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WCDMA Neighbor Cell, Scrambling

Code and LAC Planning

ZTE University
Content

Neighbor Cell Planning


Scrambling Code Planning
LAC Planning
Intra-system Neighbor Cell Planning
„ Neighbor cell configuration is closely related to system
handover
„ The following factors should be taken into consideration for
neighbor cell configuration:
z Neighbor cell count
z Geography topology structure
z Coverage scrambling, etc.
„ According to the principle of protocol, the maximum count of
neighbor cell list is 31. So the amount of neighbor cells had
better to be less than 20 (consider the affection of neighbor cell
combination at the moment of soft handover).
„ Neighbor cell should be inter configuration.
„ After the system launches formally, optimization neighbor cell
list can be counted according to soft handover counts.
Method of Intra-system Neighbor Cell Planning

„ Different cells under the

136
same station must be
14
14

40
28 0 neighbor cell for each other.
4

32 44 „ The two layers of cells


124

196

148
36 48

towards current sector should


12 20 15
13 20 15

100
88

8 0 2 be set to be neighbor cells.


2 4 6

92 10 „ The cell on the first layer back


96 10
16

52
4
4

towards current sector can be


20 8 208 56
220

24 12 60
set to be neighbor cell.
22 21
22 21
184

112

160
8
4
6
2 „ The neighbor cell of current
19
18
12
11
16
16 cell (scrambling code 4) can
64
76

8 6 4
2 0 8
be set to (8, 12, 32, 48, 88,
80 68
172

84 72
92, 100, 108, 112, 128, 140,
18
17
144, 156, 196, 200, 204, 208,
6
0
220)
Inter-system Neighbor Cell Planning
„ For inter-system neighbor cell planning, the common method aimed
2G is:
z Neighbor cell configuration can be set according to the different
interoperation policy for 2/3G.
z When the internal coverage of WCDMA network is discontinuous,
the interoperation between the whole network and 2G system
should be taken into consideration. The method of 2G neighbor
cell configuration in the whole network is the same as the method
of intra-system neighbor cell configuration. Besides, the traffic
congestion of neighbor cell also should be taken into
consideration.
z When the coverage of WCDMA network is continuous, the system
handover only occurs at the edge of WCDMA system and 2G
system. Neighbor cell configuration is only needed by border
station. The following principles should be taken into consideration:
„ The cells under the same station with same direction should be set to
neighbor cells.
„ Prefer to chooseGSM900.
„ Not distributing neighbor cell for congestible GSM cells as far as
possible.
Aircom Realization of Neighbor Cell Planning - 1
Aircom Realization of Neighbor Cell Planning - 2
Aircom Realization of Neighbor Cell Planning - 3
The Possible Problem of Neighbor Cell Planning
Content

Neighbor Cell Planning


Scrambling Code Planning
LAC Planning
The Relationship Between Frequency-spreading and
Scrambling Code

Data After-
Bits frequency-
spreading
chip

OVSF Code Scrambling


Code
Principle of WCDMA Downlink Scrambling Code
„ The WCDMA system adopts the CDMA technology, and
different BSs or different sectors of a BS are differentiated by
scrambling.
„ The length of downlink scrambling code sequence is 3,840,000
chips, with a total of 218 – 1 = 262,143 scrambling sequences.
However, the system only uses these scrambling sequences
numbered from 0 to 24,575. The normal mode uses the
previous 8192 scambling code.

