WCDMA Neighbor Cell, Scrambling Code and LAC Planning

ZTE University

Content

Neighbor Cell Planning Scrambling Code Planning LAC Planning

Intra-system Neighbor Cell Planning
Neighbor cell configuration is closely related to system handover The following factors should be taken into consideration for neighbor cell configuration: Neighbor cell count Geography topology structure Coverage scrambling, etc. According to the principle of protocol, the maximum count of neighbor cell list is 31. So the amount of neighbor cells had better to be less than 20 (consider the affection of neighbor cell combination at the moment of soft handover). Neighbor cell should be inter configuration. After the system launches formally, optimization neighbor cell list can be counted according to soft handover counts.

Method of Intra-system Neighbor Cell Planning
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Different cells under the same station must be
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208

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neighbor cell for each other.
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The two layers of cells towards current sector should
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36 96 84 8

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be set to be neighbor cells. The cell on the first layer back towards current sector can be set to be neighbor cell. The neighbor cell of current

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2 2

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16

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cell (scrambling code 4) can be set to (8, 12, 32, 48, 88, 92, 100, 108, 112, 128, 140, 144, 156, 196, 200, 204, 208, 220)

The following principles should be taken into consideration: The cells under the same station with same direction should be set to neighbor cells. When the coverage of WCDMA network is continuous. The method of 2G neighbor cell configuration in the whole network is the same as the method of intra-system neighbor cell configuration. Not distributing neighbor cell for congestible GSM cells as far as possible. the interoperation between the whole network and 2G system should be taken into consideration. the system handover only occurs at the edge of WCDMA system and 2G system. When the internal coverage of WCDMA network is discontinuous. the traffic congestion of neighbor cell also should be taken into consideration. Prefer to chooseGSM900. the common method aimed 2G is: Neighbor cell configuration can be set according to the different interoperation policy for 2/3G. Besides. Neighbor cell configuration is only needed by border station. .Inter-system Neighbor Cell Planning For inter-system neighbor cell planning.

Aircom Realization of Neighbor Cell Planning .1 .

2 .Aircom Realization of Neighbor Cell Planning .

Aircom Realization of Neighbor Cell Planning .3 .

The Possible Problem of Neighbor Cell Planning .

Content Neighbor Cell Planning Scrambling Code Planning LAC Planning .

The Relationship Between Frequency-spreading and Scrambling Code Data Bits Afterfrequencyspreading chip OVSF Code Scrambling Code .

However. The normal mode uses the previous 8192 scambling code. The length of downlink scrambling code sequence is 3.840. 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 I Q 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 . and different BSs or different sectors of a BS are differentiated by scrambling.000 chips.Principle of WCDMA Downlink Scrambling Code The WCDMA system adopts the CDMA technology. the system only uses these scrambling sequences numbered from 0 to 24. with a total of 218 – 1 = 262.575.143 scrambling sequences.

P-CPICH. Each cell assigns only one primary scrambling code. . PICH. This can be used for cell searching. PCCPCH. 512 primary scrambling codes are used for real network planning.192 scrambling code that are commonly used fall into 512 sets. each group contain 8 primary codes. CSICH and S_CCPCH (carrying PCH) in one cell always use the same primary scrambling code to transmit. AP-AICH. The other downlink physical channel can use primary scrambling code or secondary scrambling code in the same set with primary scrambling code. AICH. with each set including one primary scrambling code and 15 secondary scrambling code. Totally 512 codes can be divided into 64 groups.Downlink Scrambling Code Grouping The 8. CD/CA-ICH.

frame synchronous can be realized. And then UE enters the state of standby and can make callings and be called. Through Primary Synchronous Code (PSC) of P-SCH. Through calculating with P-CPICH. Through S-SCH. downlink scrambling code can be obtained. the basic information of cell can be obtained. UE enters the state of IDLE. Synchronizing with SCH of the cell which UE locates in. Through primary scrambling code of cell. the location information of UE is registered to network. After completing location update. Listening the paging information on PICH and PCH (SCCPCH). detecting BCH (PCCPCH) and reading system message. UE prepares to make location update.Scrambling Code and Cell Searching UE is turned on and starts searching network. . And the scrambling code group of cell can be identified. slot synchronization can be realized.

Step 1: Cell Search and Slot synchronization .

