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By: Indrie Maulina Utami Lutfi Miyanti Sinta Larasati
Construction Management 2010 STATE POLYTECHNIC OF JAKARTA
There are two general method which is used construction of buildings: 1. Conventional or traditional method 2. Modern or industrialized method Conventional or traditional method are studied with intention of forming a sound knowledge base before proceeding to studies of advanced techniques. Initial studies of building construction concentrate on the smaller type of structure, we should know conventional or traditional method before we know about modern or industrialized method. These industrialized methods are usually a rationalized manufacturing process used to produce complete elements.
THE BUILDING TEAM
Building need team work in which each member has an important role. • Building owner The client; An owner-builder is defined as a person who constructs or renovates a domestic building on his or her own land, who is not in the business of building, the person or organization who finances and commission the work. The directly or indirectly employ all the personnel, with particular responsibility for appointing the planning supervisor (usually the architect) and nominating the principal contractor-see construction (design and management) regulation 1994. It is important to consult your building surveyor at the outset to determine if a certificate of consent is required. This may be a private building surveyor or a municipal building surveyor.
Architect Engaged by building owner as agent to design, advise, and ensure that the project is kept within cost and complies with the design. An architect is a person trained in the planning, design and oversight of the construction of buildings, and is licensed to practice architecture. To practice architecture means to offer or render services in connection with the design and construction of a building, or group of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings, that have as their principal purpose human occupancy or use. Etymologically, architect derives from the Latin architectus, itself derived from the Greek arkhitekton (arkhi-, chief + tekton, builder), i.e. chief builder.
Clerk of works Is a person employed by the architect or client on a construction site. The role is primarily to represent the interests of the client in regard to ensuring the quality of both materials and workmanship are in accordance with the design information such
as specification and engineering drawings, in addition to recognized quality standards. The role is defined in standard forms of contract such as those published by the Joint Contracts Tribunal. Historically the Clerk of Work was employed by the architect on behalf of a client, or by Local Authorities to oversee public works. Employed on large contract as a architect on site representative. The main function is to liaise between architect and main contractor and to ensure that construction proceed in accordance with the design. They can offer advice but directives must be through the architect. • Quantity surveyor Engaged to prepare cost evaluation and bills of quantities, check tenders, prepare interim valuation, effect cost controls, and advice the architect on the cost of variations. in the world of construction especially or in a project in general consist of several big jobs process, that is: planning process, execution process, supervision process. in this planning stage is quantity surveyor works. in planning stage there are a lot of team that impersonate, begin from; architect, civil engineer, geo tech engineer, water sanitation engineer, mechanical & electrical engineer and quantity surveyor. Job description from quantity surveyor among others:
1. in earliest stage quantity surveyor will have to do market survey to get
building material materials price that he will use with will threaten technical specification and beefsteak document. a expert quantity surveyor can determine ingredient price turn ever he use previous.
2. in stage furthermore quantity surveyor have a duty to do calculation towards
unit price analysis next job unit price appropriate project management wisdom. Sometimes in projects from government require use standard analysis appropriate. in private project are used analysis as according to wisdom and experience self belong labor coefficient and ingredient also very big the influence in determine job unit price.
3. after all has calculation process price is continued with put into job item in
form bill of quantity standards every corporation. All job items must include in columns job description and mention materials specification or special things that must have required. Job item subdividing based on sequence or sequence job execution is of vital importance to prevent confusion that stump the interested parties.
4. important stage next that is has done calculation quantity each job from work
pictures that prepared by each part has begun from architect, civil, geo tech, watsan, mechanical electrical. Calculation quantity must be done with tall accuracy and not include interest from several the interested parties.
A site manager controls all aspects of the site including planning work.e. arranging delivery of materials and managing a range of subcontractors. Chief contractor who has a contract with the owner of a project or job. then add up each sub total in each lot job and add up sub be grand total most under table boq. job item and quantity very make possible to do mark up that can harm one of the parties.5. in determine analysis. by nomination or competitive tendering they are required to administer the construction project within the architect’s direction. e. This matter is of course is easy for quantity surveyor firm in hold commitment towards the job. Site managers are employed mainly by building and construction companies.. but this title is more appropriate on small to modest size contracts. and is ultimately responsible for ensuring a contract is delivered on time. i. and quantity next that is do multiplication between quantity and unit price in every job item. structural. job item. Also called main contractor. working with contractors and subcontractors and ensuring the building contract runs to schedule. A site manager is the person in charge of all on site operations. and has the full responsibility for its completion. A prime contractor undertakes to perform a complete contract. .g. with overall responsibility for ensuring that work proceeds effectively and efficiently. as stage ends after got unit price. • Principal or main contractor Employed by the client on the advice of the architect. in accordance with they design classification and to time. Many local authorities also employ site managers for the refurbishment of council homes and other council owned buildings. services security. profession quantity surveyor frequently demanded loyalty existence and integrity towards company or where does he shelter body. civil engineering firms and contractors. • Consulting engineers Engaged to advise and design on a variety of specialist installations. • Contract’s manager or site agent On large projects the main contractor’s representative on site. They are employed to develop that particular aspect of the design within the cost and physical parameters of the architect brief. Sometimes known as general foreman. and may employ (and manage) one or more subcontractors to carry out specific parts of the contract. etc.
and frequent tours of the site. Recent graduates are highly unlikely to be appointed in a full site manager role until they have the necessary site experience. that is. in robust statistics.this necessitates regular testing of materials.Typical work activities include: ensuring the project runs to schedule and to budget. with defining properties that can be used to compare different estimators (different rules for creating estimates) for the same quantity. and finding solutions to problems that may cause delays. In statistics. However. Such properties can be used to determine the best rules to use under given circumstances. playing a major role in pre-site and on-site meetings with a range of professionals who work to ensure a building contract is successful. based on the same data. This article discusses estimators and estimates that are point estimators. visual inspections of work. May also be required to measure work done for bonus and subcontractor payments. and the client who has commissioned the work. that will allow graduates to gain the necessary skills and experience. However there are plenty of opportunities for assistant site managers or for other roles in the building project team. Statistical theory is concerned with the properties of estimators. managing programmers of work. site foremen. conducting regular site safety checks. they yield single-valued results. statistical theory goes on to consider the balance between having good . where the result would be a range of plausible values (or vectors or functions). This is in contrast to an interval estimator. contract administrators. subcontractors. such as the late arrival of materials. an estimator is a rule for calculating an estimate of a given quantity based on observed data: thus the rule and its result (the estimate) are distinguished. • Estimator Prepares unit rates for the pricing of tenders carries out pretender investigations into the cost aspects of the proposed contract. including quantity surveyors. • Surveyor Employed by the main contractor to check work progress and assist the quantity surveyor in the preparation of interim valuation for stage payments and final accounts. that is. maintaining strict quality control procedures . although this includes the possibility of single vector-valued results and results that can be expressed as a single function. such as site engineer.
