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TRY MENI
SET UP A HOM-E LABORATORY-OVER 200 SIMPLE EXPERIMENTS

THE

GOLDEN

BOOI(

OF

ChemLi§ltJryExperinnent§
How to Set Up a Home LaboratoryOver 200 Simple Experiments
BY ROBERT ILLUSTRATED BRENT

BY HARRY LAZARUS

GOLDEN

PRESS

~

NEW

YORK

Acid: a hydrogen-containing compound that releases hydrogen ions in solution, "Uloy: a material made up by combining two or more metals, Analysis: Anhydrous: breaking down a compound

Element: a substance that contains one kind of atoms, Equation: a complete

only
II

Organic chemistry: tbe carbon compounds,

the" chemistry

of

chemical reaction by the use formulas, and signs,

de-script ion of symbols,

or

Oxida tion . the process by which a substance combines with oxygen. Pt'ec.ipitate: in a solution chemically Reaction: an insoluble solid formed bychemical reaction,

into two or more substances,
free from water, Atom: the smallest unit of an element that can enter into the making a chemical compound,

Evapur-a lion: the changing of II suhstance into vapor; also the process of remo ..ing 'water by heating. Filtmte: Filtration: a liquid obtained the

or

by filtration.

Hadical e a group of atoms (,bat behave as a single atom. a chem ieal change.
of oxygen; the op-

A torulc wedgb t: the weight of an a tom eomparedwith the weight of an oxygen atom, set at 16,

process of straining a liquid from a solid through porous material, usually filter paper. For-m u la: a group of symbols and nurnbel'S giving the composition of a compound .. Hydra te ia conrpouud containing JO!JHlly bound water or hydration (water of crystallization) that can he driven off

Reduntionr removal posite of oxidation,

Base: a, compound containing tbe hydroxide group (OR)
Catalyst: a substance that helps in a chemical reaction wi thout itself being changed, Chemical change,: stance into another

Salt: compound (oilier than water) formed by the reaction of an add and

a base,
Sa t.ur-a te,d sol u tion: contains the maximum under the co nditious , Solullility: a solution that amount of solute

by heating,
Hydroxide: a compound that the 11yd<,0X",),1 (OH) radical. [on: an electrically charged group of atoms (radical). contains

a change of a subsubstance having

different properties,
Chemis try: a branch of science dealing with the compositions of substances and the changes that Gall be made in them, ComhU5tion,: burning; a chemical change that. produces heat and light. Corn pound: a substance consisting of two or more different kinds of atoms ill definite proportions hy weight, Cry" t.al i II solid ·i n wh ich atoms or molecules are arranged in II definite pattern, Density: the weight of a Iiquid solid ill grams per emS or milliliter. or
II

the number of grams of a to make a saturated solution in 100 grams of solvent. solute needed
Solute: solvent. the substance dissolved ng mixture in a of a

atom

or

· Lalleeblee capable of being hammered or rolled into a thin sheet, · fatter: anything and bas weight.

Solu rion s a ncn-settli

solute in a solvent,
Solvent: dissolved,

that

takes up spaee

a liquid in which a solute is

i'lletal:. an element tha t is a good, cond uctor of electrici 1y, has IUELer, and whose oxide forms II hare with water, l'I'Ietalloid: an element that has properties of hoth metals and nonmetals. IIlh:tnre: comhined a mingling chemically. of substances not,

Sublf mat ion: a process by which II solid is turned into vapor and again cooled into a solid without passing through a liquid stage.
Subscript: a small numeral indicating the number of atoms of a certain element in the formula of a compound. Subsl;ance; any specific kind of matter whether element, compound, ormixture, Symbol: a letter or two letters senting one atom of an. clement, repre-

DistHla tel a liquid that has been turned into vapor and again cooled into a liquid, DistiUation: a distillate, Ductile: the process of producing out, into