17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Q
17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
Downlink Scrambling Code Grouping
„ The 8,192 scrambling code that are commonly used fall into
512 sets, with each set including one primary scrambling code
and 15 secondary scrambling code. 512 primary scrambling
codes are used for real network planning.
„ Each cell assigns only one primary scrambling code. P-
CCPCH, P-CPICH, PICH, AICH, AP-AICH, CD/CA-ICH,
CSICH and S_CCPCH (carrying PCH) in one cell always use
the same primary scrambling code to transmit. The other
downlink physical channel can use primary scrambling code or
secondary scrambling code in the same set with primary
scrambling code.
„ Totally 512 codes can be divided into 64 groups, each group
contain 8 primary codes. This can be used for cell searching.
Scrambling Code and Cell Searching
„ UE is turned on and starts searching network;
„ Synchronizing with SCH of the cell which UE locates in;
z Through Primary Synchronous Code (PSC) of P-SCH, slot
synchronization can be realized;
z Through S-SCH, frame synchronous can be realized. And
the scrambling code group of cell can be identified.
„ Through calculating with P-CPICH, downlink scrambling code
can be obtained;
„ Through primary scrambling code of cell, detecting BCH (P-
CCPCH) and reading system message, the basic information
of cell can be obtained.
„ Listening the paging information on PICH and PCH (S-
CCPCH);
„ UE enters the state of IDLE;
„ UE prepares to make location update;
„ After completing location update, the location information of UE
is registered to network. And then UE enters the state of
standby and can make callings and be called.
Step 1: Cell Search and Slot synchronization
Numbering Rule of Downlink Scrambling Code
Downlink scrambling code
18
totals 2 -1 (0..262142)

No. 63 scrambling code cluster


……
No. 511 scrambling code group
No.0 scrambling code cluster
8176 8176 : primary scrambling code
8177 No. 510 No. 7 scrambling
8177scrambling
: secondarygroup code
scrambling group
code
… …
8160 8160112 8176:
: primary primarycode
scrambling scrambling code
8191 8191 : secondary
No. 504
8161 113 scrambling
No.group
scrambling
8161 8177:
: secondary code code
1 scrambling
secondary
scrambling group code
scrambling
code
… 16 …
… 16 : primary scrambling code
8064 8064 : primary scrambling code
8175 80658175127
:8065 819117
secondary
:17
: secondary
scrambling
secondary: secondaryscrambling
No. 0code
scrambling
scrambling
code
code code
scrambling group
code
… … 0 0 : primary scrambling code
8079 8079 :31 31 : secondary
secondary 1scrambling
scrambling
1 : code
secondarycode
scrambling code

15 15 : secondary scrambling code
Step 2: Frame synchronization and code-
group identification
Step 3: Confirm Scrambling Code Number
„ CPICH is pre-defined symbol
sequence.
„ Frequency spreading factor is
256 (Cch,256,0).
„ Use primary scrambling code to
scramble.
„ UE decodes CPICH according
to the eight primary scrambling
codes in the definitized
scrambling code cluster. The
primary scrambling code
decoded correctly is the
scrambling code of the cell.
Obtain Broadcast Message by Decoding P-CCPCH

„ P-CCPCH includes current


SFN and system broadcast
message.
„ Frequency spreading factor
of P-CCPCH is 256
(Cch,256,1).
„ P-CCPCH uses primary
scrambling code to
scramble.
„ UE can decodes BCH bone
by P-CCPCH through
primary scrambling code to
obtain system broadcast.
Principle of Scrambling Code Planning
„ Scrambling code multiplexing needs to guarantee the cells with the
same primary scrambling code have an adequate distance to make
the coverage of received signals in another cell with the same
primary scrambling code lower than the threshold level.

小区i

Lij 小区j

基站 j
基站 i

Ri Rj
α α
10 log( Lij − max( Ri , R j )) − 10 log(max( Ri , R j )) > Δ passloss
Where, α is the path loss coefficient, Δpassloss is the pass loss difference. 10 log( L − max( R , R ))α
ij i j

indicates the minimum pass loss of the remote BS signal and 10 log(max( R , R ))α indicates the
i j

maximum pass loss of the main BS signal. Through the above, the formula of scrambling
code multiplexing minimum distance is:
Δ passloss

Lreuse > Rmax ⋅ (1 + 10 10α


)
Cluster-Based Scrambling Multiplexing Method

The number of station, N,


in one scrambling
multiplexing cluster is:

Lreuse = Rmin 3N
2
R2 ⎛ Δ passloss

N≥ max ⎜1 + 10 10α ⎟
3R2 ⎜ ⎟
min ⎝ ⎠

N=i+ij+j2 2
Scrambling Multiplexing Distance of Typical
Conditions
„ Typical base station radius in dense urban area is 300 to 600 meters. The
typical value of path loss coefficient is 4. Pilot frequency strength of cell border,
Ec, is -85dbm. Considering that the path loss difference is 30db, so the pilot
frequency strength (Ec) from the same scrambling code cell to the border of
this cell is -115dbm. So N is equal to 61 and the minimum multiplexing
distance is 4km.
„ Typical base station radius in general urban area is 600 to 1200 meters. The
typical value of path loss coefficient is 3.5. Pilot frequency strength of cell
border, Ec, is -90dbm. Considering that the path loss difference is 25db, so the
pilot frequency strength (Ec) from the same scrambling code cell to the border
of this cell is -115dbm. So N is equal to 61 and the minimum multiplexing
distance is 8.12km.
„ Typical base station radius in suburb is 1200 to 3000 meters. The typical value
of path loss coefficient is 3. Pilot frequency strength of cell border, Ec, is -
95dbm. Considering that the path loss difference is 20db, so the pilot
frequency strength (Ec) from the same scrambling code cell to the border of
this cell is -115dbm. So N is equal to 75 and the minimum multiplexing
distance is 18km.
„ Typical base station radius in rural is 5000 to 10000 meters. The typical value
of path loss coefficient is 2.5. Pilot frequency strength of cell border, Ec, is -
100dbm. Considering that the path loss difference is 20db, so the pilot
frequency strength (Ec) from the same scrambling code cell to the border of
this cell is -120dbm. So N is equal to 75 and the minimum multiplexing
distance is 75km.
Recommended Values of Scrambling
Multiplexing Distance
Area BS Radius Scrambling Maximum BS Maximum Number of
(km) Multiplexing Distance Number in a Scrambling Codes in Use
(km) Cluster (Take the 3-Sector BS as
an Example)
Dense urban 0.3~0.6 4 61 183
area
Common urban 0.6~1.2 8.12 52 156
area
Suburb 1.2~3 18 67 201
Rural area 5~10 75 73 219

For a 3-sector BS, two sectors within the scrambling multiplexing distance may
have no joint coverage scope due to the sector coverage direction, so one
scrambling code can be multiplexed. Therefore, in the case of three sectors,
the actual number of distributed scrambling codes within the scrambling
multiplexing distance can be smaller than the total sector number.
Scrambling Code Planning Principle
„ To multiplex the same scrambling code, the multiplexing BSs should
have an adequate physical distance between them.
„ Scrambling planning should take the features of stepwise network
construction into full consideration, and reserve a certain number of
scrambling codes, to satisfy demands of indoor distributed systems
and network capacity expansion.
„ It is necessary to reserve a certain number of scrambling codes for
border BS coordination.

Common Scrambling Distribution Border BS


Scrambling for Micro Cells and Indoor Scrambling
Distribution Distributed Systems Distribution
Example of distribution 0~218 219~318 319~511
planning
Scrambling Code Planning – Create Scrambling
Code Schemas

„ Set the scrambling code group and scrambling code in the scrambling code
planning. Click Add button to create a new scrambling code schema.
Choose the needed scrambling code group and scrambling code and then
click OK button to save the schema.
Scrambling Code Planning – Choose Base Station
Set