air conditioning. etc. tax authorities and other decision makers make resource allocation decisions. and improvements to overload and sabotage. lifts. obtains quotation for the supply of materials and services. Following instruction from skilled workers is an important part of the work. e. • Buyer Orders materials. if tightly defined assumptions hold. includes craftsmen. Operatives are often responsible for keeping the site tidy and looking after tools and equipment. • Operatives The main work force on site. etc. Assist with the general responsibility for administering site proceedings. apprentices.g. • Assistant contract manager Often a trainee in the process of completing professional examinations. • Nominated subcontractor Engaged by the client or architect for specialist construction or installation work. ground workers. Bonuses include reduced recharge on all tech attacks. Prepares and submits accounts to clients and makes payments to suppliers and subcontractor. e. . disclosure or provision of assurance about financial information that helps managers. subcontractor and suppliers invoices. insurances and all necessary correspondence. Operatives are masters at manipulating their environment to maximum advantage. May also have a costing the department which would allocate the labour and material costs to each contract to assist with the preparation of accounts.properties.g. A specialist class for Engineers and Infiltrators. bricklayers. • Accountant An accountant is a practitioner of accountancy which is the measurement. investors. • Domestic subcontractor Employed by the principal contractor to assist with the general construction. • Administrator Organizes the general clerical duties of the contractor’s office for the preparation of contract documents and payment of salaries. and having less good properties that hold under wider conditions. and labourers.
and scrapers. trees or bush outside the designated cleared area should not be removed.1 SITE WORKS AND SETTING OUT CLEARING THE SITE This may involve the demolition of existing building the grubbing out of bushes or trees or the removal of soil to reduce levels. SETTING OUT THE SITE . boulders. this is effect to sterilize the ground or so will contain plant life and decaying vegetation. Construction equipment operations are usually the most rapid and efficient means of clearing a site. however. The site must be clear from vegetable matter. hand tools are used in certain clearing operations. check to see if a burn permit is required. vegetation. If camouflage is necessary. winches. The side easily compressed and would be unsuitable for foundation.SITE AND TEMPORARY WORKS CHAPTER 1. standing or fallen. In addition. When the site is located in a wooded area. the first operation is to clear all timber. Bush may be disposed of by burning on the site. All stumps. rippers. This timber should be saved for possible use in construction of loading ramps. motor graders. The construction equipment used includes bulldozers. Use of the equipment is limited only by unusually large trees and stumps–terrain which hinders their maneuverability and maintenance requirements. and rubbish must be excavated and moved clear of the site. roots. Demolition is a skilled occupation and should only be taken by an experience contractor. power saws.
Benchmarks are found cut or let into the sides of walls and buildings. profile boards are set up. wherever possible this should be related to an ordnance benchmark. and can be re-establishing at any time. including the application of basic principles of techniques to ensure appropriate levels of accuracy. From an operational standpoint there are unique environmental effects associated with cut sections. Where there are no benchmark could be a post set in concrete or a concrete plinth set up onsite. Learners must attain a reasonable standard of arithmetic and trigonometry in order to successfully complete this unit. and be able to carry out the standard tasks and calculations involved. . Cut The advantage of this method is giving undisturbed soil in the whole of the side. and not through away to useless. Construction projects are normally designed on a coordinate grid and calculations are carried out to convert these into a form useful for setting out. This point should now be establish. Cut sections are characterized by the roadway being lower in elevation than the surrounding terrain. This is the usual method and the most economical because the amount of cut can be replaced in the fill side.The first task is to establish a base line from which the whole of the building can be set out. This is essentially a practical unit. through which learners will come to understand setting out as a key part of the construction process. Learners will work with traditional methods to achieve an understanding of the essential mathematical and practical skills required for the Setting out process. profiles or other marks are then set to control the construction works and ensure that each element of the works is constructed in the right position and to the correct level with a stout peg. we must be pay more for removing the cut’s soil from the side. and pegs. air pollutants can concentrate in the valleys created by the cut section. Setting out is the process by which is taken from the construction design drawings. But have the disadvantage. Conversely. must be clearly marked on-site. These are set up clear of the foundation trench and wall intersections. so minimizing the amount of construction labor. After the setting out the main building lines has been completed and checked. ESTABLISHING A DATUM LEVELS All levels in a building are taken from a fixed point called a datum. noise pollution is mitigated by cut sections since an effective blockage of line of sight sound propagation. The line must be clearly marked on-site. SLOPING SITES Cut and fill in earthmoving is the process of constructing whereby the amount of material from cuts roughly equal or matches the amount of fill. For example.
• Mobile caravans or cabins Caravans and cabins are fully equipped with all necessary furniture. There are a variety of reasons for creating fills. If the building sited on the filled area. accidental damage. ACCOMMODATION Requirements will vary with regard to the number personnel on site and in some cases the anticipated duration of the contract. Huts should be designed. exposure of nearby residents is generally increased. but in the matter of sound propagation. It’s usually called camp construction: • Sectional timber huts Sectional timber huts are prefabricated to allow for ease of dismantling and assembly to facilitate the re-use on other sites. this should make good relationships between management and staff.2 ACCOMMODATION. swampy ground. This interaction with all stakeholders is important. storage and security on a building site will make staff feel comfort so that the client will get better productivity. constructed and maintained with the same care as permanent buildings to ensure their use for many years. Main work necessary like in the permanent building must be filled up. should also reduce the loss of materials due to theft. Unit of staff accommodation usually come in one of two forms. since sound walls and other forms of sound path blockage are less effective in this geometry. so it may move from place to another . The anticipated use of each hut will govern the construction and facilities. or areas where snow drifts frequently collect. This offers the client a competitive advantage with regards to creating parity amongst the various sub-contractors' labour and ex-pat work forces. The better accommodation.Fill Environmental effects of fill sections are typically favorable with respect to air pollution dispersal. STORAGE AND SECURITY The builder have to provide the best facilities which are economically possible for any particular contract. among them reduction of grade along a route or elevation of the route above water. CHAPTER 1. either deep foundation would be needed or the risk of settlement at a later stage would have to be accepted. Transportation of caravans or cabins can be suitable vehicle.