?Ioleoular weight: the sum of the atomic weights of the atoms that make up a molecule of a compound, l'l'lolcoule.: the smallest unit of a compound thatoan exist, in the free state, · ·eu.trIl1i7..ation: the reaction of an acid and a base to give a salt and water, Nonmetal: an element that, is a, poor eonduetor of electricity, does not have luster, and whose oxide forms an acid, when combined with water.

a, wire.
Electrolysis: breaking down a substance by passing an electric current through it. Electrolytes

capa ble of being drawn

Synthesis: the making up of a compound from simpler compounds or from elements; the opposite of analysis, Valence: Ihe number of hydrogen atoms which one atom of an element can displace or with which it can unite,

a

EDtUtiOO

a substance that, when in or when melted, will conduct,
current,

an electric

2:

...!"\'DEQUTPMENT FORMliT.-'cSES.\fORKING WORKING SALTS - SALTS 40 42 OF SOLUTIONS WITH ACIDS. . TABLE FOR. .. . . .RBON - ELEME. ..A MODER. FARAD. . . . . . . 68 70 72 ON'E OF THE "_ OBLE" MORE AB01.\fENT FOR CHEiillSTRY. . . .. . . ELE:'tIEI'. . . .. . . . . PROTEINS- TIm . . . 78 24 TB. ... . .. . . TI . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . THE l?. . .. .'ESE - Two METAL _ fETALS. . 28 '" . ...xarrcs . . .. ArD THE MYSTERIES . . .u"" AGE OF IRo.. .. .. .. . .. . . CA LeruM LET'S - FOR BUILDING.• ACIDS BASES.. . .. . SULFUlt AND ITs THE 48 50 51! WHERE TO GET CHEMICALS A.. .•. .' . .SCIEl'i-orIST . .AS _ ELKllEl'I-or You STEP no UI 112 Coxnrore Il'ITlEx CHEi\llCALS Ai'lD THEIR BORON-Fu"TORE ROCRET-PmYER ELEl\m. . . . . 80 82 84 88 90 . 2 4· SOD! 'M Al'i'D POTASSIUM. .JT FORI!I ILAS V ...."'-RBO_T COMPO OF HYDHOCARBONS S''I'EET Al\'D . . . . ... . CARBON DIOXIDE. COMPOUi'.lPORTANCE OF CHEMTSTRY. . .No Fe WORDS' -SED BY CHE:llISTS. 9 10 12 14 16 MANGA COPPER SILVER - M. . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . j\'LUUNG APPARATUS FOR ExpERr. HOME . . .MICAL v\'ORKING MATHE.'i'DARTIFICIAL FIBERS 100 102 GU. .. " . . . .. . . . . . . A. . . .n's CAl"<'DLB You . CHE. .. COMPOUNDS . . YESTERDAY.. . . . ... . . . . . . . . .. . .JffiBOHYDRA'r:£S Kn. . . '. CHEMISTS .TlS CAIIBOX'r'LIC ACIDs BL. " . 76 WATER OJ.. .AL AJ. . . . . . 109 . . . . . . .. .. . .. . . . .. . .!TI NIIXTUl\Es. .'T~ . . . .'iCE. .. . .. CHE:"IllSTRY OF C. .ND. . . . . . . . .•. . .UENTS. .. ..... .. .AS . . . . ABUNDAl.. .. .' TODAY !\IIETALS. . . . .. . .'TS.. . . . . . . ... . . 43 46 OU"T CHE~JICAL EQUATIONS 106 THE F T JRE OF CHEMISTRY 'VliAT'S AHEAD IN CHEMISTRY~ NO! -_1ETALS IODIl"m ILICON VIOLET OR BROWNil COMPOUI\:Tls. 56 3 . . . .-Ll\'TI ITs FRIK1'H) M'm FOE. . .!" 104 fATICS . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . .. _ fEASlJREMEl'i-orS CORRECT LABORATORY TECHl\'TQUES . 92 94 96 CHEt\UCAL CIrE)'!ICAL THE SHORTHA. BODy-BUTLDING FOODS.rns . . .. . .. . ... . .. • . .-u.'DS. . . . IT OF A IvlILLION COi\lPOUl'I'Ds.E!~CE-S Al"lD FomfULAS THE SCIK !TIFIC APPROACH l\1R../y SES. .' . .. . .. OF LIGHTES'T THe . .. . . . . .-Ll\''Y 58 60 62 64 66 ''liE LIVE I.!:' T.. . . . . . . .YGEN - Y'lATER ioLND GASES OUIt Mosr I:-'1PORTAl""T COMPoU!\'1) THE BREATH OF LIFE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : ""4 18 20 22 ORGAl~IC CHEMISTRY CA. .. . SB'ITING UP YOUR Scmr'o'TIPIC LABORATORY. . . . ... . . . . .13 FORMULAS A LoT NL-LNY OF CARBON Cosn-oursns.. F ATB "-\. . . .. . . .NT Pr. OF YOUR HOME LABORATORY EQUTP. C. .. . . . . OF THE ELEME"'TS Psaronrc 36 38 COLLOIDAL DISPERSIONS NATDIt. .. . . . . .. OF ALCOHOLS FOR Ei'l"ERGY... .u. . . . . . . . . COLORS 6 CO~lPARE . . . . ."\'1) OILS SOAP AND SOAP _ L~. . . . OF THE PAST. .•. . . . .1. . . ON. .. . .. CHillIIICALS OF i\I.. . . . . .. . . .. . . .. ... WITH B.KING.. . .. .. 26 30 32 34 H 1:TlROGEN NITROGEN CHLORINE - ALL. . . ... . .. ALIDIINUM - I . . .

