortcut menu in the Measurements table allows you to add or delete measurement points from the table. • In the Properties panel, you can view information about the Offset feature in the Pro/ENGINEER browser and enter a user-defined name for the feature.

Shortcut Menu In the graphics window, you can use the Offset shortcut menu to access the following options: Collectors • • • Boundary Edge—Activates the boundary edge chain collector. Measurement Edge—Activates the measurement edge collector. Measurement Point—Activates the Measurement Point collector.

Actions • Clear—Clears the contents of the active collector.

Shortcut Menu on the Handle of a Measurement Point • • • Flip—Flips the direction of the offset. Normal to Edge—Changes the distance type to Normal to Boundary Edge. Along Edge—Changes the distance type to Along Measurement Edge.

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To Vertex—Specifies the distance between points or vertices on a boundary curve offset. Next Edge—Selects the next available boundary edge or measurement edge.

Shortcut Menu on the Dragger of a Measurement Point • • Add—Adds a new measurement point with reference to the current measurement point. Delete—Deletes the current measurement point.

To Offset a Boundary Curve
1. Select a one-sided edge, such as the edge of a quilt, and click Edit > Offset. The edge is highlighted, and the Offset dashboard appears. The selected curve appears in the Boundary edge collector on the References panel. 2. Drag the handle to change the offset distance You can also enter a value in the value box or double-click the dimension and enter a new value. 3. Click 4. Click to flip the direction of the offset. to complete the boundary offset curve.

To Create a Variable Offset Surface Boundary Curve
1. Select a one-sided edge, such as the edge of a quilt, and click Edit > Offset. The Offset dashboard appears. The selected curve appears in the Boundary Edge collector on the References panel. 2. Click the Measurements tab. The Measurements panel opens. 3. Right-click inside the table, and click Add from the shortcut menu to add a point or vertex to the selected edge chain. A point appears on the selected edge chain. 4. Drag the point to the desired position. You can also enter a value for the point in the Location cell, if the handle is not located on a vertex. 5. Drag the handles for a point to change the offset distance. You can also enter the offset distance for a point in the Distance cell. 6. Click to complete the offset surface boundary curve.

Using the Measurements Table
The table is available on the Measurements panel when you select an edge chain for offsetting. Use this table to create, modify, and view information about a boundary offset. The table contains six columns: • Point—Lists the points used in the boundary offset. Right-click and click Add or Delete to add or delete a point.

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Distance—Specifies the offset distance. You can either drag the handle in the graphics window or click the Distance cell to enter a new value. If you select To Vertex as the Distance Type, this cell is unavailable. Distance Type—Specifies the type of offset: o o o Normal to Edge—Measures the offset distance in the direction normal to the boundary edge. Along Edge—Measures the offset distance in the direction of along the measurement edge. To Vertex—Creates an offset to the vertex, parallel to the boundary edge.

Click the Distance Type cell to change the value. • • • Edge—Displays the boundary edge for this point. Reference—Activates the reference collector for this point. Location—Specifies the length ratio of the point or snapped object. This cell can contain three types of value: o o o When a point is not snapped to a reference, the numerical value of the length ratio is displayed in the cell. If the point is at a vertex, no value is shown in this cell. If the point is at the beginning of the boundary edge chain, "End 1" is shown in this cell. If the point is at the end of the boundary edge chain, "End 2" is shown in this cell.

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Thicken
About the Thicken Feature
Thicken features use predetermined surface features or quilt geometry to either add or remove thin material sections in your designs. The surface features or quilt geometry provide you with greater flexibility within your design and enable you to transform that geometry to better meet your design needs. Typically, Thicken features are used to create complex thin geometry that would be more difficult, if not impossible, to create using regular solid features. Designing Thicken features requires you to: • • • Select an open or closed quilt as a reference. Determine how you want to use the reference geometry: to add or remove thin sections of material. Define the thickness direction for the thicken feature geometry on the Feature toolbar or by

You can enter the Thicken tool either by clicking clicking Edit > Thicken on the main menu.

In order to enter the Thicken tool, you must have a surface feature or quilt selected. Only valid geometry can be selected before entering the Thicken tool. As you enter the tool, your surface feature selection is examined and, if it satisfies one of the Thicken feature conditions, it is placed in the Quilt collector. While the tool is active you can select a new surface or quilt reference. The Quilt collector only accepts one valid surface or quilt reference at a time. After you specify a valid surface or quilt for the Solidify feature, the resulting geometry is previewed in the graphics window. You can modify attributes of the Thicken feature by using shortcut menus in the graphics window, the dashboard, or a combination of the two. You can also directly control the material direction using the direction arrow. The preview geometry automatically updates, reflecting any modifications. You can toggle between and create the following Thicken feature types: Protrusion Add a thin section of solid material using the surface feature or quilt geometry as the boundary.

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Cut Remove a thin section of solid material using the surface feature or quilt geometry as the boundary.

As you are defining your Thicken feature you can alter the resulting geometry by excluding surfaces from the intended protrusion or cut operation. You can also add controls to drive the thickness direction with respect to coordinate systems, axes, and surfaces. Thicken features are subject to normal feature operations, including patterning, modifying, rerouting, and redefining. Note: • • • on the Feature toolbar by customizing your screen (Tools > You can place Customize Screen). If model changes cause the selected surface feature or quilt geometry to become invalid, the Thicken feature fails during regeneration of model. While in Assembly mode you can only create Thicken features that remove material.

About the Thicken Feature User Interface
The Thicken feature user interface consists of: Feature Icon Dialog bar Slide-up panels Shortcut menus

Feature Icon
You can enter the Thicken tool by either: • • Clicking on the feature toolbar.

Clicking Edit > Thicken on the top-level menu.

Dialog Bar
The dialog bar consists of commands positioned from left to right guiding you through the design process. Depending on your design situation, options that are not valid are made unavailable. The dialog bar consists of:

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• • • •

—Creates solid volume using the selected surface or quilt —Removes material using the selected surface or quilt —Changes the material direction of the thicken feature. Clicking the button cycles the material side from one side to the other, and then both sides. Dimension box—Controls the material thickness of the thickness feature. The dimension box contains the most recently used dimension values.

Slide-Up Panels
Slide-up panels contain information about your Thicken feature references and properties, and also enable you to apply controls to the feature behavior. Thicken features use the following slide-up panels: • References—Contains information about and enables you to modify the references for your Thicken feature. The slide-up panel consists of: o Quilt collector—Indicates the name of the surface or quilt reference used to define the Thicken feature. The quilt box (primary collector) can only contain one Thicken feature reference at a time. While the tool is active you have the ability to select a new valid surface or quilt reference.

o

Control—Contains controls for creating and scaling your Thicken features with respect to coordinate systems, axes, and surfaces. The slide-up panel consists of: o Normal to Surface—(Default) Offsets the Thickened surface normal to the original surface. You can select individual or multiple surfaces to exclude from the Thicken operation. The surfaces to exclude appear in the Exclude list. Note: The Exclude list is not available for design situations involving quilts made of unique surfaces and quilts where all but one of the quilt surfaces have been excluded (You cannot exclude the last remaining quilt surface). o o Auto Fit—Scales and translates the thickened surface with respect to an automatically determined coordinate system. Control Fit—Creates a "best fit" scenario by scaling the original surface about a selected coordinate system and then translating it along a specified axis. The Control Fit option consists of: Cys reference—Indicates the name of the coordinate system reference for the Thicken feature. The coordinate system box (collector) can only contain one coordinate system reference at a time. While the tool is active you have the ability to select a new valid coordinate system reference. Axis—Indicates the axes used to control the scaling and behavior of material for the Thicken feature. By default the x, y, and z-axes are selected as the translation axes. If you do not want to allow translation along a certain axis clear the appropriate check box.

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Properties—Contains the property name for and enables you to obtain information about your Thicken feature. The slide-up panel consists of: o Name box—Enables you to customize the solidify feature name by typing a new name in the box. —Opens a browser window containing solidify feature information.

o

Note: The Intersection slide-up panel is available while in Assembly mode. See <topic title>for more information.

Shortcut Menus
The following shortcut menu appears when you right-click anywhere in the graphics window while defining, redefining, or modifying a Thicken feature: Context Define the Thicken Attributes • • • • • Menu Commands Quilt Reference—Enables the collector for the surface feature or quilt reference. Exclude Surfaces—Enables the collector for the surfaces to exclude from the Thicken feature. Flip Direction—Changes the material direction of the Thicken feature. Remove Material—Removes material using the surface or quilt geometry as the boundary. Add Material—Adds material using the surface or quilt geometry as the boundary.

The following shortcut menu appears when you right-click on the direction arrow while defining, redefining, or modifying a Thicken feature: Context Set the Material Side • • Menu Commands Flip—Changes the material direction of the Thicken feature. Both Sides—Creates the Thicken feature symmetrically about the quilt reference.

To Create a Thicken Feature
Before continuing with the following steps, make sure an appropriate surface or quilt is available in your design. 1. Select the quilt or surface geometry you want to thicken. 2. On the Edit menu, click Thicken. The Dashboard opens and default preview geometry appears in the graphics window.

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3. Define what type of geometry to create. The default option is to add a thin section of solid material. If you want to remove a thin section of material, click on the Dashboard. 4. Define the quilt or surface geometry side to thicken: one side or symmetric about both sides. To change the material side, right-click on the preview geometry and click Flip Direction. You cycle from one side, to symmetrical, to the other side. 5. Set the thicken feature thickness by dragging the thickness handle. You can also enter the thickness in the dimension box on the Dashboard or directly in the graphics window. 6. Double check your references and modify any properties using the appropriate slide-up panels. Click the middle mouse button to complete the thicken feature. Note: If you create Thicken features often, consider adding feature toolbar (Tools > Customize Screen). to the engineering

To Create a Scaled Thicken Feature
Scaling your thicken feature enables you to further control the direction and behavior of the resulting geometry. You can scale the geometry with respect to coordinate systems, axes, and surfaces. 1. Select the quilt or surface geometry you want to thicken. 2. On the Edit menu, click Thicken. The Dashboard opens and default preview geometry appears in the graphics window. 3. Define what type of geometry to create. The default option is to add a thin section of solid material. If you want to remove a thin section of material, rightclick on the preview geometry and click Remove Material. 4. Define the quilt or surface geometry side to thicken: one side or symmetric about both sides. To change the material side, click on the Dashboard. You cycle from one side, to symmetrical, to the other side. 5. Set the thickness of the thicken feature by dragging the thickness handle. You can also enter the thickness in the dimension box on the dashboard or directly in the graphics window. 6. Open the Control slide-up panel to scale the direction of the thicken feature. Depending on the type of scale you need, do one of the following: • Normal to Surface—(Default) Offsets the Thickened surface normal to the original surface. You can select individual or multiple surfaces to exclude from the Thicken operation. The surfaces to exclude appear in the Exclude list. Note: The Exclude list is not available for design situations involving quilts made of unique surfaces and quilts where all but one of the quilt surfaces have been excluded (You cannot exclude the last remaining quilt surface).

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Auto Fit—Scales and translates the thickened surface with respect to an automatically determined coordinate system. Control Fit—Creates a "best fit" scenario by scaling the original surface about a selected coordinate system and then translating it along a specified axis. The Control Fit option consists of: o Cys reference—Indicates the name of the coordinate system reference for the Thicken feature. The coordinate system box (collector) can only contain one coordinate system reference at a time. While the tool is active you have the ability to select a new valid coordinate system reference. Axis—Indicates the axes used to control the scaling and behavior of material for the Thicken feature. By default the x, y, and z-axes are selected as the translation axes. If you do not want to allow translation along a certain axis clear the appropriate check box.

o

7. Double check your references and modify any properties using the appropriate slide-up panels. Click the middle mouse button to complete the thicken feature.

Solidify
About the Solidify Feature
Solidify features use predetermined surface features or quilt geometry and convert them into solid geometry. You can use Solidify features to add, remove, or replace solid material in your designs. The quilt geometry provides you with greater flexibility within your design, and the Solidify feature enables you to transform that geometry to meet your design needs. Typically, Solidify features are used to create complex geometry that would be more difficult, if not impossible, to create using regular solid features. Designing Solidify features requires you to: • • • Select a surface feature or quilt as a reference Determine how you want to use the reference geometry: add solid material, remove solid material, or patch a surface Define the material direction for the geometry on the Feature toolbar or by

You can enter the solidify tool either by clicking clicking Edit > Solidify on the main menu.

To enter the Solidify tool, you must have a surface feature or quilt selected. Only valid geometry can be selected before entering the Solidify tool. As you enter the tool your surface feature or quilt selection is automatically placed in the collector. While the tool is active you can select a new reference. The reference collector only accepts one valid surface feature or quilt reference at a time. After you specify a valid surface feature or quilt for the Solidify feature, if the resulting geometry is possible, preview geometry is displayed in the graphics window. You can modify attributes for the Solidify feature by using shortcut menus 305

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directly in the graphics window, the dashboard, or a combination of the two. You can also directly control the material direction using the direction arrow. The preview geometry automatically updates, reflecting any modifications. The following Solidify feature types are available: Protrusion Add solid material using the surface feature or quilt geometry as the boundary. (Always available.) Cut Remove solid material using the surface feature or quilt geometry as the boundary. (Always available.) Patch Replace a specified portion of a surface using surface feature or quilt geometry. (Only available if the selected surface or quilt boundaries lie on solid geometry.) Solidify features are subject to normal feature operations, including patterning, modifying, rerouting, and redefining. Note: • • • If you create Solidify features often, consider adding Feature toolbar (Tools > Customize Screen). to the Engineering

If model changes cause the selected surface feature or quilt to become invalid, the Solidify feature fails during regeneration of model. While in Assembly mode you can only create solidify features that remove material.

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About the Solidify Feature User Interface
The solidify feature user interface consists of: Feature Icon Dialog bar Slide-up panels Shortcut menus

Feature Icon
You can enter the solidify tool by either: • • Clicking on the feature toolbar.

Clicking Edit > Solidify on the top-level menu.

Dialog Bar
The dialog bar consists of commands positioned from left to right guiding you through the design process. Depending on your design situation, invalid options are not available. The dialog bar consists of: • • • • —Creates solid volume using the selected surface or quilt —Removes material using the selected surface or quilt —Patches the selected surface or quilt to a solid —Changes the material direction of the solidify feature

Slide-Up Panels
Slide-up panels contain information about your solidify feature references and properties. Solidify features use the following slide-up panels: • References—Contains information about and enables you to modify the references for your solidify feature. The slide-up panel consists of: o Quilt box—Indicates the name of the quilt reference used to define the solidify feature. The quilt box (primary collector) can only contain one solidify feature reference at a time. While the tool is active you have the ability to select a new valid quilt reference.

o

Properties—Contains the property name for and enables you to obtain information about your solidify feature. The slide-up panel consists of: o Name box—Enables you to customize the solidify feature name by typing a new name in the box. —Opens a browser window containing solidify feature information.

o

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Note: The Intersect slide-up panel is available only in Assembly. Refer to the About Intersect from the Subtractive Feature Dashboard topic in the Intersected Components book under Assembly Operations (Assembly documentation) for more information.

Shortcut Menus
The following shortcut menu appears when you right-click anywhere in the graphics window while defining, redefining, or modifying a solidify feature: Context Define Solidify Attributes • • • • Menu Commands Add Material—Adds material using the surface feature or quilt geometry as the boundary Remove Material—Removes material using the surface feature or quilt geometry as the boundary Patch—Replaces a specified portion of a surface with a quilt Clear—Clears the selected reference from the active collector. Note: At any given time only one of the Add Material, Remove Material, and Patch commands can be selected. The following shortcut menu appears when you right-click on the direction arrow in the graphics window while defining, redefining, or modifying a solidify feature: Context Set the Material Side • Menu Commands Flip—Change the material direction of the solidify feature.

To Create a Solidify (Protrusion) Feature
Before continuing with the following steps, make sure an appropriate surface or quilt is available in your design. 1. Select the quilt or surface geometry you want to create a solid protrusion with. 2. On the Edit menu, click Solidify. The Dashboard opens and default preview geometry highlights in the graphics window. 3. The solidify (protrusion) option is the default. Make sure Dashboard. is selected on the

4. Determine the quilt or surface material side to create the geometry. To change the material side, click the direction arrow on the preview geometry. The material

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side dynamically highlights. You can also change the direction by clicking the Dashboard.

on

5. Double check your references and modify any properties using the appropriate slide-up panels. Click the middle mouse button to complete the solidify (protrusion) feature. Note: If you create Solidify features often, consider adding feature toolbar (Tools > Customize Screen). to the engineering

To Create a Solidify (Cut) Feature
Before continuing with the following steps, make sure an appropriate surface or quilt is available in your design. 1. Select the quilt or surface geometry you want to create a cut with. 2. On the Edit menu, click Solidify. The Dashboard opens and default preview geometry highlights in the graphics window. 3. The solidify (protrusion) option is the default. Right-click on the preview geometry and click Remove Material from the shortcut menu. You can also click on the Dashboard. 4. Determine the quilt or surface material side to create the geometry. To change the material side, click the direction arrow on the preview geometry. The material side dynamically highlights. 5. Double check your references and modify any properties using the appropriate slide-up panels. Click the middle mouse button to complete the solidify (cut) feature. Note: If you create Solidify features often, consider adding feature toolbar (Tools > Customize Screen). to the engineering

To Create a Solidify (Patch) Feature
In order for the patch option to become available, your design must have a quilt or surface that meets the solidify (patch) feature conditions. 1. Select the quilt or surface geometry you want to create a patch with. 2. On the Edit menu, click Solidify. The Dashboard opens and default preview geometry highlights in the graphics window. 3. If the quilt or surface meets the patch feature conditions, the solidify (patch) option is the default. Make sure is selected on the Dashboard.

4. Determine the quilt or surface material side to create the geometry. To change the material side, click the direction arrow on the preview geometry. The material side dynamically highlights.

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5. Double check your references and modify any properties using the appropriate slide-up panels. Click the middle mouse button to complete the solidify (patch) feature.

Solidify (Patch) Feature Conditions
Because the solidify (patch) feature will often simultaneously add and remove material, additional conditions are required to create the feature. To define a solidify patch feature your quilt selection must satisfy one of the following conditions, otherwise the patch option is not available. Condition • • • • Open Quilt All boundaries lie on solid surfaces Solid geometry does not intersect quilt Quilt is totally outside solid geometry Example

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Open Quilt All boundaries lie on solid surfaces Quilt is totally inside solid geometry

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All boundaries lie on solid surfaces Solid geometry intersects quilt

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Remove
About the Remove Feature
The Remove feature enables you to remove geometry without the need to alter feature history, reroute, or redefine a number of other features. When you remove geometry, the neighboring surfaces are extended or trimmed to converge and close the empty area. Pro/ENGINEER provides different solutions to create the Remove feature. Within the Remove tool you can switch through the available solutions using Previous and Next on the Options slide-up panel and select the solution that best fits your requirement. Note: When you click Next Pro/ENGINEER may cease to respond while trying to find the best possible solution. This is because Pro/ENGINEER checks for all possible combinations for the solution. At this point, to interrupt the check and continue adjacent to in the status bar. working in Pro/ENGINEER, click Pro/ENGINEER may also cease to respond if a solution does not exist. You can also select a different solution when you redefine the Remove feature. If Pro/ENGINEER is unable to find more than one solution to create the Remove feature, the Previous and Next options are not available. For multi-contour surfaces you can select contours to be excluded from the Remove feature. Pro/ENGINEER provides a default name for each Remove feature as you create it. The default name includes Remove and a sequentially incremented number, for example, Remove 1. You can perform feature operations such as suppress, resume, group, and so on, on the Remove feature.

General Rules for Creating a Remove Feature
• • • • All surfaces that are to be extended or trimmed must be adjacent to the boundary defined by the references. Surfaces that are to be extended must be extendable. Extended surfaces must converge to form a defined volume. New patches are not created when surfaces are extended.

Accessing the Remove Surface tool
To access the Remove Surface tool, select a surface, surface set, or single closedloop chain and click Edit > Remove. The Remove Surface tool is object-action oriented, that is, the tool is available only if the selection buffer contains one of: • • A single closed-loop chain A surface or surface sets

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The display of collectors on the dashboard depends on your selection. If you select surfaces, the dashboard displays the Surfaces to remove collector. If you select a closed-loop chain, the dashboard displays the Edges to remove collector.

Undo and Redo
Undo and redo operations are available for all operations that you perform within the Remove Surface tool, while the Remove Surface dashboard is active. However, if you quit the Remove Surface tool, you can only undo the remove operation as a whole and not operations performed within the Remove Surface tool. For example, if you select a surface to be added to the Surfaces to remove collector, you can undo this operation within the Remove Surface tool. After you quit the Remove Surface tool, you cannot use the undo operation to remove the surface from the Surfaces to remove collector.

About the Remove Feature User Interface
The user interface for the Remove feature consists of: Feature icon Dashboard Slide-up panels

Feature Icon
The Remove feature is identified by a on the Model Tree. Select a surface, surface sets, or intent chains and click Edit > Remove.

Dashboard
If you select surfaces, the dashboard displays the Surfaces to remove collector. If you select a closed-loop chain, the dashboard displays the Edges to remove collector.

Slide-up Panels
The Remove Surface dashboard consists of the following slide-up panels: • References o o Surfaces to remove collector—Lets you add surfaces to be used for the remove operation. Details—Opens the Surface Sets dialog box that lets you add or remove surfaces. Note: Surfaces to remove collector and Details are available only if you select surfaces or surface sets as references for the Remove feature.

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Edges to remove collector—Lets you add single closed-loop edges to be used for the remove operation. This collector is available only if you select single closed-loop edges as a reference for the Remove feature.

Options o Attachment—You can use one of the following attachment types to create a Remove feature: Solid—Creates the attachment type as solid. Surface—Creates the attachment type as surface. Note: Solid and Surface are available only if you select surfaces or surface sets as references for the Remove feature. Same quilt—Pro/ENGINEER extends the existing quilt and completes the Remove feature. New quilt—Pro/ENGINEER attaches a new quilt to the existing quilt and completes the Remove feature. Note: Same quilt and New quilt are available only if you select a single closed-loop chain. o Exclude Contours—Lets you select contours to be excluded from the current Remove feature. Exclude Contours collector—Lets you select the contours to be excluded from the Remove feature for multi-contour surfaces. This collector is not available if you select chains or if you do not select multi-contour surfaces as the reference for the Remove feature. o Find next possible solution—When you click Next or Previous, Pro/ENGINEER determines the best possible solutions to create the Remove feature. If you click Next and if Pro/ENGINEER is unable to find any other possible solution, then both Previous and Next become unavailable. Previous—Pro/ENGINEER displays a preview of the previous geometry configuration to create the Remove feature. Previous is not available when Pro/ENGINEER displays the first solution for the Remove feature. Next—Pro/ENGINEER determines the next possible solution to create the Remove feature and displays a preview. This option is available only if Pro/ENGINEER finds more than one possible solution. If Pro/ENGINEER determines multiple solutions, Next is available till the last solution is reached.

Properties o Name—Displays the name of the current Remove feature. If required, specify a new name. —Provides detailed information on the Remove feature in the Pro/ENGINEER browser. 313

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To Create a Remove Feature
1. Select a surface, surfaces set, intent surfaces, or single closed-loop chain in the graphics window and click Edit > Remove. The Remove dashboard appears. Note: The collectors in the dashboard appear based on the reference selected. If you select surfaces, surface sets, or intent surfaces as the reference before you enter the remove tool, the dashboard contains the Surfaces to remove collector. If you select edge chain as the reference before you enter the remove tool, the dashboard contains the Chain collector. 2. To add more surfaces, intent surfaces, or surface sets, click References on the Remove dashboard. The Surfaces to remove collector is activated. 3. Select the surfaces in the graphics window or click Details adjacent to the Surfaces to remove collector to add more surfaces. 4. To remove surfaces select the surface or surfaces in the Surfaces to remove collector, right-click, and click Remove on the shortcut menu. 5. To create the attachment type as a surface, click the Options slide-up panel and select Surface under Attachment. Note: o o By default, Pro/ENGINEER creates the attachment type as Solid. Solid and Surface are available only if you select surfaces or surface sets as references for the Remove feature.

6. To create the attachment type as a new quilt for single closed-loop chains, click the Options slide-up panel and select New quilt under Attachment. Note: By default, Pro/ENGINEER creates the attachment type for edges as Same quilt. 7. To exclude contours, click the Options slide-up panel and click the Exclude Contours collector to activate it. This option is available only if you select surfaces as references and the model contains multi-contour surfaces. 8. Select the contours in the graphics window to be excluded from the Remove operation. 9. To view other possible solutions to create the remove feature, click the Options slide-up panel and click Next under Find next possible solution. Note: If you click Next and if Pro/ENGINEER is unable to find any other possible solution, then both Previous and Next become unavailable. o If you click Next and if Pro/ENGINEER ceases to respond because a solution may not exist, you can click to continue working in Pro/ENGINEER. adjacent to in the status bar

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10. Click

on the Remove Surface dashboard to complete the Remove feature.

Remove Surface Tutorial About the Remove Surface Tutorial
The Remove Surface tool creates geometry that is defined by extending a set of adjacent surfaces. In this tutorial you work with five models to practice different scenarios. You can download a model within the exercise. In these exercises, you will work with the Remove Surface tool to accomplish the following tasks: • • • • • Remove surfaces from solids or quilts. Close gaps in quilts. Select multiple independent surfaces or gaps for removal. Query for additional solutions and then decide on which solution best suits your needs. Perform multiple Edit > Remove operations to get the desired result. This is sometimes required when Pro/ENGINEER creates solutions by inverting the normal of a surface.

To save the original models for reference, click File > Erase in Pro/ENGINEER after doing each exercise.

Removing a Surface from a Solid or Quilt
1. Download and extract quilts.zip. 2. In Pro/ENGINEER, open quilts.prt.

3. Click to select the surface on the Extrude 1 feature. When you use the Remove Surface tool, you must first select what you want to remove and then click Edit > Remove or .

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. 4. Click Edit > Remove. The Remove Surface dashboard opens. A preview of the part with the surface removed appears.

5. Click the Options tab. Because you selected a surface to remove, you can click Solid or Surface to specify the type of attachment. The default is solid. 6. Click to create the attachment as a solid. The Remove 1 feature appears in the Model Tree and in the graphics window.

Closing Gaps in a Quilt
1. If you have not already done so download quilts.zip. 2. Open quilts.prt. Notice the features listed in the Model Tree. Depending on your previous work in this tutorial, the Extrude 1 in your model may look different. In this exercise, you will work with the Moved Copy 1 feature. 316

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3. Select the edges of the gaps in the quilt.

4. Click Edit > Remove. The Remove Surface dashboard opens with a preview of the attachment. In the Options panel you can select to make this attachment a new quilt or to keep it as the same quilt. Select Same quilt (the default).

5. Click

to create the Remove feature. Remove 2 appears in the Model Tree.

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6. To save the original model for reference, click File > Erase.

Selecting and Removing Multiple Surfaces or Gaps for Removal
1. Download and extract select_exclude.zip. 2. In Pro/ENGINEER, open select_exclude.prt.

3. In the Model Tree, select Round 2. Notice that Round 2 is divided by Extrude 1.

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4. In the model, press CTRL+click to select the area that includes Round 2. Notice that there are four contours in Round 2. In this exercise, you will exclude the fourth contour from the Remove feature.

5. Click Edit > Remove. The Remove Surface dashboard opens with the following preview. The four contours are automatically selected for removal.

6. Click Options and then click the Exclude Contours collector to activate it. 7. In the model, select the fourth contour to exclude it from the Edit > Remove action.

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8. Click

to create the Remove feature. Remove 1 appears in the Model Tree.

9. Click Remove 1 in the Model Tree. The feature is highlighted in the graphics window. Notice that the fourth contour is excluded from this feature. Model with Remove 1 Feature Selected Close-up of Excluded Contour

10. To save the original model for reference, click File > Erase.

Querying for Additional Solutions
1. Download and extract next_sol.zip. 2. In Pro/ENGINEER, open next_sol.prt and select the surface as shown:

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3. Click Edit > Remove. The Remove Surface dashboard opens and a preview of the part with the surface removed appears.

4. For this exercise, assume that this is not the solution you want. To preview more solutions, click Options and then click Next to see additional solutions. Another solution is shown below:

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Note: Progressing to a preview of the next solution may take some time in appears in the lower right your production models. When you click Next, of the graphics window. If the preview of the next solution is taking longer than expected and you want to stop the process, click maintained and all previous solutions are still available. 5. Click Previous to go back to the first solution. 6. Click to update the model. A Remove feature appears in the Model Tree. . The feature is

7. To save the original model for reference, click File > Erase.

Using Remove Twice to Remove an Overhang
1. Download and extract reverse_normal_two.zip to a directory for which you have access. This zip file contains the model reverse_normal_two.prt. 2. In Pro/ENGINEER, open reverse_normal_two.prt and select the surface as shown:

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3. Click Edit > Remove. The Remove Surface Feature dashboard opens with a preview of the model. Notice that the Remove feature extends beyond the adjacent surface.

4. In the Options panel, click Next. Next becomes unavailable so this is the only solution. 5. Click to create the attachment. The Remove 1 feature appears in the Model Tree. In the graphics window, notice the overhang. If it is not the desired result, you can perform another Edit > Remove operation Note: This result contains a portion of the surface with a reverse normal. Model with Remove Feature Close-up of Overhang

6. Select the surface as shown below:

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7. Click Edit > Remove. The Remove Surface tool dashboard opens with the following preview:

8. Click to create the attachment. The Remove 2 Feature appears in the Model Tree and the desired result is achieved. Remove 1 Feature Remove 2 Feature

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9. To save the original model for reference, click File > Erase.

Using Remove Twice to Uncover an Extrude Feature
1. Download and extract covered_extrude.zip. 2. In Pro/ENGINEER, open covered_extrude.prt. Notice the Extrude 2 feature in this part. covered_extrude.prt Extrude 2 Feature

3. Select the surface as shown below:

4. Click Edit > Remove. The Remove Surface dashboard opens and a preview appears. Notice that a large portion of the hole is closed by the attachment.

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5. In the Options panel, click Next. Next becomes unavailable so this is the only solution. 6. Click . The Remove 1 feature appears in the Model Tree. If it is not the desired result, you can perform another Edit > Remove operation. View from One Side of the Part View from the Opposite Side of the Part

7. Select the surface as shown below, and click Edit> Remove. The Remove Surface dashboard opens and a preview appears.

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. The Remove 2 feature appears in the Model Tree. Notice the Extrude 2 8. Click feature is no longer partially covered. Remove 1 Remove 2 Part after two Edit > Remove Operations

9. To save the original model for reference, click File > Erase.

Using Remove Once to Attain the Required Result
1. Download and extract remove_normal_one.zip. 2. In Pro/ENGINEER, open remove_normal_one.prt and select the surface as shown below:

3. Click Edit > Remove. The Remove Surface dashboard opens and a preview appears. Notice that the Remove feature extends beyond the adjacent surface.

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4. In the Options panel, click Next. Next becomes unavailable so this is the only solution. 5. Click to create the attachment. The Remove 1 feature appears in the Model Tree. In the graphics window, notice the overhang. In this case, it is probably the result that you want. Another Edit > Remove operation is not necessary. Note: This result contains a portion of the surface with a reverse normal.

6. To save the original model for reference, click File > Erase.

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Engineering Features
Hole
About the Hole Feature
The Hole tool enables you to add simple, custom, and industry-standard holes to your models. You add holes by defining a placement reference, setting offset references, and defining the specific characteristics of the hole. As you work, Pro/ENGINEER displays preview geometry of the hole. Notice that a hole always begins at the placement reference and extends to the specified depth. You can directly manipulate and define the hole in the graphics window and in the dashboard. You can create the following hole types: • Simple—Consists of a revolved cut with a rectangular section. You can create the following Straight holes types: o Predefined rectangle profile—Uses (straight) geometry predefined by Pro/ENGINEER. By default, Pro/ENGINEER creates 1-sided Simple holes. However, you can create 2-sided Simple Straight holes by using the Shape slide-up panel. 2-sided Simple holes are typically used in assemblies and enable you to simultaneously format both hole sides. Standard hole profile—Uses standard hole profile as drill hole profile. You can specify the countersink, counterbore and tip angle for the holes that you create. Sketched—Uses a sketch profile that you create in Sketcher.

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Standard—Consists of an extruded cut based on industry-standard fastener tables. Pro/ENGINEER provides industry-standard hole charts and tapped or clearance diameters for the selected fastener. You can also create your own hole charts. The thread notes are automatically created for Standard holes. You can separate the hole axis from the hole thread surface and place the thread in a specified layer. You can create the following types of Standard holes: o o o o —Tapped hole —Tapered hole —Clearance hole —Drilled hole

Hole Features vs Cut Features
Hole features are different from cut features in the following ways:

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Hole features use a predefined placement scheme that can be more desirable than the dimensioning scheme of the cut. Simple Straight holes and Standard holes do not require a sketch unlike cut features.

About the Hole Feature User Interface
The Hole user interface consists of: Feature Icon Dashboard Slide-up panels Shortcut menus

Feature Icon
The Hole tool is identified by a toolbar. on the Model Tree and on the Engineering features

Dashboard
The Hole dashboard displays the following options: Simple Holes • —Displays the Simple hole options enabling you to create holes using the Predefined rectangle profile, Standard hole profile, or a Sketched profile. Simple hole option is selected by default when you enter the hole tool. o o o —Uses predefined rectangle as the drill hole profile. —Uses standard hole profile as the drill hole profile. —Uses a sketch to define the drill hole profile.