Workers also should use appropriate protective equipment.place. transport and reassemble a sectional timber hut. The type of storage facilities required of any particular material will depend upon the following factors: • • • Durability – will it need protection from the elements? Vulnerability to damage Vulnerability to theft . or when a load cannot be safely handled. Materials with evidence of cracks. offload and position on site is considerably shorter than the time required to dismantle. Safety and Welfare General safety principles can help reduce workplace accidents. employees should seek help when a load is so bulky it cannot be properly grasped or lifted. These operations provide a continuous flow of raw materials. Services that have an overriding goal of creating a 'home away from home' environment for all camp residents. ergonomic principles. the mover should also wear steel-toed safety shoes or boots to prevent foot injuries if the worker slips or accidentally drops a load. When manually moving materials. To avoid injuries to the hands and eyes. Handles and holders should be attached to loads to reduce the chances of getting fingers pinched or smashed. parts. use gloves and eye protection. Blocking materials and timbers should be large and strong enough to support the load safely. the improper handling and storing of materials can cause costly injuries. Whether moving materials manually or mechanically. Whichever method is used the time taken to load. Various camp options are offered. and training and education. but the initial capital outlay is higher. For loads with sharp or rough edges. wear gloves or other hand and forearm protection. and ensure that materials are available when needed. When an employee is placing blocks under raised loads. When the loads are heavy or bulky. These include work practices. Services include all aspects of cleaning and maintenance and HR administration. and assemblies through the workplace. Yet. splintered pieces. employees should be aware of the potential hazards associated with the task at hand and know how to exercise control over their workplaces to minimize the danger. or dry rot should not be used for blocking. ranging from soft-walled tents to hardwalled permanent structures. Supply and build camps in accordance with each client's unique or specific requirements. when they cannot see around or over it. Health. the employee should ensure that the load is not released until his or her hands are clearly removed from the load. rounded corners. STORAGE The efficient handling and storing of materials is vital to industry.
or otherwise secured to prevent it from sliding. how accessible the stored materials are to the user. All bound material should be stacked. Roof tiles have a greater resistance to load when it is imposed on the edge. For example. The equipment-rated capacities must be displayed on each piece of equipment and must not be exceeded except for load testing. The stacks must be stable and self-supporting. Lumber must be stacked and leveled on solidly supported bracing. Stacks of loose bricks should not be more than 7 feet in height. and shape of the material being moved dictate the type of equipment used for transporting it. blocked. Bricks and blocks should be stacked in stable piles on a level and well-drained surface in a position where double handling is introduced to a minimum. plaster. hand tools and paint are some of the most vulnerable items on a building site. Storage areas must be kept free from accumulated materials that may cause tripping. Stored materials must not create a hazard. size. the load must be centered on the forks and as close to the mast as possible to minimize the potential for the truck tipping or the load falling. lumber must be stacked no more than 16 feet high if it is handled manually. avoid overloading the equipment by letting the weight. Different materials and grades must be kept separated so that the ultimate mix batches are consistent in quality and texture. All stacked loads must be correctly piled and cross-tiered. When stacking materials. or collapsing. it is important to be aware of such factors as the materials' height and weight. height limitations should be observed. When mechanically moving materials. walls or posts may be painted with stripes to indicate maximum stacking heights. The load must be at the lowest position for traveling. interlocked. and the truck manufacturer's operational requirements must be followed. placed on racks. for this reason tiles should be stacked on edge and in pairs. or that may contribute to the harboring of rats and other pests. load limits approved by the building inspector should be conspicuously posted in all storage areas. like tiles maybe stored in an open compound: they should be stackled with their barrels horizontal and laid with spigot and socket alternately reversed or placed in layers with the spigots and sockets reversed in alternate layers. Extra weight must not be placed on the rear of a counterbalanced forklift to offset an overload. A lift truck must never be overloaded because it would be hard to control and could easily tip over. to give protection to the nibs. A load greater than that approved by a building official may not be placed on any floor of a building or other structure. Ironmongery. When picking up items with a powered industrial truck. Used lumber must have all nails removed before stacking. These materials should not be stored for long periods on site. Timber is hygroscopic material and therefore to prevent undue moisture movement it should be stored in such a manner that is moisture content remains fairly constant. Aggregates such as sand and ballast require a clean firm base to ensure that foreign matter is not included when extracting materials from the base of stock pile. falling. . or explosions. 20 feet is the maximum stacking height if a forklift is used. head to tail. Where applicable.Cement. For quick reference. where possible. fires. and the condition of the containers where the materials are being stored. When stacking and piling materials. and lime supplied in bag form require a dry store free from draughts which can bring in most air and may cause an air set of material. All materials handling equipment has rated capacities that determine the maximum weight the equipment can safely handle and the conditions under which it can handle those weights. Precautions also should be taken when stacking and storing material. Drainage goods.
000 or 7 years jail. the stacks should be tapered back one-half block for each tier above the 6-foot level.) The builder or person responsible for the worksite must ensure that all hazards are identified. including Owner Builders and Contractors. When stacking. Boxed materials must be banded or held in place using cross-ties or shrink plastic fiber. have a duty of care under the Occupational Health and Safety Act 1989 (the Act) to protect the public as well as workers from hazards associated with the building work. or sprinkler heads.e. barrels. shape. When stacking materials two or more tiers high. partitions. Bags and bundles must be stacked in interlocking rows to remain secure. consider the need for availability of the material. flat. and is unattended outside work hours. and other cylindrical materials. i. they should be tapered back 2 inches for every foot of height above the 4-foot level. A fence will not always stop those who are determined to gain access to a site. trenching and excavations. A fence should be erected before building activities start. the bottom tier must be chocked on each side to prevent shifting in either direction.When these stacks reach a height of 4 feet. however it will discourage most people and may demonstrate that you have taken reasonably practicable steps to meet your responsibilities under the Act. particularly if the site is located near a school or in a residential area. and kegs must be stacked symmetrically. the bottom tiers must be blocked to keep them from rolling. or pallets between each tier to make a firm. and risks are assessed and controlled during each stage of building work. Defines the limit of the site or compound 2. must be stacked and blocked to prevent spreading or tilting. Structural steel. . Drums. vandals or thieves. this could create a hazard to passers-by when supplies are being removed.000. A fence should be erected before building activities start. start from the top row first. SECURITY AND PROTECTION Fencing Builders. and is unattended outside work hours. Pipes and bars should not be stored in racks that face main aisles. If stored on their sides. exposed steel reinforcing. poles. When stacked on end. When masonry blocks are stacked higher than 6 feet. unless in racks. (Maximum penalty $1. Material that cannot be stacked due to size. Acts as a different to the would-be trespasser or thief A perimeter fence can prevent unauthorised persons gaining access to the site. bar stock. Baled paper and rags stored inside a building must not be closer than 18 inches to the walls. Bagged material must be stacked by stepping back the layers and cross-keying the bags at least every ten layers. To remove bags from the stack. where they could be exposed to hazards such as building debris. sheets of plywood damage. stacking surface. particularly if the site is located near a school or in a residential area. The main group of people exposed to hazards on building sites during non-work hours are children and adolescents. The fence fulfils two functions: 1. or both. or fragility can be safety stored on shelves or in bins. put planks.