Choose the base station filter in the scrambling code planning


Scrambling Code Planning –Set Scrambling Code
Planning Parameters
Scrambling Code Planning –Set Scrambling Code
Planning Parameters
„ Neighbouring cells: This parameter indicates whether to choose considering neighbor cells
and 2nd neighbor cells. The default value is to choose check all of them.
„ Adjacent cells: This parameter indicates whether to choose considering adjacent cells,
confirms the maximum number of adjacent cells involved in the algorithm calculating. The
principle of judgment according to which Aircom judges whether a cell is adjacent cell is
that all the cells in the prediction radius of the cell are the adjacent cells. The default value
is Consider Adjacent cells. And the maximum number of adjacent cells is 14.
„ Code reuse distance: This parameter indicates whether to choose considering scrambling
code multiplexing distance and minimum scrambling code multiplexing distance. Nearby
cells is a parameter of Aircom scrambling code planning algorithm. The principle of
judgment is that all the cells within the minimum scrambling code multiplexing distance are
the Nearby cells. The default value is Consider code reuse distance. The setting of
minimum scrambling code multiplexing distance has relationship with radio environment.
„ Select carriers for planning: choose carrier wave of scrambling code planning
„ Resolution(m): The precision of this parameter is usually identical with the precision of
the map.
„ Consider other cells under the same NodeB: This parameter indicates whether to assign
the unique scrambling code to all the cells in the same NodeB. This parameter can insure
the scrambling codes of different cells under the same station are different on condition
that the multiplexing distance hasn’t been set or the cells under the same station are on
the different physical location such as RRH.
Scrambling Code Planning –Scrambling Code
Assignment Policy
Scrambling Code Planning –Scrambling Code
Assignment Policy
„ Filter: This parameter lists the station set of scrambling code planning
„ State: This parameter sets the state of every base station set in the
scrambling code planning. There are three kinds of states. Plan means all the
base stations in the set are involved in the scrambling code assignment; Read
Only means the assigned cell scrambling code in the set will be taken into
consideration, but won’t be changed; Ignore means the cell scrambling code in
the set will not be taken into consideration.
„ # Code Groups: This parameter appoints the scrambling code group count
which can be assigned to the cell and its neighbor cells.
„ # Code: This parameter appoints the scrambling code count which can be
assigned to the cell and its neighbor cells in the scrambling code group.
„ Minimise: When the numbers of scrambling code group and scrambling code
of the cell and its neighbor cells are beyond the value of # Code Groups and #
Code, the scrambling code planning tool will choose the scrambling code
assignment principle of minimizing the number of # Code or #Code Groups
according to the value of #Code or #Code Groups.
„ Code Schema: Choose the scrambling code schema which can be assigned.
„ Cell Property: This parameter can set scrambling code assignment principle for
each cell.
Scrambling Code Planning –Scrambling Code
Reporting
Scrambling Code Planning –Scrambling Code
Reports
„ The reports include the following contents:
z The scrambling code group and scrambling code
assigned to each cell.
z The scrambling code group and scrambling code
assigned to neighbor cells of each cell.
z The scrambling code group and scrambling code
assigned to adjacent cells of each cell.
z The scrambling code group and scrambling code
assigned to nearby cells of each cell.
z The scrambling code group and scrambling code
assigned to the other cells which are under the same
NodeB with the cell.
Content