The following options are available only if you select Simple holes with predefined rectangle hole profile or the standard hole profile as the drill hole profile: • Diameter box—Controls the diameter of the Simple hole. You can type a new value or select a most recently used value from the list. The Diameter box corresponds to the first direction (side 1) Diameter box on the Shape slide-up panel. Depth options list—Displays the first direction (side 1) drill depth options for the Simple hole enabling you to change the drill depth. You can also select these drill depth options from the Shape slide-up panel Side 1 depth options list. Pro/ENGINEER provides the following drill depth options.

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Note: If you want to control the second direction (side 2) depth independently, you can use the Side 2 depth option list on the Shape slide-up panel. o —Drills the hole in the first direction from the placement reference to a specified depth. The Side 1 Depth box displays on the dashboard and on the Shape slide-up panel. You can also select this depth option by using Variable from the shortcut menu. Pro/ENGINEER selects this depth option by default. —Drills the hole on both sides of the placement reference by half the specified depth value in each direction. The Depth box displays on the dashboard and on the Shape slide-up panel. You can also select this depth option by using Symmetric from the shortcut menu. —Drills the hole in the first direction up to the next surface. You can also select this depth option by using To Next from the shortcut menu. This option is not available in Assembly. —Drills the hole in first direction to intersect with all surfaces. You can also select this depth option by using Through All from the shortcut menu. —Drills the hole in first direction to intersect with the selected surface. The Side 1 Depth Reference collectors on the dashboard and on the Shape slide-up panel activate. You can also select this depth option by using Through Until from the shortcut menu. This option is not available in Assembly. —Drills the hole in the first direction to the selected point, curve, plane, or surface. The Side 1 Depth Reference collectors on the dashboard and on the Shape slide-up panel activate. You can also select this depth option by using To Selected from the shortcut menu.

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Depth box—Controls the Simple hole first direction drill depth. You can type a new value or select a most recently used value from the list. You must select the Variable or Symmetric depth option to display this box. This Depth box corresponds to the first direction (side 1) Depth box on the Shape slide-up panel. Depth reference collector—Indicates that a valid object has been selected as the Simple hole drill depth reference. This collector is available if you snap the depth handle to a reference or select the To Selected or Through Until depth option. This collector corresponds to the Depth Reference collector on the Shape slide-up panel.

The following additional options are available if you select standard hole profile as the drill hole profile: • • —Lets you add countersink to the hole that you create. —Lets you add counterbore to the hole that you create.

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The following options are available only for Sketched holes: • —Enables you to use an existing sketched profile (sketched section) to create a Sketched hole. —Opens Sketcher enabling you to create a hole profile (sketched section) for the new Sketched hole.

Standard Holes • —Displays the Standard hole options enabling you to create holes using industry-standard thread data. —You can use this option to toggle between the tapped or tapered and the clearance or drilled hole sub-types. Pro/ENGINEER selects Tap by default when you switch from Simple hole to Standard hole. The following options are available when you select Tap: o —Lets you create a tapped hole. The following additional options are available for tapped holes: —Lets you specify the depth of the Drilled hole till the end of the shoulder. —Lets you specify the depth of the Drilled hole till the tip of the hole. o —Lets you create a tapered hole.

The following options are available when you clear Tap: o o • —Lets you create a clearance hole. —Lets you create a drilled hole.

Thread type box—Contains hole charts that enable you to define the Standard hole profile. These hole charts consist of industry-standard thread type and diameter information. Pro/ENGINEER provides hole charts and you can create custom charts to meet your specific design needs. Note that you must not edit the provided hole charts. The following hole charts are provided: o o o o o ISO ISO_7/1 NPT NPTF UNC

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Screw size box—Contains the screw sizes for the hole chart that you selected in the Thread Type box. You can type a new screw size or select a most recently used screw size from the list. If you type a new size that is not in the list, Pro/ENGINEER selects the nearest thread size. The screw size controls the thread depth in the Thread Depth box on the Shape slide-up panel. Depth options list—Displays the depth options for the Standard hole enabling you to change the drill depth. Pro/ENGINEER provides the following drill depth options: o —Drills the hole from the placement reference to a specified depth. The Depth box displays in the dashboard. You can also select this depth option by using Variable from the shortcut menu. Pro/ENGINEER select this depth option by default when you create a Standard hole. —Drills the hole up to the next surface. You can also select this depth option by using To Next from the shortcut menu. This option is not available in Assembly. —Drills the hole to intersect with all surfaces. You can also select this option by using Through All from the shortcut menu. —Drills the hole to intersect with the selected surface. The Depth Reference collectors activate on the dashboard and on the Shape slide-up panel. You can also select this depth option by using Through Until from the shortcut menu. This option is not available in Assembly. —Drills the hole to the selected quilt. The Depth Reference collectors activate on the dashboard and on the Shape slide-up panel. You can also select this depth option by using To Selected from the shortcut menu.

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Depth box—Controls the Standard hole drill depth. You can type a new value or select a most recently used value from the list. You must select the Variable depth option to display this box. Depth reference collector—Indicates that a valid object has been selected as the Standard hole drill depth reference. This collector is available if you snap the depth handle to a reference or select the To Selected or Through Until depth option. This collector corresponds to the depth reference collector on the Shape slide-up panel. —Creates a countersink for the Standard hole. The countersink angle and diameter boxes display on the Shape slide-up panel enabling you to define the countersink. Pro/ENGINEER selects this by default. —Creates a counterbore for the Standard hole. The counterbore diameter and depth boxes display on the Shape slide-up panel enabling you to define the counterbore.

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Slide-Up Panels
The hole dashboard contains the following slide-up panels: Placement Slide-up Panel The Placement slide-up panel contains the Straight or Standard hole placement information enabling you to verify and modify it. This slide-up panel contains the following options: • Placement collector—Contains the primary placement reference that you selected to place the hole. You can click this collector to activate it or use Placement Reference Collector from the shortcut menu. Flip—Reverses the placement direction of the hole. You can also use Flip from the shortcut menu. Note: Flip is available only for Simple and Standard holes that use the Variable, To Next, or Through All depth option. • Placement type box—Displays hole placement types enabling you to define the way in which the hole is placed. You must select a primary placement reference on the model to display the hole placement types. Pro/ENGINEER provides the following placement types: o Linear—Places the hole on a surface by using two linear dimensions. This type is available if you select a planar, cylindrical, or conical solid surface; or a datum plane as the primary placement reference. You can also use Linear from the shortcut menu. Pro/ENGINEER selects this placement type by default if you select a surface or datum plane as the primary placement reference. You can also create a linear hole by referencing a datum axis or the axis of an existing hole only if the axis is normal to the primary placement reference of the newly created hole. Radial—Places the hole by using a linear and an angular dimension. This type is available if you select a planar, cylindrical, or conical solid surface; or a datum plane as the primary placement reference. You can also use Radial from the shortcut menu. Diameter—Places the hole by rotating the hole around a diameter reference. This placement type uses an axis in addition to linear and angular dimensions. This type is available if you select a planar solid surface or a datum plane as the primary placement reference. You can also use Diameter from the shortcut menu. Coaxial—Places the hole at the intersection of an axis and a surface. This placement type uses a linear and axial reference. This type is available if you select a surface, datum plane, or axis as the primary placement reference. You can also use Coaxial from the shortcut menu. Note: If you select an axis as the primary placement reference, Coaxial becomes the only placement type available and Pro/ENGINEER selects this type by default. Offset placement reference handles and the Coaxial shortcut menu command are not available when using this placement type.

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On Point—Aligns the hole to a datum point that is located on or offset from a surface. The type does not require offset placement references. This placement type is available only if you select a datum point as the primary placement reference. Note: If you select a datum point as the primary placement reference, Pro/ENGINEER selects On Point by default and it is the only placement type available. Pro/ENGINEER does not provide a shortcut menu command for this type.

Offset references table—Contains the offset placement reference information for the Straight or Standard hole enabling you to constrain the hole. Note that this table is not available if the primary placement reference is a datum point (On Point placement type). The Secondary References table contains the following options: o Offset references collector—Contains the offset placement references that you selected for the hole. If the primary placement reference changes, Pro/ENGINEER uses the existing offset references only if they are valid for the new hole placement. You can click in this collector to activate it or use Secondary References Collector from the shortcut menu. Reference type box—Contains the secondary (offset) reference types enabling you to define the secondary reference. Pro/ENGINEER displays the types based on the primary placement type selected. The box contains the following options: Offset—Offsets the hole from the secondary reference. This option is displayed if you select the Linear primary placement reference and a secondary placement reference. Pro/ENGINEER selects this option by default. Align—Aligns the hole center to the secondary reference. This option is displayed if you select the Linear primary placement reference. Angle—Uses the secondary reference to determine the hole angle. This option is displayed if you select the Radial or Diameter primary placement reference type and a secondary reference (not including an axis). Radius—Uses the secondary reference to determine the hole radius. This option is displayed if you select the Radial primary placement reference and select an axis as the secondary reference. Diameter—Uses the secondary reference to determine the hole diameter. This option is displayed if you select the Diameter primary reference and an axis as a secondary reference. o Reference value box—Controls the secondary placement (offset) reference for the hole. You can type a new value or select a most recently used value from the list.

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The axis of a hole or a datum axis that is normal to the primary reference is selected as the secondary reference.

Shape Slide-up Panel The Shape slide-up panel enables you to define the current hole geometry and provides an illustration of the hole geometry to guide you. Pro/ENGINEER provides different Shape slide-up panel options for the following hole types: • Simple (Straight) holes—The Shape slide-up panel contains the following options for Simple holes: o Side 2 depth options box—Displays the second direction (side 2) depth options for the Simple hole enabling you to change the drill depth. Note that you can also use these depth options from the shortcut menu. Refer to the Shortcut Menus section for more information. The Side 2 box contains the following drill depth options: Blind—Drills the hole in the second direction from the placement reference to a specified depth. The Side 2 Depth box displays. To Next—Drills the hole in the second direction up to the next surface. Note that this option is not available in Assembly. Through All—Drills the hole in the second direction to intersect with all surfaces. Through Until—Drills the hole in the second direction to intersect with the selected surface. The Side 2 Depth Reference collector activates. This depth option is not available in Assembly. To Selected—Drills the hole in the second direction to the selected point, curve, plane, or surface. None—Does not drill the hole in the second direction. The Side 2 Depth Reference collector activates. Pro/ENGINEER selects this depth option by default. o Side 2 depth box—Controls the second direction (side 2) drill depth for the 2-sided Simple hole. You can type a new value or select a most recently used value from the list. You must select the Blind depth option from the Side 2 box to display this box. Side 2 depth reference collector—Contains the second direction (side 2) depth reference that you selected for the 2-sided Simple hole. You must select the Through Until or To Selected depth option on the Side 2 box to display this collector. You can click the collector to activate it or use Depth2 References Collector from the shortcut menu. Side 1 depth options box—Displays the first direction (side 1) depth options for the Simple hole enabling you to change the drill depth. Note that the Side 1 Depth Options box and the Depth Options box on the

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dashboard are similar boxes and contain the same depth options. Refer to the dashboard section for more information about these options. o Side 1 depth box—Controls the first direction (side 1) drill depth for the Simple hole. You can type a new value or select a most recently used value from the list. You must select the Blind (Variable) or Symmetric depth option to display this box. Side 1 depth reference collector—Contains the first direction (side 1) depth reference that you selected for the Simple hole. You must select the Through Until or To Selected depth option in the Side 1 box or on the dashboard to display this collector. You can click the collector to activate it or use Depth1 Reference Collector from the shortcut menu. Diameter box—Controls the diameter of the Simple hole. You can type a new value or select a most recently used value from the list.

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Sketched (Straight) holes—Pro/ENGINEER displays only the sketch geometry in an embedded window in the Shape slide-up panel for Sketched holes. Standard holes—The Shape slide-up panel contains various options for Standard holes depending on the following conditions: on the dashboard to display The Standard hole is tapped. You must click these options. The following options are available: o Thru Thread—Taps threads through all surfaces in the Standard hole. This thread depth option is not available for the Variable and Thru Next depth options, or in Assembly. Variable—Taps threads to a specified depth in the Standard hole. This thread depth option activates the Variable Thread Depth box. Variable thread depth box—Controls the thread depth for the Standard hole. Variable threads. You must select Variable to activate this box. Drill point angle box—Controls the angle of the drill point for the Standard hole. This box is available only if the Variable (Blind) depth option is selected. Include thread surface check box—Creates a thread surface to represent the internal threads of the Standard hole.

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on the The Standard hole is a clearance (non tapped) hole. You must click dashboard to turn off the tap option. Note that holes using the Variable (Blind) depth option must be tapped. The following options are provided: o Fit box—Displays fit options enabling you to define the hole clearance diameter. The box displays the following options: Close Fit—Creates a fit that is intended for the accurate location of parts which must assemble without perceptible play.

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Medium Fit—Creates a fit that is suitable for ordinary steel parts or for shrink fits on light sections. The medium fit is about the tightest fit that can be used with high-grade cast iron external members. This option is available only if you select the ISO thread type from the Thread Type box on the dashboard. Free Fit—Creates a fit that is intended for use where accuracy is not essential or where large temperature variations are likely to be encountered, or both. o Diameter box—Controls the diameter of the Standard clearance (non tapped) hole. You can type a new value or select a most recently used value from the list. This box is available by selecting certain screw sizes from the Screw Size box on the dashboard. on the dashboard

The Standard hole contains a countersink. You must click to display the following options: o

Countersink angle box—Controls the countersink angle for the Standard hole. You can type a value or select a most recently used value from the list. Countersink diameter box—Controls the countersink diameter for the Standard hole. You can type a value or select a most recently used value from the list. on the dashboard

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The Standard hole contains a counterbore. You must click to display the following options: o

Counterbore diameter box—Controls the counterbore diameter for the Standard hole. You can type a value or select a most recently used value from the list. Counterbore depth box—Controls the counterbore depth for the Standard hole. You can type a value or select a most recently used value from the list.

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You can select the following depth options for Standard hole: o Through All—This depth option displays the following: Exit Countersink check box—Creates a countersink at the bottom of the Standard hole. This option displays the Countersink Angle and Countersink Diameter boxes. The Exit Countersink check box is available only if you select the Through All depth option and if the hole exit surface is parallel to the primary placement reference surface. This check box is not available in Assembly. Exit countersink angle box—Controls the countersink angle for the Standard hole. You can type a new value or select a most recently used value from the list. This box is available only if the Exit Countersink check box is selected.

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Exit countersink diameter box—Controls the countersink diameter for the Standard hole. You can type a new value or select a most recently used value from the list. This box is available only if the Exit Countersink check box is selected. o Through Until or To Selected—These depth options display the following: Depth reference collector—Contains the depth reference that you selected for the Standard hole. You can click the collector to activate it or use Depth Reference Collector from the shortcut menu. Intersect Slide-up Panel The Intersect slide-up panel is available only in Assembly. Refer to the Assembly documentation for more information. Note Slide-up Panel The Note slide-up panel enables you to view thread notes for a Standard hole. Pro/ENGINEER also displays the thread notes in the Model Tree and in the graphics window after you create the hole. Note that to view the notes in the Model Tree, you must click Settings > Tree Filters in the Model Tree. In the Model Tree Items dialog box, click the Notes check box under Display and click OK. The Note slideup panel is available only for Standard holes. Properties Slide-up Panel The Properties slide-up panel enables you to obtain general and parameter information for a Straight or Standard hole. This slide-up panel contains the following: • • • Name—Displays the current hole feature name enabling you to rename it. —Provides detailed hole feature information in the Pro/ENGINEER browser. Parameters Table—Displays hole chart data that you have customized enabling you to view the customized hole data in the Standard hole chart (.hol) file that is being used. Note that to modify parameter names and values, you must modify the hole chart file. This table is available only for Standard holes. The Parameters table contains the following options: o o Name—Contains the name of each customized column in the hole chart file. Value—Contains the value associated with the corresponding Name column.

Shortcut Menus
You can use shortcut menu commands to quickly perform an action. Different commands appear depending on the location of your pointer.

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Place your pointer anywhere in the graphics window except over a handle and rightclick to display the following shortcut menu commands: • Placement Reference Collector—Activates the Primary reference collector located on the Placement slide-up panel enabling you to select a primary placement reference for a Straight or Standard hole. Pro/ENGINEER selects this by default. Secondary References Collector—Activates the Secondary reference collector located on the Placement slide-up panel enabling you to select secondary placement (offset) references for a Straight or Standard hole. Dimension Orientation reference Collector—Activates the Dimension orientation reference collector located on the Placement slide-up panel enabling you to select an orientation reference. This option is available only if you select Linear as the placement type and an axis of a hole or a datum axis that is normal to the primary reference as the secondary reference. Flip—Reverses the placement direction of the hole. Flip is available only for Simple and Standard holes that use the Variable, To Next, or Through All depth option. Clear—Clears the reference from the active collector. Depth1 Reference Collector—Activates the first direction (side 1) Depth Reference collector located on the dashboard and on the Shape slide-up panel enabling you to select a depth reference. This command is available only for Simple holes that use the Through Until or To Selected depth option. Depth2 Reference Collector—Activates the second direction (side 2) Depth Reference collector located on the Shape slide-up panel enabling you to select a depth reference. This command is available only for 2-sided Simple holes that use the Through Until or To Selected depth option from the Side 2 depth options box. Depth Reference Collector—Activates the Depth Reference collector located on the dashboard and on the Shape slide-up panel enabling you to select a depth reference. This command is available only for Standard holes that use the Through Until or To Selected depth option. Intersecting Components Collector—Activates the Intersecting Component collector located on the Intersect slide-up panel. This command is available only in Assembly and Auto Update is cleared.

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Place your pointer over the depth handle and right-click to display the following depth option shortcut menu commands. These commands are not available for Sketched holes. Note: For 1-sided Simple holes, a shortcut menu command drills the hole in first direction (Side 1). For 2-sided Simple holes, you must place your pointer over the Side 2 depth handle, right-click and use a shortcut menu command to drill the hole in the second direction (Side 2). • Flip—Reverses the depth of the hole. Flip is available only for Simple and Standard holes that use the Variable, To Next, or Through All depth option.

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Variable—Drills the hole from the placement reference to a specified depth. Pro/ENGINEER select this command by default. Symmetric—Drills the hole on both sides of the placement reference by half the specified depth value in each direction. This command is available only for 1sided Simple holes. To Next—Drills the hole up to next surface. This command is not available in Assembly. Through All—Drills the hole to intersect with all surfaces. Through Until—Drills the hole up to next surface. This command activates the Depth Reference collectors enabling you to select a depth reference. This command is not available in Assembly. To Selected—Drills the hole to the selected point, curve, plane or surface for Simple holes. For Standard holes, drills the hole to the selected quilt. This command activates the Depth Reference collectors enabling you to select a depth reference.

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Place your pointer over a secondary placement reference handle and right-click to display the following shortcut menu commands: • Linear—Places the hole on a surface by using two linear dimensions. This command is available if you select a planar, cylindrical, or conical solid surface; or a datum plane as the primary placement reference. Pro/ENGINEER selects this command by default if you select a surface or datum plane as the primary placement reference. Radial—Places the hole by using a linear and an angular dimension. This command is available if you select a planar, cylindrical, or conical solid surface; or a datum plane as the primary placement reference. Diameter—Places the hole by rotating the hole around a diameter reference. This placement type uses an axis in addition to linear and angular dimensions. This command is available if you select a planar solid surface or a datum plane as the primary placement reference. Coaxial—Places the hole at the intersection of an axis and a surface by using a linear and axial reference. This placement type uses a linear and axial reference. This command is available if you select a surface, datum plane, or axis as the primary placement reference. Note: If you select an axis as the primary placement reference, Coaxial becomes the only placement type available and Pro/ENGINEER selects this type by default. Secondary placement reference handles and the Coaxial shortcut menu command are not available when using this placement type.

Place you pointer in a collector that contains a reference (collectors on slide-up panels) or a reference indicator (collectors on the dashboard) and right-click to display the following shortcut menu commands: • Remove—Removes the selected reference or the reference indicator from the active collector.

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Remove All—Removes all references from the active collector. Information—Opens the INFORMATION WINDOW to display detailed reference information pertaining to the selected reference in the collector.

Hole Placement References
Placing hole features in your design requires that you select a placement reference to place the hole, and offset references to constrain the hole position with respect to selected references. You can verify and modify the hole placement references at any time as you create your hole.

Placement Reference
The placement reference enables you to place the hole on the model. You can relocate the hole by dragging the placement handle on the hole preview geometry, or snapping the handle to a reference. You can also click the handle and then select the primary placement reference. The hole preview geometry relocates.

Offset References
Offset references enable you to utilize additional references to constrain the hole position with respect to selected edges, datum planes, axes, points, or surfaces. You can define the offset references by snapping the secondary placement handles to references. The secondary (offset) reference value appears in the graphics window as shown below: Offset References

Note: • • You cannot select an edge that is normal to the placement reference. Although offset references are needed for coaxial holes, Pro/ENGINEER does not provide placement handles. Activate the offset reference collector and select the references. You cannot select an edge to define an internal datum plane. You need to create a new datum plane. You can do this within the Hole tool by clicking Datum toolbar. The Hole tool pauses and the Datum Plane tool opens. Selecting the Axis of a Hole as Secondary Reference You can select the axis of a hole or a datum axis as the offset reference. The selected axis should be normal to the placement reference of the newly created hole. 342 on the

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You can also orient the orthogonal offset dimensions to be parallel to the specified direction by selecting an orientation reference. Pro/ENGINEER orients the offset dimensions in such a way that the first offset dimension is parallel to the orientation reference as shown in the following illustration. However, the first offset dimension is no longer parallel to the offset dimension of the axis of the hole used as the offset reference.

1 Orientation reference 2 First offset dimension parallel to orientation reference 3 Newly created hole Note: • If you select a datum axis created with two offset references or the axis of a linear hole as the offset reference, then Pro/ENGINEER assigns a default dimension orientation reference and fully constraints the hole. If you select a datum axis created without any offset references or the axis of a hole other than a linear hole, then you must specify a dimension orientation reference.

Verifying and Modifying Hole Placement References
You can verify your placement references using the preview geometry in the graphics window or by using the Placement slide-up panel. This panel contains the primary and secondary reference information. You can also change the placement type in the Placement Type box. While the Hole tool is open, you can select new placement references or modify the offset placement reference values. Note: If the primary placement reference changes, Pro/ENGINEER uses the existing secondary references only if they are valid for the new hole placement.

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Hole Placement Types
After you select the placement reference, you can define the hole placement type. Hole placement types enable you to define the way in which the hole is placed. You can select a placement type by selecting a type from the Placement Type box on the Placement slide-up panel or by placing your pointer over a secondary placement handle, right-click and select a placement type shortcut menu command. The following table lists the placement types for the Hole tool: Hole Placement Type Linear: Places the hole on a surface by using two linear dimensions. This type is available if you select a planar, cylindrical, or conical solid surface; or a datum plane as the primary placement reference. Pro/ENGINEER select this type by default if you select a surface or datum plane as the primary placement reference. Linear referencing an axis: Places the hole by referencing a datum axis or by referencing the axis of another hole situated on the same surface. The axis should be normal to the primary placement reference of the newly created hole.
1 Orthogonal dimension 2 Newly created hole 3 Axis selected as secondary reference

Example

Radial: Places the hole by using a linear and an angular dimension. This type is available if you select a planar, cylindrical, or conical solid surface; or a datum plane as the primary placement reference. Diameter:

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Hole Placement Type Places the hole by rotating the hole around a diameter reference. This placement type uses an axis in addition to linear and angular dimensions. This type is available if you select a planar solid surface or a datum plane as the primary placement reference. Coaxial: Places the hole at the intersection of an axis and a surface. Note that the surface must be normal to the axis. This placement type uses a linear and axial reference. This type is available if you select a surface, datum plane, or axis as the primary placement reference. Note: If you select an axis as the primary placement reference, Coaxial becomes the only placement type available and Pro/ENGINEER selects this type by default. Secondary placement reference handles and the Coaxial shortcut menu command are not available when using this placement type. On Point: Aligns the hole to a datum point that is located on or offset from a surface. This placement type is available only if you select a datum point as the primary placement reference. Note: If your primary placement reference is a datum point, this is the only placement type available.

Example

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To Create a Simple Hole
You can create 1-sided or 2-sided Simple holes by following this procedure. 1. Select the approximate hole location on the model. This is your placement reference. Pro/ENGINEER highlights the selection. on the Engineering Features toolbar. Alternatively, click Insert > Hole. 2. Click The Hole dashboard appears and preview geometry of the hole is displayed. 3. Click to create a Straight hole. Pro/ENGINEER selects this by default.

4. If you need to relocate the hole, drag the placement handle to the new location or snap it to a reference. 5. To change the hole placement type select a new type from the Placement Type box on the Placement slide-up panel. Refer to Hole Placement Types under See Also for more information. 6. Drag the offset placement reference handles to the appropriate references to constrain the hole. As you drag each handle, Pro/ENGINEER pre-highlights the available references as your pointer moves over them. This enables you to target the correct reference. Pro/ENGINEER automatically snaps the handle to the reference and adds them to the Offset references collector on the Placement slide-up panel. 7. To align the hole with an offset reference, select the reference from the Offset references collector on the Placement slide-up panel and change Offset to Align. Note: You can change the reference type only for holes that use the Linear placement type. 8. To modify the hole diameter, drag the diameter handle to the preferred diameter. You can also double-click the diameter dimension in the graphics window and type a new diameter value or select a most recently used value. Pro/ENGINEER updates the preview geometry. 9. To define the hole depth, you can select a depth option from the Depth Options list on the dashboard or drag the depth handle. Note: • Variable and Symmetric depth options enable you to drag the depth handle to define the drill depth. All other depth options automatically snap the handle to a reference. If you unsnap a snapped depth handle, Pro/ENGINEER selects the Variable depth option by default. To drag the depth handle, or to type or select a new value, you must select the Variable or Symmetric depth option. The following depth options are available (shortcut menu commands appear in parentheses):

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(Variable)—Drills the hole in the first direction from the placement reference to a specified depth. The Side 1 Depth box displays on the dialog bar and on the Shape slide-up panel. Pro/ENGINEER select this option by default. (Symmetric)—Drills the hole on both sides of the placement reference by half the specified depth value in each direction. The Depth box displays on the dialog bar and on the Shape slide-up panel. (To Next)—Drills the hole in the first direction up to the next surface. This option is not available in Assembly. (Through All)—Drills the hole in first direction to intersect with all surfaces. (Through Until)—Drills the hole in first direction to intersect with the selected surface. The Side 1 Depth Reference collectors on the dialog bar and on the Shape slide-up panel activate. This option is not available in Assembly. (To Selected)—Drills the hole in the first direction to the selected point, curve, plane, or surface. The Side 1 Depth Reference collectors on the dialog bar and on the Shape slide-up panel activate.

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10. To define the second side for a hole, on the Shape slide-up panel, select the second side drill depth option from Side 2. These options are similar to the list in (Symmetric) depth option is not available. the previous step except that the You can modify the second side drill depth in the slide-up panel or in the graphics window. 11. Click Tip: • If you want to reverse the hole depth direction, click Flip from the shortcut menu or from the Placement slide-up panel. Flip is available only for Simple holes that use the Variable, To Next, or Through All depth option. You can also relocate the hole by clicking the primary placement handle and then clicking the new placement reference such as a surface or a datum plane. When you snap a handle, Pro/ENGINEER replaces the default handle ( ) with the snapped handle ( ). To unsnap a snapped drill depth handle, press SHIFT and drag the handle from the reference. You can now redefine the depth by dragging the handle, or by typing or selecting a new depth value in the graphics window. To unsnap a secondary placement handle, simple drag it. on the Hole dashboard to create the hole.

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To clear all references from the active collector, right-click in the graphics window and select Clear from the shortcut menu. To remove a reference from a collector, select the reference in the collector, right-click, and select Remove from the shortcut menu.

To Define Simple Hole Depth by Snapping to a Reference
In addition to dragging depth handles, or typing or selecting depth values, Pro/ENGINEER enables you to define Simple hole depth by snapping to a reference. Note that this procedure does not apply to Sketched or Standard holes. 1. Select the approximate hole location on the model. This is your primary placement reference. Pro/ENGINEER highlights the selection. Insert > Hole) on the Engineering Features Toolbar. The Hole tool 2. Click opens and preview geometry of the hole displays. 3. Click to create a Straight hole. Pro/ENGINEER selects this by default.

4. Press SHIFT and drag the depth handle and snap it to a reference. As you drag, notice that Pro/ENGINEER pre-highlights each available reference as your pointer moves over it. This enables you to target the correct reference. After you snap the handle, Pro/ENGINEER does the following: o o o Replaces the default depth handle ( ) with the snapped depth handle ( ). (To Selected) depth option on the dialog bar and the Shape Selects the slide-up panel. Populates the Depth Reference collector on the dialog bar to indicate that an item has been selected. The same collector on the Shape slide-up panel contains the selected reference.

5. To redefine the depth, press SHIFT and drag the depth handle to unsnap it from (Variable) default depth the reference. Notice that Pro/ENGINEER selects the option on the dialog bar and replaces the snapped depth handle ( ) with the default depth handle ( ). You can now snap the depth handle to another reference, drag the handle to a preferred depth, or type or select a new depth value using the depth boxes from either the graphics window or from the dialog bar. 6. To define the hole depth for a second side (side-2), repeat the previous two steps using the side-2 depth handle. 7. The Simple hole depth is defined. Click hole and close the Hole tool. Tip: • If you want to reverse the hole depth direction, click Flip from the shortcut menu or from the Placement slide-up panel. Note that Flip is only available for Simple holes that use the Variable, To Next), or Through All depth option. enabling Pro/ENGINEER to create the

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If you want to use a datum point or datum plane as a reference, but one is not present, you can create one without closing the Hole tool by opening the Datum Point tool or the Datum Plane tool on the Datum Toolbar. Pro/ENGINEER pauses the Hole tool. As you work in the graphics window, you can use Clear from the shortcut menu to clear all references from the active collector. To remove a reference from within a collector, select a reference in a collector, right-click, and select Remove from the shortcut menu. You can always increase or limit the available references being highlighted by using the Selection Filter box on the dashboard. You can also click the middle mouse button to create the hole.

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To Create a Linear Hole by Referencing an Axis
1. Click on the Engineering Features toolbar or click Insert > Hole. The hole , that is, Simple hole, and

dashboard appears with the default hole type set to the default Placement Type set to Linear.

2. Select a surface on the model where you want to place the hole. Pro/ENGINEER highlights the selection. This is your placement reference. The preview geometry of the hole is displayed in the graphics window. Note: You can also select the placement reference surface before you activate the hole tool. 3. Click the Placement slide-up panel on the dashboard and activate the offset references collector by clicking it. Alternatively, right-click in the graphics window and click Secondary References Collector on the shortcut menu. 4. Select a datum axis or an axis of an existing hole from the model. Alternatively, drag the handle of the secondary placement reference to an axis. Note: o o The secondary placement reference axis should be normal to the primary placement reference. If you select the axis of a linear hole or a datum axis created with two offset references as the secondary reference, then Pro/ENGINEER assigns the first reference used to create the linear hole or datum axis as the default dimension orientation reference and fully constraints the hole. If you select a datum axis other than the one created with two offset references or an axis of a hole other than a linear hole as the secondary reference, then you must specify a dimension orientation reference.

o

5. If you want to align the hole to the secondary placement reference, click the Placement slide-up panel on the dashboard and select the secondary reference from the secondary reference collector. Click Offset and change it to Align.

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6. If you want to change the default orientation reference assigned by Pro/ENGINEER, click the Placement slide-up panel on the dashboard and activate the Dimension orientation reference collector by clicking it. Alternatively, right-click in the graphics window and select Dimension Orientation reference Collector on the shortcut menu. 7. Select a straight curve, straight edge, datum axis, datum plane, or a planar surface as the dimension orientation reference. 8. Select the required depth option from the depth options box ( arrow next to it. ) by clicking the

9. Click on the dashboard. Pro/ENGINEER creates the hole and closes the hole dashboard.

To Create a Sketched Hole
1. Select the approximate hole location on the model. This is your placement reference. Pro/ENGINEER highlights the selection. Note: You cannot create 2-sided Sketched holes. on the Engineering Features toolbar. Alternatively, click Insert > Hole. 2. Click The Hole dashboard appears and the preview geometry of the hole is displayed in the graphics window. 3. Click on the Hole dashboard. Pro/ENGINEER displays the Sketched hole options. 4. To open an existing sketch, click SECTION dialog box appears. on the hole dashboard. The OPEN

5. Select an existing sketch (.sec) file and click Open in the OPEN SECTION dialog box. 6. To sketch a new section, click opens. on the hole dashboard. The Sketcher window

7. Create a new sketched section (sketch profile) for the hole and click Sketcher window to close Sketcher.

in the

8. To relocate the hole, drag the placement handle to the new location or snap it to a reference. 9. To change the hole placement type select a new type from the Placement Type box on the Placement slide-up panel. 10. Drag the offset placement reference handles to the appropriate references to constrain the hole. As you drag each handle, Pro/ENGINEER highlights the available references as your pointer moves over them. This enables you to target the correct reference. Pro/ENGINEER automatically snaps the handle to the

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reference and adds the corresponding references to the Offset references collector on the Placement slide-up panel. Note: Offset placement reference handles are not available if you select Coaxial as the hole placement type. 11. To align the hole with an offset reference, select the reference from the Offset references collector on the Placement slide-up panel and change Offset to Align. Note: You can change the reference type only for holes that use the Linear placement type. 12. To modify the sketched section, click on the hole dashboard. The sketched section opens in Sketcher. The hole diameter and depth are driven by the sketch. The Shape Slide-up panel only displays the sketched section. on the Hole dashboard. Pro/ENGINEER creates the hole and closes the 13. Click Hole dashboard.