For example. a toe board and stanchions. Maximum 150mm clearance from ground if no protruding materials risk. or from potentially unstable ground for deeper excavations. Fan hoardings a.8 meters height and continuous down to the ground made of 50mm chain wire mesh 2. . Two forms of hoarding are in common used: 1. such as orange plastic mesh. a mid rail. Hoarding/fencing of 1. or fencing with top and bottom strainer wires. and including hinged lockable gates that open inwards. and supported by star pickets at maximum 3 meters centers. Hoarding of 2 meters height and continuous down to the ground. Maximum 150mm clearance from ground if materials cannot protrude. edge protection must consist of a handrail at 900mm height. c. Must be able to withstand reasonable side forces and remain upright. Vertical hoardings 2. chain wire mesh supported by star pickets at a maximum spacing of meters. Hoarding/fencing of 1. A plastic safety mesh barrier attached to star pickets is an acceptable alternative. Should be installed at least 1 meters from excavations up to 2 meters deep.Hoardings These are closed boarded fences or barriers erevted adjacent to a high way or public footpath to prevent unauthorized persons obtaining access to the site and to provide a degree of protection for the public from the dust and noise associated with building operations. which can withstand reasonable side forces and remain upright.5 mm thick. Where a person is likely to fall 1. Barricades of 900mm height with horizontal guardrails from the ground. Visual barricade.5 meters height. Hoarding/fencing of 1. or panel fencing with star pickets at a spacing consistent with panel width.8metres or more. made of 12 mm b. of greater than 900mm height with bottom of barricade no more than 150mm from ground. d. The support structures should enable it to withstand any foreseeable loads or impacts that could be imposed. f.5 meters height consisting of chain wire mesh panels. Provision to secure the site with material providing the same security as the fence at all access points. e. with timber or steel vertical and horizontal structural members. sheet ply or sheet metal 0.5 mm thick and including hinged lockable gates that open inwards.
the porous pipes can absorb the water through walls and thus keep out the fine of soil or silt. So. which are laid with the perforations at the base. when rain. not rise to within 0. sewage and irrigation applications to remove excessive water from the soil surrounding a building. MATERIALS The pipe used in subsoil drainage are usually dry jointed and are either porous or perforated pipes. provide water to crops or drain sewage away from a building. i. superlative water can be throw away or kept for plants irrigation The object of subsoil drainage is to lower the water table to a level such that it will comply with the above building regulation. The water table is the level at which water occurs naturally below the ground and this level will vary with the seasonal. in building that has a high water table must made drainage system.25m of the lowest floor of the building. Size.CHAPTER 1. So.3 SUBSOIL DRAINAGE Subsoil drainage systems are used in architectural. as according to climate in Indonesia that tropical. The pipe used in subsoil drainage are usually dry jointed and are either porous or perforated pipes. allow the water to rise into the pipe leaving any silt behind. Shape and Material Specifications . whereas perforated pipes.e. Because. Subsoil drainage systems are governed by necessary restrictions dependent on the intended purpose of the system. So. it also has the advantage of improving its horticultural properties. The ideal site will not require any treatment but sites with a high level water table will require some from of subsoil drainage.
The banks of streams and river will need protection against the turbulence set up by the discharge and if the stream is narrow the opposite bank may also protection. Water will naturally flow towards the easy passage provided by the drainage runs. must have an 8-foot bunker where no other piping. The system is terminated at a suitable outfall such as a river. Options and Variations Specifications on placement and types of subsoil drainage systems vary from place to place. Most applications. rural residents may drain their sewage subsoil system into the ground and their water waste and groundwater into nearby streams. In rural areas.In most applications. such as simple water drainage for home placement and sewage uses. drainage systems for water do not have to be constructed of pipes but may also be in the form of trenches filled with gravel. but their expertise will prevent you from spending extra money later to repair your system. require shaped drainage pipes circular pipes. The collected silt in the catch pit must be removed at regular intervals. regulations specify that the drainage system must have a specific surrounding zone in which there may not be any other types of piping. may pass. in the sewage application. Warnings and Preventions Problems with subsoil drainage systems can arise--and are usually costly to repair--so proper installation is a necessity. Although suburban drainage systems must empty into a sewer or larger city-owner drainage system. the specifications on size and shape of subsoil drainage systems are similar. The pipes can be made of clay. the drainage pipes are required to be 3 inches or more in diameter. cement or plastic. Also. Before attempting the project yourself. DRAINAGE LAYOUTS The pipes are arranged in pattern to cover as much of the site as is necessary. this is dependent upon the intended use. For many applications. One large schemes sediment chambers or catch pits are sometimes included to trap some of the silt which is the chief cause of blockages in subsoil drainage work. to prevent excessive clogging. delivery of drained substance and surrounding subsoil features. . such as a water line or electrical line. consult a drainage specialist to give you the specifications and advice on installing your drainage system properly. the subsoil drainage system. Geographical Placement Placement of the drainage system is dependent upon many factors including: use. also known as a leach bed system. For example. Having drainage system technicians install the piping may be expensive.
4 EXCAVATIONS AND TIMBERING Excavation is removal of earth to form a cavity in the ground. the depth of the excavation. and the length of time it is likely to be kept open. When earth has been excavated to a considerable depth the vertical faces of the excavations need supporting by timber. Before the foundation can be laid it is necessary to excavate a trench of the required depth and width. according to the nature of the soil. is temporally strutted against the faces of the excavation. On small project like build a house better done by hand. to prevent the soil from falling in the injuring the workmen or the work upon which there are engaged. TYPES OF EXCAVATION: 1. but on large project it will be more economic and must be done with mechanical excavator. Over site o o o the removal of top soil depth varies from site to site (usually in a 150 to 300 mm range) required since top soil often contains plant life. Vertical sheeting from 9 by 1 inch to 9 by 2 1/2 inches.CHAPTER 1. animal life and decaying matters making soil compressible and thus unstable for supporting building . The strength of the timbering used for this purpose necessarily depends upon the nature of the soil. When excavated as deep as possible without the earth falling in.
and for small buildings) and mechanically (with use of bulldozers. pick axe. trench diggers. Battered / Sloped face excavation Advantage: no temporary support required to the sides of excavation Disadvantage: extra cost and time required for over excavation and back filling ii. Reduce Level (R.) o o o required in irregular sites to form a level surface consists of both cutting and filling operations the level to which the ground is reduced is called the formation level 3. etc. This failure is usually due to one of the following two reasons: . Vertical / Straight face excavation Advantage: only required amount of soil is removed and thus min.5m deep is deep excavation): • collapsing of the sides of trenches • water coming out of the sides or bottom of the excavation Dewatering o o ground water can cause problem by its natural tendency to flow into the voids created by excavation water in excavation should be removed since it can : o undermine sides of excavation o make it impossible to adequately compact the bottom of excavation to receive foundation o bearing capacity of the soil is reduced with water stored in voids of the bottom of excavation FAILURE OF TIMBERING Serious accidents happen from time to time owing to the failure of timbering in excavations. and for large buildings) Typical examples of trench excavation i. L. etc. Trench Excavation o o excavation of trench of required depth and width before laying out foundation done both manually (with use of spade.2. rammer. amount of back filling Disadvantage: side of excavation require some degree of temporary support Problems in deep excavation (excavation beyond 1.