510 scrambling scrambling code group 8177 : secondary scrambling code 8191 … … 112 8176: primary scrambling code 8160 8160 : primary scrambling code 8191 : secondary scrambling code code group code 1 scrambling 113 No. 63 scrambling code cluster 18 …… No..8177: No.0 scrambling code cluster 8176 8176 : primary scrambling code No. 8161 504 scrambling group secondarycode 8161 : secondary scrambling scrambling … … 16 : primary scrambling code … 16 8064 8064 : primary scrambling code 127 8191scrambling 0 scrambling code : : secondary scrambling code 8175 8065 8175 : secondary 17secondary scrambling code group No. 511 scrambling code group No.Numbering Rule of Downlink Scrambling Code Downlink scrambling code totals 2 -1 (0. 7 group 8177 No.262142) No. code 17 8065 : secondary scrambling code … 8079 0 0 : primary scrambling code 31 31 : secondary1scrambling code 8079 : secondary scrambling code 1 : secondary scrambling code … 15 15 : secondary scrambling code … .

Step 2: Frame synchronization and codegroup identification .

256. The primary scrambling code decoded correctly is the scrambling code of the cell. Frequency spreading factor is 256 (Cch.Step 3: Confirm Scrambling Code Number CPICH is pre-defined symbol sequence.0). UE decodes CPICH according to the eight primary scrambling codes in the definitized scrambling code cluster. Use primary scrambling code to scramble. .

1).Obtain Broadcast Message by Decoding P-CCPCH P-CCPCH includes current SFN and system broadcast message. Frequency spreading factor of P-CCPCH is 256 (Cch. UE can decodes BCH bone by P-CCPCH through primary scrambling code to obtain system broadcast. P-CCPCH uses primary scrambling code to scramble.256. .

R ))α indicates the maximum pass loss of the main BS signal. 小区i Lij 基站 i 小区j 基站 j 10 log( Lij − max( Ri . α is the path loss coefficient. R ))α indicates the minimum pass loss of the remote BS signal and 10 log(max( R .Principle of Scrambling Code Planning Scrambling code multiplexing needs to guarantee the cells with the same primary scrambling code have an adequate distance to make the coverage of received signals in another cell with the same primary scrambling code lower than the threshold level. 10 log( L − max( R . Through the above. Δpassloss is the pass loss difference. the formula of scrambling code multiplexing minimum distance is: Lreuse > Rmax ⋅ (1 + 10 Δ passloss 10α ) . R j )) − 10 log(max( Ri . R j )) Ri α α Rj > Δ passloss ij i j i j Where.

in one scrambling multiplexing cluster is: Lreuse = Rmin 3N N≥ R 3R 2 max 2 min Δ passloss ⎛ ⎜1 + 10 10α ⎜ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 Ni++ = ijj 2 2 .Cluster-Based Scrambling Multiplexing Method The number of station. N.

12km. Considering that the path loss difference is 20db. Ec. Typical base station radius in rural is 5000 to 10000 meters. Considering that the path loss difference is 20db. is 100dbm. is -85dbm. Ec.5. so the pilot frequency strength (Ec) from the same scrambling code cell to the border of this cell is -120dbm. So N is equal to 61 and the minimum multiplexing distance is 4km. is 95dbm. Pilot frequency strength of cell border.5. Considering that the path loss difference is 30db. The typical value of path loss coefficient is 2. Ec. is -90dbm. so the pilot frequency strength (Ec) from the same scrambling code cell to the border of this cell is -115dbm. So N is equal to 75 and the minimum multiplexing distance is 18km. The typical value of path loss coefficient is 3. So N is equal to 75 and the minimum multiplexing distance is 75km. The typical value of path loss coefficient is 3. The typical value of path loss coefficient is 4. Pilot frequency strength of cell border. so the pilot frequency strength (Ec) from the same scrambling code cell to the border of this cell is -115dbm. Pilot frequency strength of cell border. so the pilot frequency strength (Ec) from the same scrambling code cell to the border of this cell is -115dbm. . Considering that the path loss difference is 25db. Pilot frequency strength of cell border. Typical base station radius in general urban area is 600 to 1200 meters. Ec. So N is equal to 61 and the minimum multiplexing distance is 8.Scrambling Multiplexing Distance of Typical Conditions Typical base station radius in dense urban area is 300 to 600 meters. Typical base station radius in suburb is 1200 to 3000 meters.

so one scrambling code can be multiplexed. Therefore.2~3 5~10 4 8. two sectors within the scrambling multiplexing distance may have no joint coverage scope due to the sector coverage direction.6 0. in the case of three sectors. .Recommended Values of Scrambling Multiplexing Distance Area BS Radius (km) Scrambling Multiplexing Distance (km) Maximum BS Number in a Cluster Maximum Number of Scrambling Codes in Use (Take the 3-Sector BS as an Example) Dense urban area Common urban area Suburb Rural area 0.6~1.3~0.2 1.12 18 75 61 52 67 73 183 156 201 219 For a 3-sector BS. the actual number of distributed scrambling codes within the scrambling multiplexing distance can be smaller than the total sector number.