Sketched Hole Requirements
To create Sketched holes, you must either select an existing sketch profile (sketched section) or create a new sketched section in Sketcher. The sketched section must: • • • • Contain geometric entities. Be a closed loop with no intersecting entities. Contain a vertical axis of revolution (you must sketch a centerline). Have all entities on one side of the axis of revolution (centerline) with at least one entity normal to the axis of revolution.

To Relocate a Hole by Snapping to a Reference
In addition to dragging the primary placement handle, or typing or selecting secondary placement (offset) reference values, Pro/ENGINEER enables you to relocate a hole by snapping to a datum point or an axis. 1. Select the approximate hole location on the model. This is your primary placement reference. Pro/ENGINEER highlights the selection. Insert > Hole) on the Engineering Features Toolbar. The Hole tool 2. Click opens and preview geometry of the hole displays. 3. Click to create a Straight hole or to create a Standard hole.

4. Press SHIFT and drag the primary placement handle to snap it to a datum point or axis. Note that an axis cannot be normal to the axis of the current hole. As you drag, notice that Pro/ENGINEER pre-highlights each available reference as

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your pointer moves over it. This enables you to target the correct reference. After you snap the handle, Pro/ENGINEER does the following: o o o o Populates the Primary reference collector on the Placement slide-up panel with the selected reference. If you selected a datum point, Pro/ENGINEER selects the On Point placement type on the Placement slide-up panel. If you selected an axis, Pro/ENGINEER selects the Coaxial placement type on the Placement slide-up panel. Replaces the default depth handle ( ) with the snapped depth handle ( ).

5. To unsnap the primary placement handle, press SHIFT and drag the primary placement handle from the reference. Pro/ENGINEER selects the Linear (default) placement type on the Placement slide-up panel and replaces the snapped handle ( ) with the default handle ( ). You can now drag or snap the primary placement handle to another reference, or type or select a new secondary placement values to relocate the hole. 6. The hole is relocated. Click close the Hole tool. Tip: • If you want to snap to a datum point or axis as a reference, but one is not present, you can create one without closing the Hole tool by opening the Datum Point tool or Datum Axis tool on the Datum Toolbar. As you work in the graphics window, you can use Clear from the shortcut menu to clear all references from the active collector. To remove a reference from within a collector, select a reference in a collector, right-click, and select Remove from the shortcut menu. You can always increase or limit the available references being highlighted by using the Selection Filter box on the dashboard. You can also click the middle mouse button to create the hole. enabling Pro/ENGINEER to create the hole and

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To Create a Standard Hole
1. Select the approximate hole location on the model. This is your primary placement reference. Pro/ENGINEER highlights the selection. on the Engineering Features toolbar. Alternatively, click Insert > Hole. 2. Click The Hole dashboard appears and preview geometry of the hole is displayed. to create a Standard hole. Pro/ENGINEER displays the Standard hole 3. Click options on the dashboard. 4. To relocate the hole, drag the primary placement handle to the new location or snap it to a reference.

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5. To change the hole placement type select a new type from the Placement Type box on the Placement slide-up panel. 6. Drag the offset placement reference handles to the appropriate references to constrain the hole. As you drag each handle, Pro/ENGINEER highlights the available references as your pointer moves over them. This enables you to target the correct reference. Pro/ENGINEER automatically snaps the handle to the reference and adds them to the Offset references collector on the Placement slide-up panel. 7. To align the hole with an offset reference, select the reference from the Offset references collector on the Placement slide-up panel and change Offset to Align. Note: You can change the reference type only for holes that use the Linear placement type. 8. To create a tapped hole, click 9. To create a tapered hole, click on the hole dashboard. on the hole dashboard. is cleared.

Note: Tapped and Tapered holes are available only if 10. To create a clearance hole, click 11. To create a drilled hole, make sure dashboard. and click

on the hole dashboard. on the hole

is selected and click

(Thread Type) on the 12. Select the desired hole chart in the box adjacent to Hole dashboard. Thread Type enables you to select industry-standard hole charts (ISO, ISO_7/1, NPT, NPTF, UNC, or UNF). 13. Type or select a screw size in the box adjacent to .

Note: If you enter a screw size that is not listed, Pro/ENGINEER selects the closest screw size. You can also drag the hole diameter handle to select a screw size. 14. To define the hole depth, select a depth option from the Depth Options list on the dashboard, or drag the depth handle in the graphics window. Note: To define a new depth by dragging the depth handle, or by typing or selecting a new value, you must select the Variable depth option. The following depth options are available (shortcut menu commands appear in parentheses): o (Variable)—Drills the hole from the placement reference to a specified depth. Pro/ENGINEER selected this option by default. (To Next)—Drills the hole up to the next surface. That this option is not available in Assembly.

o

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o o

(Through All)—Drills the hole to intersect with all surfaces. (Through Until)—Drills the hole to intersect with the selected surface. The Depth Reference collectors activate on the dialog bar and on the Shape slide-up panel. This depth option is not available in Assembly. (To Selected)—Drills the hole to the selected quilt. The Depth Reference collectors activate on the dialog bar and on the Shape slide-up panel. on the Hole dashboard.

o

15. To add countersink to your hole, click

16. To define the countersink diameter or angle, click the Shape slide-up panel and type or select a new countersink diameter or countersink angle in the corresponding boxes. 17. To add counterbore to your hole, click on the hole dashboard.

18. To define the counterbore diameter or depth, click the Shape slide-up panel and type or select a new counterbore diameter or counterbore depth in the corresponding boxes. 19. Click on the Hole dashboard to create the hole and close the Hole dashboard.

To Create a Standard Coaxial Hole
1. Select an axis on the model. This is your primary placement reference for the Coaxial hole. Pro/ENGINEER highlights the selection. on the Engineering Features toolbar. Alternatively, click Insert > Hole. 2. Click The Hole dashboard appears and Pro/ENGINEER performs the following: o o Selects the Coaxial placement type in the Placement slide-up panel. Aligns the hole preview geometry to the selected axis.

to create a Standard hole. Pro/ENGINEER displays the Standard hole 3. Click options on the dashboard. 4. Click the Offset references collector on the Placement tab to activate it and select a surface or a datum plane as the offset reference to constrain the hole. (Thread Type) on the 5. Select the desired hole chart in the box adjacent to Hole dashboard. Thread Type enables you to select industry-standard hole charts (ISO, ISO_7/1, NPT, NPTF, UNC, or UNF). 6. Type or select a screw size in the box adjacent to .

Note: If you enter a screw size that is not listed, Pro/ENGINEER selects the closest screw size. You can also drag the hole diameter handle to select a screw size. 354

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7. To define the hole depth, select a depth option from the Depth Options list on the dashboard, or drag the depth handle in the graphics window. 8. To add countersink to your hole, click on the Hole dashboard.

9. To define the countersink diameter or angle, click the Shape slide-up panel and type or select a new countersink diameter or countersink angle in the corresponding boxes. 10. To add counterbore to your hole, click on the hole dashboard.

11. To define the counterbore diameter or depth, click the Shape slide-up panel and type or select a new counterbore diameter or counterbore depth in the corresponding boxes. 12. Click on the Hole dashboard to create the hole and close the Hole dashboard.

To Create a Tapped Hole
1. Click on the Engineering Features toolbar or click Insert > Hole. The hole , that is, Simple hole, and

dashboard appears with the default hole type set to the default Placement Type set to Linear. 2. Click

on the Hole dashboard to change the hole type to Standard hole. and

Pro/ENGINEER displays the Standard hole options on the dashboard. are selected by default.

3. Select a surface on the model where you want to place the hole. Pro/ENGINEER highlights the selection. This is your placement reference. Note: You can also select the placement reference before you activate the hole tool. 4. To change the hole placement type select a new type from the Placement Type box on the Placement slide-up panel. 5. Drag the offset placement reference handles to the appropriate references to constrain the hole. As you drag each handle, Pro/ENGINEER highlights the available references as your pointer moves over them. Pro/ENGINEER automatically snaps the handle to the reference and adds them to the Offset references collector on the Placement slide-up panel. (Thread Type) on the 6. Select the desired hole chart in the box adjacent to Hole dashboard. Thread Type enables you to select industry-standard hole charts (ISO, ISO_7/1, NPT, NPTF, UNC, or UNF). 7. Type or select a screw size in the box adjacent to .

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Note: If you enter a screw size that is not listed, Pro/ENGINEER selects the closest screw size. You can also drag the hole diameter handle to select a screw size. 8. To define the hole depth, select a depth option from the Depth Options list on the dashboard, or drag the depth handle in the graphics window. Note: To define a new depth by dragging the depth handle, or by typing or selecting a new value, you must select the Variable depth option. 9. To specify the drilled hole shoulder depth click enter a value in the box adjacent to 10. To specify the drilled hole depth click and click . adjacent to on the hole dashboard . on the hole dashboard and

and enter a value in the box adjacent to

11. To add countersink to your hole, click

on the Hole dashboard.

1. To define the countersink diameter or angle, click the Shape slide-up panel and type or select a new countersink diameter or countersink angle in the corresponding boxes. 2. To add counterbore to your hole, click on the hole dashboard.

3. To define the counterbore diameter or depth, click the Shape slide-up panel and type or select a new counterbore diameter or counterbore depth in the corresponding boxes. on the Hole dashboard to create the tapped hole and close the Hole 4. Click dashboard.

To Create a Tapered Hole
1. Click on the Engineering Features toolbar or click Insert > Hole. The hole , that is, Simple hole, and

dashboard appears with the default hole type set to the default Placement Type set to Linear.

on the Hole dashboard to change the hole type to Standard hole. 2. Click Pro/ENGINEER displays the Standard hole options on the dashboard. 3. Click to change the hole type to Tapered.

4. Select a surface on the model where you want to place the hole. Pro/ENGINEER highlights the selection. This is your placement reference. Note: You can also select the placement reference before you activate the hole tool.

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5. To change the hole placement type select a new type from the Placement Type box on the Placement slide-up panel. 6. Drag the offset placement reference handles to the appropriate references to constrain the hole. As you drag each handle, Pro/ENGINEER highlights the available references as your pointer moves over them. Pro/ENGINEER automatically snaps the handle to the reference and adds them to the Offset references collector on the Placement slide-up panel. (Thread Type) on the 7. Select the desired hole chart in the box adjacent to Hole dashboard. Thread Type enables you to select industry-standard hole charts (ISO, ISO_7/1, NPT, NPTF, UNC, or UNF). 8. Type or select a screw size in the box adjacent to .

Note: If you enter a screw size that is not listed, Pro/ENGINEER selects the closest screw size. You can also drag the hole diameter handle to select a screw size. 9. To define the hole depth, select a depth option from the Depth Options list on the dashboard, or drag the depth handle in the graphics window. Note: To define a new depth by dragging the depth handle, or by typing or selecting a new value, you must select the Variable depth option. 10. To add countersink or counterbore options to your hole, click respectively, on the Hole dashboard. or ,

on the Hole dashboard to create the tapered hole and close the Hole 11. Click dashboard.

To Create a Clearance Hole
1. Click on the Engineering Features toolbar or click Insert > Hole. The hole , that is, Simple hole, and

dashboard appears with the default hole type set to the default Placement Type set to Linear. 2. Click

on the Hole dashboard to change the hole type to Standard hole. is

Pro/ENGINEER displays the Standard hole options on the dashboard. selected by default. 3. Clear tapping options by clicking layout changes and Clearance hole

on the Hole dashboard. The hole dashboard (drilled hole) are displayed.

(clearance hole) and is selected by default.

4. Select a surface on the model where you want to place the hole. Pro/ENGINEER highlights the selection. This is your placement reference.

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Note: You can also select the placement reference before you activate the hole tool. 5. To change the hole placement type select a new type from the Placement Type box on the Placement slide-up panel. 6. Drag the offset placement reference handles to the appropriate references to constrain the hole. As you drag each handle, Pro/ENGINEER highlights the available references as your pointer moves over them. Pro/ENGINEER automatically snaps the handle to the reference and adds them to the Offset references collector on the Placement slide-up panel. (Thread Type) on the 7. Select the desired hole chart in the box adjacent to Hole dashboard. Thread Type enables you to select industry-standard hole charts (ISO, ISO_7/1, NPT, NPTF, UNC, or UNF). 8. Type or select a screw size in the box adjacent to .

Note: If you enter a screw size that is not listed, Pro/ENGINEER selects the closest screw size. You can also drag the hole diameter handle to select a screw size. 9. To define the hole depth, select a depth option from the Depth Options list on the dashboard, or drag the depth handle in the graphics window. Note: To define a new depth by dragging the depth handle, or by typing or selecting a new value, you must select the Variable depth option. 10. To add countersink or counterbore options to your hole, click respectively, on the Hole dashboard. or ,

on the Hole dashboard to create the clearance hole and close the Hole 11. Click dashboard.

To Create a Drilled Hole
1. Click on the Engineering Features toolbar or click Insert > Hole. The hole , that is, Simple hole, and

dashboard appears with the default hole type set to the default Placement Type set to Linear. 2. Click

on the Hole dashboard to change the hole type to Standard hole. is

Pro/ENGINEER displays the Standard hole options on the dashboard. selected by default. 3. Clear tapping options by clicking layout changes and Clearance hole

on the Hole dashboard. The hole dashboard (drilled hole) are displayed.

(clearance hole) and is selected by default.

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4. Click

to change the hole type to drilled.

5. Select a surface on the model where you want to place the hole. Pro/ENGINEER highlights the selection. This is your placement reference. Note: You can also select the placement reference before you activate the hole tool. 6. To change the hole placement type select a new type from the Placement Type box on the Placement slide-up panel. 7. Drag the offset placement reference handles to the appropriate references to constrain the hole. As you drag each handle, Pro/ENGINEER highlights the available references as your pointer moves over them. Pro/ENGINEER automatically snaps the handle to the reference and adds them to the Offset references collector on the Placement slide-up panel. (Thread Type) on the 8. Select the desired hole chart in the box adjacent to Hole dashboard. Thread Type enables you to select industry-standard hole charts (ISO, ISO_7/1, NPT, NPTF, UNC, or UNF). 9. Type or select a screw size in the box adjacent to .

Note: If you enter a screw size that is not listed, Pro/ENGINEER selects the closest screw size. You can also drag the hole diameter handle to select a screw size. 10. To define the hole depth, select a depth option from the Depth Options list on the dashboard, or drag the depth handle in the graphics window. Note: To define a new depth by dragging the depth handle, or by typing or selecting a new value, you must select the Variable depth option. 11. To add countersink or counterbore options to your hole, click respectively, on the Hole dashboard. or ,

on the Hole dashboard to create the drilled hole and close the Hole 12. Click dashboard.

Using Hole Charts
Hole charts are space-delimited text files that contain fastener size diameter values. The hole charts enable you to standardize the available thread, diameter, countersink, and counterbore options when creating Standard hole features in your designs. Industry-standard hole charts (UNC, UNF, and ISO) are supplied with Pro/ENGINEER in the load point, however these charts must not be changed. You can create custom hole charts to meet your specific design needs. Hole charts naming convention can contain no more than four characters and uses the .hol file name extension. Typically, the four characters are the thread series for the chart.

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Use the HOLE_PARAMETER_FILE_PATH configuration option to specify the directory for your customized hole charts. Available hole charts are listed in the thread type box on the Dashboard. Hole charts have two main portions, TABLE_DATA and THREAD_DATA. Keep the following in mind as you use and customize your hole charts: TABLE_DATA PROE_VERSION The release for which the hole chart was created (for example, 2002) The name of the hole chart; this usually corresponds to the filename. The tolerance class for the hole chart and a parameter that will be visible in the Thread Note (for example, 2b or H). The measurement system for the hole chart; value is either inch or metric. The relationship between the thread depth and the drill depth (for example, 1.25). When you enter either the thread depth or the drill depth on the Dashboard, the other value is calculated automatically using this ratio. Drill Depth is Thread Depth multiplied by Depth Ratio. Note: You can override the default relationship of the depth ratio by entering both the Drill Depth and the Thread Depth values on the Dashboard, under the condition that the drill depth value is greater than or equal to the thread depth. CALLOUT_FORMAT The format of thread notes created or shown in the model and drawing. This is not a place to add text to a note, but a place to define the way that the text of a note appears.

THREAD_SERIES

THREAD_CLASS

TABLE_UNITS

DEPTH_RATIO

THREAD_DATA (hole parameter values) Any column you define is considered a hole parameter. The parameter name and value are stored and displayed in the Parameters table in the Properties slide-up panel on the Dashboard. Each row requires a value in each column. If a value requires spaces, fill the space with a dash. For example, format the screw size 1.125 inch (1 and 1/8 inch) as 1-1/8. FASTENER_ID BASIC_DIAM Displays in the Screw Size list on the Dashboard. The fastener diameter.

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THREAD TAP_DR TAP_DEC

Threads per inch, or pitch (if metric). Letter, fraction, number, or metric drill standard size. Decimal size in inch or metric of the tap drill. This value appears in the diameter list box in the Dimension area on the Dashboard. (See Note below.) Ratio describing the actual engagement of fastener threads. Clearance drill, for close clearances. Decimal size in inch or metric of the close clearance drill. This value appears in the diameter list box in the Dimension area on the Dashboard. (See Note below.) Clearance drill, for medium clearances. Decimal size in metric of the medium clearance drill. This value appears in the diameter list box in the Dimension area on the Dashboard. (See Note below.) Counterbore diameter Counterbore depth Countersink diameter Countersink angle Bottom countersink diameter Bottom countersink angle Clearance drill for free clearances. Decimal size in inch or metric of the free clearance drill. This value appears in the diameter list box in the Dimension area on the Dashboard. (See Note below.)

PERCENT_THREAD

CLEAR_DR_CLOSE CLOSE_DEC

CLEAR_DR_MED MEDIUM_DEC

CBOREDIAM CBOREDEPTH CSINKDIAM CSINKANGLE BOTCSINKDIAM BOTCSINKANGLE CLEAR_DR_FREE FREE_DEC

Note: For the TAP_DEC, CLOSE_DEC, MEDIUM_DEC, and FREE_DEC values, you cannot edit the value on the Dashboard unless the HOLE_DIAMETER_OVERRIDE configuration option is set to yes (the default is no). To prevent overrides of the system setting, include the HOLE_DIAMETER_OVERRIDE configuration option in a config.pro file.

Formatting Thread Notes
Thread notes provide information about standard hole features in your design, including the values listed in the hole chart for that hole. You can customize the format and information to be displayed in your thread notes by modifying the CALLOUT_FORMAT field in the Hole Chart.

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Use the following principles to customize your thread note format: • • • • • Each parameter is preceded by an ampersand (&). A space should always follow a parameter name. Indicate line breaks with a slash (/). Use control characters (for example, <CTRL+A>) to get an extended ASCII character. If the hole is a member of a pattern, use the Pattern_No parameter in the thread note to indicate the number of pattern holes in the pattern.

Note: You can also edit thread notes after exiting the HOLE dialog box. They are the 3-D notes attached to the hole features (Tools > Environment). You can preview the thread note for a hole in the Notes slide-up panel when you are defining or redefining a standard hole. UNC Note To display the following note, use the following text in the CALLOUT_FORMAT field of the hole chart: &Screw_size &Thread_Series &Thread_Class TAP <CTRL-a>x<CTRL-b> &Thread_depth / &Number_Size DRILL (&Diameter ) <CTRL-a>x<CTRL-b> &Drill_Depth -- (&Pattern_No ) HOLE Metric Countersink Note Use the following text in the CALLOUT_FORMAT field of the hole chart: &Diameter DRILL THRU, <CTRLa>n<CTRL-b> - &Csink_diameter x &Csink_angle <CTRL-a>w<CTRL-b> / &Metric_size x &Pitch PLUG TAP <CTRL-a>x<CTRL-b> &Thread_Depth Metric Counterbore Note Use the following text in the CALLOUT_FORMAT field of the hole chart: &Diameter DRILL THRU, <CTRLa>n<CTRL-b> - &Cbore_diameter x &Cbore_depth<CTRL-a>v<CTRL-b> / &Metric_size x &Pitch PLUG TAP <CTRL-a>x<CTRL-b> &Thread_Depth

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Shell
About the Shell Feature
The Shell feature hollows out the inside of the solid, leaving a shell of a specified wall thickness. It lets you specify a surface or surfaces that you want to remove from the shell. If you do not select a surface to remove, a "closed" shell is created, with the whole inside of the part hollowed out and no access to the hollow. In this case, you can later add the necessary cuts or holes to achieve proper geometry. If you flip the thickness side (for example, by entering a negative value, or by clicking dashboard), the shell thickness is added to the outside of the part. on the

When defining a shell, you can also select surfaces where you want to assign a different thickness. You can specify independent thickness values for each such surface. However, you cannot enter negative thickness values, or flip the thickness side, for these surfaces. The thickness side is determined by the default thickness of the shell. You can also exclude one or more surfaces from being shelled by specifying the surfaces in the Exclude Surface collector. This process is called partial shelling. To exclude more than one surface, hold down the CTRL key while selecting the surfaces. However, Pro/ENGINEER cannot shell material that is normal to the surfaces specified in the Exclude Surface collector. You can also shell surfaces with adjacent tangent surfaces. When Pro/ENGINEER creates the shell, all the features that were added to the solid before you created the Shell feature are hollowed out. Therefore, the order of feature creation is very important when you use Shell (see example). To access the Shell feature user interface, click toolbar, or click Insert > Shell. in the Engineering Features

About the Shell User Interface
The Shell user interface consists of the following items: Feature icon Dialog bar Slide-up panels Shortcut menus

Feature Icon
To access the Shell tool, click Shell. on the Engineering Features or click Insert >

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Dialog Bar
The Shell dialog bar consists of the following: • Thickness—Lets you change the value for default shell thickness. You can type a new value, or select a recently used value from the list. —Flips the direction of the Shell feature.

Slide-up Panels
The Shell dashboard displays the following slide-up panels: • • • References—Contains the collectors of references used in the Shell feature. Options—Contains the options for excluding surfaces from the Shell feature. Properties—Contains the feature name and an icon to access feature information.

The References slide-up panel contains the following: • Removed surfaces—Lets you select the surfaces to be removed. If you do not select any surfaces, a "closed" shell is created, with the whole inside of the part hollowed out and no access to the hollow. Non-default thickness—Lets you select surfaces where you want to assign a different thickness. For each surface included in this collector, you can specify an individual thickness value.

The Options slide-up panel contains the following: • Excluded surfaces—Lets you select one or more surfaces to be excluded from the shell. If you do not select any surface to be excluded the entire part is shelled. Details—Opens the Surface Sets dialog box, that lets you add or remove surfaces. Note: You cannot select quilt surfaces when you access the Surface Sets dialog box through the Shell user interface. • • • • Extend inner surfaces—Forms a cover over the inner surfaces of the shell feature. Extend excluded surfaces—Forms a cover over the excluded surfaces of the shell feature. Concave corners—Prevents the shell from cutting through the solid at concave corners. Convex corners—Prevents the shell from cutting through the solid at convex corners.

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The Properties slide-up panel contains the Name text box, where you can type a custom name for the shell feature, to replace the automatically generated name. It also contains the icon that you can click to display information about the feature.

Shortcut Menus
Right-click anywhere in the graphics window to access the Shell shortcut menu, which contains the following commands: • • • • • Remove Surfaces—Activates the Removed surfaces collector. Non Default Thickness—Activates the Non-default thickness collector. Exclude Surfaces—Activates the Excluded surfaces collector. Clear—Removes all references from the collector that is currently active. Flip—Flips the shell side.

If you right-click on the handle or value connected to the O_THICK label, the shortcut menu contains only the Flip command, which flips the shell side. If you right-click on the handle or value connected to a THICK label, the shortcut menu contains only the Remove command, which removes the current surface from the collector of surfaces with non-default thickness. If you right-click on the Individual Surfaces label, in the graphics window, the shortcut menu displays the following additional commands: • • Remove Set—Removes the selected surface or surfaces from the Excluded surfaces collector. Solid Surfaces—Constructs the surface set and adds all solid surfaces to the set.

If you right-click on the Seed and Boundary Surfaces label, in the graphics window, the shortcut menu displays the following additional commands: • • Activate Set—Activates the selected set for adding or removing surfaces from the set. Remove Set—Removes the seed and boundary surface set from the Excluded Surfaces collector.

To Create a Shell Feature
1. Click on the Engineering Features toolbar, or click Insert > Shell. Pro/ENGINEER applies a default thickness to the inside of all the surfaces, creating a "closed" shell, and displays the preview geometry. The default thickness value is displayed in the graphics window, preceded by the O_THICK label connected to a drag handle, and in the box on the dashboard. 2. Select one or more surfaces, that you want to remove during the Shell feature creation. Pro/ENGINEER removes the selected surfaces and updates the preview geometry. 366

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Note: You can also select the surfaces to be removed before you enter the Shell tool. While creating or redefining the Shell feature, you can, at any time, select additional surfaces to remove, or clear the selection of some of the previously selected surfaces, by activating the Removed surfaces collector in the References slide-up panel. This collector is always active when you start to create or redefine a Shell feature. 3. To modify the shell thickness, type or select the new value in the box in the dashboard You can also drag the handle connected to the O_THICK label, or double-click the thickness value next to the O_THICK label and type or select the new value. 4. To flip the shell side, click in the dialog bar. You can also use the Flip command on the Shell shortcut menu. 5. To specify surfaces with a different thickness, open the References slide-up panel and activate the Non-default thickness collector by clicking it. You can also use the Non Default Thickness command on the shortcut menu and select the surfaces. For each selected surface with a non-default thickness, Pro/ENGINEER displays a handle and an associated thickness value preceded by the O_THICK label. It also adds a line with the surface name and thickness value (initially equal to the default shell thickness) in the Non-default thickness collector on the References slide-up panel. To modify a non-default thickness, drag the handle connected to the O_THICK label attached to the surface. You can also type or select a new value in the appropriate box in the Non-default thickness collector or in the graphic window, next to the O_THICK label. 6. To exclude surfaces from being shelled, open the Options slide-up panel and activate the Excluded Surfaces collector on the dashboard by clicking it. Alternatively, you can also use the Exclude Surfaces command on the shortcut menu and select one or more surfaces to be excluded from the shell. 7. Click tool. on the dashboard. Pro/ENGINEER creates the shell and closes the shell

To Create a Shell Feature by Excluding Surfaces
1. Click on the Engineering Features toolbar, or click Insert > Shell. The Shell dashboard appears. 2. Select one or more surfaces in the graphics window, that you want to remove during the shell feature creation. The selected surfaces are added to the Removed surfaces collector in the References slide-up panel. Note: You can also select one or more surfaces to be removed before you enter the Shell tool. 3. To modify the shell thickness, type or select the new value in the box in the dashboard You can also drag the handle connected to the O_THICK label in the 367

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graphics window, or double-click the thickness value next to the O_THICK label in the graphics window and type or select the new value. 4. To exclude surfaces from being shelled, click the Options slide-up panel and activate the Excluded Surfaces collector by clicking it and select one or more surfaces in the graphics window, to be excluded. Alternatively, you can also use the Exclude Surfaces command on the shortcut menu and select one or more surfaces to be excluded from the shell operation. 5. To specify the surface extension type, select one of the following in the Options slide-up panel under Surface Extension: o o Extend inner surfaces—Extends the inner surface of the shell. Extend excluded surfaces—Extends the excluded surface of the shell.

6. To prevent the shell from cutting through the solid at concave corners, ensure that Concave corners is selected in the Options slide-up panel. 7. To prevent the shell from cutting through the solid at convex corners, click the Options slide-up and click Convex corners. 8. Click on the dashboard. Pro/ENGINEER creates the shell and closes the shell dashboard.

Restrictions on Creating Shell Features
Note the following restrictions on creating Shell features: • If the part has a corner between more than three surfaces, the Shell feature may be geometrically undefined; in this case, Pro/ENGINEER highlights the trouble area. The surface to be removed must be surrounded by edges (a fully revolved surface of revolution is not valid) and the surfaces that intersect the edge must form an angle through the solid geometry of less than 180 degrees. As long as this condition is met, you can select any sculpted surfaces as the surface to be removed. When you select surfaces that have other surfaces tangent to them for independent thickness, all surfaces that are tangent must have the same thickness, or the Shell feature fails. For example, if you shell a part that contains a hole and you want the thickness of the hole wall to be different from the overall thickness, you must pick both surfaces (cylinders) that make up the hole, then offset them the same distance. By default, a shell creates geometry with constant wall thickness. If Pro/ENGINEER cannot create a constant thickness, the Shell feature fails. Surfaces selected in a collector cannot be selected in any other collector. For example, if you select a surface in the Removed surfaces collector, then you cannot select the same surface in the Non-default thickness collector or the Excluded surfaces collector.

• •

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Example: Shell and Feature Order
The order of feature creation is very important when you use Shell. When Pro/ENGINEER makes the shell, all the features that were added to the solid before you created the Shell feature are hollowed out. For example, the part shown in the following illustration consists of an extruded solid and a through hole.

If you create a Shell feature and select the extruded spline surface (1) to be removed, Pro/ENGINEER creates a shell of constant thickness around all existing features, as shown in the next illustration.

To achieve proper geometry, reorder the Hole feature to come after Shell in the model tree. The result is shown in the following illustration.

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Example: Creating a Shell Feature
This example shows creating a Shell feature. The original part is shown in the following illustration.

in the Engineering Features toolbar, or click Insert > Shell. The 1. Click system applies a default thickness on the inside of all the surfaces, creating a "closed" shell, and displays the preview geometry. 2. Select the top surface as a surface to remove. 3. To modify the shell thickness, type 7 in the combo box in the dialog bar. The system updates the preview geometry, as shown in the following illustration.

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4. To specify that the bottom surface should have a different thickness, open the References slide-up panel and activate the Non-default thickness collector by clicking in it. Select the bottom surface. 5. It also adds a line with the surface name and thickness value (initially equal to the default shell thickness) in the Non-default thickness collector. Click the combo box and type 14 to specify the thickness at the bottom. The system updates the preview geometry, as shown in the next illustration.

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to create the Shell feature. The final geometry is shown in the following 6. Click illustration.

Example: Creating a Shell Feature by Excluding Surfaces
This example shows you how to create a Shell feature by excluding surfaces. Create a shell feature as described in another example. Follow the steps below to exclude surfaces from being shelled. The original model is shown in the following illustration.

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1. Open the References slide-up panel on the dashboard and activate the Removed surfaces collector by clicking it. 2. Select the top surface as the surface to remove. 3. To exclude surfaces from the shell process, open the Options slide-up panel on the dashboard and activate the Excluded surfaces collector. 4. Select the surfaces to exclude in the graphics window as shown in the following illustration.

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1 Selected surfaces to complete the Shell feature. The model, after shelling, is shown in 5. Click the following illustration.

1 Excluded surface

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Example: Prevent Shell from Penetrating at Concave Corners
This example shows you how to create a Shell feature by excluding surfaces and prevent the shell from penetrating at concave corners. Create a shell feature as described in another example. Follow the steps below to exclude surfaces from being shelled and prevent the shell from penetrating at concave corners. The original model is shown in the following illustration.

1 Concave corner 2 Surface to be removed 1. Open the References slide-up panel on the dashboard and activate the Removed surfaces collector by clicking it. 2. Select the side surface (2) as the surface to remove. 3. To exclude surfaces from the shell process, open the Options slide-up panel on the dashboard and activate the Excluded surfaces collector. 4. Select the surface to exclude in the graphics window as shown in the following illustration.

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1 Surface to be excluded 5. Click the Options slide-up panel and ensure that the Prevent shell from penetrating solid at is set to Concave corners. to complete the Shell feature. The model, after shelling, is shown in 6. Click the following illustration.

1 Shelling prevented at concave corner

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Example: Prevent Shell from Penetrating at Convex Corners
This example shows you how to create a Shell feature by excluding surfaces and prevent the shell from penetrating at convex corners. Create a shell feature as described in another example. Follow the steps below to exclude surfaces from being shelled and prevent the shell from penetrating at convex corners. The original model is shown in the following illustration.

1 Convex corner 2 Surface to be removed 1. Open the References slide-up panel on the dashboard and activate the Removed surfaces collector by clicking it. 2. Select the side surface (2) as the surface to remove. 3. To exclude surfaces from the shell process, open the Options slide-up panel on the dashboard and activate the Excluded surfaces collector. 4. Select the surface to exclude in the graphics window as shown in the following illustration.

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1 Surface to be excluded 5. Click the Options slide-up panel and click Convex corners under Prevent shell from penetrating solid at. to complete the Shell feature. The model, after shelling, is shown in 6. Click the following illustration.

1 Shelling prevented at convex corner

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Rib
About the Rib Feature
A Rib feature is a thin fin or web protrusion that attaches to solid surfaces in your design. Typically, ribs are designed to strengthen parts in your design and are often used to prevent unwanted bending. The Rib tool enables you to quickly develop both simple and complex rib features. Designing Rib features requires you to: • Create a dependent section by selecting a valid Sketch feature (sketched datum curve) from the Model Tree, or sketch a new independent section. A section outlines the rib feature. Refer to About Sections in Sketch-based Features in the Sections in Sketch-based Features book for more information on sections. Determine the rib material side with respect to the sketching plane and desired rib geometry Set the appropriate thickness dimensions

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You can enter the Rib tool either by clicking on the Features toolbar or by clicking Insert > Rib on the main menu. You can enter the tool and begin designing your Rib feature under the following conditions: • • Sketch Not Selected—Entering the Rib tool and then selecting an existing sketch or creating a new sketch for the Rib feature. Sketch Selected—Selecting an existing sketch for the Rib feature and then entering the Rib tool.