When excavations are made in soft soil in around of heavy buildings the lateral pressure of the soil is usually very great.1. as the pressure from soils is often underestimated. Over a short period many soils may not required any timbering but weather conditions. To prevent such failures the timber should be of ample size. type of soil and duration of the operations must all be taken into account and each excavation must be assessed separately. The struts drop out by the shrinkage of the soil.. who stands upon them to work. which sometimes swell when exposed to the atmosphere. depth. The struts supporting stages should always be spiked or fixed in some way. • This is perhaps the most frequent cause of failure. while in very deep trenches the struts in the lower parts of the trenches should be larger than those near the surface. 2. METHODS OF TIMBERING o o methods depend upon the nature of the soil timbering is defined as providing temporary timber supports to stop the sides of trenches from falling 1. • • TIMBERING This is a term used to cover temporary supports to the side of excavations and is sometimes called planking and strutting. To prevent struts dropping out of place they should be examined from time to time and tightened when necessary. Stay Bracing o o o o o o open timbering for firm / stiff / rocky hard soil for excavation not exceeding about 2m in depth consists of placing vertical sheets called polling boards. but a better plan is to spike them to the walings. as they are very likely to become loosened by the weight and motion of the excavator. Keep the excavation open by acting as a retaining wall to the side of the trench. opposite to each other against the walls and holding them in position by one or two rows of struts polling boards are placed at an interval of 2 – 4m and extend to full height of trench polling board : 200 x 40 – 50 mm. The sides of some excavations will need support to: Protect the operatives while working in the excavation. The type and amount of timbering required will depend upon the depth and nature of the subsoil. The struts fail under the pressure of the earth. and should be examined before being inserted in the excavations. struts : 100 x 100 mm for up to 2m wide excavation and 200 x 200 mm for up to 4m wide excavation . or. particularly that of clay soils.
runners are provided in place of vertical sheets runners with iron shoes at the end runners are driven 30 cm in advance by hammering wales and struts are provided as in vertical sheeting . Runner System o o o o o o o closed timbering for extremely loose. braces are also provided along with struts 3. Box Sheeting o o closed timbering.2. box like structure two types of box sheeting : Vertical Sheeting and Horizontal Sheeting Vertical Sheeting o for loose / loamy / dry sandy soil o for depth of excavation not exceeding 4m o consists of vertical sheets placed very near to each other / touching each other and keeping them in position by longitudinal rows (usually two) of wales o struts are then provided across the wales Vertical sheeting for deep trenches o for up to 10m deep trenches o for soft ground o excavation is carried out in stages and at the end of each stage offset is provided so that the width of the trench goes on decreasing as the depth increases o each stage is 3m in depth o offset : 25 – 30 cm per stage o separate vertical sheeting for each stage supported by horizontal wales and struts Horizontal Sheeting o for loose soil o horizontal sheets are provided longitudinally and supported by vertical waling and horizontal struts o if height is more. soft and wet soil for soil needing immediate support after excavation similar to vertical system except for.
5 SCAFFOLDING Scaffolding is a temporary platform constructed for reaching heights above arms' reach for the purpose of building construction. fabricated planks. and fabricated platforms may be used as scaffold planks following the recommendations by the manufacturer or a lumber grading association or inspection agency. maintenance.CHAPTER 1. Solid sawn wood. or repair. Scaffold planking must be able to support. depending on its use and purpose. The standards are joined together with horizontal members called ledgers and are tied to the building with cross called putlogs. Basically there are two forms of scaffolding: 1. The platform must not deflect more than 1/60 of the span when loaded. 2. Putlog scaffolds. Putlog Scaffolds This forms of scaffolding consist of a single row of uprights or standards set away from the wall at a distance which will accommodate the required width of the working platform. its own weight and at least four times the intended load. Independent Scaffolds . without failure. Scaffolding is generally made of lumber and steel and can range from simple to complex in design. Independent scaffolds.
SCAFFOLD BOARDS They should be formed out of specified softwoods of 225 x 38 section and not exceeding 4.9 mm galvanized hoop iron extending at least 150 mm along each edge and fixed with a minimum of two fixings to each end. When the work area is less than 18 inches (46 centimeters) wide.800 m in length. Tubular alluminium alloy No protective treatment is required unless they are to be used in contact with materials such as damp lime. . Timber The timber used is structural quality softwood in either putlog or independent format. The members are lashed together with wire or rope instead of the coupling fitting used with metal scaffolds. Each scaffold platform and walkway must be at least 18 inches (46 centimeters) wide.200 m centers. which can cause corrosion of the aluminium alloy tubes. Every scaffold should be securely tied to the building at intervals of approximately 3. and sea water. guardrails and/or personal fall arrest systems must be used. longer span can be used.600 m vertically and 6. A suitable protective treatment would be to coat the tubes with bitumastic paint before use. To prevent the ends from splitting they should be end bound with not less than 25 mm wide x 0.7 kN/m 2 when supported at 1. If suitable openings are not available then the scaffold should be strutted from the ground using raking tubes inclined towards of building MATERIALS Tubular steel Steel tubes are nearly three times heavier than comparable aluminium alloy tubes but are far stronger and since their deflection is approximately one-third of aluminium alloy tubes. alternatively a tube with a reveal pin in the opening can provide a connection point for the cost members. This can be achieved by using a horizontal tube called a bridle bearing on the inside of the wall and across a window opening with cross members connected to it.An independent scaffold has two rows of standards which are tied by cross members called transoms.000 m horizontally. The strength of the boards should be such that they can support a uniformly distributed load of 6. wet cement.
The US Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Organization (OSHA) has very specific standards for the construction and use of scaffolding in the workplace. paint. OSHA places stringent safety regulations on the construction and use of scaffolding not only to reduce serious workplace injury or death. Reveal pin: fits into the end of a tube to form and adjustable strut. weight limitations based on the design of the scaffolding. Putlog end: a flat plate which fits on the end of a scaffold tube to convert it into a putlog Millions of construction workers. Unfortunately.SCAFFOLD FITTINGS Fittings of either steel or aluminium alloy are covered by the same British Standard as quoted above for the tubes. Putlog coupler: used softly for fixing putlogs or transoms to the horizontal ledgers. or maintain your home. Base plates can also be obtained with a threaded spigot and nut for use on sloping to make up variations in levels. and building maintenance crews work on scaffolding every day. as are other professionals such as bricklayers and carpenters. To avoid personal injury when attempting to repair. that they find to be in violation of scaffolding regulations. A centre bold expands the two segments which grip on the bore of the tubes. Base plate: a square plate with a central locating spigot used to distribute the load from the foot of a standard on to a sole plate or firm ground. and regular checks for weakened or broken sections. Commercial construction accounts for the largest use of scaffolding. but also to save employers millions in lost time and workers' compensation OSHA can issue fines to any company. Split joint pin: a connection fitting used to joint scaffold tubes end to end. Professional painters are equipped to quickly and properly construct scaffolding on the job. Swivel coupler: composed of two single couplers riveted together so that it is possible to rotate them for connecting two scaffold tubes at any angle. scaffolding must be properly constructed and used to ensure the safety of those who use it. but even residential construction and home improvement projects can sometimes require scaffolding. Some of OSHA's regulations regarding construction of scaffolding include using specific types of lumber when not using steel. The major fittings used in metal scaffolding are: Double coupler: the only real load bearing fitting used in scaffolding and is used to join ledgers to standards. They can usually be used in conjunction with either tubular metal unless specified differently by the manufacturer. many homeowners attempt to construct scaffolding for personal use without the proper knowledge. and many large commercial and government construction projects require all workers to have scaffold training and OSHA certification. which often results in injury. large or small. painters. and due to the nature of its use. be sure you know how to properly and .
