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05-OB Chapter 1

05-OB Chapter 1

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Published by Deepak Aggarwal

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Published by: Deepak Aggarwal on Feb 24, 2011
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Work Values, Attitude, and Job Satisfaction

Week 3 - 12/03/2008

1

Work Values
Basic convictions that a specific mode of product or end-state of existence is personally or socially endpreferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or endendstate of existence.

Concepts:

Why important:
Foundation to know employees¶ attitudes and employees¶ motivation Affect employees¶ perception and decision making employees¶ 
Work Value System (values¶ intensity) (values¶  Sources of Value System: societal factors, biological
parents.
2

Types of values
(1)Allport
Theoretical:the discovery of truth though a
critical and rational approach

Economic: the useful and practical Aesthetic: Form and harmony Social: the love of people Political:Acquisition of power and influence Religious:The unity of experience &
understanding of the cosmos as a whole
3

Types of values
(2)Rokeach values survey (RVS)
Terminal: Desirable end-states of existence; the goals endto pursue during one¶s lifetime one¶
comfortable(exciting)life,sense of accomplishment,world of peace (beauty), equality, family (nation) security,freedom, happiness,inner harmony, mature, true friendship, wisdom.

Instrumental:preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving one¶s terminal values one¶
ambitious, broad-minded, capable, cheerful, clean, honest, broadcourageous,forgiving,helpful, imaginative,independent, intellectual, logical, loving, obedient, polite, responsible
4

Types of values
(3)Contemporary work cohorts
Protestant work ethic:hard work; conservative;
loyalty to the organization Existential:Quality of life,nonconforming,seeks autonomy; loyalty to self 1960s--mid1960s--mid-1970s Pragmatic:Success,achievement,ambition,hard work; loyalty to career mid-1970s--late mid-1970s--late 1980s Generation X:Flexibility,job satisfaction,leisure time; loyalty to relationships 1990s New generation: confident, financial independent, selfself-reliant, team worker, loyalty to self and relation 2000s
5

Attitude
Concept
Evaluative statements or judgement concerning objects,people,or events 3 components

cognitive component---the opinion or belief ---the
segment of an attitude(value statement)

affective component--- emotional or feeling behavioral component--An intention to behave --An
in a certain way toward someone or sth.

Essentially refers to the affect part
6

Determinants of Work attitudes
Personality
The enduring ways a person has of feeling, thinking and behaving

Work situation
The work itself Coworkers, supervisors and subordinates Physical working conditions Working hours, pay and job security

Attitudes to work
The collection of feelings, beliefs and predispositions to behave in one¶s job or organisation

Values
Intrinsic work values Extrinsic work values

Social influence Coworkers Groups Culture

7

Differences between Work Values and Attitudes.
Values Nature of work itself Stable over a long time Determines choice of a job, career, happiness with a job, etc. Attitudes Current job or organization Moderately stable Determines absenteeism, turnover, organizational citizenship behaviors.

8

Why Might Attitudes Matter at Work?
Because attitudes to work and/or employing organisation might affect:
Whether a person seeks a new job ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ How co-operative they are with others at work Whether they present a positive image of the organisation to clients or customers How they react to change How hard they work (motivation) Their psychological or physical health
9

Attitudes, Behavior & Consistency
People try maintain consistency between their different attitudes. People try maintain consistency between attitudes and behavior. Altering their attitudes or behavior, developing a rationalization for their discrepancy.

10

Cognitive Dissonance Theory
if there is an inconsistency between two attitudes or between attitudes and behavior people seek to make them consistent Achieve a stable state with minimum of dissonance

11

Cognitive Dissonance Theory
Desire to reduce dissonance depends on
1 importance of elements creating the dissonance 2 degree of influence over the elements 3 rewards involved in the dissonance

12

Do Attitudes cause Behavior?
Answer: Answer: Not very well! Attitudes have a stronger affect on behavior if they are 
    important specific accessible social pressure reinforces the attitude you have experience with the attitude.
13

SelfSelf-Perception Theory
attitudes do not cause behavior, behavior causes attitudes y attitudes are formed after the fact to make sense out of behavior that already occurred
y

14

Job Satisfaction
An individual¶s general attitude toward his or individual¶ her job. Determinants of Job Satisfaction pay & benefits; co-workers; supervisor; cothe work itself; career opportunity; job security; work conditions, etc

15

Potential Consequences when Job Satisfaction is...
MISSING Absenteeism Turnover PRESENT Performance? Worker Well-Being Well-

16

Other Important Work Attitudes
Job involvement: the degree to which a involvement: person identifies psychologically with his/her job and considers his/her perceived performance level important to self-worth. selfOrganizational commitment: A state in commitment: which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals, and wishes to maintain membership in the organization
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