In either case, after you designate a sketch for the rib, the validity of your sketch is examined and, if valid, it is placed in the collector. The reference collector only accepts one valid rib sketch at a time. After you specify a valid sketch for the Rib feature, preview geometry appears in the graphics window. You can directly manipulate and define your model either in the graphics window, in the dashboard, or a combination of the two. The preview geometry automatically updates, reflecting any modifications. There are two types of Rib feature available. However, the type is automatically set according to the attaching geometry: Straight Attaches to straight surfaces. Extrudes either to one side or symmetrically about the sketching plane.

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Rotational

Attaches to surfaces of revolution. The angled surface of the rib is conical, not planar. Revolves the section about the axis of the parent, making a wedge either to one side or symmetrically about the sketching plane. The wedge is then trimmed with two planes parallel to the sketching surface. The distance between the planes corresponds to the thickness of the rib and attaching geometry.

Rib features are subject to normal feature operations, including patterning, modifying, rerouting, and redefining. Note: You must place Rib features while designing in Part mode. You can not create ribs as an Assembly feature.

About the Rib Feature User Interface
The rib feature user interface consists of: Feature Icon Dialog bar Slide-Up panels Shortcut menus

Feature Icon
You can enter the rib feature tool by either: • • Clicking on the feature toolbar.

Clicking Insert > Rib on the top-level menu.

Dialog Bar
The dialog bar consists of commands positioned from left to right guiding you through the design process. The dialog bar consists of: • Thickness box—Controls the material thickness of the rib feature. The dimension box contains the most recently used dimension values.

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—Enables you to switch the thickness side of the rib feature. Clicking the button cycles you from one side to the other, and then symmetric about the sketching plane.

Slide-Up Panels
Slide-up panels contain information about your rib feature references and properties. Rib features use the following slide-up panels: • References—Contains the following options so that you can view and modify the references for your rib feature: o Sketch collector—Contains the valid Sketch feature reference that you selected for the rib feature. You can use Remove from the shortcut menu (pointer in the collector) to remove the sketch reference. Notice that the sketch collector can only contain one rib feature sketch reference at a time. Flip button—Enables you to switch the material direction for the rib feature sketch. Clicking the button changes the direction arrow from one side to the other.

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The following options are available only under certain conditions: o Define button—Opens the Sketch dialog box enabling you to use Sketcher to define an independent section. Note that Define is available only if the Sketch collector is empty (no section defined or sketch selected). You can also use the Define Internal Sketch shortcut menu command from the graphics window. Edit button—Opens the Sketch dialog box enabling you to use Sketcher to redefine the independent section. Note that Edit is available only for sketch-based features that use an independent section. You can also use the Edit Internal Sketch shortcut menu command from the graphics window. Unlink button—Breaks the association between the dependent section and the parent Sketch feature. Pro/ENGINEER copies the Sketch feature references to the new independent section. Note that Unlink is available only if the rib feature uses a dependent section.

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Properties—Enables you to obtain information about and rename your rib feature. The slide-up panel consists of: • Name box—Enables you to customize the rib feature name by editing the name box. —Slides open the embedded browser containing rib feature information.

Shortcut Menus
The following shortcut menus appear when you right-click a rib feature item in the graphics window while defining, redefining, or modifying your rib feature:

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Context Set Rib Thickness

Menu Commands Right-click anywhere on the rib feature. • • Flip—Changes the thickness of material side to the opposite side of the sketching plane. Symmetric—Makes the rib symmetric about the sketching plane. Right-click the direction arrow. • Flip—Changes the sketch material side. Right-click anywhere on the rib feature. • Edit Sketch—Opens the Sketch dialog box enabling you to use Sketcher to redefine an independent section. Note that the rib tool must be open and you must be working with an independent section. Clear—Deletes the sketch reference for the rib feature. Right-click the Sketch collector in the References slideup panel. • Remove—Deletes the sketch reference for the rib feature.

Set the Sketch Material Side Handle the sketch

Sketching Rib Features
When creating rib features you sketch a section of the rib to the silhouette of the parent feature. You then thicken the sketch to either one side or both sides of the sketching plane. As you define your rib feature you can either sketch the rib after entering the rib tool or pre-sketch the rib before entering the rib tool. In either case, the reference collector will only accept one valid rib sketch at a time. Valid rib feature sketches must meet the following criteria: • • • Single open loop Contiguous and non intersecting sketch entities Sketch ends must align to attachment surfaces forming a closed area

While the work-flow for straight and rotational rib features is the same, each rib type has specific sketch requirements. Keep the following in mind as you sketch your rib features: Rib Type Sketch Requirement Valid Sketch Example

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Rib Type Straight

Sketch Requirement Sketch can be created on any point as long as its line ends attach to surfaces, providing an area to fill.

Valid Sketch Example

Rotational

Sketch must be created on a plane that passes through the axis of revolution for the revolved surface. Its line ends must attach to surfaces, providing an area to fill.

Whether you create an internal sketch or you seed your rib feature with an external sketch, you can easily modify your rib feature sketch because it lives inside the rib feature. Any modifications you make to an original seed sketch, including deletion, do not affect the rib feature because an individual copy of the sketch is stored in the feature. In order to modify the rib sketch geometry you must modify the internal sketch feature, which is a sub-node of the rib feature in the Model Tree.

Defining Rib Features
In order to define the Rib feature thickness you must: • • Set a numeric value for the rib thickness Determine the rib material side with respect to the sketching plane

You can set a numeric value for the rib thickness either by dragging the handles to the desired length or by typing or selecting a real number value in the dimension box. The dimension box contains the most recently used dimension values. You can determine the accurate material side for the rib using the preview geometry. Setting the rib feature material side is a two step process. First, you must point the direction arrow towards the side of the sketch line to fill. In most cases you will accept the default direction. Accept Default Direction Optional Direction Arrow

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Accept Default Direction

Optional Direction Arrow

You must accept this direction so the rib feature is filling an enclosed area.

You can choose either direction because both options fill an enclosed area.

Second, you must determine how to thicken the rib features about the sketching plane: symmetrical or towards one side of the sketching plane. The default material side is both sides, however, as you define and redefine your rib features you can change material sides using either the shortcut menus, the dimension box, or the dashboard: Side One (one side) Side Two (one side) Both Sides (symmetrical)

The following table displays the processes for changing material sides. Clicking the dialog bar rotates through the three material side options: Material Side Change Both sides -to- Side one or Side two • How to Set the New Material Side Do one of the following while defining or redefining: Right-click the rib feature in the graphics window and clear Symmetric on the shortcut menu. Click on the dialog bar.

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• Side one or Side two -to- Both

Do one of the following while defining or

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Material Side Change sides •

How to Set the New Material Side redefining: Right-click the rib feature in the graphics window and click Symmetric on the shortcut menu. Click on the dialog bar.

• Side one -to- Side two (and vice versa) •

Do one of the following while defining or redefining: Right-click the Rib feature in the graphics window and click Flip on the shortcut menu. Drag the preview geometry to the opposite side. Type a negative value in the dimension box. Click on the dialog bar.

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To Create a Rib Feature by Creating an Internal Section
The work-flow for designing both straight and rotational rib types is the same because the rib type is automatically determined by the attaching geometry. on the Engineering Feature toolbar. You can also click Insert > Rib. 1. Click The Rib tool opens. 2. Click the References tab on the dashboard. After the References slide-up panel appears, click Define. You can also use Define Internal Sketch from the shortcut menu. The Sketch dialog box opens enabling you to use Sketcher. Refer to To Create a Section in the Sections in Sketch-based Features book for more information on creating sections. . Sketcher closes and 3. In Sketcher, sketch the desired side-section and click the Rib tool resumes. Notice that preview geometry appears in the graphics window and a direction arrow indicates the sketch side to fill. 4. If you want to change the fill side, click the direction arrow. The arrow indicates the fill side. You can also use Flip from the References slide-up panel or from the shortcut menu (pointer over the arrow and right-click). 5. Define the thickness of the rib by dragging the handle to the desired distance. By default the thickness is symmetrical about the sketching plane. Note that if you want to thicken only one side of the sketching plane, place your pointer over the thickness handle, right-click, and select Symmetric from the shortcut menu

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(check mark cleared). You can then drag the handle to change define the thickness. 6. Double check your references and modify any properties using the appropriate slide-up panels. Click the middle mouse button to complete the rib feature. Note: • You can also define the rib thickness by directly modifying the dimension in the graphics window or by entering a value in the dimension box on the Dashboard. The dimension box contains the most recently used dimension values and accepts real number inputs. If you want to redefine the independent section, click Edit in the References slide-up panel and use Sketcher. You can also use Edit Internal Sketch from the shortcut menu. Refer to To Redefine a Section in the Sections in Sketchedbased Features book for more information.

To Create a Rib Feature by Using a Sketch feature
The work-flow for designing both straight and rotational rib types is the same because the rib type is automatically determined by the attaching geometry. 1. To use an existing Sketch feature (sketched datum curve) as the basis for the rib on section, select the existing Sketch feature from the Model Tree and click the Engineering Feature toolbar. You can also click Insert > Rib. The Rib tool opens, preview geometry appears in the graphics window, and a direction arrow indicates the sketch side to fill. Notice that a section is created and placed in the Sketch collector on the Reference slide-up panel. This section is dependent (references the Sketch feature). 2. If you want to change the fill side, click the direction arrow. The arrow indicates the fill side. You can also use Flip from the References slide-up panel or from the shortcut menu (pointer over the arrow and right-click). 3. Define the thickness of the rib by dragging the handle to the desired distance. By default the thickness is symmetrical about the sketching plane. Note that if you want to thicken only one side of the sketching plane, place your pointer over the thickness handle, right-click, and select Symmetric from the shortcut menu (check mark cleared). You can then drag the handle to change define the thickness. 4. Double check your references and modify any properties using the appropriate slide-up panels. Click the middle mouse button to complete the rib feature. Note: • You can also define the rib thickness by directly modifying the dimension in the graphics window or by entering a value in the dimension box on the Dashboard. The dimension box contains the most recently used dimension values and accepts real number inputs. If you want to redefine the rib section, you can either redefine the parent Sketch feature that the section is referencing, or you can redefine the section itself.

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Refer to To Redefine a Section in the Sections in Sketched-based Features book for more information.

Draft
About the Draft Feature
The Draft feature adds a draft angle between -30° and +30° to individual surfaces or to a series of surfaces. You can draft only the surfaces that are formed by tabulated cylinders or planes. You cannot draft surfaces with fillets around the edge boundary. However, you can draft the surfaces first, then fillet the edges. You can draft either solid surfaces or quilt surfaces, but not a combination of both. When you select surfaces to be drafted, the first selected surface determines the type of additional surfaces, solid or quilt, that can be selected for this feature. For drafts, the system uses the following terminology: • • Draft surfaces—The surfaces of the model that are being drafted. Draft hinges—Lines or curves on the draft surfaces that the surfaces are pivoted about (also called neutral curves). Draft hinges can be defined by selecting a plane, in which case the draft surfaces are pivoted about their intersection with this plane, or by selecting individual curve chains on the draft surfaces. Pull direction (also called draft direction)—Direction that is used to measure the draft angle. This is usually the direction of mold opening. You can define it by selecting a plane (in which case the pull direction is normal to this plane), a straight edge, a datum axis, or an axis of a coordinate system. Draft angle—The angle between the draft direction and the resulting drafted surfaces. If the draft surfaces are split, you can define two independent angles for each side of the drafted surface. Draft angles must be within the range of –30 to +30 degrees.

Draft surfaces can be split either by the draft hinge or by a different curve on the draft surface, such as an intersection with a quilt, or a sketched curve. If you are splitting by a sketch that does not lie on the draft surface, the system projects it on the draft surface in the direction normal to the sketching plane. If the draft surfaces are split, you can: • • • Specify two independent draft angles for each side of the drafted surface Specify a single draft angle, with the second side drafted in the opposite direction Draft only one side of the surface (either one), with the other side remaining in the neutral position in the Engineering Features

To access the Draft feature user interface, click toolbar, or click Insert > Draft.

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About Split Draft
Split draft enables you to apply different draft angles to different portions of a surface. Draft surfaces can be split either by the draft hinge or by a different curve on the draft surface, such as a sketched curve. If the draft surfaces are split, you can: • • Specify two independent draft angles for each side of the drafted surface. Specify a single draft angle, with the second side drafted in the opposite direction. This option is available either for a draft split by a draft hinge, or for a split draft with two hinges. Draft only one side of the surface (either one), with the other side remaining in the neutral position. This option is not available for a split draft with two hinges.

The following illustration shows examples of split draft. Each example uses the draft hinge (datum plane) as a split object.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Original part (before draft) Using the Draft sides independently option Using the Draft sides dependently option Using the Draft first side only option

The next illustration shows an example of split draft using a sketched curve chain as a split object.

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Draft hinge (datum plane, side view) Split object (sketched curve chain)

About Variable Draft
When you first define a Draft feature, a constant draft angle is applied to the whole draft surface. This is called Constant draft. An example of Constant draft is shown in the following illustration.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Draft surface Draft hinge (sketched curve) Surface selected to define Pull Direction Draft angle

In Variable draft, you apply a variable draft angle at various control points along the draft surface: • • If the draft hinge is a curve, the angle control points lie on the draft hinge If the draft hinge is a plane, the angle control points lie on the contour of the draft surface

An example of Variable draft is shown in the next illustration.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Draft surface Draft hinge (sketched curve) Surface selected to define Pull Direction Draft angles Draft angle locations (control points)

About the Draft User Interface
The Draft user interface consists of the following items: Feature icon Dashboard Slide-up panels Shortcut menus

Feature Icon
Draft features are identified by the toolbar and on the Model Tree. icon both on the Engineering Features

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Dashboard
The Draft dashboard consists of the following: • Draft hinges—Lets you specify the neutral lines or curves on the draft surfaces, that is, the lines or curves that the surfaces are pivoted about. Click the collector to activate it. You can select up to two planes or curve chains. To select a second hinge, you must first split the draft surfaces by a split object. Pull direction—Lets you specify the direction that is used to measure the draft angle. Click the collector to activate it. You can select a plane, a straight edge or a datum axis, or an axis of the coordinate system. Reverse pull direction—Lets you reverse the pull direction (indicated by a yellow arrow). Angle—Lets you change the value for the draft angle. You can type a new value or select one of the recently used values from the list. Reverse angle to add or remove material—Lets you reverse the direction of the draft angle, to switch between adding and removing the material.

For split drafts with independently drafted sides, the dashboard contains a second Angle box and Reverse Angle icon, to control the draft angle on the second side. Note: For Variable drafts, the Angle box and Reverse Angle icon are not available.

Slide-up Panels
The Draft dashboard displays the following slide-up panels: • • • • • References—Contains the collectors of references used in the draft feature. Split—Contains the split options. Angles—Contains a table of draft angle values and their locations. Options—Contains the options defining draft geometry. Properties—Contains the feature name and an icon to access feature information.

The References slide-up panel contains the following elements: • Draft surfaces—Lets you select the draft surfaces. You can draft only those surfaces that are formed by tabulated cylinders or planes. You can select individual surfaces or continuous chains of surfaces. The type of the first selected surface, solid or quilt, determines the type of other surfaces that can be selected as draft surfaces for this feature. Details—Opens the Surface Sets dialog box that lets you add or remove draft surfaces. 391

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Draft hinges—Lets you specify the neutral curves on the draft surfaces, that is, the lines or curves that the surfaces are pivoted about. You can select up to two draft hinges. To select a second hinge, you must first split the draft surfaces by a split object. For each draft hinge, you can select one of the following: o o A plane, in which case the draft surfaces are pivoted about their intersection with this plane. A curve chain located on the draft surfaces.

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Details—Opens the Chain dialog box that lets you manipulate the draft hinge chains. Pull direction—Lets you specify the direction that is used to measure the draft angle. You can select one of the following: o o o A plane, in which case the pull direction is normal to this plane A straight edge or a datum axis, in which case the pull direction is parallel to this edge or axis An axis of the coordinate system, in which case the pull direction is parallel to this axis. Select the particular axis of a coordinate system, rather than the coordinate system name.

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Flip—Lets you reverse the pull direction (indicated by an yellow arrow).

The Split slide-up panel contains the following elements: • Split options—You can select one of the following: o o o No split—Do not split the draft surfaces. The whole surface pivots about the draft hinge. Split by draft hinge—Split the draft surfaces along the draft hinge. Split by split object—Split the draft surfaces by using a quilt or sketch. If you are splitting by a sketch that does not lie on the draft surface, Pro/ENGINEER projects it on the draft surface in the direction normal to the sketching plane. If you select this option, Pro/ENGINEER activates the Split object collector.

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Split object—You can either sketch the split curve by using the Define button next to the collector, or select one of the following: o o A surface quilt, in which case the split object is the intersection of this quilt with the draft surface. An external (existing) sketched curve.

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Define—Sketch the split curve on the draft surface or on another plane. If the sketch does not lie on the draft surface, Pro/ENGINEER projects it on the draft surface in the direction normal to the sketching plane. Side options—Lets you select one of the following options:

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Draft sides independently—Specify two independent draft angles for each side of the drafted surface. Draft sides dependently—Specify a single draft angle, with the second side drafted in the opposite direction. This option is available only if the draft surfaces are split by the draft hinge, or for a split draft with two hinges. Draft first side only—Draft only the first side of the surface (determined by the positive pull direction from the split object), with the second side remaining in the neutral position. This option is not available for split draft with two hinges. Draft second side only—Draft only the second side of the surface, with the first side remaining in the neutral position. This option is not available for split draft with two hinges.

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Note: If you select No split under Split options, then Split object and Side options are not available. The Angles slide-up panel contains the following elements: • • For Constant draft, a single line containing an Angle box with the value of the draft angle. For Variable draft, additional lines for each additional draft angle. Each line contains an Angle box with the value of the draft angle, a Reference box with the name of the reference, and a Location box specifying the location of the draft angle control along the reference. For Split draft with independently drafted sides (both Constant and Variable), each line contains two boxes, Angle 1 and Angle 2, instead of the Angle box. Adjust angles to keep tangency—Forces the resultant draft surfaces to be tangent. Not available for Variable draft. Variable draft always keeps surfaces tangent.

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If you right-click on the Angles slide-up panel, the shortcut menu contains the following commands: • Add Angle—Adds another angle control at a default location and with a most recently used draft angle value. You can modify both the angle value and location. Delete Angle—Deletes the selected angle control. Available only if more than one angle control is specified. Flip Angle—Flips the direction of the draft at the selected angle control location. For a Split draft with independently drafted sides, you must right-click in an individual angle cell for this option to be available. Make Constant—Deletes all the angle controls except the first one. This option is available for Variable draft only.

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The Options slide-up panel contains the following elements:

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Exclude loops—Lets you select the contours to be excluded from draft surfaces. Available only when the selected surface contains more than one loop. Draft tangent surfaces—If selected, Pro/ENGINEER automatically extends the draft to include surfaces tangent to the selected draft surfaces. This check box is selected by default. Clear it if the resulting geometry is invalid. Extend intersect surfaces—If selected, Pro/ENGINEER tries to extend the draft to meet the adjacent surface of the model. If the draft cannot extend to the adjacent model surface, then the model surface extends into the draft surface. If neither of these cases are possible, or if you did not select the check box, Pro/ENGINEER creates a draft surface that overhangs the edge of the model.

The Properties slide-up panel contains the Name text box, where you can type a custom name for the draft feature, to replace the automatically generated name. It also contains the icon that you can click to display information about the feature.

Shortcut Menus
Right-click anywhere in the graphics window to access the Draft shortcut menu, that contains the following commands: • Solid Surfaces—Allows you to select all the solid surfaces of the model. This command is available only when the model has solid surfaces and one of the solid surfaces is already selected. Draft Surfaces—Activates the draft surfaces collector and lets you select surfaces to be drafted. You can draft only those surfaces that are formed by tabulated cylinders or planes. You can select any number of individual surfaces or continuous chains of surfaces. The type of the first selected surface, solid or quilt, determines the type of other surfaces that can be selected as draft surfaces for this feature. Draft Hinges—Activates the draft hinges collector. You can select up to two planes or curve chains. To select a second hinge, you must first split the draft surfaces by a split object. Pull Direction—Activates the pull direction collector. This direction is used to measure the draft angle. You can select a plane, a straight edge or a datum axis, or an axis of the coordinate system. Split by draft hinge—If you select this check box, Pro/ENGINEER automatically uses the draft hinge as the split object. Make Constant—This option is available for Variable draft only. It makes the draft Constant.

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If you right-click the round handle connected to a draft angle, the shortcut menu contains the Add Angle and Delete Angle commands. If you right-click the square handle connected to a draft angle, the shortcut menu contains the Flip Angle command. These commands are the same as when you right-click on the Angles slide-up panel. Another way to add a draft angle is to hold down the CTRL key, click

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the round handle connected to a draft angle and drag it along the edge to the desired location. If you right-click a pull direction arrow in the graphics window, the shortcut menu contains the Flip command.

To Create a Draft Feature
This procedure describes the steps necessary to create a basic Draft feature. All other procedures for creating Draft features are based on this one. For information on how to create more complex Draft features, follow the links. 1. Click on the Engineering Features toolbar, or click Insert > Draft.

2. Select the surfaces that you want to draft. To select multiple surfaces, hold down the CTRL key and select them. You can also use the Surface Sets dialog box to collect surfaces. To access the Surface Sets dialog box, open the References slide-up panel and click Details next to the Draft surfaces collector. Note: You can also select one or more draft surfaces before entering the Draft tool. Draft hinges collector on the dashboard to activate it and select a 3. Click the plane or a curve chain located on the draft surfaces, as the draft hinge. Note: If you do not have a plane or curve to use as a draft hinge, you can pause the Draft tool and create one asynchronously, then resume the Draft tool. 4. If you select a plane as a draft hinge, then Pro/ENGINEER automatically uses it to determine the pull direction. To change the pull direction, or to specify the pull Pull direction direction if you are using a curve as a draft hinge, click the collector on the dashboard to activate it and select a plane (in which case the pull direction is normal to this plane), a straight edge, a datum axis, or an axis of a coordinate system. Pro/ENGINEER indicates the pull direction by a yellow arrow and displays the preview geometry for a constant draft with the default angle of 1 degree. The default draft angle value is displayed on the screen and in the box on the dashboard. Pro/ENGINEER also displays two drag handles; a round one, located on the draft hinge or on the draft surface contour, and a square one, connected to the draft angle. 5. To modify the draft angle, type or select a value in the box in the dashboard. You can also drag the square handle connected to the draft angle, or double-click the draft angle value in the graphics window and type or select a value. 6. To flip the draft angle, click Reverse angle to add or remove material on the dashboard. You can also drag the square handle connected to the draft angle to the other side of the part surface to which it is attached, or type a negative draft angle value.

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7. To flip the pull direction, click the pull direction arrow in the graphics window. You can also click Reverse pull direction on the dashboard or Flip in the References slide-up panel. Note: Flipping the pull direction affects the direction of the draft angle. 8. Use other options in the Draft user interface to create more complex draft geometry, if necessary. For more information, follow the appropriate link under See Also. 9. Click feature. on the dashboard. Pro/ENGINEER creates a draft of the selected

Example: Creating a Basic Draft
This example shows creating a basic Draft feature to add a draft angle of 5 degrees to all sides of the part shown in the following illustration.

1. Click

in the Engineering Features toolbar.

2. Select any side surface. Because all the side surfaces are tangent to each other, the draft automatically extends to all the surfaces around the part. Draft hinges collector in the dialog bar to activate it and select 3. Click the the top plane as the draft hinge. The system automatically uses it to determine the pull direction as well, and displays the preview geometry, as shown in the next illustration.

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4. Type 5 in the combo box in the dialog bar. The system updates the preview geometry, as shown in the following illustration.

5. It is now easy to see that the draft removes material from the part surfaces. To flip the draft angle, click the Reverse angle to add or remove material icon in the dialog bar. The draft now adds material, as shown in the next illustration.

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6. Click to create the Draft feature. The final geometry is shown in the following illustration.

Example: Excluding Surface Loops
The Exclude loops collector in the Options slide-up panel lets you select the contours to be excluded from draft surfaces. In the example shown in the following illustration, the two contours are considered a single surface because they were formed by splitting a single solid surface with a cut.

To draft only one of the contours, activate the Exclude loops collector and prehighlight the surface edges (the loop) that you want to exclude, as shown in the next illustration.

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Select the loop on the left, and it is excluded from the draft. Only the portion on the right is drafted, as shown in the following illustration.

Example: Extending Intersect Surfaces
You can use the Extend intersect surfaces checkbox in the Options slide-up panel to extend the draft to meet the adjacent surface of the model. If the draft cannot extend to the adjacent model surface, then the model surface extends into the draft

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surface. If neither of these cases exist, or if you did not select the checkbox, the system creates a draft surface that overhangs the edge of the model. Note: The Extend intersect surfaces is not applicable in following cases: • • When the Split options is set to Split by split object, and one draft hinge is selected, and the Side options is set to Draft sides independently. When the Split options is set to Split by split object, and two draft hinges are selected.

In the following example, a draft is added to a cylindrical protrusion near the edge of a box.

The draft in the illustration below is created without using the Extend intersect surfaces option. The draft surface overhangs the model surface. The model surface is not extended to the draft, and the draft is not extended to the model. The model face that is overlapped by the draft keeps the same dimensions.

The draft below was created with the Extend option. The surface that would be overlapped by the draft is extended so that the draft intersects that surface.

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In the next example, instead, a draft is added to the side surface of the box near the cylindrical protrusion. If the draft is created without using the Extend intersect surfaces option, the surface of the protrusion overhangs the draft surface.

If the draft is created with the Extend intersect surfaces option, the model surface is extended so that the draft intersects that surface.

In the final example, in the part shown below, a draft is added to the highlighted side surface of a box near a conical protrusion.

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If the draft is created without using the Extend intersect surfaces option, the surface of the protrusion overhangs the draft surface.

If the draft is created with the Extend intersect surfaces option, then the draft surface is extended so that the draft intersects the conical surface of the model.

To Create a Variable Draft
This procedure is based on the procedure for creating a basic Draft feature. in the Engineering Features toolbar, or click Insert > Draft. Create a 1. Click basic Draft feature by selecting the draft surfaces, the draft hinge, and the pull direction. The system displays the preview geometry for a constant draft with the 402

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default angle of 1 degree. The default draft angle value is displayed on the screen and in the combo box in the dialog bar. The system also displays two drag handles: a round one located on the draft hinge and a square one connected to the draft angle. The round handle controls the location of the draft angle application; next to it, the system displays the location factor along the reference edge of the draft surface. The square handle controls the draft angle value. 2. To create an additional draft angle control, right-click on round handle connected to a draft angle and select the Add Angle command from the shortcut menu. The system adds another pair of drag handles at a default location, usually halfway between the current draft angle location and the endpoint of the reference edge (or the adjacent draft angle location, if there is one). The default draft angle value is the same as the current one. 3. To modify the location of the new draft angle, click on the round handle and drag it along the edge, or double-click the location value in the graphic window and type or select the new value. 4. To modify the draft angle, type or select the new value in the combo box in the dialog bar. You can also drag the square handle connected to the draft angle, or double-click the draft angle value in the graphic window and type or select the new value. 5. Repeat Steps 2 through 4 to create additional draft angle controls, as necessary. 6. When satisfied with the feature geometry, click Notes: o o You can use the Angles slide-up panel to add or delete draft angles and modify their values and locations. Another way to add a draft angle is to hold down the CTRL key, click on the round handle connected to a draft angle and drag it along the edge to the desired location. To revert to a constant draft, use the Make Constant command on the shortcut menu. It deletes all the draft angles except the first one. If you are using a datum plane or a quilt as a draft hinge, the additional draft angle controls are located on the draft surface contour and projected along the Pull Direction to the intersection with the draft hinge. You can drag the draft angle control along the draft surface perimeter to be located on a different edge, if desired. The location value reflects the position along the current reference edge. in the dialog bar.

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Example: Creating a Variable Draft
This example shows creating a Draft feature with a variable draft angle. The original part shown in the following illustration.

1. Click

in the Engineering Features toolbar.

2. Select the side surface (1) as the draft surface. 3. Click the Draft hinges collector in the dialog bar to activate it and select the top plane (2) as the draft hinge. The system automatically uses it to determine the pull direction as well, and displays the preview geometry, as shown in the next illustration.

4. Type 15 in the combo box in the dialog bar and click the Reverse angle to add or remove material icon. The system updates the preview geometry, as shown in the following illustration.

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5. Right-click on any round handle connected to a draft angle and select Add Angle. The system adds another draft angle control location, as shown in the next illustration.

6. Double-click on the second draft angle value and change it to 5. The new preview geometry is shown in the following illustration.

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7. Click on the round handle of the first draft angle control (the one that is at the 0.5 location) and drag it to the 0.25 location, as shown in the next illustration.

to create the Draft feature. The final geometry is shown in the following 8. Click illustration.

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To Create a Split Draft
This procedure is based on the procedure for creating a basic Draft feature. For detailed information on how to create a basic Draft feature, follow the link under See Also. in the Engineering Features toolbar, or click Insert > Draft. Create a 1. Click basic Draft feature by selecting the draft surfaces, the draft hinge, and the pull direction. The system displays the preview geometry for a constant draft with the default angle of 1 degree. Modify the draft angle value, as necessary. 2. Open the Split slide-up panel and select an option from the Split options menu: o o Split by draft hinge—Split the draft surfaces along the draft hinge. Split by split object—Split the draft surfaces along a different line or curve. If you select this option, the system activates the Split object collector.

3. If you are splitting by a split object, select or sketch a split object. You can select a sketched curve, a plane, or a quilt intersecting the draft surfaces. To sketch a split object, click the Define button next to the Split object collector and sketch a single continuous chain of entities on the draft surface or surfaces. 4. Select the desired option from the Side options menu: o Draft sides independently—Specify two independent draft angles for each side of the drafted surface. If you use this option, the system adds to the dialog bar a combo box with the draft angle value for the second side and an icon for flipping the draft angle direction for the second side. Draft sides dependently—Specify a single draft angle, with the second side drafted in the opposite direction. This option is available only if the draft surfaces are split by the draft hinge, or for a split draft with two hinges.

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Draft first side only—Draft only the first side of the surface (determined by the positive pull direction from the draft hinge), with the second side remaining in the neutral position. Draft second side only—Draft only the second side of the surface, with the first side remaining in the neutral position.

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Depending whether you are splitting by the draft hinge or by a different object, as well as on the split object type, not all of the options may be applicable for your particular draft configuration. 5. When satisfied with the feature geometry, click in the dialog bar.

Example: Creating a Split Draft
This example shows creating a Split Draft feature. The original part is shown in the following illustration. It consists of a solid extruded feature, created symmetrically on both sides of the TOP datum plane, with rounds on all the vertical side edges.

1. Click

in the Engineering Features toolbar.

2. Select any side surface. Because all the side surfaces are tangent to each other, the draft automatically extends to all the surfaces around the part. Draft hinges collector in the dialog bar to activate it and select 3. Click the the TOP datum plane as the draft hinge. Note that this datum plane is exactly in the middle of the part, because the extruded solid feature has been created symmetrically on both sides of the sketching plane. The system automatically uses this plane to determine the pull direction as well, and displays the preview geometry.

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4. Open the Split slide-up panel and select Split by draft hinge from the Split options menu. 5. Select Draft sides dependently from the Split side menu. 6. Type 10 in the combo box in the dialog bar. Click the Reverse angle to add or remove material icon to the right of the combo box to change the draft side. The system updates the preview geometry, as shown in the next illustration.

to create the Draft feature. The final geometry is shown in the 7. Click following illustration.

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Example: Creating a Split Draft Using Sketch
This example shows creating a Split Draft feature using a sketched split curve. The original part is shown in the following illustration.

1. Click

in the Engineering Features toolbar.

2. Select the two opposite side surfaces (1 and 2) as the draft surface. Draft hinges collector in the dialog bar to activate it and select 3. Click the the top plane (3) as the draft hinge. The system automatically uses it to

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determine the pull direction as well, and displays the preview geometry, as shown in the next illustration.

4. Open the Split slide-up panel and select Split by split object from the Split options menu. 5. Click the Define button next to the Split object collector, select the side surface (1) as the surface to sketch on, and sketch a single continuous chain of entities, as shown in blue in the following illustration. Exit Sketcher.

6. By default, the two sides are drafted independently. Type 4 in the first combo box in the dialog bar and 10 in the second combo box, which controls the draft angle Reverse angle to add or remove material for the second side. Click the icons to the right of each combo box to change the draft side. The system updates the preview geometry, as shown in the next illustration.

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to create the Draft feature. The final geometry is shown in the 7. Click following illustration.

To Create a Split Draft with Two Hinges
When you create a split draft with two hinges, each side of the draft surfaces rotates with respect to its own hinge. The sides can then be drafted either independently or dependently. 1. Click in the Engineering Features toolbar, or click Insert > Draft.

2. Select surfaces that you want to draft. Draft hinges collector in the dialog bar to 3. Specify the first hinge. Click the activate it and select a plane or a curve chain located on the draft surfaces.

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4. Specify the pull direction. The system displays the preview geometry for a constant draft with the default angle of 1 degree. 5. Open the Split slide-up panel and select Split by split object from the Split options menu. Select a quilt intersecting the draft surfaces as a split object. The system displays the preview geometry for a split draft with sides drafted independently, with the default draft angle of 1 degree for the second side. Both sides of the draft surfaces are rotated about the first hinge. Draft hinges collector in the dialog bar 6. Specify the second hinge. Click the to activate it, hold down the CTRL key, and select another plane or curve chain. The preview geometry changes as the second side of drafted surfaces is rotated about the second hinge. 7. Modify the draft angle values, as necessary. You can also select the Draft sides dependently option from the Side options menu, which becomes available after you specify the second hinge. 8. When satisfied with the feature geometry, click in the dialog bar.