Scaffolds and scaffold compponents must support at least 4 times the maximum intended load. a competent person must inspect the scaffold and scaffold components for visible defects. Guardrail height -. Platforms -.9 meters) and 45 inches (1.Support scaffold footings shall be level and capable of supporting the loaded scaffold.2 meters). The height of the top rail for scaffolds manufactured and placed in service before January 1. Training -. poles. or the equivalent. Erecting and Dismantling -. it must be between 38 inches (0. and braces -. OSHA's scaffolding standard has several key provisions: • • • • • • • • • • • Fall protection or fall arrest systems -. consult a professional contractor.97 m) and 48 inches (1. a competent person must determine the feasibility of providing a safe means of access and fall protection for these operations.When erecting and dismantling supported scaffolds. Mid rails – Mid rails must be installed approximately halfway between the top rail and the platform surface. bracing.Each employee more than 10 feet above a lower level shall be protected from falls by guardrails or a fall arrest system.Supported scaffold platforms shall be fully planked or decked.Employers must train each employee who works on a scaffold on the hazards and the procedures to control the hazards. except those on single-point and two-point adjustable suspension scaffolds. Capacity -. and uprights shall bear on base plates and mud sills.8 m) above the work platform. Inspections -.Before each work shift and after any occurrence that could affect the structural integrity. If you are unsure how to construct or use scaffolding. Suspension scaffold rigging must at least 6 times the intended load. tying. Cross bracing -.5 meters) and 30 inches (0.The height of the top rail for scaffolds manufactured and placed in service after January 1.3 meters) above the work platform.When the cross point of cross bracing is used as a top rail.9 meters) and 45 inches (1.safely erect a scaffolding platform that will provide a stable work surface and will bear the weight you place on it. frames. it must be between 20 inches (0.Supported scaffolds with a height-to-base of more than 4:1 shall be restained from tipping by guying.2 meters). When a cross point of cross bracing is used as a mid rail. Each employee on a single-point and two-point adjustable suspended scaffold shall be protected by both a personal fall arrest system and a guardrail. Footings -. The legs. Type of Scaffold Fall Protection Required . Guying ties. Kind of fall protection to provide for a specific-type of scaffold The chart on the next page illustrates the type of fall protection required for specific scaffolds. 2000 can be between 36 inches (0. 2000 must be between 38 inches (0.
or a guardrail system.9 cm) diameter grab line or equivalent handhold securely fastened beside each crawling board Float scaffold Ladder jack scaffold Needle beam scaffold Self-contained scaffold Personal fall arrest system Personal fall arrest system Personal fall arrest system Both a personal adjustable scaffold arrest system and a guardrail system two-point Both a personal fall arrest system and a guardrail system Single-point and suspension scaffolds Supported scaffold Personal fall arrest system or guardrail system All other scaffolds not specified Personal fall arrest system or guardrail systems that meet the above required criteria .Aerial lifts Boatswains' chair Catenary scaffold Personal fall arrest system Personal fall arrest system Personal fall arrest system Crawling board (chicken ladder) Personal fall arrest system. or by a 3/4 inch (1.
5 meters). Protect Yourself Do not enter an unprotected trench! Trenches 5 feet (1. including basement. and incidents involving mobile equipment. Trenches 20 feet (6. hazardous atmospheres.1 meters) deep or greater require that the protective system be de-signed by a registered professional engineer or be based on tabulated data prepared and/ or approved by a registered . A trench is defined as a narrow underground excavation that is deeper than it is wide. falling loads.1 TRENCH AND BESEMENT EXCAVATION TRENCING AND EXCAVATION SAFETY Safety requirements in subsurface excavation.5 meters) deep or greater require a protective system unless the excavation is made entirely in stable rock. cavity.SUBSTRUCTURE CHAPTER 2. trench. Trench collapses cause dozens of fatalities and hundreds of injuries each year. OSHA defines an excavation as any man-made cut. Other potential hazards include falls. Excavation and trenching are among the most hazardous construction operations. Dangers of Trenching and Excavation Cave-ins pose the greatest risk and are much more likely than other excavation related accidents to result in worker fatalities. Material must not be placed near the edge of any excavation. and is no wider than 15 feet (4. or depression in the earth’s surface formed by earth removal. so that persons working in the excavation are endangered. are strictly enforced through the construction.
Do not work under raised loads. 1. General Trenching and Excavation Rules 2. 6. hazardous fumes and toxic gases. 5. Protective Systems There are different types of protective systems. 8. In the latter method the runners can be driven to a reasonable depth of approximately 1. including ladders. Sloping involves cutting back the trench wall at an angle inclined away from the excavation. 7. spoil. Know where underground utilities are located.22 meters) or deeper. other materials to be used in the trench) and other operations in the vicinity. Inspect trenches following a rainstorm. Shielding protects workers by using trench boxes or other types of supports to prevent soil cave-ins. changes due to weather or climate. TRENCH EXCAVATION Long narrow trenches in firm soil may be excavated to the full depth by mechanical excavator. or dangerous to employees and who is authorized to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate or control these hazards and conditions.6 meters) from trench edges. 4.200 m and then the operation easier and enable a smaller driving appliance to be used. Access and Egress OSHA requires safe access and egress to all excavations.professional engineer. steps.6 meters) of all workers. Shoring requires installing aluminum hydraulic or other types of supports to prevent soil movement and caveins. Designing a protective system can be complex because you must consider many factors: soil classification. ramps. A competent person is an individual who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards or working conditions that are hazardous. unsanitary. 3.500 m followed by an excavation cut of 1. These devices must be located within 25 feet (7. Inspect trenches at the start of each shift. Competent Person OSHA standards require that trenches be inspected daily and as conditions change by a competent person prior to worker entry to ensure elimination of excavation hazards. depth of cut. water content of soil. Test for low oxygen. Keep surcharge loads at least 2 feet (0. surcharge loads (eg. Keep heavy equipment away from trench edges. or other safe means of exit for employees working in trench excavations 4 feet (1. .