The clothes you wear.finding out wbat things are made of and what changes they undergo. the medicine you take. the booksvou read. "Vhat thingsf Any tbiug. the house in which you livea]J the-e are products of hemistry. PURIFICATION OF WATER 4 . The foods you eat are all chemical products and th ways in which your body turns them into muscles and bones and nerves and brain cells are some of the greatest of all chemical mysteries..-r-- The Importance of Chemistry THERE IS HARDLY a boyar a girl alive who is not keenly interested in finding out about things. Every thing! Take a look around you. 'Here on earth.the metal in it. Everything in nature is forever passing through chemical chang . Nature itself is a tremendous chemical laboratory. AIl the things you eeand lots of things you can 't see .-COOKING AND CLEANING ARE CHEAitlCAL PROCESSES. tbe gas that moves it. Let's start 'with yourself. And that's exactly what chemistry is: FINDING 0 ~T ABOUT THINGS . .EVERY HOME KITCHEN IS A CHEMICAL LABORATORY. plants and animals ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~==~ INSECT SPRAYS MEAN HEAL THI ER LIVESTOCK. The air you breathe is a mixture of chemical substances and the process of breathing is a chemical reaction.have to do with the science of chemistry. the rubber on which it roils. So is the family car . :.

billions of years from now. and decay. Within recent )'ears. rocks crack and crumble under the influence ofairand water. Chemistry means the difference between poverty and starvation and the abundant life. The sun that gives us heat and light and energy is a flaming furnace of chemical processes that will eventually burn itself out. And this is only the beginning. for engineers to develop new means of transportation and communication that will bring the peoples of the world closer together. Chemistry is one of the most important of all sciences for human welfare. In the universe. PAPER AND PRINTERS' O. This atomic OIL IS THE BASIS fOR COUNTLESS CHEMICAL PRODUCTS. ATOMIC ENERGY THE FUTURE FOR ~ . The proper use of chemistry makes it possible for farmers to feed the world's ever-increasing population.grow. for doctors to cure the diseases of mankind. scientists have succeeded in penetrating into the innermost secrets of chemical substances and have begun to make use of the tremendous force that lies hidden in them. die. UNITED 5T A YES IS THE WORLD'S LEADING PRODUCER OF STEEL I' .F CHEMISTiRY. Dew star's are formed. for manufacturers to produce the thousands of items that are necessary for better and richer living. others fade.