Example: Creating a Split Draft with Two Hinges
This example describes creating a split draft with two hinges. The original part is shown in the following illustration.

1. Click

in the Engineering Features toolbar, or click Insert > Draft.

2. Select the side surface of the cylinder as the draft surface. The cylinder consists of two halves; the second half is automatically added to the draft surfaces, because by default draft is extended to tangent surfaces.

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Draft hinges collector and select the top 3. Specify the first hinge. Click the edge chain of the cylinder (1). This chain consists of two edges, corresponding to the two halves of the cylindrical surface. To select the edges as a chain, select one edge, hold down the SHIFT key, select the same edge again to indicate that you are adding to this chain, then select the second edge. The Draft hinges collector shows one chain. Pull direction collector and select the top of the cylinder to define 4. Click the the pull direction. 5. Open the Split slide-up panel and select Split by split object from the Split options menu. Select quilt (2) as the split object. Draft hinges collector to activate it, 6. Specify the second hinge. Click the press the CTRL key, and select one of the bottom edges of the cylinder (3). Release the CTRL key, hold down the SHIFT key, select the same bottom edge again to indicate that you are adding to this chain, and select the second bottom edge, corresponding to the second half of the cylindrical surface. The Draft hinges collector now shows two chains. 7. Adjust the draft angles for both sides. The resulting geometry, with sides drafted independently, is shown in the following illustration.

8. After you specified the second hinge, the Draft sides dependently option becomes available in the Side options menu. If you select this option, the resulting geometry is shown in the next illustration.

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Note: In this example, instead of selecting the curve chains, you could have selected the top and bottom surfaces of the cylinder as the first and second hinge, respectively.

Round
About the Round Feature
Pro/ENGINEER enables you to create and modify rounds. Rounds are a type of edge treatment feature in which a radius is added to an edge or edges, an edge chain, or between surfaces. Surfaces can be solid model surfaces or traditional Pro/ENGINEER zero-thickness quilts and surfaces. To create rounds, you must define one or more round sets. A round set is an organizational unit containing one or more round pieces (round geometry). After you specify round placement references, Pro/ENGINEER uses default attributes, radius values, and default transitions that best fit the referenced geometry to create the round. Pro/ENGINEER displays preview geometry of the round in the graphics window enabling you to create and modify both round pieces and transitions before feature creation. Note that the default settings accommodate most modeling cases. However, you can define the round sets or transitions to achieve the preferred round geometry.

Anatomy of a Round
A round consists of the following items: • Sets—Round pieces (geometry) created pertaining to the placement references. Round pieces consist of unique attributes, geometric references, and one or more radii. Transitions—Filler geometry that connects round pieces. Transitions are located where round pieces intersect or terminate. Pro/ENGINEER uses default transitions

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during the initial round creation and provides many transition types allowing you to create and modify transitions. Round Sets and Transitions Set Mode Display Two edge references are selected for the round set. Pro/ENGINEER displays preview geometry of the two round pieces and the radius value. Transition Mode Display All transitions for the entire round feature are displayed. Pro/ENGINEER displays the two round pieces for context.

1 Round piece 2 Edge reference

1 Transition 2 Round piece

About Round Types and References
Round Types Using Pro/ENGINEER, you can create the following round types: Constant The round piece has a constant radius Variable The round piece has multiple radii

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Round Driven by a Curve The radius of the round is driven by the datum curve.

Full The Full round replaces the selected surface.

1 Datum curve

Round Placement References
The types of rounds that you can create are determined by the types of placement references that you select. The following table describes each round reference and lists the round types that you can create using each reference: Reference Type Definition Example Round Type

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Reference Type Edges or edge chains

Definition

Example

Round Type Constant, Variable, Through Curve, Full.* * For a Full round, you convert two round pieces within a round set. Note: The two edges must share a common surface.

Place a round by selecting one or more edges, or by using an edge chain. The surfaces bordering the edge reference form the rolling tangent attachmen t for the round. Note: The round propagate s across tangent neighbors until it encounter s a break tangency. However, if you use a One-byOne chain, the round does not propagate across tangent neighbors.

Two edges

1 Edge reference 2 Round piece (with radius value) Edge chain

1 Edge chain reference 2 Round piece (with radius value) 3 Existing round geometry

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Reference Type Surface to Edge

Definition

Example

Round Type Constant, Variable, and Full.

Place a round by selecting a surface first and then an edge. The round remains tangent to the surface. The edge reference does not maintain tangency.

Surface and edge

1 Surface reference 2 Edge reference 3 Round piece

Surface to Surface

Place a round by selecting two surfaces. The edges of the round will remain tangent to the reference surfaces.

Two surfaces

Constant, Variable, Through Curve, and Full* * For a Full round, you select a third surface as the Driving Surface. This surface determines the location and sometimes the size of the round.

1 Surface reference 2 Surface reference 3 Round piece (with radius value)

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About Creation Methods and Cross-Section Shapes
Pro/ENGINEER uses default attributes to create the round geometry (round pieces). These default attributes include the Rolling Ball creation method and the Circular cross-section shape. You can change these attributes at any time in your design session to achieve the preferred round geometry using the Sets slide-up panel located on the Dashboard.

Creation Methods
Creation methods are the way in which Pro/ENGINEER creates the round geometry. Different creation methods result in different round geometry. Pro/ENGINEER provides the following creation methods: • • Rolling Ball—The round is created by rolling a spherical ball along the surfaces to which it would naturally stay tangent. This is selected by default. Normal To Spine—The round is created by sweeping an arc or conic crosssection normal to a spine. You must select a spine for this type of round. Note that this option is not available for Full rounds.

Cross-Section Shapes
Cross-section shapes help define the round geometry. As with creation methods, different shapes result in different round geometry. Pro/ENGINEER provides the following cross-section shapes: • • Circular—Pro/ENGINEER creates a circular cross section. This is selected by default. Conic—Pro/ENGINEER creates a conical cross section. You can control the sharpness of the conical shape by using a conic parameter (from 0.05 to 0.95). You can create two types of Conic rounds: o Conic—The Conic round is created with dependent legs. You can modify the length of one leg and the corresponding leg automatically snaps to the same length. The dependent Conic attribute is available only for Constant and Variable round sets. D1 x D2 Conic—The D1 x D2 Conic round is created with independent legs. You can modify the length of each leg independently providing a range of Conic round shapes. If you want to reverse the leg lengths, simply use the flip button. The independent Conic attribute is available only for Constant round sets.

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About the Round User Interface
The Round user interface consists of the following items: Feature icon Dashboard

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Slide-up panels Shortcut menus

Feature Icon
The Round tool displays the following icons: • —Indicates a round feature in the Model Tree and it is displayed in the dashboard to indicate that the Round tool is open. This icon also identifies the Round tool on the Insert menu and on the Feature toolbar.

Dashboard
The Round dialog bar displays the following options: Set Mode • —Activates Set mode enabling you to work with round sets. Pro/ENGINEER selects this by default.

Options for rounds with a Circular cross-sectional shape (default setting): • Radius box—Controls the distance of the radius for the current constant round. You can type a new value or select a most recently used value from the list. This option is available only for Constant rounds. Radius Reference collector—Indicates that a valid object has been selected as the distance reference for the current radius in the active round set. This collector is available if you snap a handle to a reference or select Reference from the Distance box in the Sets slide-up panel (left box under Radius table). This collector corresponds to the Radius column collector in the Radius table.

Options for rounds with a Conic cross-sectional shape: • Conic Parameter box—Controls the sharpness of the current Conic round. You can type a new value or select a most recently used value from the list. This box corresponds to the Conic Parameter box in the Sets slide-up panel. Conic Distance box—Controls the conic distance of the current Conic round. You can type a new value or select a most recently used value from the list. This box corresponds to the D column distance box on the Sets slide-up panel Radius table. This box is not available for D1 x D2 Conic rounds. Conic Distance collectors—Indicates that a valid object has been selected as the distance reference for the current radius in the active Conic round set. The collectors are available if you snap a handle to a reference or select Reference from the Distance box under Radius table on the Sets slide-up panel. The collectors correspond to the D (Conic), or D1, D2 (D1 x D2 Conic) column collectors in the Radius table. —Reverses the distance of a D1 x D2 Conic round.

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Placement Ambiguity Option • Next Solution—Displays each mutually exclusive group of round pieces enabling you to view them and select one. Pro/ENGINEER displays this button only if the round set has multiple mutually exclusive groups from the same reference.

Transition Mode • • —Activates Transition mode enabling you to define all transitions for the round feature. Transition Type box—Displays the default transition type for the current transition and contain a list of valid transition types based on the geometrical context. This box enables you to change the transition type for the current transition. The following is a complete list of transition types. Note: Not all transition types listed will be available for a given context: o o o o o Default—Uses the default transition type assigned by Pro/ENGINEER. The transition type appears in parenthesis. Stop Case 1—Assigns stop references generated by Pro/ENGINEER. Stop Case 2—Assigns stop references generated by Pro/ENGINEER. Stop Case 3—Assigns stop references generated by Pro/ENGINEER. Stop at Reference—Enables you to assign stop references for the active Stop transition. The Stop reference collector (located in the Transitions slide-up panel and the dialog bar) activates. Blend—Blends between two round pieces. The tangent round geometry stops at sharp edges. Continue—Continues the round geometry between two round pieces. The tangent round geometry does not stop at sharp edges. Intersect—Extends two or more overlapping round pieces towards each other until they merge forming a sharp boundary. This command is available only if the active round set contains two or more overlapping round pieces. Corner Sphere—Rounds the corner transition formed by three overlapping round pieces with a spherical corner. Patch—Creates a patched surface at the location where three or four round pieces overlap. Round Only 1—Creates a transition using compounded round geometry. Round Only 2—Creates a transition using compounded round geometry

o o o

o o o o •

Capped check box—Creates end surfaces to cap the gaps between the active transition and part geometry. This check box is available only if you select all of the following: a transition type (other than Default), valid geometry, and the

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Surface or New quilt attachment types from the Options slide-up panel. Pro/ENGINEER does not select this check box by default. You can also use Capped from the shortcut menu. Note: o Side surfaces must exist in order to extend and use them as capping surfaces. If not, the round pieces cannot be capped and the Capped check box is ignored. This check box caps the gaps only of the active transition while the Create end surfaces check box located on the Options slide-up panel caps all round piece ends for the entire round feature. The dialog bar check box overrides the slide-up panel check box enabling you to cap the gaps of the active transition even if you decide not to cap all of the round piece ends for the round feature. You cannot cap rounds between a solid surface and a quilt surface.

o

o

Corner Sphere Transition Options • • R box—Controls the sphere radius for the active Corner Sphere transition. You can type a new radius value or select a most recently used value from the list. L1, L2, L3 boxes—Controls the length for the active Corner Sphere transition. You can type a new value or select a most recently used value from the list. These value boxes are available only if you select the Corner Sphere transition type.

Patch Transition Options • Optional surface collector—Indicates that a valid surface reference has been selected to place a fillet for the active Patch transition. To activate this collector, you can either click in it, use the Patch Optional Surface shortcut menu command, or click in the Optional surface collector in the Transitions slide-up panel. Radius box—Controls the fillet radius for the active Patch transition. You can type a new value or select a most recently used value from the list. This box is available after the Optional surface collector contains a surface reference.

Stop Transition Options • Stop reference collector—Indicates that valid stop references have been selected for the active Stop at Reference transition. To activate this collector, you can either click in it, use the Stop References shortcut menu command, or click in the Stop references collector in the Transitions slide-up panel. Note that you must select the Stop at Reference transition type to display this option. Stop reference box—Contains the following options enabling you to stop the active round piece. Note: To display the Stop reference box, you must select the Stop at reference transition type either a vertex or a datum point located on the spine of the active round set as the valid stop reference.

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Point—Stops the round set at a plane that passes through the selected stop reference and is oriented normal to an edge with the stop reference. Isolines—Stops the round set at a plane that passes through the stop reference and normal to the round surface.

Slide-up Panels
The Round dashboard contains the following slide-up panels: Sets Slide-up Panel You must activate Set mode to use this panel. The Sets slide-up panel contains the following options: • Sets list—Contains all round sets for the current round feature enabling you to add, remove, or select a round set for modification. Pro/ENGINEER highlights the active round set. The Sets list contains the following: o o o Set—Indicates a round set. New Set—Adds a new round set and makes it active. You can also use the Add Set shortcut menu command from the graphics window.

Cross-section shape box—Controls the cross-sectional shape for the active round set. The box contains the following shapes: o o Circular—Creates a round set with a circular cross-sectional shape. Pro/ENGINEER selects this by default. Conic—Creates a round set with a conic cross-sectional shape and dependent dimensions (x- and y-axes). You can use this option for Constant and Variable round sets. D1 x D2 Conic—Creates a round set with a conic cross-sectional shape and independent dimensions (x- and y-axes). This option is available only for Constant round sets.

o

Conic Parameter box—Controls the sharpness of the current Conic round. You can type a new value or select a most recently used value from the list. The default value is 0.50. This box is available only if the Conic or D1 x D2 Conic cross-sectional shapes are selected. Creation method box—Controls the creation method for the active round set. The box contains the following creation methods: • • Rolling Ball—Creates a round using the Rolling Ball method. Pro/ENGINEER selects this option by default. Normal to spine—Creates a round using the Normal to Spine method. You can use this options only for Constant and Variable round sets.

Full Round—Converts the active round set to a Full round or allows a third surface to drive a surface-to-surface Full round. The Driving surface collector activates if it is required, such as with a surface-to-surface round. Notice that you

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can click Full Round again to restore the round to its previous state. Full Round is available only if you select valid Full round references and both the Circular cross-sectional shape and the Rolling Ball creation method. This button is not available if you select Through Curve. The Full Round button corresponds to the Full Round shortcut menu command. • Through Curve—Allows the radius of the active round to be driven by the selected curve to create a round driven by a curve. The Driving curve collector activates. Notice that you can click this button again to restore the round to its previous state. The Through Curve button is available only if you select valid round references and both the Circular cross-sectional shape and the Rolling Ball creation method (both are default settings). This command is not available if you select the Full Round command. This button corresponds to the Through Curve shortcut menu command. References collector—Contains the valid references that you selected for the round set. You can click in this collector to activate it or use the References shortcut menu command. Secondary collectors—The following collectors activate depending on the active round type: o Driving curve—Contains the reference for the curve that drives the round radius to create a round driven by a curve. You can click in this collector to activate it or use the Through Curve shortcut menu command. Note: You can simply snap (SHIFT+click and drag) the radius to a curve to satisfy this collector. o Driving surface—Contains the reference for the surface to be replaced by a Full round. You can click in this collector to activate it or use the Remove Surface shortcut menu command. Spine—Contains the spine reference for Normal to Spine or Variable surface-to-surface round sets. You can click in this collector to activate it or use the Spine shortcut menu command.

o

• •

Details—Opens the Chain dialog box so that you can modify chain properties. Radius table—Controls the distance and location of the radius for the active round set. The Radius table contains the following options. This table is not available for Full rounds or rounds driven by a curve (Through Curve). o # column—Lists the number of radii for the active round set. Pro/ENGINEER displays one radius per row and highlights the current radius. Notice that the # column always contains at least one radius. Radius column—Controls the distance of each radius for the active round set. This column contains values and references. You can type a new distance value or select a most recently used value from the list. Notice that the Radius column always contains at least one value or reference. Note: This column is not available for Conic rounds (see D and D1, D2 columns below). 425

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Location column—Controls the placement of each radius for the active Variable round set. This column contains ratios and references. The Location column is not available for Constant rounds and D1 x D2 Conic rounds. D column—Controls the conic distance of each radius for the active Conic round set. This column contains values and references, and is available only for Conic rounds. D1, D2 columns—Controls the conic distance of each radius for the active D1 x D2 Conic round set. These columns contain values and references, and are available only for D1 x D2 Conic rounds.

o

o

You can use the following shortcut menu commands from the Radius table: o o Add Radius—Adds a radius to the active round set. Delete—Deletes the current radius. Note: You cannot use this command to delete radii that Pro/ENGINEER places at the ends of round pieces. o • Make Constant—Deletes radii that Pro/ENGINEER places at the ends of round pieces.

Distance box—Controls the distance of the current radius (displayed in the Radius table) for active round set. This box is located under the Radius table (left) and contains the following options. Note that two Distance boxes are appear for D1 x D2 Conic rounds. The second box replaces the Location box. o o Value—Sets the distance for the current radius by using a numerical value. The distance value displays in the Radius table. Reference—Sets the distance for the current radius by using a reference. This option activates a collector in the Radius table that contains the reference information.

o

Location box—Controls the placement location of the current radius (displayed in the Radius table) for the active round set. This box is located under the Radius table (right) and contains the following options. The Location box is available only for Conic rounds with more than one radius and for Variable rounds. Note: The active round set must contain more than the default radii (which are automatically placed at the round piece ends and do not contain anchors) for the box to appear. o o Ratio—Sets the location of the current radius by using a numerical value. The location ratio displays in the Radius table (Location column). Reference—Sets the location of the current radius by using a reference. This option activates a collector in the Radius table (Location column) that contains the reference information.

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Transitions Slide-up Panel You must activate the Transition mode to use this panel. The Transitions slide-up panel contains the following options: • Transitions list—Contains all user-defined transitions for the entire round feature enabling you to modify a transition. Pro/ENGINEER does not list default transitions. You can view the default transition type for the active transition from the Transition Type box on the dialog bar or from the shortcut menu. To activate the Transitions list, you can either click in it or use the Transition Selection shortcut menu command. Stop references collector—Contain the references for the active Stop at Reference transition. This collector is available only if you assign the Stop at Reference transition type to the active Stop transition. You can click in this collector to activate it or use the Stop References shortcut menu command. Optional surface collector—Contain the references to place a fillet for the active Patch transition. This collector is available only if you assign the Patch transition type to the active transition. This collector corresponds to the Optional surface collector in the dialog bar. You can click in either collector to activate them or use the Patch Optional Surface shortcut menu command.

Pieces Slide-up Panel Round piece management is performed using the Pieces slide-up panel. You can view all round sets for the round feature, view all round pieces in the current round set, trim, extend, or exclude these round pieces, and address placement ambiguity. The Pieces slide-up panel contains the following options: • Sets list—Lists all of the round sets for the entire round feature. The Sets list contains the following: o o • Set—Indicates a round set. New Set—Adds a new round set and makes it active. You can also use the Add Set shortcut menu command from the graphics window.

Pieces table—Lists all of the round pieces for the current round set and indicates their current state as one of the following: o Included—Does the following: Indicates that the round pieces are included in the current round set (selected by default). Includes the selected round piece that is in an excluded state. Restores a trimmed or extended round piece to its original state. o Excluded—Excludes the selected round piece that is in an included state. Note that this option is available only if the current round set contains two or more round pieces that use one explicit placement reference. This can occur if the round geometry breaks due to non-tangent chains. It can also 427

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occur if a single round piece cannot be created at a certain radius value. For example, a round that is too large to sweep around a corner. o Edited—Indicates that the selected round piece was trimmed or extended.

You can also use these options from the Pieces slide-up panel shortcut menu. Note that All included is available only from this shortcut menu. All included includes all of the round pieces for the current round set that are in an excluded state. This option also restores all trimmed or extended round pieces for the current round set to their original state. Options Slide-up Panel The Options slide-up panel contains the following options: • Solid—Creates the round feature as a solid that intersects the existing geometry. This attachment type is available only if you select solids as round set references. Pro/ENGINEER selects this by default if you select solids as round set references. Surface—Creates the round feature as a surface that does not intersect the existing geometry. This attachment type is available only if you select solids as round set references. Pro/ENGINEER does not select this by default. New quilt—Creates the round feature as a new quilt. This attachment type is available only for surface round set references. Pro/ENGINEER selects this by default if you select different surface quilts or both a solid and a quilt as round set references. Same quilt—Creates the round feature as a surface that merges with the reference quilt. This attachment type is available only for surface round set references. Pro/ENGINEER selects this by default if you select round set references from the same surface quilt. Create end surfaces—Creates end surfaces to cap all of the round piece ends of the round feature. This check box is available only if you select valid geometry and the Surface or New quilt attachment types. Pro/ENGINEER does not select this by default. Note: o o Side surfaces must exist in order to extend and use them as capping surfaces. If not, the round piece ends cannot be capped. This check box is different from the Capped check box on the dialog bar and the Capped shortcut menu command. The latter two enable you to create end surfaces to cap the gaps between the active transition and part geometry.

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Properties Slide-up Panel The Properties slide-up panel contains the following options: • • Name box—Displays the current round feature name enabling you to rename it. —Provides detailed round feature information in the Pro/ENGINEER browser.

Shortcut Menus
You can use the following shortcut (right-click) menu commands to quickly perform an action: Set Mode: Collector Commands • References—Activates the References collector (located in the Sets slide-up panel) enabling you to select a placement reference for the round. Pro/ENGINEER selects this by default. This command is available if another collector is present. Driving Curve—Activates the Driving curve collector (located in the Sets slideup panel) enabling you to select a reference curve to drive the radius of the round. This command is available if you snap a radius to a curve, click the Through Curve button on the Sets slide-up panel button, or select the Through Curve shortcut menu command. Spine—Activates the Spine collector (located in the Sets slide-up panel) enabling you to select a spine curve reference. This command is available if you use the Normal to spine round creation method option (located in the Sets slide-up panel) or if you create a surface-to-surface Variable round. Round Reference Point—Activates the Radius collectors (located in the Sets slide-up panel Radius table and in the dialog bar) enabling you to size the current round radius by snapping to a reference. This command is available only when the highlighted radius in the table is driven by a reference. Location Reference—Activates the Location collector (located in the Sets slideup panel Radius table) enabling you to relocate the current round radius by snapping to a reference. This command is available only when the highlighted radius location in the table is driven by a reference Driving Surface—Activates the Driving surface collector (located in the Sets slide-up panel) enabling you to use the selected surface to drive the location and size of a Full round. This command is available when the Driving surface collector is present. Clear—Clears the selected reference from the active collector.

Set Mode: Mode Command • Show Transitions—Switches to Transition mode.

Set Mode: Round Set Commands • Make Constant—Resets the active round to be driven by a single radius. 429

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Make Variable—Adds a new radius to the active round set. If you are creating a surface-to-surface round, the Spine collector (located in the Sets slide-up panel) activates. Through Curve—Allows the radius of the active round to be driven by the selected curve to create a round driven by a curve. The Driving curve collector (located in the Sets slide-up) activates. A check mark appears next to this shortcut menu command indicating that this round type has been selected. Notice that you can click this command again to restore the round to its previous state. The Through Curve command is available only if you select valid round references and both the Circular cross-sectional shape and the Rolling Ball creation method in the Sets slide-up panel (default settings). This command is not available if you select the Full Round command. The Through Curve command corresponds to the Through Curve button (located in the Sets slideup panel). Full Round—Converts the active round set to a Full round or allows a third surface to drive a surface-to-surface Full round. The Driving surface collector (located in the Sets slide-up panel) activates if it is required, such as with a surface-to-surface Full round. A check mark appears next to this shortcut menu command indicating that this round type has been selected. Notice that you can click this command again to restore the round to its previous state. The Full Round command is available only if you select valid Full round references and both the Circular cross-sectional shape and the Rolling Ball creation method in the Sets slide-up panel. This command is not available if you select the Through Curve command. The Full Round command corresponds to the Full Round button (located in the Sets slide-up panel). Add Set—Adds a new round set and makes it active. Delete Set—Deletes the active round set.

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You must place your pointer over a handle in the graphics window and right-click to use the following round set modification commands: • • Add Radius—Adds a radius to the active round set. This command is not available for D1 x D2 Conic rounds. Independent—Select this (check mark displayed) to create a D1 x D2 Conic round enabling you to adjust the dimensions independently (corresponds to the D1 x D2 Conic cross-sectional shape in the Sets slide-up panel). If it is not selected (check mark not displayed), the Conic round is dependent (same as Conic cross-sectional shape in the Sets panel). This command is available only for constant Conic rounds. Flip—Reverses the distance of a D1 x D2 Conic round.

Set Mode: Collector Reference Commands You must place your pointer in a collector and right-click to use the following commands: • Remove—Removes the selected reference from the active collector.

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Remove All—Removes all references from the active collector. The collector must contain multiple references to use this command. Information—Opens the INFORMATION WINDOW to display detailed information about the selected reference in the collector. This command is unavailable for chain and surface references.

Transition Mode: List and Collector Commands • Transition Selection—Activate the Transitions list (located in the Transitions slide-up panel) enabling you to select a user-defined transition. This command is available if a transition collector is displayed. Stop References—Activates the Stop references collectors (located in the Transitions slide-up panel and in the dialog bar) enabling you to assign stop references to the active Stop transition. Patch Optional Surface—Activate the Optional surface collectors (located in the Transitions slide-up panel and in the dialog bar) enabling you to select a surface reference to place a fillet for the active Patch transition. This command is available only if you select a three-sided corner transition and assign the Patch transition type to it. Clear—Clears the selected reference from the active collector.

Transition Mode: Mode Command • Back to Sets—Switches to Set mode.

Transition Mode: Transition Commands • Transition Type—These commands are identical to the transition types that are available from the Transition Type box on the dialog bar. You can find a complete list of transition types in the dialog bar section.

The following transition commands enable you to modify a transition: • • • Delete Transition—Deletes the active transition. Make Transition—Creates a transition by selecting round piece edges associated with a deleted transition. Capped—Creates end surfaces to cap the gaps between the active transition and part geometry. You can select this command for each active transition that you want to cap. This command is available only if you select all of the following: a transition type (other than Default), valid geometry, and the Surface or New quilt attachment types from the Options slide-up panel. Pro/ENGINEER does not select this command by default. The Capped command corresponds to the Capped check box located on the dialog bar.

Collector Reference Commands You must place your cursor in a collector and right-click to use the following commands: • Remove—Removes the selected reference from the active collector.

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Remove All—Removes all references from the active collector. The collector must contain multiple references to use this command. Information—Opens the INFORMATION WINDOW to display detailed information about the selected reference in the collector. This command is unavailable for chain and surface references.

Tip: • When using a most recently used box, you can always select Default from the list, enabling Pro/ENGINEER to determine the appropriate value for your geometrical context. Always place your pointer in the collector or in the most recently used box and right-click to use the shortcut menu commands for those options.

To Create a Constant Round
1. In the graphics window, select the references from which to create the round. Notice that the round propagates across tangent neighbors until it encounters a break in tangency. However, if you use a One-by-One chain, the round does not propagate across tangent neighbors. Note: Press CTRL+click to select additional references for the active round set or to remove a reference. 2. Click on the Feature toolbar or Insert > Round. The Round tool opens and Pro/ENGINEER displays preview geometry. Notice that the selected references are in the References collector on the Sets slide-up panel. 3. To define a radius, drag the radius handle to the preferred distance or snap it to a reference. Pro/ENGINEER displays the distance value in the graphics window and dynamically updates the preview geometry. Note: You can also type a new value in the distance value box or select a most recently used value from the list on the Dialog Bar. The same method applies to the distance boxes in the Radius table (Radius column) located on the Sets slide-up panel. 4. At this point the round is complete. If you need to define the round further, refer to the topics under See Also for more information. 5. Click to save your changes. Pro/ENGINEER creates the round and closes the Round tool. Tip: • You can also use the Make Constant shortcut menu command (from either the graphics window or from the Radius table on the Sets slide-up panel) to convert a Variable round to a Constant round. If you are using a chain as a reference and you want to modify it, click Details on the Sets slide-up panel and use the Chain dialog box.

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To quickly define a radius, simply double-click the distance value in the graphics window. After the box opens, type a new value and press ENTER, or select a most recently used value from the list. You can always select Default in a most recently used list to enable Pro/ENGINEER to determine the value. As you work in the graphics window, you can use Clear from the shortcut menu to clear all references from the active collector. To remove a reference from within a collector, select the reference that you want to remove, and with your cursor still in the collector right-click and select Remove from the shortcut menu. To easily create a round as you work in the graphics window, select edge references, right-click and select Round Edges from the shortcut menu. Pro/ENGINEER opens the Round tool enabling you to continue working with the round. Note that this command is available only if you select edge references.

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To Create a Variable Round
Note: If you are using two surfaces to create a Variable round, refer to To Create a Surface-to-Surface Variable Round under See Also. 1. In the graphics window, select the references from which to create the round. Notice that the round propagates across tangent neighbors until it encounters a break in tangency. However, if you use a One-by-One chain, the round does not propagate across tangent neighbors. Note: Press CTRL+click to select additional references for the active round set or to remove references. 2. Click on the Feature toolbar or Insert > Round. The Round tool opens and Pro/ENGINEER displays preview geometry. Notice that the selected references are in the References collector on the Sets slide-up panel. 3. Place your cursor over the radius anchor, right-click and select Add Radius from the shortcut menu. Pro/ENGINEER copies the radius and its value and places each radius at each ends of the round pieces. Note: These are the default radii for a Variable round. These radii do not contain anchors and cannot be relocated. To delete these default radii, you must use Make Constant from the shortcut menu. This command converts the active round set from Variable to Constant. 4. To add another radius, place your cursor over the handle of the radius that you want to copy, right-click and select Add Radius from the shortcut menu. These additional radii contain anchors. You can drag an anchor or snap it to a datum point reference to relocate the radius. Note: You can select Delete from the shortcut menu to remove the radius. 5. To define a radius, drag the radius handle to the preferred distance or snap it to a reference. Pro/ENGINEER displays the distance value in the graphics window and dynamically updates the preview geometry.

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Note: You can also type a new value in the distance value box or select a most recently used distance value from the list in the Radius table (Radius column) located on the Sets slide-up panel. 6. At this point the round is complete. If you need to define the round further, refer to the topics under See Also for more information. 7. Click to save your changes. Pro/ENGINEER creates the round and closes the Round tool. Tip: • • • • You can also use the Add Radius, Delete, and Make Constant shortcut menu commands from the Radius table on the Sets slide-up panel. You can also use Make Variable from the shortcut menu to convert an existing Constant round to a Variable round. If you are using a chain as a reference and you want to modify it, click Details on the Sets slide-up panel and use the Chain dialog box. To quickly define a radius, simply double-click the distance value in the graphics window. After the box opens, type a new value and press ENTER, or select a most recently used value from the list. You can always select Default in a most recently used list to enable Pro/ENGINEER to determine the value. As you work in the graphics window, you can use Clear from the shortcut menu to clear all references from the active collector. To remove a reference from within a collector, select the reference that you want to remove, and with your cursor still in the collector right-click and select Remove from the shortcut menu. To easily create a round as you work in the graphics window, select edge references, right-click and select Round Edges from the shortcut menu. Pro/ENGINEER opens the Round tool enabling you to continue working with the round. Note that this command is available only if you select edge references.

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To Relocate a Radius Using a Reference
In addition to dragging an anchor or typing and selecting location ratios, Pro/ENGINEER enables you to relocate a radius by snapping to a vertex or to a datum point. 1. Select the placement references for the round and click opens. . The Round tool

2. In the graphics window, select the radius anchor of a Variable round that you want to relocate. Note: You cannot relocate radii that Pro/ENGINEER places at the ends of round pieces.

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3. Press SHIFT and drag the radius anchor to snap it to a vertex or to a datum point. As you drag, notice that Pro/ENGINEER pre-highlights the reference as your cursor moves over it. This enables you to target the correct reference. Pro/ENGINEER selects Reference from the Sets slide-up panel Distance box and populates the Radius table Location collector with the reference information. 4. To relocate the radius, press SHIFT and drag the anchor to unsnap it from the reference. You can then either snap it to another reference, drag the anchor to a preferred location, or type or select a new location ratio from the Location column in the Sets slide-up panel. 5. The radius is relocated. You can continue to work with rounds or click enabling Pro/ENGINEER to create the round and close the Round tool. Tip: • If you prefer to relocate a radius from the Sets slide-up panel, simply select the radius to relocate in the Radius table # column and select Reference from the Location box (located to the right under the table). After the location collector activates, select the vertex or datum point from the graphics window. You can also activate this collector using the Location Reference shortcut menu command. To quickly identify a radius from the Sets slide-up panel, place your cursor over a radius number on the Radius table # column. Pro/ENGINEER dynamically highlights each radius enabling you to select it. If you want to use a datum point, but one is not present, you can create one without closing the Round tool by opening one of the Datum Point tools on the Feature Toolbar. As you work in the graphics window, you can use Clear from the shortcut menu to clear all references from the active collector. To remove a reference from within a collector, select the reference that you want to remove, and with your cursor still in the collector right-click and select Remove from the shortcut menu.

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To Create a Surface-to-Surface Variable Round
Note: If you are not using two surfaces to create a Variable round, refer to To Create a Variable Round under See Also. 1. In the graphics window, select two surface references. Note: Press CTRL+click to select additional references for the active round set or to remove references. 2. Click on the Feature toolbar or Insert > Round. The Round tool opens and Pro/ENGINEER displays preview geometry. Notice that the selected references are in the References collector on the Sets slide-up panel.