It is necessary to reserve a certain number of scrambling codes for border BS coordination. Scrambling planning should take the features of stepwise network construction into full consideration. to satisfy demands of indoor distributed systems and network capacity expansion. the multiplexing BSs should have an adequate physical distance between them.Scrambling Code Planning Principle To multiplex the same scrambling code. Common Scrambling Distribution Scrambling Distribution Border BS for Micro Cells and Indoor Scrambling Distribution Distributed Systems Example of distribution planning 0~218 219~318 319~511 . and reserve a certain number of scrambling codes.

Choose the needed scrambling code group and scrambling code and then click OK button to save the schema. .Scrambling Code Planning – Create Scrambling Code Schemas Set the scrambling code group and scrambling code in the scrambling code planning. Click Add button to create a new scrambling code schema.

Scrambling Code Planning – Choose Base Station Set Choose the base station filter in the scrambling code planning .

Scrambling Code Planning –Set Scrambling Code Planning Parameters .

Code reuse distance: This parameter indicates whether to choose considering scrambling code multiplexing distance and minimum scrambling code multiplexing distance. confirms the maximum number of adjacent cells involved in the algorithm calculating. . The principle of judgment according to which Aircom judges whether a cell is adjacent cell is that all the cells in the prediction radius of the cell are the adjacent cells. This parameter can insure the scrambling codes of different cells under the same station are different on condition that the multiplexing distance hasn’t been set or the cells under the same station are on the different physical location such as RRH. The principle of judgment is that all the cells within the minimum scrambling code multiplexing distance are the Nearby cells. The default value is Consider Adjacent cells. Nearby cells is a parameter of Aircom scrambling code planning algorithm. The default value is to choose check all of them. The setting of minimum scrambling code multiplexing distance has relationship with radio environment.Scrambling Code Planning –Set Scrambling Code Planning Parameters Neighbouring cells: This parameter indicates whether to choose considering neighbor cells and 2nd neighbor cells. Adjacent cells: This parameter indicates whether to choose considering adjacent cells. Select carriers for planning: choose carrier wave of scrambling code planning Resolution(m): The precision of this parameter is usually identical with the precision of the map. And the maximum number of adjacent cells is 14. The default value is Consider code reuse distance. Consider other cells under the same NodeB: This parameter indicates whether to assign the unique scrambling code to all the cells in the same NodeB.

Scrambling Code Planning –Scrambling Code Assignment Policy .

Scrambling Code Planning –Scrambling Code Assignment Policy Filter: This parameter lists the station set of scrambling code planning State: This parameter sets the state of every base station set in the scrambling code planning. Ignore means the cell scrambling code in the set will not be taken into consideration. Code Schema: Choose the scrambling code schema which can be assigned. # Code Groups: This parameter appoints the scrambling code group count which can be assigned to the cell and its neighbor cells. Minimise: When the numbers of scrambling code group and scrambling code of the cell and its neighbor cells are beyond the value of # Code Groups and # Code. # Code: This parameter appoints the scrambling code count which can be assigned to the cell and its neighbor cells in the scrambling code group. but won’t be changed. . Plan means all the base stations in the set are involved in the scrambling code assignment. Read Only means the assigned cell scrambling code in the set will be taken into consideration. the scrambling code planning tool will choose the scrambling code assignment principle of minimizing the number of # Code or #Code Groups according to the value of #Code or #Code Groups. Cell Property: This parameter can set scrambling code assignment principle for each cell. There are three kinds of states.

Scrambling Code Planning –Scrambling Code Reporting .