Neighbor Cell Planning


Scrambling Code Planning
LAC Planning
LAC Planning
„ LAC, RAC and URA are an area composed by one or a certain
amount of cells. Each cell only belongs to an unique LAC and
RAC. RAC is the subset of LAC. CS and PS domain of CN
locating UE’s location according to LAC and RAC. CS and PS
domain of CN paging the appointed UE by sending paging
message to LAC registered to UE and all the cells in RAC. The
optimization of LAC and RAC involves a large number of
database updating which certainly affects network operation.
So LAC and RAC are usually optimized and adjusted based on
the technical characteristics, service model and production
performance of WCDMA before the network commercial.
However, it is not suitable for adjusting frequently. The update
of LAC, RAC an URA, paging strength and system capacity is
the reference index to define the size of LAC and RAC.
RNC Planning
„ The principle of RNC setting is shown below:
„ RNC setting follows the principle of high-capacity, high processing
performance and high-reliability;
„ RNC setting should overall consider the factors of the base station
number, cell number, sector number, bandwidth of lub interface,
BHCA and traffic flow. It should also reserve proper transmission
interfaces and capacity of base station number, cell number, sector
number and traffic flow for convenience of base station expansion.
„ The site address of RNC is better to be deployed with switch bureau
in order to simplify the connection of lu interface.
„ The geographical position of each RNC’s base stations should be
relatively centralized to avoid the multiple geographical cross with the
other RNC’s base stations and decrease unnecessary handover
between two different RNCs.
„ Try to make the total traffic volume of each RNC to be something
even and the load to be something balanced;
„ Properly choose the border area between RNCs and try to make the
switch area avoid dense areas and main traffic roads.
„ The lur connection can be established inside the local network inorder
to realize the soft handover.
LAC Planning
„ LAC indicates the area where user can move in and need not
update the data in VLR. For a location CS service, CN can use
location area to launch CS service within one or more cells. For
the paging of services, TMSI can be assigned to mobile phone.
TMSI is unique in a certain LAC. LAC is the abbreviation of
Location Area Code. The identifier of LA (Location Area) is LAI
which is composed with MCC, MNC and LAC.
„ RA indicates the area where user can move in and need not
update the data in SGSN. RA can include one or more cells.
RA is usually in an LA. For PS service, CN uses RA to
generate the paging of PS services. The identification related
to PS, P-TMSI, is used to assign the unique mobile phone in
the RA. RAC is the abbreviation of Route Area Code. The
identifier of RA (Routing Area) is RAI. RA is in LA and RAI is
composed with MCC, MNC, LAC and RAC.
LAC Planning
„ Take the CS paging as the example. When a mobile phone is
paged, CN will send paging requests to all the base stations in
the range of LAC through RNC. One LAC may cover tens of or
hundreds of cells. So the amount of paging information
messages sent to RNC may be surprisingly large. Because
NodeB must send paging request to mobile phone through the
limited PCH channel, too large range of LAC may bring the
paging over loading of NodeB which causes signal congestion
and paging information loss. However, too small range of LAC
brings large amount of LAC area borders. UE in the borders
are easy to make location update between different LACs
frequently. When paging arrives and UE just moves rapidly into
another LAC and makes location update, UE cannot receive
the paging message sent to the original LAC. This may cause
that called can not be connected.
LAC Planning
„ The division of LAC/RAC should follow these principles:
z Take the geographical border as the border of LAC/RAC;
z The border of LAC/RAC should locate in the area with low traffic
flow;
z The traffic flow of each LAC/RAC is balanced.
z Try to avoid that the borders of several LAC/RAC are in the same
smaller area in order to avoid that MS makes location update
continuously between the LACs in a smaller area.
z The amount of cells in an LAC depends on the paging capacity,
frequency of update and traffic flow distrubution.
z Setting the range of LAC too large causes the incensement of
paging load, signal congestion and paging information loss .
z Setting the range of LAC too small causes the incensement of
LAC area borders and call completion rate because of frequent
location updates.
z RAC is usually the subset of LAC. Because the paging of PS
domain is generated from network, the load of paging is smaller
than in CS domain. Under normal conditions, the planning of RAC
and LAC are the same. With the incensement of network data flow,
the RAC planning can be adjusted flexibly.
LAC Planning
„ Setting of location update cell should take the followings into
consideration:
z During the setting procedure of LAC range, the upper limit
mainly depends on the paging capacity of each cell and the
lower limit mainly depends on the frequency of location
updates;
z Choosing the LAC border should consider the geographical
characteristic and terminal distribution. The purpose is to
reduce the frequency of location update. We usually
choose the area with minimum handover probability.
z The effects of load increasing should be considered for
LAC and RAC planning.
z The base station using multiple carrier should belong to the
same LAC.
„ LAC >= RAC. RAC may be reduced along with the increase of
PS service.
LAC Planning