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3. Right-click in the graphics window and select Make Variable from the shortcut menu. You can also place your cursor over the handle of the radius, right-click and select Add Radius from the shortcut menu to make the round set variable. Pro/ENGINEER activates the Spine collector located on the Sets slide-up panel. 4. Select an edge to define a spine for the round. Notice that the preview geometry is hidden while you select the spine reference. Pro/ENGINEER copies the current radius and its value and places each radius at each ends of the round pieces. Note: These are the default radii for a Variable round. These radii do not contain anchors and cannot be relocated. To delete these default radii, you must use Make Constant from the shortcut menu. This command converts the active round set from Variable to Constant. 5. To add another radius, place your cursor over the handle of the radius that you want to copy, right-click and select Add Radius from the shortcut menu. These additional radii contain anchors. You can drag the anchor or snap it to a datum point reference to relocate the radius. Note: You can select Delete from the shortcut menu to remove the radius. 6. To define a radius, drag the radius handle to the preferred distance or snap it to a reference. Pro/ENGINEER displays the distance value in the graphics window and dynamically updates the preview geometry. Note: You can type a new value in the distance value box or select a most recently used distance value from the list in the Radius table (Radius column) located on the Sets slide-up panel. 7. At this point the round is complete. If you need to define the round further, refer to the topics under See Also for more information. 8. Click to save your changes. Pro/ENGINEER creates the round and closes the Round tool. Tip: • • You can also use the Add Radius, Delete, and Make Constant shortcut menu commands from the Radius table on the Sets slide-up panel. To quickly define a radius, simply double-click the distance value in the graphics window. After the box opens, type a new value and press ENTER, or select a most recently used value from the list. If you are using a chain as a reference and you want to modify it, click Details on the Sets slide-up panel and use the Chain dialog box. You can always select Default in a most recently used list to enable Pro/ENGINEER to determine the value. As you work in the graphics window, you can use Clear from the shortcut menu to clear all references from the active collector. To remove a reference from within a collector, select the reference that you want to remove, and with your cursor still in the collector right-click and select Remove from the shortcut menu.

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To Define a Radius Using a Reference
In addition to dragging radius handles, or typing or selecting distance values, Pro/ENGINEER enables you to define a radius by snapping to a vertex or datum point. 1. Select the placement references for the round and click opens. . The Round tool

2. In the graphics window, select the radius handle of a Constant or Variable round that you want to redefine. 3. Press SHIFT and drag the radius handle to snap it to a vertex or to a datum point. As you drag, notice that Pro/ENGINEER pre-highlights the reference as your cursor moves over it. This enables you to target the correct reference. Pro/ENGINEER does the following: o o o Replaces the default radius handle with a special handle in the graphics window that contains the reference information. Activates the Distance collector on the Dialog Bar to indicate that an item has been selected. Selects Reference from the Sets slide-up panel distance box and populates the Radius table Distance collector with the reference information.

Note: If you snapped the handle, notice the snapping behavior. For Constant and Variable rounds, Pro/ENGINEER hides the second radius handle and the radius anchor. For D1 x D2 Conic rounds, Pro/ENGINEER separates the handles and displays the unsnapped handle with the anchor to enable the handle to move independently. 4. To redefine the radius, press SHIFT and drag the handle to unsnap it from the reference. Notice that the default radius handle replaces the special handle. You can then snap the radius handle another reference, drag the handle to a preferred location, or type or select a new radius value using the value boxes from either the Dialog Bar (Constant rounds only) or from the Radius table in the Sets slide-up panel. 5. The radius is defined. You can continue to work with rounds or click Pro/ENGINEER to create the round and close the Round tool. Tip: • If you prefer to define a radius from the Sets slide-up panel, simply select the radius to define in the Radius table # column and select Reference from the Distance box located under the table. After the distance collectors activate, select the datum point or vertex from the graphics window. To quickly identify a radius from the Sets slide-up panel, place your cursor over a radius number on the Radius table # column. Pro/ENGINEER dynamically highlights each radius enabling you to select it. enabling

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If you want to use a datum point, but one is not present, you can create one without closing the Round tool by opening one of the Datum Point tools on the Feature Toolbar. As you work in the graphics window, you can use Clear from the shortcut menu to clear all references from the active collector. To remove a reference from within a collector, select the reference that you want to remove, and with your cursor still in the collector right-click and select Remove from the shortcut menu.

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To Create a Round Driven by a Curve
1. In the graphics window, select the references from which to create a Constant or Variable round. Notice that the round propagates across tangent neighbors until it encounters a break in tangency. However, if you use a One-by-One chain, the round does not propagate across tangent neighbors. Note: Press CTRL+click to select additional references for the active round set or to remove a reference. 2. Click on the Feature toolbar or Insert > Round. The Round tool opens and Pro/ENGINEER displays preview geometry. Notice that the selected references are in the References collector on the Sets slide-up panel. 3. In the graphics window, press SHIFT and drag a radius handle to snap it to a chain of curves as the Driving Curve reference. As you drag, notice that Pro/ENGINEER pre-highlights the reference as your cursor moves over it. This enables you to target the correct reference. Pro/ENGINEER displays preview geometry of the round. Note: You can use Through Curve from the shortcut menu to restore the round to its previous state. 4. At this point the round is complete. If you need to define the round further, refer to the topics under See Also for more information. 5. Click to save your changes. Pro/ENGINEER creates the round and closes the Round tool. Tip: • If you prefer, you can create a Round Driven by a Curve using the Sets slide-up panel. Simply, click the Through Curve button. Pro/ENGINEER activates the Driving Curve collector. In the graphics window, select a chain of curves. Pro/ENGINEER populates the Driving Curve collector with the reference and displays preview geometry of the round. Notice that the preview geometry is hidden while you select the Driving Curve reference. You can also use Through Curve from the shortcut menu to create this round. Notice that a check mark appears next to this shortcut menu command indicating that this round type has been selected.

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If you are using a chain as a reference and you want to modify it, click Details on the Sets slide-up panel and use the Chain dialog box. If a Driving Curve reference is not present, you can click Toolbar to open the Sketch tool and create one. on the Feature

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As you work in the graphics window, you can use Clear from the shortcut menu to remove all references from the active collector. To remove a reference from a collector, select the reference that you want to remove, and with your cursor still in the collector right-click and select Remove from the shortcut menu. To easily create a round as you work in the graphics window, select edge references, right-click and select Round Edges from the shortcut menu. Pro/ENGINEER opens the Round tool enabling you to continue working with the round. Note that this command is available only if you select edge references.

Example: Round Driven by a Curve

1 Edge reference 2 Datum curve 3 Round piece (Notice that Pro/ENGINEER copies the datum curve to complete the round)

To Create a Full Round
Note: If you are using two surfaces to create a Full round, refer to To Create a Surface-to-Surface Full Round under See Also. 1. In the graphics window, select the references from which to create the round. If you use only edge references, the edges must share a common surface. Notice 439

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that the round propagates across tangent neighbors until it encounters a break in tangency. However, if you use a One-by-One chain, the round does not propagate across tangent neighbors. Note: Press CTRL+click to select additional references for the active round set or to remove references. 2. Click on the Feature toolbar or Insert > Round. The Round tool opens and Pro/ENGINEER displays preview geometry. Notice that the selected references are in the References collector on the Sets slide-up panel. 3. In the graphics window, right-click and select Full Round from the shortcut menu. Notice that a check mark appears next to this shortcut menu command indicating that this round type has been selected. Pro/ENGINEER displays preview geometry of the Full round. Note: You can select Full Round again to restore the round to its previous state. 4. At this point the round is complete. If you need to define the round further, refer to the topics under See Also for more information. 5. Click to save your changes. Pro/ENGINEER creates the round and closes the Round tool. Tip: • • • If you are using a chain as a reference and you want to modify it, click Details on the Sets slide-up panel and use the Chain dialog box. As you work in the graphics window, you can use Clear from the shortcut menu to clear all references from the active collector. To remove a reference from within a collector, select the reference that you want to remove, and with your cursor still in the collector right-click and select Remove from the shortcut menu. To easily create a round as you work in the graphics window, select edge references, right-click and select Round Edges from the shortcut menu. Pro/ENGINEER opens the Round tool enabling you to continue working with the round. Note that this command is available only if you select edge references.

To Create a Surface-to-Surface Full Round
Note: If you are not using two surfaces to create a Full round, refer to To Create a Full Round under See Also. 1. In the graphics window, select two surface references for the Full round. Note: Press CTRL+click to select additional references for the active round set or to remove references. 2. Click on the Feature toolbar or Insert > Round. The Round tool opens and Pro/ENGINEER displays the selected surface references. Notice that the selected references are in the References collector on the Sets slide-up panel.

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3. Right-click in the graphics window and select Full Round from the shortcut menu. Pro/ENGINEER activates the Driving Surface collector located on the Sets slide-up panel. Notice that a check mark appears next to this shortcut menu command indicating that this round type has been selected. Note: You can also activate this collector using Driving Surface from the shortcut menu. 4. Select a third surface as the Driving Surface. Pro/ENGINEER populates the Driving Surface collector with the surface reference, replaces the surface with a Full round, and displays preview geometry of the round. 5. At this point the round is complete. If you need to define the round further, refer to the topics under See Also for more information. 6. Click to save your changes. Pro/ENGINEER creates the round and closes the Round tool. Tip: • • As you work in the graphics window, you can use Clear from the shortcut menu to clear all references from the active collector. To remove a reference from within a collector, select the reference that you want to remove, and with your cursor still in the collector right-click and select Remove from the shortcut menu.

Rules for Creating a Full Round
The following rules apply for Full rounds: • If you are using edge references, the edge references must share a common surface. Pro/ENGINEER converts two round pieces within a round set to create the Full round. If you are using two surface references, you must select a third surface as the Driving Surface. This surface determines the location and sometimes the size of the round. Pro/ENGINEER replaces this common surface with a radius to create the surface-to-surface Full round. You can create a Full round for solid or surface geometry. You cannot create a Full round if: o o o More than two edge references border the same surface. The round you are defining has a Conic cross-section shape. The round you are defining has been created using a Normal to Spine creation method.

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To Create a Conic Round
1. Create a constant or variable round. Pro/ENGINEER displays preview geometry of the round. 441

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2. Click the Sets tab on the dashboard. The Sets slide-up panel appears. 3. In the cross-section shape box, select Conic. Pro/ENGINEER does the following: o o o Adds a conic parameter handle with a default value (0.5) to the current radius for the round set. Displays the Conic Parameter box on the dashboard and on the Sets slide-up panel. Modifies the radius table to include a D column containing a conic distance value box for the radius. Note that the distance value box on the dashboard is available only for constant rounds.

4. To define the conic parameter that controls the sharpness of the conic shape, drag the conic parameter handle to the preferred value. If you set the ratio_grid_interval configuration option to a value within the range of 0 through 1, the conic parameter handle automatically snaps to the grid in intervals of the specified value when you drag this handle. Pro/ENGINEER displays the radius value in the graphics window and dynamically updates the preview geometry. Note: You can also type a new parameter or select a most recently used one using the Conic Parameter box from the dashboard or from the Sets slide-up panel. 5. To define a radius, drag the radius handle to the preferred distance or snap it to a reference. Pro/ENGINEER displays the distance value in the graphics window and dynamically updates the preview geometry. Note: You can also type a new value in the distance value box or select a most recently used value from the list in the radius table (D column) located on the Sets slide-up panel. The same method applies to the distance value box on the dashboard. However, this box is available only for constant rounds. At this point the round is complete. If you need to define the round further, refer to the topics under See Also for more information. 6. Click to save your changes. Pro/ENGINEER creates the round and closes the Round tool. Tip: • You can easily convert a conic round to a D1 x D2 conic round by placing your pointer over the radius of the conic round, right-clicking, and selecting Independent on the shortcut menu. If you click this command again, Pro/ENGINEER restores the round to its previous state. Note that you can only convert constant round types. If you are using a chain as a reference and you want to modify it, click Details on the Sets slide-up panel and use the Chain dialog box.

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To quickly define a distance or conic parameter, double-click the value in the graphics window and type a new value and press ENTER or select a most recently used value from the list. You can always select Default in a most recently used list to enable Pro/ENGINEER to determine the value.

To Create a D1 x D2 Conic Round
D1 x D2 Conic rounds enable you to define the round distance independently. 1. Create a constant round. Note: You must use a constant round to create a D1 x D2 Conic round. 2. Click the Sets tab on the dashboard. The Sets slide-up panel appears. 3. In the cross-section shape box, select D1 x D2 Conic. Pro/ENGINEER does the following: o o o Adds a conic parameter handle with a default value to the current radius for the round set. Displays the Conic Parameter box on the dashboard and on the Sets slide-up panel. Displays two distance value boxes on the dashboard and in the radius table on the Sets slide-up panel.

4. To define the conic parameter that controls the sharpness of the conic shape, drag the conic parameter handle to the preferred value. Pro/ENGINEER displays the radius value in the graphics window and dynamically updates the preview geometry. If you set the ratio_grid_interval configuration option to a value within the range of 0 through 1, the conic parameter handle automatically snaps to the grid in intervals of the specified value when you drag this handle. Note: You can also type a new parameter or select a most recently used one using the Conic Parameter box on the dashboard or from the Sets slide-up panel. 5. To define a radius, drag each radius handle to the preferred distance or snap each handle to a reference. Pro/ENGINEER displays the distance values in the graphics window and dynamically updates the preview geometry. Note: You can also type a new value in the distance value box or select a most recently used value from the list in the radius table (D1 and D2 columns) located on the Sets slide-up panel. The same method applies to the two distance value boxes on the dashboard. 6. To reverse the conic distances, click on the dashboard. Click it again to return to the original distance. You can also place your pointer over the radius handle, right-click, and click Flip on the shortcut menu.

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At this point the round is complete. If you need to define the round further, refer to the topics under See Also for more information. 7. Click to save your changes. Pro/ENGINEER creates the round and closes the Round tool. Tip: • You can easily convert a D1 x D2 Conic round to a Conic round by placing your pointer over the radius of the D1 x D2 Conic round, right-clicking, and selecting Independent on the shortcut menu. If you click this command again, Pro/ENGINEER restores the round to its previous state. Note that you can only convert Constant round types. If you are using a chain as a reference and want to modify it, click Details on the Sets slide-up panel and use the Chain dialog box. To quickly define a distance or conic parameter, double-click the value in the graphics window and type a new value and press ENTER or select a most recently used value from the list. You can always select Default in a most recently used list to enable Pro/ENGINEER to determine the value.

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Setting Ratio Grid Interval for the Conic Parameter Handle
You can set the ratio_grid_interval configuration option to a value within the range of 0 through 1, so that the grid space is set to the value specified. The conic parameter handle automatically snaps according to this grid value in intervals when you drag this handle. The conic parameter controls the sharpness of the conic crosssectional shape of the round feature. If you do not specify a value for ratio_grid_interval, the grid space is automatically set to the default value of 0.05.

To Create a Normal to Spine Round
1. Create a Constant or Variable round. Pro/ENGINEER displays preview geometry of the round. You cannot use the Normal to spine creation method with Full rounds or rounds driven by a curve. 2. Click the Sets tab on the Dashboard. The Sets slide-up panel appears. 3. In the Creation Method box, select Normal to spine. 4. Do one of the following: o o If your round uses edge references, Pro/ENGINEER uses the first edge that you selected as the spine reference for the round. Skip to step 6. If your round uses two surface references, Pro/ENGINEER activates the Spine collector located on the Sets slide-up panel. Proceed to step 5.

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5. Select an edge for the spine reference. Pro/ENGINEER populates the Spine collector with the selected reference and displays preview geometry of the round. 6. If necessary, continue to modify the round using the procedures for the type of round with which you are working. 7. Click to save your changes. Pro/ENGINEER creates the round and closes the Round tool. Tip: • • As you work in the graphics window, you can use Clear from the shortcut menu to clear all references from the active collector. To remove a reference from within a collector, select the reference that you want to remove, and with your cursor still in the collector right-click and select Remove from the shortcut menu.

To Rename a Round Feature
You can rename the current round feature while working in the Round tool. 1. Select the references for the round and click . The Round tool opens.

2. Click the Properties tab on the Dashboard. The Properties slide-up panel appears. 3. In the Name box, type the new name for the round feature on which you are working and press ENTER. 4. When you are finished working with the round feature, click . Pro/ENGINEER renames the round feature, saves your modeling changes, creates the round, and closes the Round tool.

To Retrieve Round Feature Information
You can retrieve information for the current round feature while working in the Round tool. 1. Select the references for the round and click . The Round tool opens.

2. Click the Properties tab on the Dashboard. The Properties slide-up panel appears. 3. Click . Pro/ENGINEER opens the embedded browser and displays the round feature information. Tip: If additional information is available for the current round feature, simply click the links in the browser.

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Transitions About Round Transitions
Transitions allow you to specify how Pro/ENGINEER handles overlapping or discontinuous round pieces. Pro/ENGINEER uses default transitions after you create round geometry. These default transitions are selected according to the particular geometrical context. For many cases, you will simply use the default transitions. However, at some point, you will need to modify the existing transitions to achieve the preferred round geometry. You modify existing transition in the following ways: • • Define a Transition—Change the transition type. Delete Transitions and Make a New Transition—Delete one or more transitions to free references and replace them by making a new transition for the affected geometry.

Round Transitions An understanding of round transitions will enable you to achieve the preferred round geometry for your model. The following table describes the round transitions that Pro/ENGINEER provides: Round Transitions Transition Type Stop Case 1 Example Description

Terminates the round using one of three different Stop Cases. Pro/ENGINEE R configures each Stop Case geometry based on the geometrical context.

1 Round piece 2 Stop Case transition 3 Stop transition

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Transition Type Stop Case 2

Example

Description

4 Stop Case transition Stop Case 3

5 Stop Case transition

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Transition Type Stop at Reference

Example

Description

Terminates round geometry at the datum point or datum plane that you specify.

1 Round piece 2 Stop at Reference transition 3 Datum point selected 4 Stop Transition 5 Existing round geometry Blend Blend on a corner Creates a fillet surface between the round pieces using an edge reference. Note that all tangent round geometry stops at sharp edges.

1 Round piece

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Transition Type 2 Fillet surface 3 Stop transition

Example

Description

Blend between two collinear round pieces

1 Round piece 2 Fillet surface (Blend transition) 3 Stop transition

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Transition Type Continue

Example

Description

Continue between two collinear round pieces

Extends the round geometry into two round pieces. Note that tangent round geometry does not stop at sharp edges (compare with Blend). The resulting geometry looks as if the round was placed first, and then geometry was cut away. Neighboring surfaces are extended to meet round geometry where applicable.

1 Round piece 2 Extension of round geometry (Continue transition) 3 Stop transition

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Transition Type Corner Sphere

Example

Description

Rounds the corner transition formed by three overlapping round pieces with a spherical corner. By default, the sphere has the same radius as the largest overlapping round piece. However, you can modify the radius of the sphere as well as the transition distance along each edge enabling you to blend it into the smaller existing radii using fillet surfaces. Note: Corner Sphere transitions apply only to geometry where three round pieces overlap at a corner.

1 Sphere (with radius value) 2 Fillet surfaces (with length values)

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Transition Type Intersect

Example

Description

Intersect of two round pieces

Extends two or more overlapping round pieces towards each other until they merge forming a sharp boundary. Note: Intersect transitions only apply to two or more overlapping round pieces.

1 Round piece 2 Intersect transition 3 Stop transition Intersect for four round pieces

1 Round piece 2 Intersect transition 3 Stop transition

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Transition Type Patch

Example

Description

Patch for three round pieces.

Creates a patched surface at the location where three or four round pieces overlap. You can add an additional side to a three-sided Patch transition by selecting an optional surface on which to create a fillet that contains a radius. This fillet

1 Round piece 2 Patch transition 3 Stop transition

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Transition Type

Example

Description

Same Patch as above with an optional surface

becomes the fourth side of the resulting patch and is tangent. Note: Patch transitions apply only to geometry where three or four round pieces overlap at a corner.

1 Round piece 2 Patch transition (with radius value) 3 Optional surface selected 4 Stop transition

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Transition Type

Example

Description

Patch for four round pieces

1 Round piece 2 Patch transition 3 Stop transition Round Only 1 Round Only 1 for three round pieces having the same convexity. In this example below, the corner transition formed by three overlapping is round pieces is rounded with a sweep. The sweep wraps around the round piece with the largest radius. Round Only transitions create a transition using compounded round geometry. Two types of Round Only transitions are available based on the geometrical context. Notice that in the example, each round piece has a different radius.

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Transition Type

Example

Description

1 Round Only transition Round Only 1 for three round pieces having mixed convexity

1 Round Only Transition

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Transition Type Round Only 2

Example

Description

Round Only 2 for three round pieces having the same convexity

Notice that each round piece has a different radius

1 Round Only transition Round Only 2 for four round pieces having the same convexity

1 Round Only transition

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Transition Type

Example

Description

Round Only 2 for three round pieces having mixed convexity

1 Round Only Transition

Defining Round Transitions
Consider the following when defining round transitions: • • If you copy, reroute, or place a group with a round that contains user-defined transitions, Pro/ENGINEER removes these transitions from the resulting feature. If a round feature fails due to missing transition references, Pro/ENGINEER displays an error message and instructs you to redefine the transitions by selecting references for each transition. If a transition has invalid references, you may repair the transition by replacing references that are missing or invalid, or you can change the transition type. If the round set geometry is modified in Set mode (for example, references or sets have been removed or added) resulting in the associated user-defined transitions becoming invalid, Pro/ENGINEER will delete the invalid transitions and reconstruct the default transitions for the round geometry. Note that Pro/ENGINEER will always maintain user-defined transitions whenever possible.

To Define a Round Transition
Note: This topic is a Master Procedure in that some transitions require that you follow an additional topic to complete the procedure. If you select one of these transitions, simply follow the instructions.

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1. Select the references for the round and click

. The Round tool opens.

2. Click on the Dialog Bar to switch to Transition mode. Pro/ENGINEER displays preview geometry of all transitions for the entire round feature. Note: You can also use Show Transitions from the shortcut menu to activate Transition mode. 3. In the graphics window, select the transition that you want to define. Pro/ENGINEER makes the transition active. 4. Select one of the following transition types from the Transition Type box on the Dialog Bar, or from the shortcut menu and follow the procedure for that transition type. Note: Pro/ENGINEER determines the valid transition types according to the geometrical context of the selected transition. This means that not every transition type listed below will be available to you for a particular transition. o Default—Pro/ENGINEER determines the transition type that is the best fit for the geometrical context. The transition type appears in parenthesis. Proceed to step 6. Blend—Create a fillet surface between the round pieces using an edge reference. Proceed to step 5. Continue—Extend round geometry into two round pieces. Proceed to step 5. Intersect—Extend two or more overlapping round pieces toward each other until they merge forming a sharp boundary. Proceed to step 5. Round Only 1—Create a transition using compounded round geometry. This includes rounding the corner transition formed by three overlapping round pieces by using a sweep that wraps around the round piece that has the largest radius. Proceed to step 5. Round Only 2—Create a transition using compounded round geometry. Proceed to step 5. Corner Sphere—Round the corner transition formed by three overlapping round pieces with a spherical corner. Click To Define a Corner Sphere Transition under See Also to define this transition. Patch—Create a patched surface at the location where three or four round pieces overlap. Click To Define a Patch Transition under See Also to define this transition. Stop Case 1—Terminate the round using geometry configured by Pro/ENGINEER. Click To Define a Stop Case Transition under See Also to define this transition. Stop Case 2—Terminate round using geometry configured by Pro/ENGINEER. Click To Define a Stop Case Transition under See Also to define this transition. 459

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Stop Case 3—Terminate round using geometry configured by Pro/ENGINEER. Click To Define a Stop Case Transition under See Also to define this transition. Stop at Reference—Terminate round geometry at the datum point or datum plane that you specify. Click To Define a Stop at Reference Transition under See Also to define this transition.

o

Pro/ENGINEER displays preview geometry of the transition and adds the selected transition to the Transitions list located on the Transitions slide-up panel. Notice that Pro/ENGINEER displays only user-defined transitions on this list. If you want to remove a transition from the Transitions list, see the note at the end of this topic. 5. If you want to cap the gaps between the active transition and part geometry by creating end surfaces, click the Capped check box located on the Dialog Bar. Notice that this check box is available only if you select a transition type (other than Default) and use the Surface or New quilt attachment type (see About Round Attachment Types). Pro/ENGINEER clears this check box by default. Note: o o Side surfaces must exist in order to extend and use them as capping surfaces. If not, the round piece cannot be capped. This check box caps only the gaps of the active transition while the Create end surfaces check box located on the Options slide-up panel caps all round piece ends for the entire round feature. Remember, the Dialog Bar check box overrides the slide-up panel check box. This enables you to cap the gaps of the active transition even if you decide not to cap all of the round piece ends for the round feature. You cannot cap rounds between a solid surface and a quilt surface.

o

6. At this point, the transition is defined. Do one of the following: o o Define another transition. Click to return to Set mode and continue working with round sets. Note: You can also use Back to Sets from the shortcut menu. Click enabling Pro/ENGINEER to save your changes, create the round, and close the Round tool.

o

Note: If you want to restore the default transition, select Default from the Transition Type box on the Dialog bar, or from the shortcut menu. Pro/ENGINEER does not display default transition types on the Transitions list. Do not use Delete Transition from the shortcut menu to remove a transition type from the Transitions list. If you do use it, you can do one of the following to restore the default transition type: Press CTRL+Z to undo the selection (or Edit > Undo setting), switch to Set mode, or close the Round tool.

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Tip: • • You can also use Capped from the shortcut menu to cap the gaps between the active transition and part geometry. To preview various transitions before selecting one, simply place your cursor over each transition type in the Transition Type box. Pro/ENGINEER highlights the corresponding transition geometry in the graphics window.

To Define a Patch Transition
Note: This topic is a continuation of the To Define a Round Transition topic. If you did not follow the procedure in that topic, please refer to it under See Also. 1. To add a fillet to the Patch transition, click in the Optional surface collector located on the Dialog Bar (or on the Transitions slide-up panel) to activate the collector and select a surface for the Patch transition. Pro/ENGINEER does the following: o Adds a fillet to the Patch transition and displays the fillet radius in the graphics window and in the Radius box on the Dialog Bar. This fillet becomes the fourth side of the resulting patch and is tangent. Populates the Optional surface collector on the slide-up panel with the reference information. Notice that the corresponding Dialog Bar collector indicates that an item has been selected.

o

2. To define the fillet radius, drag the radius handle to the preferred distance. The preview geometry is dynamically updated. Note: You can also type a new radius value or select a most recently used value from the list in the Radius box on the Dialog Bar. 3. If you want to cap the gaps between the active transition and part geometry by creating end surfaces, click the Capped check box located on the Dialog Bar. Notice that this check box is available only if you use the Surface or New quilt attachment type (see About Round Attachment Types). Pro/ENGINEER clears this check box by default. Note: o o Side surfaces must exist in order to extend and use them as capping surfaces. If not, the round piece cannot be capped. This check box caps only the gaps of the active transition while the Create end surfaces check box located on the Options slide-up panel caps all round piece ends for the entire round feature. Remember, the Dialog Bar check box overrides the slide-up panel check box. This enables you to cap the gaps of the active transition even if you decide not to cap all of the round piece ends for the round feature. You cannot cap rounds between a solid surface and a quilt surface.

o

4. At this point, the transition is defined. Do one of the following: o Define another transition.

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o

Click to return to Set mode and continue working with round sets. Note: You can also use Back to Sets from the shortcut menu. Click enabling Pro/ENGINEER to save your changes, create the round, and close the Round tool.

o

Note: If you want to restore the default transition, select Default from the Transition Type box on the Dialog bar, or from the shortcut menu. Pro/ENGINEER does not display default transition types on the Transitions list. Do not use Delete Transition from the shortcut menu or use the DEL key to remove a transition type from the Transitions list. If you do use it, you can do one of the following to restore the default transition type: Press CTRL+Z to undo the selection (or Edit > Undo setting), switch to Set mode, or close the Round tool. Tip: • • • You can also use Patch Optional Surface from the shortcut menu to activate the Optional surface collectors. You can also use Capped from the shortcut menu to cap the gaps of the active transition. To preview various transitions before selecting one, simply place your cursor over each transition type in the Transition Type box. Pro/ENGINEER highlights the corresponding transition geometry in the graphics window. To quickly change a value as you work in the graphics window, double-click the existing value. After the box opens, type a new value and press ENTER or select a most recently used value from the list. You can always select Default in a most recently used list to enable Pro/ENGINEER to determine the value. You can always select Default from the Transition Type box, or from the shortcut menu enabling Pro/ENGINEER to determine the transition type for the round. Notice that the transition type is in parentheses. To remove a reference from within a collector, select the reference that you want to remove, and with your cursor in the collector, right-click and select Remove from the shortcut menu.

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To Define a Stop at Reference Transition
Note: This topic is a continuation of the To Define a Round Transition topic. If you did not follow the procedure in that topic, please refer to it under See Also. 1. After the Stop references collectors (located on the Dialog Bar and on the Transitions slide-up panel) activate, select either a datum plane, a datum point on the round set spine, or one or more part surfaces as the reference to which the round geometry will terminate. Note that any reference selected will be the new stop location. Pro/ENGINEER does the following:

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Populates the Stop references collector on the Transitions slide-up panel with the reference information. Notice that the corresponding Dialog Bar collector indicates that one or more items have been selected as references. Locates the Stop at Reference transition at the selected references and displays the transition in the graphics window.

o

2. If you select a datum point or vertex as your stop reference, you can select one of the following from the box on the Dialog Bar: o Point—Stop the round set at a plane that travels through the stop reference and that is oriented normal to the normal to an edge with the stop reference. Pro/ENGINEER selects this by default. Isoline—Stops the round set at a plane that passes through the stop reference and normal to the round surface.

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3. If you want to cap the gaps between the active transition and part geometry by creating end surfaces, click the Capped check box located on the Dialog Bar. Notice that this check box is available only if you use the Surface or New quilt attachment type (see About Round Attachment Types). Pro/ENGINEER clears this check box by default. Note: o o Side surfaces must exist in order to extend and use them as capping surfaces. If not, the round piece cannot be capped. This check box caps only the gaps of the active transition while the Create end surfaces check box located on the Options slide-up panel caps all round piece ends for the entire round feature. Remember, the Dialog Bar check box overrides the slide-up panel check box. This enables you to cap the gaps of the active transition even if you decide not to cap all of the round piece ends for the round feature. You cannot cap rounds between a solid surface and a quilt surface.

o

4. At this point, the transition is defined. Do one of the following: o o Define another transition. Click to return to Set mode and continue working with round sets. Note: You can also use Back to Sets from the shortcut menu. Click enabling Pro/ENGINEER to save your changes, create the round, and close the Round tool.

o

Note: If you want to restore the default transition, select Default from the Transition Type box on the Dialog bar, or from the shortcut menu. Pro/ENGINEER does not display default transition types on the Transitions list. Do not use Delete Transition from the shortcut menu or use the DEL key to remove a transition type from the Transitions list. If you do use it, you can do one

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of the following to restore the default transition type: Press CTRL+Z to undo the selection (or Edit > Undo: setting), switch to Set mode, or close the Round tool. Tip: • • • You can also use Stop References from the shortcut menu to activate the Stop references collectors. You can also use Capped from the shortcut menu to cap the gaps of the active transition. To preview various transitions before selecting one, simply place your cursor over each transition type in the Transition Type box. Pro/ENGINEER highlights the corresponding transition geometry in the graphics window. You can always select Default from the Transition Type box, or from the shortcut menu enabling Pro/ENGINEER to determine the transition type for the round. Notice that the transition type is in parentheses. To remove a reference from within a collector, select the reference that you want to remove, and with your cursor in the collector, right-click and select Remove from the shortcut menu.

To Define a Stop Case Transition
Note: This topic is a continuation of the To Define a Round Transition topic. If you did not follow the procedure in that topic, please refer to it under See Also. 1. If you want to cap the gaps between the active transition and part geometry by creating end surfaces, click the Capped check box located on the Dialog Bar. Notice that this check box is available only if you use the Surface or New quilt attachment type (see About Round Attachment Types). Pro/ENGINEER clears this check box by default. Note: o o Side surfaces must exist in order to extend and use them as capping surfaces. If not, the round piece cannot be capped. This check box caps only the gaps of the active transition while the Create end surfaces check box located on the Options slide-up panel caps all round piece ends for the entire round feature. Remember, the Dialog Bar check box overrides the slide-up panel check box. This enables you to cap the gaps of the active transition even if you decide not to cap all of the round piece ends for the round feature. You cannot cap rounds between a solid surface and a quilt surface.

o

2. At this point, the transition is defined. Do one of the following: o o Define another transition. Click to return to Set mode and continue working with round sets. Note: You can also use Back to Sets from the shortcut menu.

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Click enabling Pro/ENGINEER to save your changes, create the round, and close the Round tool.

Note: If you want to restore the default transition, select Default from the Transition Type box on the Dialog bar, or from the shortcut menu. Pro/ENGINEER does not display default transition types on the Transitions list. Do not use Delete Transition from the shortcut menu or use the DEL key to remove a transition type from the Transitions list. If you do use it, you can do one of the following to restore the default transition type: Press CTRL+Z to undo the selection (or Edit > Undo setting), switch to Set mode, or close the Round tool. Tip: • • You can also use Capped from the shortcut menu to cap the gaps of the active transition. To preview various transitions before selecting one, simply place your cursor over each transition type in the Transition Type box. Pro/ENGINEER highlights the corresponding transition geometry in the graphics window. You can always select Default from the Transition Type box, or from the shortcut menu enabling Pro/ENGINEER to determine the transition type for the round. Notice that the transition type is in parentheses.