. turned it into something else. He had a different notionthat all matter was made up of tiny particles which be called alamos . ail'. He held it up as a torch.BOlS USED BY ALCHEMISTS N1AI"iY TIlOUSM'm years ago. 6 .which meant there was water in it. It gave off light. to drive metals out of their ores.something that cannot be cut further.BROKE OLD TRADITIONS. an early ancestor of yours pushed a stick into the hot lava flowing from an erupting volcano.because no one dared suggest that he knew better than the great Aristotle! BRONZE~AGE MAN WAS ONE OFTHEEARUEST CHEMISTS. C. He explained that everything in the world was made from just four things which he called "elements": fire. The greatest Greek philosopher of the day. to make glass. Jt was only about 2. in the results of what they did . It siz. PARACElSUS TOLD HIS PU· sns TO USE EXPERIMENTS... For thousands of yems people were chiefly interested. Around 400 B. Fire wade it possible to turn raw foodstuffs into edible meals. to bake shaped clay into pottery. He had actually taken a substance called wood and had. a th. BOYLE . the stick bad to containfire.. obviously. and heat and finally turned into ashes. as certainly everyone should know.wo thousand years . held out for the four elements.zled. hy a chemical process called combustion or burning. DEMOCRJTUS INSISTED THAT MATTER CONSISTS Of ATOMS.~ copp~ SYM.and smoke would be some kind of air . This ancient man might be considered the world's first chemist. horn around the time when Empedocles died.so. But Damoeritus didn't get very far wit'll his idea.and ashes are earth. in Greece.inker by the name of Empedocles came up with an idea that seemed to make sense .500 years ago that philosophers began to wonder about what things were made of and what happened when a thing changed into something else .they didn't care about what happened or why it happened. and earth. It left ashes . water. Everyone . Think of that burning stick mentioned above. It gave off fire .except another Greek. It smoked . Aristotle. Democritus. The stick burst into fire.INVESTJGATED GASES AND . And because of his great reputation this false idea governed the thinking of scientists for t. The discovery of the use of fire was the first great step leading toward modern chemistry.

among them sodium. developed many sound laboratory methods. Friedrich Wohler. that bad never before been made outside the body of a living animal. some day. gild magnesium. working in his laboratory produced a chemical. Neither did a great number of European alchemists. calcium. And then. potassium. MARIE CURIE AND HER HUSBAND DISCOVERED RADIUM. urea. This opened up a whole new age in chemistry. in 1661. and a Frenchman. But not a single one of these step-s would have been possible without the dedicated work of the chemists of the past who laid the foundation on which modern chemistry rests .In the meantime. He did it by establishing that there are many elements . succeeded in killing off the old idea of the four elements. A Swede. an English chemist. The advances in chemistry greatly influenced industry. Then. more elements were found. twenty-eight at the time. ~ itb the help of electricity. For hundreds of years chemistry made little headway. 'Within a few years. He challenged his students to tear up their books with the old theories that had been developed through reasoning only and to find out for themselves throllgh ezperimerds whether a scientific theory was right or wrong. ex-plained the true nature of burning and made up the first scientific listing of all known elements _. He had the imposing name of Theophrastus Bombastus Paracelsus v on Hohenheim. Antoine Laurent Lavoisier. scientists of Arabia began work in a subject they called alchemyIrom Arabic ol. in 1525. and an Englishman. Twenty years later. discovered oxygen. and kimia. Joseph Priestley. Karl Scheele. another important break-through occurred. More than a hundred years passed before an Englishman.' PRIESTLEY USED HEAT OF SUN TO PRODUCE OXYGEN. chemistry bas moved forward with giant steps. pouring together. lAVOISIER GAVE THE RIGHT EXPLANATION OF BURNING. Robert Boyle. in 1828. _Ilore and more things were happening. But. Pierre discovered the "miracle element: radium. Another hundred years went by. only a few people paid attention to him. a Swiss doctor and scientist spoke up. new chemicals created. \Vithin the last fifty years. DAVY BROUGHT ElECTRilCITY INTO CHEMICAL RESEARCH. Humphry Davy in a single 'year brought to light six new metals .substances that cannot be formed by other substances and cannot be broken into other substances. 7 . at the time of the American Hevolution the day finally dawned for modern chemistry. in 1898 the Polish-born _ Iarie Curie and her French husband. agriculture and medicine. of finding a way of making GOLD I They discovered a great nnmber of things not previously known. the.but they never created the slightest speck of gold. . Ie\'\' elements were discovered. A German chemist. Tbey mixed things and boiled and distilled and extracted in the hope. Then. and gave the science of chemistry its name .