. The scrambling code group and scrambling code assigned to nearby cells of each cell. The scrambling code group and scrambling code assigned to neighbor cells of each cell. The scrambling code group and scrambling code assigned to the other cells which are under the same NodeB with the cell. The scrambling code group and scrambling code assigned to adjacent cells of each cell.Scrambling Code Planning –Scrambling Code Reports The reports include the following contents: The scrambling code group and scrambling code assigned to each cell.

Content Neighbor Cell Planning Scrambling Code Planning LAC Planning .

Each cell only belongs to an unique LAC and RAC. The update of LAC. CS and PS domain of CN locating UE’s location according to LAC and RAC. RAC and URA are an area composed by one or a certain amount of cells. RAC is the subset of LAC. CS and PS domain of CN paging the appointed UE by sending paging message to LAC registered to UE and all the cells in RAC. service model and production performance of WCDMA before the network commercial. So LAC and RAC are usually optimized and adjusted based on the technical characteristics. The optimization of LAC and RAC involves a large number of database updating which certainly affects network operation. paging strength and system capacity is the reference index to define the size of LAC and RAC. However.LAC Planning LAC. . it is not suitable for adjusting frequently. RAC an URA.

The lur connection can be established inside the local network inorder to realize the soft handover. . Try to make the total traffic volume of each RNC to be something even and the load to be something balanced. The geographical position of each RNC’s base stations should be relatively centralized to avoid the multiple geographical cross with the other RNC’s base stations and decrease unnecessary handover between two different RNCs. high processing performance and high-reliability. BHCA and traffic flow. RNC setting should overall consider the factors of the base station number. sector number and traffic flow for convenience of base station expansion. cell number. bandwidth of lub interface. Properly choose the border area between RNCs and try to make the switch area avoid dense areas and main traffic roads.RNC Planning The principle of RNC setting is shown below: RNC setting follows the principle of high-capacity. The site address of RNC is better to be deployed with switch bureau in order to simplify the connection of lu interface. cell number. sector number. It should also reserve proper transmission interfaces and capacity of base station number.

RA is usually in an LA. The identifier of LA (Location Area) is LAI which is composed with MCC. For a location CS service. For the paging of services. TMSI is unique in a certain LAC. MNC and LAC. . The identification related to PS. CN uses RA to generate the paging of PS services. The identifier of RA (Routing Area) is RAI. RAC is the abbreviation of Route Area Code. For PS service. RA can include one or more cells.LAC Planning LAC indicates the area where user can move in and need not update the data in VLR. TMSI can be assigned to mobile phone. RA indicates the area where user can move in and need not update the data in SGSN. LAC is the abbreviation of Location Area Code. is used to assign the unique mobile phone in the RA. MNC. LAC and RAC. CN can use location area to launch CS service within one or more cells. P-TMSI. RA is in LA and RAI is composed with MCC.

UE cannot receive the paging message sent to the original LAC. UE in the borders are easy to make location update between different LACs frequently. . When paging arrives and UE just moves rapidly into another LAC and makes location update. too large range of LAC may bring the paging over loading of NodeB which causes signal congestion and paging information loss. One LAC may cover tens of or hundreds of cells. CN will send paging requests to all the base stations in the range of LAC through RNC. So the amount of paging information messages sent to RNC may be surprisingly large. too small range of LAC brings large amount of LAC area borders. When a mobile phone is paged. This may cause that called can not be connected.LAC Planning Take the CS paging as the example. However. Because NodeB must send paging request to mobile phone through the limited PCH channel.

Setting the range of LAC too large causes the incensement of paging load. With the incensement of network data flow. The amount of cells in an LAC depends on the paging capacity. Try to avoid that the borders of several LAC/RAC are in the same smaller area in order to avoid that MS makes location update continuously between the LACs in a smaller area. the planning of RAC and LAC are the same. frequency of update and traffic flow distrubution. RAC is usually the subset of LAC. The border of LAC/RAC should locate in the area with low traffic flow. signal congestion and paging information loss . the RAC planning can be adjusted flexibly. The traffic flow of each LAC/RAC is balanced. Because the paging of PS domain is generated from network. . the load of paging is smaller than in CS domain. Setting the range of LAC too small causes the incensement of LAC area borders and call completion rate because of frequent location updates. Under normal conditions.LAC Planning The division of LAC/RAC should follow these principles: Take the geographical border as the border of LAC/RAC.