To Define a Corner Sphere Transition
Note: This topic is a continuation of the To Define a Round Transition topic. If you did not follow the procedure in that topic, please refer to it under See Also. 1. To modify the sphere radius, drag the radius handle to the preferred distance. Notice that you can also type a new radius value or select a most recently used value from the list in the R box list located on the Dialog Bar. Pro/ENGINEER displays preview geometry and the new radius value. Notice that the transition length values for each edge are now displayed. Note: The new radius must be greater than the radius of the largest overlapping round piece. 2. To modify the transition length along each edge, drag each length handle to the preferred length. The preview geometry is dynamically updated. Note: You can also type a new length value or select most recently used value from the list in the L1, L2, or L3 boxes on the Dialog Bar. 3. If you want to cap the gaps between the active transition and part geometry by creating end surfaces, click the Capped check box located on the Dialog Bar. Notice that this check box is available only if you use the Surface or New quilt attachment type (see About Round Attachment Types). Pro/ENGINEER clears this check box by default. Note: o Side surfaces must exist in order to extend and use them as capping surfaces. If not, the round piece cannot be capped.

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This check box caps only the gaps of the active transition while the Create end surfaces check box located on the Options slide-up panel caps all round piece ends for the entire round feature. Remember, the Dialog Bar check box overrides the slide-up panel check box. This enables you to cap the gaps of the active transition even if you decide not to cap all of the round piece ends for the round feature. You cannot cap rounds between a solid surface and a quilt surface.

o

4. At this point, the transition is defined. Do one of the following: o o Define another transition. Click to return to Set mode and continue working with round sets. Note: You can also use Back to Sets from the shortcut menu. Click enabling Pro/ENGINEER to save your changes, create the round, and close the Round tool.

o

Note: If you want to restore the default transition, select Default from the Transition Type box on the Dialog bar, or from the shortcut menu. Pro/ENGINEER does not display default transition types on the Transitions list. Do not use Delete Transition from the shortcut menu or use the DEL key to remove a transition type from the Transitions list. If you do use it, you can do one of the following to restore the default transition type: Press CTRL+Z to undo the selection (or Edit > Undo: setting), switch to Set mode, or close the Round tool. Tip: • • You can also use Capped from the shortcut menu to cap the gaps of the active transition. To preview various transitions before selecting one, simply place your cursor over each transition type in the Transition Type box. Pro/ENGINEER highlights the corresponding transition geometry in the graphics window. To quickly change a value as you work in the graphics window, double-click the existing value. After the box opens, type a new value and press ENTER or select a most recently used value from the list. You can always select Default from a most recently used list to enable Pro/ENGINEER to determine the appropriate value for your geometry. You can always select Default from the Transition Type box, or from the shortcut menu enabling Pro/ENGINEER to determine the transition type for the round. Notice that the transition type is in parentheses.

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Example: Corner Transitions
The following table illustrates possible combinations of corner transitions: Corner Transitions Transition Type Corner Sphere R1 = R2 = R3 (R1 = R2) < R3 (R1 = R2) > R3 R1< R2 < R3

Patch (without surface)

Patch with surface 1

Patch with surface 2

Patch with surface 3

Round Only 1

Round Only 2

Note: • • R1, R2, and R3 are radii of respective round pieces Arrow indicates the patch optional surface selected

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About Deleting Transitions and Making a Transition
Pro/ENGINEER determines a transition type according to the selected placement references and geometrical context. However, sometimes the available transitions are not what is needed for the geometry. If this situation arises, you can delete one or more transitions to free references and make a new transition. Pro/ENGINEER configures the new transition according to the geometrical context. The following table illustrates this process. Note: If you delete one or more transitions and do not replace them by making a new transition, Pro/ENGINEER restores the default transitions for the free references because the geometrical input did not change and the transitions with the best fit for the geometry are again selected. Deleting Transitions and Making a Transition In Transition mode, transitions are selected and deleted using Delete Transition from the shortcut menu. The free round piece ends are selected (use CTRL+click), and a new transition is created using Make Transition from the shortcut menu. Deleting Two and Making One Deleting Two and Making One

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Deleting Two and Making One

Deleting Two and Making One

1 Transitions (Stop Case transitions) 2 Free round piece ends 3 New transition (Continue)

1 Transitions (Intersect) 2 Free round piece ends 3 New transition (Round Only)

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To Delete Transitions and Make a Transition
1. Select the references for the round and click . The Round tool opens.

2. Click on the Dialog Bar to switch to Transition mode. Pro/ENGINEER displays preview geometry of all transitions for the entire round feature. Note: You can also use Show Transitions from the shortcut menu to change to Transition mode. 3. In the graphics window, select a transition that you want to delete, right-click and select Delete Transition from the shortcut menu. Pro/ENGINEER deletes the transition and frees the references. If needed, repeat this step to delete another transition. Note: The deleted transitions must share the same geometrical location in order to make a new transition. 4. Press the CTRL key and click all of the round piece ends that are freed by the deleted transitions. Pro/ENGINEER highlights the selected round piece ends. 5. Right-click and select Make Transition from the shortcut menu. Pro/ENGINEER configures the new transition according to the geometrical context and displays it in the graphics window. Notice that the transition type for the new transition is displayed in the Transition Type box on the Dialog Bar, and on the shortcut menu. Note: If you do not select Make Transition, Pro/ENGINEER restores the default transitions for the freed references because the geometrical input did not change and the transitions with the best fit for the geometry was again selected. 6. If you want to change the transition type for the new transition, select the new type from the Transition Type box on the Dialog Bar, or from the shortcut menu. 7. At this point, the new transition is complete. Do one of the following: o o Make another new transition. Click to return to Set mode and continue working with round sets.

Click enabling Pro/ENGINEER to save your changes, create the round, and close the Round tool. Tip: • If you need to return to the default transition after making a new transition, simply delete the new transition and click . Pro/ENGINEER switches to Set mode and restores the default transitions. Proceed to step 2. • • You can also delete a transition from the Transitions list on the Transitions slide-up panel by using Delete Transition on the shortcut menu. If you delete the wrong transition, right-click and select Back to Sets. Pro/ENGINEER switches to Set mode and recreates the default transition. Proceed to step 2.

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If you made an error selecting a round piece end, right-click and select Clear from the shortcut menu. Then, select the preferred ends. Remember to use the CTRL key as you select multiple round piece ends.

Advanced Topics Piece Management
About Piece Management As you work with rounds, the ability to manage round pieces becomes essential. Through piece management, you can better control your round features. Round piece management is performed using the Pieces slide-up panel (click the Pieces tab on the dashboard). Using the Pieces slide-up panel, you can perform the following: • • • • • • • View all round sets for the round feature View the current round set View all round pieces in the current round set View the current state of the round pieces (Included, Excluded, or Edited) Exclude round pieces from the round set Trim or extend round pieces Address placement ambiguity

About Round Patches and Round Pieces To successfully exclude, trim, or extend round geometry, an understanding and accurate identification of round patches and pieces is necessary. A round piece is simply round geometry that is placed at the selected references. A round piece can contain patches. A patch is a neighbor that is tangent to the end of the round piece that is being created. This tangency occurs due to existing model geometry. The following table illustrates round patches and pieces: One Round Piece with Three Patches After you select the edge reference, Pro/ENGINEER automatically propagates the round piece across all tangent points resulting in tangent segments called patches. In the illustration below, tangency occurs due to the existing round geometry. Two Round Pieces without Patches After you select two edge references, Pro/ENGINEER places two separate round pieces at the selected references to create the round. In the illustration below, tangency does not occur due to the vertex. This results in the two overlapping round pieces. Pro/ENGINEER uses transitions to resolve this discontinuous geometry.

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One Round Piece with Three Patches

Two Round Pieces without Patches

1 Edge reference 2 Patch 3 Patch 4 Patch 5 Existing round geometry

1 Edge references 2 Discontinuous round geometry

About Excluding Round Pieces You can exclude one or more round pieces in a round set that contains multiple round pieces by using the Pieces slide-up panel. Excluding pieces enables you to gain more control over the round geometry. Note: To exclude round pieces, the current round set must contain two or more round pieces that use one explicit placement reference. This can occur if the round geometry breaks due to non-tangent chains. It can also occur if a single round piece cannot be created at a certain radius value. For example, a round that is too large to sweep around a corner. Excluding Round Pieces Before Exclude The round placement reference is selected and the round geometry propagates across tangent points. The round piece radius is increased and the geometry breaks resulting in round pieces 1 and 2. After Exclude Round piece 2 is select from the Pieces slide-up panel and Excluded is used. Pro/ENGINEER excludes the round piece.

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Before Exclude

After Exclude

1 Round piece 1 2 Round piece 2 3 Trim/Extend handle 4 Edge placement reference 5 Existing round geometry

To Exclude Round Pieces Note: To exclude round pieces, the current round set must contain two or more round pieces that use one explicit placement reference. This can occur if the round geometry breaks due to non-tangent chains. It can also occur if a single round piece cannot be created at a certain radius value. For example, a round that is too large to sweep around a corner. 1. Select the references for the round and click preview geometry of the round appears. . The Round tool opens and

2. Click the Pieces tab on the dashboard. The Pieces slide-up panel appears. 3. On the Sets list, select the round set that contains the piece that you want to exclude. All of the round pieces for the current round set are listed on the Pieces table. 4. On the Pieces table, select the round piece that you want to exclude and select Excluded. The round piece is excluded from the model. 5. If you want to exclude another round piece, repeat step 3. and step 4. 473

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6. To include an excluded round piece, select the piece and Included from the Pieces table. 7. Close the Pieces slide-up panel to activate Sets mode and continue to work with rounds. 8. When completed, click Round tool. Tip: • • You can also use Excluded or Included from the Pieces slide-up panel shortcut menu. If you excluded multiple pieces in the current round set and want to quickly include them all, simply select All included from the Pieces slide-up panel shortcut menu. To quickly locate a piece on your model, place your cursor over each piece in the Pieces table and Pro/ENGINEER dynamically highlights it in the graphics window. . Pro/ENGINEER creates the round and closes the

About Trimming Round Geometry You can trim round geometry (pieces) to achieve the preferred rounds for your model. As you create a round, the round geometry automatically propagates across tangent points and then stops at a non-tangent point. If you need to terminate the round geometry before the non-tangent point, you can trim the round piece up to a patch that you select. The table following table illustrates the trim process. Note: • • • You can only trim open round sets. If you want to work with a closed-loop round set, you must first use open the round geometry. You cannot trim separate (overlapping) round pieces. To remove one of these pieces, press CTRL and select the piece, or clear it from its respective collector. If you need to terminate round geometry at a different point other than a patch, you must define a Stop at Reference transition.

Trimming Round Geometry Description Example

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Description The round placement edge reference is selected and the round geometry propagates across tangent points due to the existing round geometry (a). The round piece is selected from the Pieces slideup panel and the trim/extend handles appear (b). As the left handle is dragged to trim the round piece, potential extension geometry appears. Notice that the cursor and handle change during trimming. Using the preview geometry as a guide, the handle is dragged to

Example

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Description trim up the third patch (c). Notice that the preview geometry outline changes color indicating the extent of the trim. Release the mouse button and Pro/ENGINEE R trims the round up to the patch (d).

Example

1 Edge placement reference 2 Round piece (consisting of three patches) 3 Existing round geometry 4 Trim/Extend handles 5 Potential extension geometry 6 Trimmed patches

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Description 7 Trimmed round geometry

Example

To Trim Round Geometry 1. Select the references for the round and click round preview geometry appears. . The Round tool opens and

2. Open the Pieces slide-up panel and select the round piece to trim from the Pieces table. Handles appear on the piece ends. Note: If you have a closed-loop round set, you need to open it by removing a patch. After you select the piece to trim, select a patch from the graphics window. Pro/ENGINEER removes the patch and handles appear. 3. Drag a handle up to the patch where you want to trim the round piece. Pro/ENGINEER trims the round piece. Notice that Edited appears in the Pieces table for the selected piece. Repeat the process if needed. 4. To trim another round piece, repeat step 2. and step 3. 5. To restore the trimmed round piece to its original state, select Included from the Pieces table or from the Pieces slide-up panel shortcut menu. 6. The trimmed round piece is complete. Close the Pieces slide-up panel to activate Sets mode and continue to work with rounds. 7. When completed, click Round tool. Tip: • If you trimmed multiple pieces in the current round set and want to quickly restore all of them to their original state, simply select All included from Pieces slide-up panel shortcut menu. To quickly locate a piece on your model, place your cursor over each piece in the Pieces table and Pro/ENGINEER dynamically highlights it in the graphics window. . Pro/ENGINEER creates the round and closes the

About Extending Round Geometry You can extend round geometry (pieces) to achieve the preferred rounds for your model. As you create a round, the round geometry automatically propagates across tangent points and then stops at a non-tangent point. If you need to continue the

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round geometry, you can extend the round piece up to a patch that you select. The following table illustrates the extend process. Note: • • • • You can only extend open round sets. If you want to work with a closed-loop round set, you must first use open the round geometry. You cannot extend separate (overlapping) round pieces. To remove one of these pieces, press CTRL and select the piece, or clear it from its respective collector. If you need to extend round geometry at a different point other than a patch, you must define a Stop at Reference transition. Pro/ENGINEER uses an automatic blend to fill the gap around a corner. This blend cannot be modified or deleted. If a blend cannot be added, extend cannot be performed.

Extending Round Geometry Description The round placement edge reference is selected and the round geometry stops at nontangent points (a). The round piece is selected from the Pieces slide-up panel and the trim/extend handles appear (b). As the right handle is dragged to extend the round piece, potential extension geometry appears. Notice that blend 478 Example

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Description transitions are automatically added where a gap exists between tangent points. Also notice that the cursor and handle change during extending. Using the potential extension geometry as a guide, the handle is dragged to extend the round piece up to the third patch (c). Notice that the potential extension geometry outline changes color indicating the extent of the extension. Release the mouse button and Pro/ENGINEE R extends the round piece up to the patch (d).

Example

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Description 1 Edge placement reference

Example

2 Round piece (consisting of three patches) 3 Trim/Extend handles 4 Potential extension geometry (including blend transitions) 5 Round extension 6 Extended round piece

To Extend Round Geometry 1. Select the references for the round and click round preview geometry appears. . The Round tool opens and

2. Open the Pieces slide-up panel and select the round piece to extend from the Pieces table. Handles appear on the piece ends. Note: If you have a closed-loop round set, you need to open it by removing a patch. After you select the piece to extend, select the patch to remove it. Pro/ENGINEER removes the patch and handles appear. 3. Drag a handle to extend the piece. As you drag, the potential extension of the round piece appears. Follow the extension up to the patch where you want to extend the piece. Pro/ENGINEER extends the round piece up to the patch. Notice that Edited appears in the Pieces table for the selected piece. Repeat the process if needed. 4. To extend another round piece, repeat step 2. and step 3. 5. To return the piece to its original state, select Included from the Pieces table or from the Pieces slide-up panel shortcut menu. 6. The extended round piece is complete. Close the Pieces slide-up panel to activate Sets mode and continue to work with rounds. 7. When completed, click Round tool. Tip: • If you extended multiple pieces in the current round set and want to quickly restore all of them to their original state, simply select All included from Pieces slide-up panel shortcut menu. To quickly locate a piece on your model, place your cursor over each piece in the Pieces table and Pro/ENGINEER dynamically highlights it in the graphics window. . Pro/ENGINEER creates the round and closes the

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About Round Placement Ambiguity As you work with rounds, you may encounter a situation when more than one possible placement location exists for the current round set. This can happen when two surfaces intersect in multiple, distinct locations. If this situation occurs, placement ambiguity results in which the placement of the round pieces is unclear due to the selected references and part geometry. Pro/ENGINEER enables you to easily address placement ambiguity using two methods. The table below illustrates the two types of placement ambiguity and the methods used to address them. Placement Ambiguity Ambiguity Type Round Set Ambiguity The round set contains round pieces that coexist and can be placed in various locations given the selected references and part geometry. If this occurs, the round set contains ambiguity. Method: Use the Pieces slide-up panel. From the Pieces table, select the round piece to exclude and select Excluded. All other pieces are Included by default. Example

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Ambiguity Type 1 Surface references 2 Round piece 1 3 Round piece 2 4 Round piece 1 excluded 5 Round piece 2 excluded

Example

6 Both round pieces included Mutually Exclusive Pieces The round set contains ambiguity, however, the round pieces cannot co-exist. This results in mutually exclusive pieces. Mutually exclusive pieces can be placed in different locations between the same referenced surfaces. These pieces are mutually exclusive in which only one can be selected for the round. This can occur if surfaces from two different quilts are used as references. Method: Use the Next Solution button on the Dialog Bar. Click the button to 482

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Ambiguity Type view each group and select the preferred group for the round.

Example

1 Surface references 2 First round group displayed 3 After viewing groups, preferred round group is selected and the round is placed.

To Address Round Placement Ambiguity 1. Select the references for the round and click . The Round tool opens.

2. If you are addressing ambiguity between mutually exclusive groups of round pieces, select a group by clicking Next Solution on the dialog bar. Pro/ENGINEER displays preview geometry of the next group of round pieces. Proceed to step 5. 3. If the selected mutually exclusive group has round pieces that have unclear placement, click the Pieces tab on the dashboard. The Pieces slide-up panel appears. 4. On the Sets list, select the round set that contains the round pieces that you want to address. All of the round pieces for the current round set are listed in the Pieces table. 5. In the Pieces table, do one of the following: 483

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Exclude a round piece—Select the round piece to exclude and select Excluded. Pro/ENGINEER removes the round piece from the model. Note: You cannot exclude all of the listed round pieces. Include a round piece—Select the round piece to include and select Included. Pro/ENGINEER displays the round piece on the model. Note: Pro/ENGINEER includes all round pieces by default.

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6. To exclude another round piece in the current round set, repeat step 5. 7. To include an excluded round piece, repeat step 5. 8. At this point, the ambiguity for the current round set has been addressed. Do one of the following: o o In the Sets list, select another round set that contains ambiguity to address. Close the Pieces slide-up panel to activate Sets mode and continue working with round sets. Click . Pro/ENGINEER to save your changes, creates the round, and closes the Round tool.

o Tip: • •

You can also use Excluded or Included from the Pieces slide-up panel shortcut menu. If you excluded multiple pieces in the current round set and want to quickly include them all, simply select All included from Pieces slide-up panel shortcut menu. To quickly locate a piece on your model, place your cursor over each piece in the Pieces table and Pro/ENGINEER dynamically highlights it in the graphics window.

Attachments
About Round Attachment Types After you create your round, Pro/ENGINEER attaches the round geometry to your model using an attachment type. Using the Options slide-up panel, you can view the current attachment type or change the way in which your round is attached by defining a different attachment type. The Options slide-up panel provides the following options: • Solid—Create the round feature as a solid that intersects the existing geometry. This attachment type is available only if you select solids as round set references. Pro/ENGINEER selects this by default if you select solids as round set references. Surface—Create the round feature as a surface that does not intersect the existing geometry. This attachment type is available only if you select solids as round set references. Pro/ENGINEER does not select this by default.

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New quilt—Create the round feature as a new quilt. This attachment type is available only for surface round set references. Pro/ENGINEER selects this by default if you select different surface quilts or both a solid and a quilt as round set references. Same quilt—Create the round feature as a surface that merges with the reference quilt. This attachment type is available only for surface round set references. Pro/ENGINEER selects this by default if you select round set references from the same surface quilt. Create end surfaces—Create end surfaces to cap all of the round piece ends of the round feature. This check box is available only if you select valid geometry and the Surface or New quilt attachment types. Pro/ENGINEER does not select this by default. Note: o Side surfaces must exist in order to extend and use them as capping surfaces. If not, the round piece ends cannot be capped. For example, an Lshaped open quilt cannot be capped. This check box is different from the Capped check box on the Dialog Bar and the Capped shortcut menu command. The latter two enable you to create end surfaces to cap the gaps between the active transition and part geometry. You cannot cap rounds between a solid surface and a quilt surface.

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Using End Surfaces to Resolve Round Failures If your round geometry has failed because it cannot be attached to the part, change the attachment type in the Options slide-up panel from a Solid to Surface. This enables you to save problematic round geometry as a quilt until you can resolve the geometry errors. After you resolve the errors, you can create a new solid round from the quilt by using the Solidify tool (Edit > Solidify). To Define a Round Attachment Type 1. Select the references for the round and click . The Round tool opens.

2. Click the Options tab on the Dashboard. The Options slide-up panel appears. 3. Under Attachment, select one of the following attachment types for the round feature: o o o o Solid (you must select solids as references) Surface (you must select solids as references) New quilt (you must select a surface quilt as one of your references) Same quilt (you must select references from the same surface quilt)

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4. If you selected the Surface or New quilt attachment type, you can click the Create end surfaces check box to create end surfaces to cap all of the round piece ends of the entire round feature. Pro/ENGINEER clears this check box by default. Note: o o Side surfaces must exist in order to extend and use them as capping surfaces. If not, the round piece ends cannot be capped. This check box is different from the Capped check box on the Dialog Bar and the Capped shortcut menu command. The latter two enable you to create end surfaces to cap the gaps between the active transition and part geometry. You cannot cap rounds between a solid surface and a quilt surface.

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5. At this point, the attachment type is defined. You can continue to work with round sets or click enabling Pro/ENGINEER to save your changes, create the round, and close the Round tool. To Resolve Failed Rounds Using End Surfaces If your round geometry has failed because it cannot be attached to the part, use the following procedure to change the attachment type from a solid to a surface. This enables you to save the problematic round geometry until you can resolve the geometry errors. After you resolve the errors, you can create a new solid round from the quilt. 1. Select the references for the round and click . The Round tool opens.

2. Click the Options tab on the Dashboard. The Options slide-up panel appears. 3. Click the Surface or New quilt attachment type. Note that New quilt is available only if you select a surface quilt as one of your references. 4. If you need to create end surfaces to cap all of the round piece ends of the entire round feature, click the Create end surfaces check box. 5. If you need to create end surfaces to cap the gaps between the active transition and part geometry, click the Capped check box on the Dialog Bar. Remember, you must be in Transition mode to cap the active transition. 6. Click to save your changes. Pro/ENGINEER creates the round and closes the Round tool. 7. Use the Pro/ENGINEER surface tools (surface extend, surface trim, etc.) to modify the surface and resolve the errors. 8. Use the Solidify tool (Edit > Solidify) on the quilt to make the surface round a solid round.

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Note: • • Side surfaces must exist in order to extend and use them as capping surfaces. If not, the round piece cannot be capped. You cannot cap rounds between a solid surface and a quilt surface.

Tip: You can also use the Capped shortcut menu command from within the graphics window to quickly cap the gaps between active transition and part geometry. Round References and Attachment Types The following table provides possible attachment types based on geometric references: Note: • • The table applies only to rounds with two references, such as surface-to-surface or surface-to-edge rounds. Pro/ENGINEER overrides the attachment type settings that you select if it cannot perform the action requested due to geometrical limitations.

Round References and Attachment Types Geometric References Solid-Solid Default Optional Capped Ends Attachment Type Attachment Type Solid Creates round geometry to the limit of the reference set, extends it to any capping surfaces if possible. If necessary, it is capped with a triangular patch and made into solid geometry Solid-Quilt New quilt Creates round geometry to the limit of the set, trims it at a straight line in space, and does not cap it with a triangular patch. The surface is 487 Surface Changes the default solid to a surface. Create end surfaces (Options slide-up panel check box) Creates end surfaces to cap all of the round piece ends of the entire round feature You can use this option if the solid round fails. N/A N/A

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Geometric References

Default Optional Capped Ends Attachment Type Attachment Type unattached.

Quilt-Quilt (same quilt)

Same quilt Creates round geometry to the limit of the set, trims it at a straight line in space, and does not cap it with a triangular patch. The surface is merged into the existing quilt.

New quilt Changes the default merged quilt into a new surface.

Create end surfaces (Options slide-up panel check box) Creates end surfaces to cap all of the round piece ends of the entire round feature. Note: Side surfaces must exist in order to extend and use them as capping surfaces. If not, the round piece ends cannot be capped. For example, an Lshaped open quilt cannot be capped. You can use this option if the solid round fails.

Quilt-Quilt (different quilts)

New quilt Creates temporary round geometry to the limit of the set, trims it at a straight line in space, and does not cap it with a triangular patch. The surface is not merged into the existing quilt.

N/A

N/A

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Auto Round
About the Auto Round Feature
The Auto Round feature enables you to create round geometry of a constant radius on solid geometry or on a quilt of a part or assembly. The Auto Round Feature creates Round features called Auto-Round Members (ARMs) and are represented on the Model Tree as subnodes of the Auto Round feature. You cannot modify the order in which the ARMs are created. The maximum number of edge chains that each ARM of an Auto Round feature can contain is defined by the autoround_max_n_chains_per_feat configuration option. You can access the Auto Round feature by clicking Insert > Auto Round. The Auto Round feature is available in the Part mode for models with solid or quilt geometry or both. In the Assembly mode, the Auto Round feature is available for models with assembly-level quilts. Pro/ENGINEER provides a default name for each Auto Round feature as you create it. The default name includes Auto Round and a sequentially incremented number, for example, Auto Round 1. The default name for each ARM of the Auto Round feature includes Auto Round # and a sequentially incremented number, for example, Auto Round 1 [1]. You can rename the Auto Round feature as a whole but you cannot rename the ARMs individually. The Auto Round feature can have a maximum of two radii dimensions, one each for convex and concave edges. Convex and concave radii are attributes owned by the Auto Round feature. You can define the result of an Auto Round feature while creating or redefining it. The result can be one of: • • An Auto Round feature with subnodes A round group

After you modify the model and the Auto Round feature is regenerated, the order in which the edges are rounded might change. Some edges that were not rounded before the modification may be rounded while some edges that were rounded before the modification may not be rounded. Pro/ENGINEER creates geometry checks for edges or chains of edges that could not be rounded by the Auto Round feature. The Troubleshooter dialog box displays the reason why the edges or chains of edges could not be rounded. Geometry checks for edges or chains of edges that could not be rounded by the Auto round feature are available when you redefine the Auto Round feature. You can exclude these edges or chains of edges from the rounding operation when you redefine the Auto Round feature. If you set the result of an Auto Round feature to be a round group or if you convert an Auto Round feature to a round group, the edges that could not be rounded are not reported as geometry checks. You can also convert an Auto Round feature to a round group by right-clicking the Auto Round feature and clicking Convert to Group. A round group is a set of round features. When you convert an Auto Round feature to a round group, the Auto Round

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feature is regenerated and a regular group of round features is created. The individual round features inherit the attributes of the Auto Round feature. When you convert an Auto Round feature to a round group the following applies: • • • • • • • The model is regenerated Geometry does not change Geometry checks are removed IDs of round geometry will change when ARMs are converted to regular round features Features that reference the Auto Round feature might fail Undo regenerates the model and the Auto Round algorithm is triggered Undo recover's the original IDs of the round geometry

You cannot convert an Auto Round feature to a round group in a Family Table instance. You must convert the Auto Round feature to a round group in the generic instance. After you convert an Auto Round feature to a round group in the generic instance and if you retrieve or regenerate an instance, Pro/ENGINEER removes the Auto Round feature and copies the round group to that instance. You cannot perform feature operations such as suppress, resume, pattern, and so on, on the ARMs. However, you can obtain information on the ARM by right-clicking the ARM and clicking Info > Feature. By default, the ARMs are not displayed on the Model Tree.

About the Auto Round User Interface
The Auto Round user interface consists of: Feature icon Dashboard Slide-up panels

Feature Icon
The Auto Round feature is identified by a on the Model Tree.

Dashboard
The Auto Round dashboard consists of: —Lets you specify the radius to be applied for convex edges. —Lets you specify the radius to be applied for concave edges.

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Slide-up Panels
The Auto Round dashboard consists of the following slide-up panels: • Scope o Solid Geometry—Enables you to create Auto Round features on the solid geometry of the model. This option is selected by default, if the model contains solid geometry. Quilt—Enables you to create an Auto Round feature on a single quilt in the model. This option is available only if the model contains one or more quilts. Quilt collector—Collects a quilt with two-sided edges to be rounded by the Auto Round feature. This collector is available only if you select Quilt. Selected Edges—Enables you to create an Auto Round feature on selected edges or intent chains. Selected edges collector—Enables you to select edges or intent chains to be rounded by the Auto Round feature. This collector is available only if you select Selected Edges. Convex Edges—Lets you select all convex edges in the model to be rounded by the Auto Round feature. Concave Edges—Lets you select all concave edges in the model to be rounded by the Auto Round feature.

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Exclude o Excluded Edges—Contains the collector to exclude edges from the Auto Round feature. You can select one or more edges or chains of edges to be excluded from the Auto Round feature. Geom Checks—Lets you exclude an edge or a chain of edges that could not be rounded by the Auto Round feature. The Troubleshooter dialog box displays the reason why the edge or chain of edges could not be rounded. Geom Checks is available when the Auto Round feature could not round some of the edges and you want to redefine the Auto Round feature.

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Options o Create Group of Regular Round Features—Lets you create a group of regular round features instead of an Auto Round feature.

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Properties o Name—Displays the name of the current Auto Round feature. If required, specify a new name. —Provides detailed information on the Auto Round feature in the Pro/ENGINEER browser.

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To Create an Auto Round Feature
1. Click Insert > Auto Round. The Auto Round dashboard appears. 2. Click the Scope slide-up panel on the Auto Round dashboard and select one of the following options: o o o Solid Geometry—To create an Auto Round feature on the solid geometry of the model. This is the default. Selected Edges—To create an Auto Round feature on selected edges or intent chains of the model. Quilt—To create an Auto Round feature on a quilt.

Note: o o Quilt is available only for models with one or more quilts. If the model has more than one quilt, create a separate Auto Round feature for each quilt. The quilt collector is activated after you select Quilt. You must select a quilt from the model to be rounded. You can select only one quilt to be included in the Auto Round feature.

3. On the Scope slide-up panel, select Convex Edges to create Auto Round features on all convex edges or select Concave Edges to create Auto Round features on all concave edges of the model. You can also select both the options to create Auto Round features on the convex and concave edges of the model. 4. To specify the radius of curvature for convex or concave edges, type or select a value in the box adjacent to or , respectively.

5. To exclude certain edges from being rounded, click the Exclude slide-up panel and select the edges from the model to be excluded from the Auto Round feature. 6. To create a group of round features, click the Options slide-up panel and select Create Group of Regular Round Features to set the result of the Auto Round feature to be a round group instead of an Auto Round feature. 7. Click on the dashboard. The Auto-Round player window appears and the Auto Round feature is created. o o o o To pause the creation of the Auto Round feature, click .

Select Show each member to display each Auto Round member in the graphics window as it is being created. To interrupt the creation of the Auto Round feature before all the edges are rounded, click Interrupt. When you click Finish, Pro/ENGINEER completes the Auto Round feature.

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Note: o o Interrupt and Finish are available only if you pause the Auto Round feature. If you click Interrupt before the Auto Round feature is completed, and if no changes are made to features created before the Auto Round feature, then click Edit > Regenerate to resume the Auto Round feature from where the feature was interrupted. If you make changes to features created before the Auto Round feature, then regeneration of the Auto Round feature starts from the beginning. You cannot convert interrupted Auto Round features to round groups.

o o

To Create an Auto Round Feature on Selected Edges
1. Click Insert > Auto Round. The Auto Round dashboard appears. 2. Click the Scope slide-up panel on the Auto Round dashboard and select Selected Edges. The selected edges collector is activated. 3. Click Edit > Find. The Search Tool dialog box opens. Note: Instead of using the Search Tool, you can also select the edges in the graphics window to be included in the Auto round feature. 4. Under Look for, select Edge or Intent Chain, as required. 5. Under Look by, select one of Edge, Feature, Group, or Intent Chain. 6. Click the Attributes, History, Status, or Geometry tabs and specify the criteria by which you want to search for edges or intent chains. 7. Click Find Now. The Search Tool displays the results in the items found area of the Search Tool dialog box. 8. Select the required items in the items found area. The corresponding items are highlighted in the graphics window. 9. Click to transfer them to the items selected area of the Search Tool dialog box. 10. Click Close in the Search Tool dialog box. The selected edges are added to the selected edges collector on the Auto round dashboard. 11. Specify other options on the dashboard as required and create an Auto Round feature.

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Example: Narrow Pair of Chains
Narrow pair of chains with same convexity Narrow pairs of chains with same convexity are not rounded. Two or more chains are considered to be narrow if the rounds created on them intersect each other.

1 Narrow pair of chains with same convexity

1 Narrow pair of chains with same convexity

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Narrow pair of chains with different convexity Each chain in a narrow pair of chains is rounded under different Auto Round members. However, if a model contains a narrow pair of chains with different convexity, the convex chains are rounded first.

1 Narrow pair of chains with different convexity The following figure shows the model after the round operation is performed on the narrow pair of edges with different convexity.

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Edges of the same convexity but sharing a vertex that belongs to a narrow pair of chains The Auto Round feature does not round edges of the same convexity but sharing a vertex with a chain that belongs to a narrow pair of chains. Rounding such edges may cause problems while rounding other edges.

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1 Non-narrow pair of chains 2 Common vertex 3 Narrow pair of chains In the above illustration, the non-narrow pair of chains is not rounded as these edges have the same convexity but share a common vertex with the narrow pair of chains.

To Display Auto Round Members on the Model Tree
1. On the Model Tree, click Settings > Tree Filters. The Model Tree Items dialog box opens. 2. On the General tabbed page, select Auto Round Member under Feature Types. 3. Click OK. Auto Round Members appear on the Model Tree as subnodes of the Auto Round feature.

Using the Auto-Round Player
You can use the Auto-Round Player to go backward or forward through the history of the Auto Round creation to observe how the Auto Round members were created. —Starts at the beginning of the regeneration of the Auto Round member. All Auto Round members are suppressed. —Steps backward through the Auto Round members, one feature at a time. —Steps forward through the Auto Round members, one feature at a time. —Moves to the last member of the Auto Round feature. All Auto Round members are visible. —Pauses the creation of the Auto Round feature. Show each member—Displays each Auto Round Member in the graphics window as it is being created. If you clear this option the graphics window is updated only after all the ARMs are created, or when you click Interrupt or Finish. Interrupt—Interrupts the regeneration of the Auto Round feature. Finish—Completes the regeneration of the Auto Round member and closes the AutoRound player.