REGULAR LABORATORY WARE watch glass 8 .

SOME mayonnaise jar 4 oz.vill pay you to follow the example of these early chemists. If not.B of the greatest discoveries in chemistry were made by scientists who had no special equipment but simply used whatever was at hand.s LABORATORY WARE FOR HOME LAB c stands made of clothes hanger wire 9 . Use whatever suitable equipment you can find around the house (as suggested in column to the right) and buy only what is absolutely necessary (as shown below). you can buy them from one of the suppliers listed on page no.if you really get excited about chemistry . Put your imagination to work. Some items may be purchased in a local drugstore or scientific supply shop. In your home lab experiments it . waler glas.IMPROVISED EQUIPMENT FOR HOME LA..you may want to use your pocket money for some of the lab equipment shown on page 8. Later on .

nds.LAR LAB. In the home lab. If you can dump your 'waste directly into the kitchen drain (NOT into the sink). Storage.IN A REGU. Have a shallow metal pan under the burner for fire safety. AIM TO KEE? YOUR OWN LAB AS WELL ORGANIZED. IT IS possible that you may be permitted to work at the kitchen table when this is Dot in use. Keep chemicals in glass jars and bottles. you can use. An old. collect it in a plastic pail to be thrown out when you're finished. "j'ou are all right.a corner ill your room. make a siphon bot. sturdy table will do. . Sta. EVERYTHING HAS ITS PLACE AND IS NEAR AT HAND. special gas burners are used. Make "your own test tube stand as well as stands for holding glassware for heating. Source of Heat. If Dot. KEEP BOX LOCKED WHEN NOTIN USE AS A PRO· TECTION FOR YOUNG· ER CHILDREN. an open shelf is OK. LABEL THEl\{ ALL CLRARLY. fine.Vaste Disposal . These are the things you'll need in your lab: Work Table. . a burner for denatured alcohol. Containers. In the regular laboratory. If you have a faucet nearhy. use a box that can be locked up. If there's no one around to disturb your chemicals and equipment. (ltherwisa. BOx: TO HOLD HOME LAB CAN BE MADE FROM PLYWOOD. Cover it with a plastic top to protect the wood. Otherwise.I I 10 .tle (page 11). But it is far better if you have a place where you will not be disturbed and where you can store your equipment . . or in the basement or the garage.. Water Supply.