The base station using multiple carrier should belong to the same LAC. the upper limit mainly depends on the paging capacity of each cell and the lower limit mainly depends on the frequency of location updates. Choosing the LAC border should consider the geographical characteristic and terminal distribution. RAC may be reduced along with the increase of PS service. . The purpose is to reduce the frequency of location update. LAC >= RAC.LAC Planning Setting of location update cell should take the followings into consideration: During the setting procedure of LAC range. The effects of load increasing should be considered for LAC and RAC planning. We usually choose the area with minimum handover probability.

PCCH. specifies the parameters of PCCH. The protocol. According to the definition in the protocol. The length of TMSIGSM-MAP or PTMSI-GSM-MAP is 32bit. . One PCCH frame of 10ms can include five TMSI or PTMSI paging at most .108. At last. is mapped to PCH. 34. Considering of choosing bits and paging reason. the length of IMSI-GSM-MAP is 60bits. There two kinds of transmission format on PCCH. the transmission occurs on SCCPCH. etc. we can conclude that one PCCH can support the information of three IMSIs. paging occurs on PCCH. 240bit/10ms and 80bit/10ms. The general format is 240bit/10ms. Logic channel.LAC Planning In 3G network.

we set the value of calling capacity of the LAC as 50% of the theoretical value.LAC Planning According to the format of PCCH/PCH. 5TMSI calling messages are supported in 10ms frame. To reduce calling blocking rate. one PCCH/PCH can bear 240bit every 10ms. One PCH can send 500 calling messages per second and 1800000 per hour. .

4 130487.00% 16.11% 14.6 115665.1 143852. ZTE RNCID ZTE LACID RNC/Total 3G Traffic Ratio Paging load (number) ZRNC101 ZRNC102 ZRNC103 ZRNC201 ZRNC202 ZRNC203 Total paging messages (number) 1011 1021 1031 2011 2021 2031 809980 20.90% 14.95% 100.8 121092 809980 .28% 17. The following figure shows the paging number of every RNC.76% 16.Example of Current Network Load Statistics Take the current network statistics as the example to research whether the LAC division can meet the request of paging.00% 161996 136886.

6 115665.70% 31.1 143852.98% 14.21% 12.56% 47.95% 43.0 136886.0 18.84% 51.91% 54.00% 15.93% 57.97% 29.36% 72.00% 26.50% 13.42% 25.50% 40.45% 1 900000 2 450000 3 300000 4 225000 ZTE LACID Paging load (ratio) 1011 1021 1031 2011 2021 2031 36.00% 60.8 121092.82% .85% 15.63% 38.Different Paging Times of RNC Corresponding to Paging Load RAN paging times Paging capability of one LAC in BH Paging load (number) 161996.99% 53.00% 45.00% 30.41% 63.4 130487.

035 1.00% 16.198 Total paging messages (number) 8.Capacity Expansion Planning of LAC During Network Maturity ZTE RNC ID ZRNC101 ZRNC102 ZRNC103 ZRNC201 ZRNC202 ZRNC203 ZTE LAC ID 1011 1021 1031 2011 2021 2031 RNC/Total 3G Traffic Ratio 20.600.11% 14.289.264 1.223 1.196.001.28% 17.76% 16.322 100.352.589 1.001.421.322 .142.013 1.90% 14.95% Paging load (number) 1.00% 8.

25% 300.23% 1021 1.198 132.82% 2011 1.352.264 177.600.45% 429.74% 600.035 157.289.421.589 126.91% 265.013 143.73% 531.91% 380.42% 711.196.61% 533.68% 631.223 150.67% 572.57% 2021 1.95% 253.89% 2031 1.81% 355.142.Paging Load on Different RNCs RAN paging times Paging capability of one LAC in BH ZTE LACID Paging load (number) 1 900000 2 450000 3 300000 4 225000 Paging load (ratio) 1011 1.89% 315.49% 450.22% 286.86% 507.64% .79% 473.99% 1031 1.82% 398.

So we assign 2 LACs to to each RNC (except ZRNC201). is set to be 2. we should divide the network into 13 LACs on the initial network construction. As for ZRNC201. considering that the distribution of 2G traffic flow is just the 3G traffic flow in future. from 4 to 1 according to call success rate and call blocking rate. . To reduce the effect of LAC area changes to network. we can research and analyze it by correlative KPI statistics. For the effect of adjusting paging parameter from 4 to 1 to network. PAC paging number. we assign 3 LACs for ZRNC201. CN paging number.Case Suppose that the parameter. And in order to meet the requirement of service grown. we adjust the parameter.

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