Considerations for Creating an Auto Round Feature
Note the following rules when you create an Auto Round feature: • Convex edges in the model are rounded first. However, edges adjacent to narrow surfaces are not rounded. 497

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Narrow pairs of chains with same convexity are not rounded. Narrow pairs of chains with different convexity are rounded under different Auto Round members. Short chains are rounded only if this rounding does not affect the rounding of neighboring chains. Edges that share a vertex with a chain that cannot be rounded are not rounded, as rounding one of these edges may cause problems in the rounding of other edges. You can exclude edges from the Auto Round feature by selecting them in the graphics window or in the Troubleshooter dialog box. You can also use the search tool to select edges to be excluded. You can exclude edges or a chain of edges from an Auto Round feature. The Auto Round feature does not fail even if the excluded edges disappear from the model due to changes in the model. However, these edges remain excluded if further changes to the model cause the disappeared edges to reappear. You can select multiple edges chains to be excluded from the Auto Round feature. Edge chains can be regular chains or intent chains. An Auto Round feature fails if it cannot create any geometry. You cannot pattern an Auto Round feature. The Model Player (Tools > Model Player) moves forward and backward through the Auto Round Members, but does not regenerate an Auto Round feature if Regenerate features is not selected. However, if you select Regenerate features, the Model Player regenerates the Auto Round feature but does not move forward or backward through the ARMs.

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About Excluding Edges from an Auto Round
When creating an Auto Round feature, you may want to exclude edges from the Auto Round. To select the edges to exclude, activate the Exclude Edges collector on the Exclude slide-up panel and then select the edges using any of these methods: • • • • Creating a Datum Reference feature by selecting the edges in the graphics window Creating a Datum Reference feature by selecting the edges using the Search Tool dialog box Selecting the edges using only the Search Tool dialog box Selecting the edges directly in the graphics window

In the Example topics listed under See Also, you are provided with a model for download with each exercise.

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To Select Edges Using a Datum Reference and the Graphics Window
1. Click Insert > Auto Round. The Auto Round dashboard appears. 2. Click the Scope slide-up panel. By default, all Solid Geometry is rounded. To exclude geometry, you must also use the Exclude slide-up panel. 3. Click Exclude. The Excluded Edges collector is activated. on the Datum toolbar. The Auto Round dashboard is paused and the 4. Click Datum Reference dialog box opens. A Reference feature appears in the Model Tree. 5. In the graphics window, select the edges you want to exclude from the round. The chains appear in the Datum Reference dialog box in the Chains collector. 6. After you select all the edges to exclude, click OK in the Datum Reference dialog box. on the Auto Round dashboard to resume the Auto Round feature. The 7. Click model appears with the selected edges highlighted. The Reference feature is added to the Excluded Edges collector. 8. Click to create the Auto Round with the excluded edges. The Auto Round feature appears in the Model Tree.

To Select Edges Using a Datum Reference and the Search Tool
1. Click Insert > Auto Round. The Auto Round dashboard appears. 2. Click the Scope slide-up panel. By default, all Solid Geometry is rounded. To exclude geometry you must also use the Exclude slide-up panel. 3. Click the Exclude slide-up panel. The Excluded Edges collector is activated. on the Datum toolbar. The Auto Round dashboard is paused and the 4. Click Datum Reference dialog box opens. A Reference feature appears in the Model Tree. In the Datum Reference dialog box, Type is set to Intent Chain by default and the Chains collector is activated. 5. Click . The Search Tool dialog box opens.

6. Under Look for, select Edge or Intent Chain as required. 7. Under Look by, select Edge, Feature, or Intent Chain. 8. Click the Attributes, History, Status, or Geometry tabs and specify the search criteria for the edges or intent chains. 9. Click Find Now. The Search Tool displays the results in the items found area of the Search Tool dialog box.

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10. Click Options > Save Query To Feature in the Search Tool dialog box to save the query with the Auto Round feature. The name of the Search Tool dialog box changes to Rule Editor. 11. Click OK in the Rule Editor dialog box. The query is displayed in the Chains collector in the Datum Reference dialog box. 12. Click OK in the Datum Reference dialog box. The Reference feature is highlighted in the model. on the Auto Round dashboard to resume the Auto Round feature. The 13. Click query is added to the Excluded Edges collector in the Exclude slide-up panel. 14. Specify other options on the dashboard as required and create an Auto Round feature. 15. Click to create the Auto Round feature with the excluded edges. The Auto Round feature appears in the Model Tree.

To Select Edges Using the Search Tool
1. Click Insert > Auto Round. The Auto Round dashboard appears. 2. Click the Scope slide-up panel. By default, all Solid Geometry is rounded. To exclude geometry you must also use the Exclude slide-up panel. Note o o You can also use the collector in the Scope slide-up panel to specify what you want rounded. If you click Selected Edges in the Scope slide-up panel, for example, you would then specify the edges you want rounded. In this case, you do not need to use the Exclude Edges collector. By default, Solid Geometry is selected in the Scope slide-up pane and you would then use the Exclude Edges collector to exclude the items you did not want to round.

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3. Click the Exclude slide-up panel. The Excluded Edges collector is activated. 4. Click to open the Search Tool dialog box.

5. Under Look for, select Edge or Intent Chain. 6. Under Look by, select Edge, Feature, Group, or Intent Chain. 7. Click the Attributes, History, Status, or Geometry tabs and specify the search criteria for the edges or intent chains. 8. If required, on the Status and Geometry tabs, click in the graphics window. and make a selection

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9. Click Find Now. The Search Tool displays the results in the items found area of the Search Tool dialog box. 10. Select the items and click to move them to the items selected box.

11. Click Close. The Search Tool dialog box closes and the selected edges to exclude are highlighted in the graphics window and listed in the Excluded Edges collector. 12. Click to create the Auto Round with the excluded edges. The Auto Round feature appears in the Model Tree.

To Select Edges to Exclude Directly in the Graphics Window
1. Click Insert > Auto Round. The Auto Round dashboard appears. 2. Click the Scope slide-up panel. By default, all Solid Geometry is rounded. To exclude geometry you must also use the Exclude slide-up panel. Note: o You can also use the Selected Edges collector in Scope to specify what you want rounded. If you click Selected Edges, for example, you would then specify the edges you want rounded. In this case, you do not need to use the Exclude Edges collector. By default, Solid Geometry is selected in Scope and you would then use Exclude to exclude the items you did not want to round.

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3. Click Exclude. The Excluded Edges collector is activated. 4. In the graphics window, select the edges you want to exclude. The edges you select appear in the Exclude Edges collector. 5. Click to create the Auto Round with the excluded edges. The Auto Round feature appears in the Model Tree.

Example: Creating an Auto Round on Selected Holes Using a Datum Reference Feature
This example shows you how to create an Auto Round feature on selected holes using the Datum Reference feature and the Search Tool to create a query and save it with the Auto Round feature. Saving the query causes the Auto Round feature to automatically update when you increase or decrease the number of holes. 1. Download and extract autoround.zip. 2. In Pro/ENGINEER open autoround.prt.

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3. Click Insert > Auto Round. The Auto Round dashboard opens. 4. Click the Scope slide-up panel and select Selected Edges. The Selected Edges collector is activated. In this example, you are defining the scope of what you want selected, rather than specifying what you want excluded. on the Datum toolbar. The Auto Round dashboard is paused and the 5. Click Datum Reference dialog box opens. A Reference feature appears in the Model Tree. In the Datum Reference dialog box, Type is set to Intent Chain by default and the Chains collector is activated. 6. Click opens. on the Edit toolbar or click Edit > Find. The Search Tool dialog box

7. Under Look for, select Intent Chain. 8. Under Look by, select Feature. 9. Click the Attributes tab: a. Under Rule, select Type. b. Under Criteria, set Comparison to is equal to, Category to All, and Value to Hole. 10. Click Find Now. The Search Tool displays the edges of all the holes in the items found area. 11. Click Options > Save Query To Feature in the Search Tool dialog box to save the query with the Auto Round feature. The name of the Search Tool dialog box changes to Rule Editor. 12. Click OK in the Rule Editor dialog box. The query is displayed in the Chains collector in the Datum Reference dialog box. The selected items are highlighted in the graphics window.

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13. Click OK in the Datum Reference dialog box. 14. Click 15. Click on the Auto Round dashboard to resume the Auto Round feature. . The Auto Round feature is created and appears in the Model Tree. Close-Up of a Hole

Part with Rounded Holes

16. To save the original model for reference, click File > Erase.

Example: Creating an Auto Round on Selected Holes Using the Search Tool
1. Download and extract autoround.zip. 2. In Pro/ENGINEER open autoround.prt.

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3. Click Insert > Auto Round. The Auto Round dashboard opens. 4. Click the Scope slide-up panel and select Selected Edges. The Selected Edges collector is activated. In this example, you are defining the scope of what you want selected, rather than specifying what you want excluded. 5. Click opens. on the Edit toolbar or click Edit > Find. The Search Tool dialog box

6. Under Look for, select Intent Chain. 7. Under Look by, select Feature. 8. Click the Attributes tab: a. Under Rule, select Type. b. Under Criteria, set Comparison to is equal to, Category to All, and Value to Hole. 10. Click Find Now. The Search Tool displays the edges of all the holes in the items found area. 11. Select the items and click to move them to the items selected box.

12. Click Close. The Search Tool dialog box closes and the selected edges are highlighted in the graphics window and listed in the Selected Edges collector in Scope.

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13. Click

. The Auto Round feature is created and appears in the Model Tree. Close-up of a Hole

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14. To save the original model for reference, click File > Erase.

Example: Excluding Edges Where a Quilt Intersects a Part
1. Download and extract split_2_20.zip. 2. In Pro/ENGINEER open split_2_20.prt. Notice that a quilt divides the part. In this example you round all the edges on the part except for the edges that coincide with the quilt.

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3. Click Insert > Auto Round. The Auto Round dashboard opens. Both the Scope and the Exclude slide-up panels on the dashboard contain collectors. You must use the Scope collector in conjunction with the Exclude collector to specify exactly what you want rounded. Note: If you want to round everything in the model, you do not need to use these collectors. 4. In the radius box above the Exclude slide-up panel, type 10. 5. Click Exclude to activate the Excluded Edges collector. You can select the edges to exclude directly in the graphics window, however, this can be complex and time consuming. A more efficient and precise way to make your selection is with the Search Tool dialog box. 6. Click . The Search Tool dialog box opens and the Geometry tab is available. You will use the options in this dialog box to select the quilt. 8. Click the Geometry tab and set options as follows. Some are already set by default: o o o o o Look For—Edge Look by—Edge Rule—Reference Reference Type—Surface/Quilt Comparison—conincides with and then select the quilt in the graphics window.

9. Under Reference click

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10. In the Search Tool dialog box, click Find Now. In the items found box, 6 edges are listed. 11. Select the 6 items and click to move them to the items selected box.

12. Click Close. The Search Tool dialog box closes and the model appears in the dividing quilt selected. The edges intersecting with this quilt are now excluded from the Auto Round.

13. Click . Auto Round 1 appears in the Model Tree. All edges are automatically rounded, except for the edges that intersect with the quilt that you selected in the Search Tool dialog box. Part After Auto Round Close-up of Edges Excluded from the Auto Round

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14. To save the original model for reference, click File > Erase.

Chamfer
About the Chamfer Feature
Pro/ENGINEER enables you to create and modify chamfers. Chamfers are a type of feature where an edge or corner is beveled. Surfaces can be solid model surfaces or traditional Pro/ENGINEER zero-thickness quilts and surfaces. You can create two types of chamfers: corner chamfers and edge chamfers.

Corner Chamfers
You create corner chamfers using the CHAMFER dialog box (Insert > Chamfer > Corner Chamfer) to define edge references and distance values for the corner chamfer. Refer to Chamfer Types and References under See Also for more information. Note: Because corner chamfer creation is a simple procedure, the chamfer documentation addresses edge chamfers and refers to them as chamfers.

Edge Chamfers
You can create edge chamfers using the Chamfer tool. To create edge chamfers, you define one or more chamfer sets. A chamfer set is an organizational unit containing one or more chamfer pieces (chamfer geometry). After you specify chamfer placement references, Pro/ENGINEER uses default attributes, distance values, and default transitions that best fit the referenced geometry to create the chamfer. Pro/ENGINEER displays preview geometry of the chamfer in the graphics window, enabling you to create and modify both chamfer pieces and transitions before feature creation. Note that the default settings accommodate most modeling cases. However, you can define the chamfer sets or transitions to achieve the preferred chamfer geometry.

Anatomy of an Edge Chamfer
An Edge Chamfer consists of the following: • Sets—Chamfer segments that consist of unique attributes, geometric references, and plane angles, and one or more chamfer distances: legs of the triangle formed by the chamfer and the neighboring surfaces. Transitions—Filler geometry that connects chamfer pieces. Transitions are located where the chamfer pieces or set ends meet or terminate. Pro/ENGINEER uses default transitions during the initial chamfer creation and provides many transition types, allowing you to create and modify transitions.

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Chamfer Sets and Transitions Set Mode Display Two edge references are selected for the chamfer set. Pro/ENGINEER displays preview geometry of the two chamfer pieces and the distance value. Transition Mode Display All transitions for the entire edge chamfer feature are displayed. Pro/ENGINEER displays the two chamfer pieces for context.

1 Chamfer piece 2 Edge reference

1 Transition 2 Chamfer piece

About Chamfer Types and References
Using Pro/ENGINEER, you can create different chamfers. The type of chamfer that you can create is determined by the type of placement references that you select. The following table describes the chamfer types and the placement references used: Reference Type Definition Example Chamfer Type

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Reference Type Edges or edge chains Note: Only edges (solid or a twosided surface) are valid chamfer reference s.

Definition

Example

Chamfer Type Edge chamfer

An edge chamfer removes the flat section of material from a selected edge to create a beveled surface between the two original surfaces common to that edge. Note: The chamfer propagate s across tangent neighbors until it encounter s a break in tangency. However, if you use a One-byOne chain, the chamfer does not propagate across tangent neighbors.

Two edges

1 Edge references 2 Chamfer pieces (with distance value) Edge chain

1 Edge chain reference 2 Chamfer piece (with distance value) 3 Existing round geometry

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Reference Type One surface and one edge

Definition

Example

Chamfer Type Surface to edge chamfer

Place a chamfer by selecting a surface first and then an edge. The chamfer remains tangent to the surface. The edge reference does not maintain tangency.

Surface and edge

1 Surface reference 2 Edge reference 3 Chamfer piece (with distance value)

Two surfaces

Place a chamfer by selecting two surfaces. The edges of the chamfer remain tangent to the reference surfaces.

Two surfaces

Surfacetosurface chamfer

1 Surface references 2 Chamfer piece (with distance value)

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Reference Type One corner reference , and three edge placemen t dimensio ns common to the specified corner.

Definition

Example

Chamfer Type Corner chamfer

A corner chamfer removes material from the corner of a part, creating a beveled surface between the three original surfaces common to the corner.

Three edges

1 Corner chamfer

About Chamfer Dimension Schemes
Pro/ENGINEER uses various attributes to create the chamfer geometry (chamfer pieces). These attributes include the chamfer dimension schemes. The dimension schemes enable you to easily define the chamfer plane angle and distance. Different dimension schemes result in different chamfer geometry. To simplify the chamfer creation process, Pro/ENGINEER uses a default dimension scheme. You can change the default scheme at any time in your design session to achieve the preferred chamfer geometry using the dimension scheme box on the dialog bar. Pro/ENGINEER provides dimension schemes based on the placement references that you select and the chamfer creation method used. So, not all dimension schemes are available for a given geometry. The following dimension schemes are provided: • D x D—Create a chamfer that is at a distance (D) from the edge along each surface. Pro/ENGINEER selects this by default. Note: This scheme is available using the Offset Surface creation method only if the following conditions are met: For Edge chamfers, all members of the edge chain must be formed by exactly two 90-degree planes or two 90-degree surfaces (for example, the ends of a cylinder). For Surface to Surface chamfers, constant-angle planes or constant 90-degree surfaces must be selected. • D1 x D2—Create a chamfer at a distance (D1) from the selected edge along one surface and a distance (D2) from the selected edge along the other surface.

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Note: This scheme is available using the Offset Surface creation method only if the following conditions are met: For Edge chamfers, all members of the edge chain must be formed by exactly two 90-degree planes or two 90-degree surfaces (for example, the ends of a cylinder). For Surface to Surface chamfers, constant-angle planes or constant 90-degree surfaces must be selected. • Angle x D—Create a chamfer at a distance (D) from the selected edge along one adjacent surface at a specified angle (Angle) to that surface. Note: This scheme is available using the Offset Surface creation method only if the following conditions are met: For Edge chamfers, all members of the edge chain must be formed by exactly two 90-degree planes or two 90-degree surfaces (for example, the ends of a cylinder). For Surface to Surface chamfers, constant-angle planes or constant 90-degree surfaces must be selected. • 45 x D—Create a chamfer that is at an angle of 45 degrees to both surfaces and a distance (D) from the edge along each surface. Note: This scheme is available only for chamfers that use 90-degree surfaces and the Tangent Distance creation method. • O x O—Create a chamfer that is at an offset distance (O) from the edge along each surface. Pro/ENGINEER selects this by default only if D x D is not available. Note: This scheme is only available if the Offset Surfaces creation method is used. • O1 x O2—Create a chamfer at an offset distance (O1) from the selected edge along a surface and an offset distance (O2) from the selected edge along the other surface. Note: This scheme is only available if the Offset Surfaces creation method is used.

Example: Chamfer Dimension Schemes
The following diagram illustrates different chamfer dimension schemes:

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1 45 x D 2DxD 3 D1 x D2 4 Angle x D

About the Chamfer User Interface
The Chamfer user interface consists of the following items: Feature icon Dialog bar Slide-up panels Shortcut menu

Feature Icon
The Chamfer tool uses the following icon: • —Indicates a chamfer feature in the Model Tree and is displayed in the dashboard to indicate that the Chamfer tool is open. This icon also identifies the Chamfer tool on the Insert menu and on the Feature toolbar.

Dialog Bar
The dialog bar consists of the following options:

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Set Mode • • —Activates Set mode, enabling you to work with chamfer sets. Pro/ENGINEER selects this by default. Dimension scheme box—Displays the current dimension scheme for the chamfer set and contains a list of valid dimension schemes based on the geometrical context. This box enables you to change the dimension scheme for the active chamfer set. The following dimension schemes are available: o D x D—Create a chamfer that is at a distance (D) from the edge along each surface. Pro/ENGINEER selects this by default. Note: This scheme is available using the Offset Surface creation method only if the following conditions are met: For Edge chamfers, all members of the edge chain must be formed by exactly two 90-degree planes or two 90degree surfaces (for example, the ends of a cylinder). For Surface to Surface chamfers, constant-angle planes or constant 90-degree surfaces must be selected. o D1 x D2—Create a chamfer at a distance (D1) from the selected edge along one surface and a distance (D2) from the selected edge along the other surface. Note: This scheme is available using the Offset Surface creation method only if the following conditions are met: For Edge chamfers, all members of the edge chain must be formed by exactly two 90-degree planes or two 90degree surfaces (for example, the ends of a cylinder). For Surface to Surface chamfers, constant-angle planes or constant 90-degree surfaces must be selected. o Angle x D—Create a chamfer at a distance (D) from the selected edge along one adjacent surface at a specified angle (Angle) to that surface. Note: This scheme is available using the Offset Surface creation method only if the following conditions are met: For Edge chamfers, all members of the edge chain must be formed by exactly two 90-degree planes or two 90degree surfaces (for example, the ends of a cylinder). For Surface to Surface chamfers, constant-angle planes or constant 90-degree surfaces must be selected. o 45 x D—Create a chamfer that is at an angle of 45 degrees to both surfaces and a distance (D) from the edge along each surface. Note: This scheme is available only for chamfers that use 90-degree surfaces and the Tangent Distance creation method. o O x O—Create a chamfer that is at an offset distance (O) from the edge along each surface. Pro/ENGINEER selects this by default only when D x D is not available.

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Note: This scheme is only available if the Offset Surfaces creation method is used. o O1 x O2—Create a chamfer at an offset distance (O1) from the selected edge along one surface and an offset distance (O2) from the selected edge along the other surface. Note: This scheme is only available if the Offset Surfaces creation method is used. • D box—Controls the distance of a current D x D, Angle x D, or 45 x D chamfer. This box corresponds to the distance in the Distance table D column on the Sets slide-up panel. O box—Controls the offset distance of a current O x O chamfer. This box corresponds to the offset distance in the Distance table O column on the Sets slide-up panel. D collector—Indicates that a valid object has been selected as the distance reference for the active D x D, Angle x D, or 45 x D chamfer set. This collector is available when you snap a handle to a reference or select Reference from the distance box in the Sets slide-up panel (left box under Distance table). This collector corresponds to the D column collector in the Distance table. O collector—Indicates that a valid object has been selected as the offset distance reference for the active O x O chamfer set. This collector is available when you snap a handle to a reference or select Reference from the distance box in the Sets slide-up panel (left box under Distance table). This collector corresponds to the O column collector in the Distance table. D1, D2 boxes—Controls the distance of a current D1 x D2 chamfer set. These boxes correspond to the distance in the Distance table D1 or D2 column on the Sets slide-up panel. O1, O2 boxes—Controls the offset distance of a current O1 x O2 chamfer set. These boxes correspond to the offset distance in the Distance table O1 or O2 column on the Sets slide-up panel. D1, D2 collector—Indicates that a valid object has been selected as the distance reference for the active D1 x D2 chamfer set. This collector is available when you snap a handle to a reference or select Reference from the distance box in the Sets slide-up panel (under the Distance table). This collector corresponds to the D1 or D2 column collector in the Distance table. O1, O2 collector—Indicates that a valid object has been selected as the offset distance reference for the active O1 x O2 chamfer set. This collector is available when you snap a handle to a reference or select Reference from the distance box in the Sets slide-up panel (under the Distance table). This collector corresponds to the O1 or O2 column collector in the Distance table. Angle box—Controls the angle of the current Angle x D chamfer. This box corresponds to the current angle in the Distance table (Angle column) on the Sets slide-up panel. The box contains the following standard chamfer angles:

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30.00—Creates a chamfer with a 30-degree angle. 45.00—Creates a chamfer with a 45-degree angle. Pro/ENGINEER selects this by default. 60.00—Creates a chamfer with a 60-degree angle. —Reverses the distance of a D1 x D2, Angle x D, or O1 x O2 chamfer.

Transition Mode • • —Activates Transition mode, enabling you to define all transitions for the chamfer feature. Transition Type box—Displays the default transition type for the current transition and contains a list of valid transition types based on the geometrical context. This box enables you to change the transition type for the current transition. A complete list of transition types follows: Note: Not all transition types listed below are available for a given context. o o o o o Default—Pro/ENGINEER determines the transition type that is the best fit for the geometrical context. The transition type appears in parenthesis. Stop Case 1—Terminates the chamfer using geometry configured by Pro/ENGINEER. Stop Case 2—Terminates the chamfer using geometry configured by Pro/ENGINEER. Stop Case 3—Terminates the chamfer using geometry configured by Pro/ENGINEER. Stop at Reference—Terminates chamfer geometry at the selected datum point or datum plane. The Stop reference collectors (located in the Transitions slide-up panel and in the dialog bar) activate. Blend—Creates a fillet surface between the chamfer pieces using an edge reference. Continue—Extends chamfer geometry into two chamfer pieces. Intersect—Extends two or more overlapping chamfer pieces toward each other until they merge forming a sharp boundary. Patch—Creates a patched surface at the location where three or four chamfer pieces overlap. Corner Plane—Chamfers the corner transition formed by three overlapping chamfer pieces with a plane.

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Capped check box—Creates end surfaces to cap the gaps between the active transition and part geometry. This check box is only available when you select a transition type valid geometry (other than Default), and the Surface or New

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quilt attachment types from the Options slide-up panel. Pro/ENGINEER does not select this check box by default. You can also use Capped from the shortcut menu. Note: o Side surfaces must exist in order to extend and use them as capping surfaces. If not, the chamfer piece cannot be capped and the Capped check box is ignored. This check box caps the gap only of the active transition while the Create end surfaces check box located on the Options slide-up panel caps all chamfer piece ends for the entire chamfer feature. The dialog bar check box overrides the slide-up panel check box enabling you to cap the gap of the active transition even if you decide not to cap all of the chamfer piece ends for the chamfer feature. You cannot cap chamfers between a solid surface and a quilt surface.

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Patch Transition Options • Optional surface collector—Indicates that a valid surface reference is selected to place a fillet for the active Patch transition. To activate this collector, you can either click in it, use Patch Optional Surface on the shortcut menu, or click in the Optional surface collector in the Sets slide-up panel. Radius box—Controls the fillet radius for the active Patch transition. You can type a new radius value or select a most recently-used value from the list. The Optional surface collector must contain a surface reference to display this box.

Stop Transition Options • Stop reference collector—Indicates that valid stop references have been selected for the active Stop at Reference transition. To activate this collector, you can either click in it, use Stop References on the shortcut menu, or click in the Stop references collector in the Transitions slide-up panel. Note that you must select the Stop at Reference transition type to display this option.

Slide-up Panels
The Chamfer dashboard displays the following slide-up panels: Sets Slide-up Panel You must activate the Set mode to use this panel. The Sets slide-up panel consists of the following options: • Sets list—Contains all chamfer sets for the chamfer feature enabling you to add, remove, or select a chamfer set for modification. Pro/ENGINEER highlights the active chamfer set. The Sets list contains the following: o Set—Indicates a chamfer set.

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New Set—Adds a new chamfer set and makes it active. You can also use the Add Set shortcut menu command from the graphics window.

References collector—Contains the valid references that you select for the chamfer set. You can click in this collector to activate it or use the References shortcut menu command. Details—Opens the Chain dialog box so that you can modify chain properties. Distance table—Controls the distance and location of the chamfer set. The Distance table consists of the following options: o o o D column—Controls the distance of the current D x D or 45 x D chamfer. This column contains values or references. D1, D2 columns—Controls the distance of the current D1 x D2 chamfer. This column contains values or references. Angle column—Controls the angle of the current Angle x D chamfer. This column contains the following standard chamfer angles: 30.00—Creates a chamfer with a 30 degree angle. 45.00—Creates a chamfer with a 45 degree angle. Pro/ENGINEER selects this by default. 60.00—Creates a chamfer with a 60 degree angle. o Distance box—Controls the distance (displayed in the Distance table) of the chamfer set. This box is located under the Distance table and contains the following options. Note that two Distance boxes display for D1 x D2 chamfers. Value—Sets the chamfer distance by using a numerical value. The distance value displays in the Distance table. Reference—Sets the chamfer distance by using a reference. This option activates a collector in the Distance table that contains the reference information. o Creation Method box—Controls the chamfer creation method. This box contains the following creation methods: Offset Surfaces—Determines the chamfer distance by offsetting the neighboring surfaces of the reference edge. Pro/ENGINEER selects this by default. Tangent Distance—Determines the chamfer distance with vectors that are tangent to the neighboring surface of the reference edge.

• •

Transitions Slide-up Panel You must activate the Transition mode to use this panel. The Transitions slide-up panel consists of the following options:

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Transitions list—Contains all user-defined transitions for the entire chamfer feature, enabling you to modify a transition. Pro/ENGINEER does not list default transitions. You can view the default transition type for the active transition from the Transition Type box on the dialog bar or from the shortcut menu. To activate the Transitions list, you can click in it or use the Transition Selection shortcut menu command. Stop references collector—Contains the references for the active Stop at Reference transition. This collector is available only if you assign the Stop at Reference transition type to the active Stop transition. You can click in this collector to activate it or use the Stop at References shortcut menu command. Optional surface collector—Contains the references to place a fillet for the active patch transition. This collector is available only if you assign the patch transition type to the active transition. You can click in this collector to activate it or use the Patch Optional Surface shortcut menu command.

Pieces Slide-up Panel Chamfer piece management is performed using the Pieces slide-up panel. You can view all chamfer sets for the chamfer feature, view all chamfer pieces in the current chamfer set, trim, extend, or exclude these chamfer pieces, and address placement ambiguity. The Pieces slide-up panel consists of the following options: • Sets list—Lists all the chamfer sets for the entire chamfer feature. The Sets list consists of the following: o o • Set—Indicates a chamfer set. New Set—Adds a new chamfer set and makes it active. You can also use the Add Set shortcut menu command from the graphics window.

Pieces table—Lists all the chamfer pieces for the current chamfer set and indicates their current state as one of the following: o Included—Does the following: Indicates that the chamfer pieces are included in the current chamfer set (selected by default). Includes the selected chamfer piece that is in an excluded state. Restores a trimmed or extended chamfer piece to its original state. o Excluded—Excludes the selected chamfer piece that is in an included state. Note that this option is only available when the current chamfer set contains two or more chamfer pieces that use one explicit placement reference. This can occur when: The chamfer geometry breaks due to non-tangent chains. A single chamfer piece cannot be created at a certain distance value, for example, a chamfer that is too large to sweep around a corner.

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Edited—Indicates that the selected chamfer piece was trimmed or extended.

You can also use these options from the Pieces slide-up panel shortcut menu. Note that All included is only available from this shortcut menu. All included includes all the chamfer pieces for the current chamfer set that are in an excluded state. This option also restores all trimmed or extended chamfer pieces for the current chamfer set to their original state. Options Slide-up Panel The Options slide-up panel consists of the following options: • Solid—Creates the chamfer feature as a solid that intersects the existing geometry. This attachment type is only available when you select solids as chamfer set references. Pro/ENGINEER selects this by default when you select solids as chamfer set references. Surface—Creates the chamfer feature as a surface that does not intersect the existing geometry. This attachment type is only available when you select solids as chamfer set references. Pro/ENGINEER does not select this by default. New quilt—Creates the chamfer feature as a new quilt. This attachment type is only available for surface chamfer set references. Pro/ENGINEER selects this by default when you select different surface quilts or both a solid and a quilt as chamfer set references. Same quilt—Creates the chamfer feature as a surface that merges with the reference quilt. This attachment type is only available for surface chamfer set references. Pro/ENGINEER selects this by default if you select chamfer set references from the same surface quilt. Create end surfaces—Creates end surfaces to cap all of the chamfer piece ends of the chamfer feature. This check box is only available when you select valid geometry and the Surface or New quilt attachment types. Pro/ENGINEER does not select this by default. Note: o o Side surfaces must exist in order to extend and use them as capping surfaces. If not, the chamfer piece ends cannot be capped. This check box is different from the Capped check box on the dialog bar and the Capped shortcut menu command. The latter two enable you to create cap for the gap between the active transition and part geometry.

Properties Slide-up Panel The Properties slide-up panel consists of the following options: • Name box—Displays the chamfer feature name enabling you to rename it.

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Part – Help Topic Collection

—Provides detailed chamfer feature information in the Pro/ENGINEER browser.

Shortcut Menu
You can use the shortcut (right-click) menu commands to quickly complete a task. Set Mode: Collector Commands • References—Activates the References collector (located in the Sets slide-up panel) enabling you to select a placement reference for the chamfer feature. Pro/ENGINEER selects this by default. This command is only available when another collector is present. Chamfer Reference Point—Activates the D or O distance collectors (located on the Sets slide-up panel distance table and on the dialog bar) enabling you to modify the chamfer distance or offset distance by snapping to a reference. This command is available only when the highlighted distance in the table is driven by a reference. This command is not available for chamfers using the D1 x D2 or O1 X O2 dimension schemes. D1 Reference Point—Activates the D1 distance collectors (located on the Sets slide-up panel distance table and on the dialog bar) enabling you to modify the chamfer distance or offset distance by snapping to a reference. This command is available only for the D1 x D2 dimension schemes and when the highlighted distance in the table is driven by a reference. O1 Reference Point—Activates the O1 distance collectors (located on the Sets slide-up panel distance table and on the dialog bar) enabling you to modify the chamfer offset distance or offset distance by snapping to a reference. This command is available only for the O1 x O2 dimension schemes and when the highlighted offset distance in the table is driven by a reference. D2 Reference Point—Activates the D2 distance collectors (located on the Sets slide-up panel distance table and on the dialog bar) enabling you to modify the chamfer distance by snapping to a reference. This command is available only for the D1 x D2 dimension scheme and when the highlighted distance in the table is driven by a reference. O2 Reference Point—Activates the O2 distance collectors (located on the Sets slide-up panel distance table and on the dialog bar) enabling you to modify the chamfer offset distance by snapping to a reference. This command is available only for the O1 x O2 dimension scheme and when the highlighted offset distance in the table is driven by a reference. Clear—Clears the selected reference from the active collector.

Set Mode: Mode Command • Show Transitions—Switches to Transition mode.

Set Mode: Chamfer Set Commands

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Add Set—Adds a new chamfer set and makes it active. Delete Set—Deletes the active chamfer set. Dimension Scheme—These commands are identical to the dimension schemes that are available from the Dimension Scheme box on the dialog bar. You can find a complete list of dimension schemes in the Dialog Bar section of this topic.

You must place your cursor over a handle in the graphics window and right-click to display the following chamfer set modification command: • Flip—Reverses the distance of a D1 x D2, Angle x D, or O1 x O2 chamfer.

Set Mode: Collector Reference Commands You must place your cursor in a collector and right-click to use the following commands: • • • Remove—Removes the selected reference from the