and backfilling.. all in accordance with these specifications for the following: 1. Sandy soils. 2. proper completion of the work and the safety of the public and employees of the Contractor and the Department. The Contractor shall furnish and employ such shores. The removal of miscellaneous items such as abandoned underground tanks. shrubs and other plants may suffer injury or die if their roots are damaged in excavation. that may be necessary for construction or removal. this process is called bottoming of trenches.. service pipes. as may be necessary for the protection of property. Hand trimming is usually required in the trench bottom to form an accurate line and level. etc. 3.In medium depth trenches different soil conditions are very often encountered trough out the depth of the excavation and therefore the method of timbering must be changed to suit the new soil conditions. Determine the type of soil which will be digging in. Trees. manholes. pumps. under drains and outlets. sewers. Trench excavation will be allowed only for the construction of the structures and the removals definitely specified above. simply using a shovel and setting about digging is sufficient. For minor ditches or trenches. and wet. or undo the digging that have done before the project is complete. braces. catch basins. but for excavating a deep trench. drop inlets. Trench excavation shall be made in conformity with the requirements of the plans or as ordered. etc. to the dimensions shown on the plans or as ordered. Driveways. The construction of pipe culverts. as specified elsewhere herein. All bracing. . mucky material will make excavating a straight. loose stony soils. end walls. The removal of drainage structures and appurtenances beyond the limits of roadway and structure excavation. Shoring. This process uses a support structure for ditch sides so they do not cave in and injure anyone. special consideration should be made. etc. and structures can collapse if they are undermined. Approximately 5 mm should be allowed for trimming by hand and it is advisable to cover the trimmed surface with hard core to protect the soil. and no compensation will be made for any other class of excavation. shall be removed when no longer required for the construction or safety of the work. or steel trench boxes or sheet piling for very large ones. Examples may be sheets of plywood with posts to support them for small excavations. pipelines. Choose a route that will not damage valuable plants or appurtenances on the property. deep ditch difficult and dangerous. the removal of which is necessary for the proper completion of the work. often needed for sanitary sewer installation or other projects. Trench excavation shall consist of the removal and satisfactory disposal of all materials. sidewalks.
Call the local or government utility location service so that underground gas. because it can be complicated in addition to labor intensive. and some people leave the basement unfinished to cut costs while ensuring that they will have that space available at a later time if they need it. it may be necessary to excavate under the home or . can be removed and stored for replanting with proper care. there are some serious risks which must be carefully evaluated before taking the plunge. and communications pipes and cables can be spotted. This can be accomplished either with a well point system pipe to remove the water as it seeps into the excavation. As the trench is excavated. the depth of the excavation can be deepened to rough out the basement so that the basement and foundations can be established at the same time. For the same reason the topsoil heap should either be demarcated or placed away from frequent foot or vehicular traffic if the topsoil is going to be stored for prolonged periods of time over-seed with noninvasive grass species to reduce erosion. In this case. depending on depth of the topsoil layer.Dewatering. This will remove the excess water from the soil to help stabilize it while working. Store the topsoil away from other spoil material to avoid contamination. to protect worker from injury or liability in the event they are damaged. This is the technique for dealing with loose soils illustrated in this article. Remove any vegetation will want to save and replace when the project is finished. even turf grasses. Ensure that the topsoil heap does not exceed 1 . If a home needs foundation work. This can be a way to add room to a structure without adding height. This procedure is usually supervised by an experienced contractor or a basement excavation company. Determine the depth the utility or other function of trench will require.5m in height to avoid compaction. While it is possible to excavate by hand. Benching the excavation. the site is already being excavated in preparation for laying the foundations. water. Small plants. If people want a basement. basement excavation can be done for a number of reasons. Some plumbing systems are gravity operated. Once a home is already built. and require a slope so the waste or water will flow unaided to the discharge location in this situation.1. BASEMENT EXCAVATION A basement excavation is a construction dig performed for the purpose of roughing out a basement. the sides step down so the banks do not have to support more material than they are capable of. There are several settings in which basement excavation may be performed. The best time to do a basement excavation is when a home site is being prepared. electric. Remove the topsoil to a depth of 10-20cm.
usually with the goal of eventually hauling them away. These companies have a great deal of experience in making excavations go smoothly and they can coordinate with other companies who may be involved to make the process as efficient as possible. In older homes. People also need to provide an area to store excavated materials. The perimeter trench method is used where weak soils are encountered. The structure needs to be supported during the excavation to avoid compromise to the structural integrity which could make it unsafe. People should be aware that permits are generally required for a basement excavation and that a building inspector will want to visit the site to confirm that safety procedures are being followed. . or to make improvements to an existing basement. Excavating under a building can be tricky. Specialty companies focus entirely on doing basement excavation and they can be a good choice for this type of construction project. placing the poling boards with their raking struts in position as the work proceeds. Perimeter trench method Excavation of a basement on an open site can be carried out by cutting the perimeter back to the natural angle of repose of the soil. Another reason for a basement excavation is the desire to add a basement to an existing structure. In firm soils where poling boards can be placed after excavation an economic method is to excavate the bulk of the pit and then trim the perimeter. This method could be also be used in firm soil when the mechanical excavation required for bulk excavation are not available. Complete excavation with timbered sides 3. It is also possible to encounter unexpected hazards such as mold or mildew. Complete excavation with sloping sides 2. There are three methods which can be used for excavating a large pit or basement: 1. This method requires sufficient site space around the intended structure for the over-excavation.in the basement in order to get the work done. As long as excavation is being done. people sometimes find materials of historical interest during a basement excavation because it was not uncommon to build directly on top of debris. a trench wide enough to enable the retaining walls to be constructed is excavated around the perimeter of the site and timbered according to the soil conditions. some people may opt to rough in a basement at the same time.
but generally. If calculated incorrectly. thereby providing support for the intense weight above.Chapter 2. they must first assess where and how they will build the foundation. water eroding soil beneath the structure. commonly made of concrete for home that transfers the weight of the building onto the earth below. thereby changing the density of the foundation's support. A frost heave can cause damage to the foundation.2 FOUNDATION Whenever construction workers begin work on a new building. These are usually comprised of concrete strips that are laid about a meter beneath the soil. or of a single large concrete slab that is also set about a meter under the soil. the foundation may fail and place the entire structure in peril. For structures being built in colder climates. however: certain soils will expand and contract when moisture is added or taken away. engineers must consider weight and settlement. Larger buildings use a deep foundation rather than a shallow foundation. When applicable. Most small and medium homes are built upon a shallow foundation. thereby compromising the structural integrity of the entire building. as well as how much weight will go on top of the foundation. engineers must consider frost heaves as well. There are different types of foundation designs and each serves a different specific purpose. as well as scour -. and engineers must factor in such movement when considering where and how to lay a foundation. The loads from walls above are transferred deep into the earth. Much like the considerations for a shallow foundation. The foundation is a structure. Drier. the foundation will extend beneath the frost line. warmer climates are not entirely exempt from such worries. every foundation works to transfer the weight load of a structure to the soil beneath. TYPES OF FOUNDATION Deep Foundation . they must keep in mind how much the soil will settle beneath the foundation.or. Frost heaves occur when moisture in the soil freezes. When engineers design the foundation of a building. A deep foundation uses long pylons of steel or concrete to penetrate deep beyond the weaker surface soils into the deeper and more stable soils or bedrock beneath.