„ In 3G network, paging occurs on PCCH. Logic


channel, PCCH, is mapped to PCH. At last,
the transmission occurs on SCCPCH. The protocol,
34.108, specifies the parameters of PCCH. There
two kinds of transmission format on PCCH,
240bit/10ms and 80bit/10ms. The general format is
240bit/10ms. According to the definition in the
protocol, the length of IMSI-GSM-MAP is 60bits.
Considering of choosing bits and paging reason, etc.
we can conclude that one PCCH can support the
information of three IMSIs. The length of TMSI-
GSM-MAP or PTMSI-GSM-MAP is 32bit. One
PCCH frame of 10ms can include five TMSI or
PTMSI paging at most .
LAC Planning

„ According to the format of PCCH/PCH, one


PCCH/PCH can bear 240bit every 10ms. 5TMSI
calling messages are supported in 10ms frame. One
PCH can send 500 calling messages per second
and 1800000 per hour.
„ To reduce calling blocking rate, we set the value of
calling capacity of the LAC as 50% of the theoretical
value.
Example of Current Network Load Statistics
„ Take the current network statistics as the example to
research whether the LAC division can meet the request of
paging. The following figure shows the paging number of
every RNC.

ZTE RNCID ZTE LACID RNC/Total 3G Traffic Ratio Paging load


(number)

ZRNC101 1011 20.00% 161996


ZRNC102 1021 16.90% 136886.6
ZRNC103 1031 14.28% 115665.1
ZRNC201 2011 17.76% 143852.4
ZRNC202 2021 16.11% 130487.8
ZRNC203 2031 14.95% 121092
Total paging messages
809980 100.00% 809980
(number)
Different Paging Times of RNC
Corresponding to Paging Load
RAN paging times 1 2 3 4

Paging capability of one LAC in BH 900000 450000 300000 225000

Paging load
ZTE LACID Paging load (ratio)
(number)

1011 161996.0 18.00% 36.00% 54.00% 72.00%

1021 136886.6 15.21% 30.42% 45.63% 60.84%

1031 115665.1 12.85% 25.70% 38.56% 51.41%

2011 143852.4 15.98% 31.97% 47.95% 63.93%

2021 130487.8 14.50% 29.00% 43.50% 57.99%

2031 121092.0 13.45% 26.91% 40.36% 53.82%


Capacity Expansion Planning of LAC During
Network Maturity
RNC/Total 3G Paging load
ZTE RNC ID ZTE LAC ID
Traffic Ratio (number)

ZRNC101 1011 20.00% 1,600,264

ZRNC102 1021 16.90% 1,352,223

ZRNC103 1031 14.28% 1,142,589

ZRNC201 2011 17.76% 1,421,035

ZRNC202 2021 16.11% 1,289,013

ZRNC203 2031 14.95% 1,196,198

Total paging messages


8,001,322 100.00% 8,001,322
(number)
Paging Load on Different RNCs
RAN paging times 1 2 3 4

Paging capability of one LAC in BH 900000 450000 300000 225000

ZTE LACID Paging load (number) Paging load (ratio)

1011 1,600,264 177.81% 355.61% 533.42% 711.23%

1021 1,352,223 150.25% 300.49% 450.74% 600.99%

1031 1,142,589 126.95% 253.91% 380.86% 507.82%

2011 1,421,035 157.89% 315.79% 473.68% 631.57%

2021 1,289,013 143.22% 286.45% 429.67% 572.89%

2031 1,196,198 132.91% 265.82% 398.73% 531.64%


Case

„ Suppose that the parameter, CN paging number, is


set to be 2. So we assign 2 LACs to to each RNC
(except ZRNC201). And in order to meet the
requirement of service grown, we adjust the
parameter, PAC paging number, from 4 to 1
according to call success rate and call blocking rate.
As for ZRNC201, considering that the distribution of
2G traffic flow is just the 3G traffic flow in future, we
assign 3 LACs for ZRNC201.
„ To reduce the effect of LAC area changes to
network, we should divide the network into 13 LACs
on the initial network construction. For the effect of
adjusting paging parameter from 4 to 1 to network,
we can research and analyze it by correlative KPI
statistics.