Driven piles are either wood. Northern Spread footing foundations consists of strips or pads of concrete (or other materials) which transfer the loads from walls and columns to the soil or bedrock. reinforced concrete. Driving piles. a poor soil at shallow depth. mass or reinforced. There are different terms used to describe different types of deep foundations including piles. thus increasing their load-bearing capacity. These foundations are common in residential construction that includes a basement. octagonal. though concrete piles can be spliced with difficulty. steel. reinforced concrete and pre-tensioned concrete. Historically. but some of the common reasons are very large design loads. and round cross-sections. mat-slab foundations. splicing is common with steel piles. penetration of soft near-surface layers. including development of lateral capacity. The naming conventions may vary between engineering disciplines and firms. Shallow foundations include spread footing foundations. causing greater friction against the sides of the piles. Shallow Foundation A type of foundation which transfers building loads to the earth very near the surface. Steel piles are either pipe piles or some sort of beam section (like an H-pile). They are reinforced with rebar and are often pretressed. Embedment of spread footings is controlled by several factors. drilled shafts. is advantageous because the soil displaced by driving the piles compresses the surrounding soil. Concrete piles are available in square. and in many commercial structures. Wooden piles are made from trunks of tall trees. There are many reasons a geotechnical engineer would recommend a deep foundation over a shallow foundation. Spread Footing Foundation In ground reinforced concrete foundation in cyclonic area. rather than to a subsurface layer or a range of depths as does a deep foundation. Mat-slab foundations . caissons and piers. wood piles were spliced together when the design length was too large for a single pile. Driven Foundations Prefabricated piles are driven into the ground using a pile driver.A type of foundation distinguished from shallow foundations by the depth they are embedded into the ground. or site constraints (like property lines). and penetration through near-surface layers likely to change volume due to frost heave or shrink-swell. today. Deep foundations can be installed by either driving them into the ground or drilling a shaft and filling it with concrete. Deep foundations can be made out of timber. as opposed to drilling shafts. slab-on-grade foundations. or steel. and earth bag foundations. rubble trench foundations.
as they extend below ground level and can potentially expose the wiring to groundwater. slowly degrading until the pipe fails. This type of construction is most often seen in warmer climates. Over the long term. proper soil compaction prior to pour can minimize this. commonly used to carry natural gas and water. where ground freezing and thawing is less of a concern and where there is no need for heat ducting underneath the floor. etc. Rubble Trench foundation The rubble trench foundation. In high-rise buildings. While elevated structural slabs actually perform better on expansive clays. the potential for large heat losses where ground temperatures fall significantly below the interior temperature. particularly in California and Texas. The concrete is then placed into the mold. The advantages of the slab technique are that it is cheap and sturdy. Care must be taken with the provision of services through the slab. Mat-slab foundations can be constructed near the ground surface. Elevated structural slabs are generally only found on custom homes or homes with basements. Remodeling or extending such a structure may also be more difficult. or at the bottom of basements. insulated) or run through a conduit or plumbed into the building above the slab. to lower the contact pressure compared to conventional spread footings. It is considered more environmentally friendly than other types of foundation because cement manufacturing requires the use of enormous amounts of . a construction approach popularized by architect Frank Lloyd Wright. reacts with concrete over a long period. with the concrete poured directly over insulation (for example. with associated running expenses). Copper pipes must be lagged (that is. Copper piping. mat-slab foundations can be several meters thick. Slab-on-grade foundation Slab-on-grade foundations are a structural engineering practice whereby the concrete slab that is to serve as the foundation for the structure is formed from a mold set into the ground. with extensive reinforcing to ensure relatively uniform load transfer. Slab-on-grade foundations are commonly used in areas with expansive clay soil. is a type of foundation that uses loose stone or rubble to minimize the use of concrete and improve drainage. The disadvantages are the lack of access from below for utility lines. and is considered less vulnerable to termite infestation because there are no hollow spaces or wood channels leading from the ground to the structure (assuming wood siding. and a very low elevation that exposes the building to flood damage in even moderate rains. it is generally accepted by the engineering community that slab-on-grade foundations offer the greatest cost-to-performance ratio for tract homes. Electrical conduits through the slab need to be water-tight.. The slab can be decoupled from ground temperatures by insulation. as a slab foundation cannot be readily jacked up to compensate. Styrofoam panels). is not carried all the way to the ground on the outer walls).Mat-slab foundations are used to distribute heavy column and wall loads across the entire building area. leaving no space between the ground and the structure. or heating provisions (such as hydronic heating) can be built into the slab (an expensive installation. ground settling (or subsidence) may be a problem.
Earth bag foundation The basic construction method begins by digging a trench down to undisturbed mineral subsoil. A foundation must bear the structural loads imposed upon it and allow proper drainage of ground water to prevent expansion or weakening of soils and frost heaving. Drainage tile. aIf an insulated slab is to be poured inside the grade beam. and form a foundation. forming walls. By far the most common structural foundation in today's construction industry is the shallow foundation. locking the bag in place on the row below. While the far more common concrete foundation requires separate measures to ensure good soil drainage. The bottom of the trench would ideally be gently sloped to an outlet. such as piles. Other types of foundations. caissons. This digs into the bags weave and prevents slippage of subsequent layers. The weight of this earth-filled bag pushes down on the barbed wire strands. or filled in place (often the case with Super adobe). piers. Rows of woven bags (or tubes) are filled with available material. Traditional types of roof can also be made. placed into this trench. and environmentallyfriendly alternative to a conventional foundation. graded 1":8' to daylight. but may require an engineer's approval if building officials is not familiar with it. Frank Lloyd Wright used them successfully for more than 50 years in the first half of the 20th century. which must be protected above grade from mechanical and UV degradation. are used primarily for major structures. To construct a rubble trench foundation a narrow trench is dug down below the frost line. some soil environments (such as particularly expansive or poor loadbearing (< 1 ton/sf) soils) are not suitable for this kind of foundation. compacted with a pounder to around 1/3 thickness of pre-pounded thickness. The trench is then filled with either screened stone (typically 11/2") or recycled rubble. These are either pre-filled with material and delivered. A steel-reinforced concrete grade beam is poured at the surface to provide ground clearance for the structure. the rubble trench foundation serves both foundation functions at once. The rubble-trench foundation is a relatively simple. However. The same process continues layer upon layer. A roof can be formed by gradually slope the walls inward to construct a dome. low-cost. and there is a revival of this style of foundation with the increased interest in green building. is then placed at the bottom of the trench in a bed of washed stone protected by filter fabric. The next row of bags is offset by half a bag's width to form a staggered pattern. and also resists any tendency for the outward expansion of walls.energy. not for ordinary building that constitute the overwhelming majority of all constructions. and similar deep foundations. Each successive layer will have one or more strands of barbed wire placed on top. then the outer surface of the grade beam and the rubble trench should be insulated with rigid XPS foam board. ADVANTAGES OF USING SHALLOW FOUNDATION • Cost (affordable) • Construction Procedure (simple) • Materials (mostly concrete) .
• • • • • Labor (does not need expertise) Settlement Limit Capacity * Soil * Structure Irregular ground surface (slope. retaining wall) Foundation subjected to pullout. torsion. moment. DISADVANTAGES OF USING SHALLOW FOUNDATION .