.-~I 0 -.E A P'AIR Of PLIERS FOR MAKING THESE STANDS FROM CLOTHES HANGER ----Y'J.. YOU CAN MAKE A SIMPLE TEST TUBE STAND FROM A SALT BOX.I--·WIRE._~~ 3" STRIP OF HIN CARDBOARD MAKES -~-. ASSEMBLE WITH THIN TACKS.IF YOU DO NOT HAVE RUNNING WATER ..---- -. AND L1PSTICK CONTAINER. .3"'~ 1 c{~~ (.FOHOW PATTERNS BELOW TO MAK. SPRING CLOTHES PIN REGULATES WATER FLOW.ake 2 o~ ffres~u! on~ o[ong dolted nne 71AlJ' ·--. BUY WICK AT A HARDWARE STORE. START SIPHON 8·Y BLOW· ING THROUGH [-SHAPED GLASS TUBE. MAKE SIPHON FROM A I-GAllON BOHLE.-. '-~-----. CUTOUT SIDE AND USE CUT-OUT SEQION TO KEEP TEST TUBES LINED UP STRAIGHT._---- 11 .-~--- ® CD B A'tl}' Yl@)*O 0 0 0 0 +J' [~MAKE AN AlCOHOLSURNER FROM INK BOTTLE. cui lipstick container al dotted line Iof--. ALSO MAKE THE FUNNEL STAND I LUS-TRAUD ON PAGE 9.. REGULA. THERMOS CORK.... some r---~rl.R LAB STAND FOR TEST TUBES CAN BE PRO~ DUCED FROM STRIPS OF 1f.----.& -INCH WOOD. --. WIRE AS SHOWN HERE.- e '~} :2 Y2 8 3%" '--71 US.IN YOUR LAB. I .E TWO SIDES AND THREE HORIZONTAL PIECES_ DRill HOLES..) AN ADEQUATE TEST TUBE HOLDER.. -n.\ .-'--." 14---·· m.F YOU LIKE. YQU CAIJiI MAKE A HOLDER ~--~) FROM CLOTHES HA GER. f.

5 FITS . No. An apparatus that leaks flammable gas can be very dangerous. 2 No. with rubber tubing to fit. THESE ARE THE PARTS FOR THE SAFETY GAS GENERATOR ON PAGE 29. 27 mm 20 mm 24 mm 26 mm No. glass and rubber tubing." . 12 . See page 13. you need to know how to 15 mm 17 mm 19 mm cut a glass tube. FIRST DECIDE ON APPARATUS YOU WJll NEED. make a simple drawing of it so that you will know w hat it will eonsis t of. 0 FITS THE 16 mm TEST TUBE. He makes it with great care . Keep a selection of different size-s on hand. how to bend it. Rubber tubing of an inside diameter of Kt. Before you start to put an apparatus together.But occasionally you will Deed an apparatus .1(-'" 7 em 9 em t U No..5 E v lI") u i1 . BY MEASURING THEM AGAINST YOUR LAB WARE YOU WILL KNOW WHICH TO ORDER.. Mosn of your chemical experiments you will perform in test tubes and jars .!.u fits over the 6mm glass tubes. It is wise to use glass tubes of one diameter only.. J. Then get au t the various parts you will Deed to put it together. No. for safety. : E u co E u . just for looks but.<i·OZ." t E V . Order stoppers by number. To determine the right. WIDE-MOUn1 BOHLE. measure the mouths of the bottles against the stoppers shown below in actual size. To make an apparatus. Follow the safety precautions on pagp 16..not. 5 10 mm 13 mm 14 mm 16 mm 18 mm 20l1}m 23 mm THESE ARE THE ACTUAL SIZES OF RUBBER STOPPERS. more important. Glass tubes of an outside diameter of 6 millimeters lit snugly into the holes in the usual rubber stoppers. and how to draw it to a jet point.a de ice consisting of bottles and stoppers. A good chemist takes pride ill his apparatus. ize stoppers to use in the bottles of your apparatus. THEN FIGURE OUT SIZES OF PARTS.

E BAel<! AND f€)R[I.. 1 HEAT SECTION OF liUBE EVENLY WHERE YOU WANT TO FORM JET POINT. FOR . 2 WHEN SOFT.A. THUMBS BELOW MARK. SNAP TUBE INTO TWO PIECES WITH A QUICK JERK. B'r ROlLING~~El M€}ViNS THE JiUB. PULL SWWl Y. THIS IS CAllED "FIRE GlAZING.." 13 . CUT APART WHEN HARD. THE TUBE WILL FlATIEN OR "BUCKLE." MAKING JET POINT heat for about 1 % inches ~ ~--- fire gial:e tip . - HOLD TUBE WITH BOTH HANDS.fiRE GLAZING CUT EDGES ROUND THE ROUGH EDGES OF CUT -TUBE BY ROTATING IN flAME. 1 REAT Ti'iAT PART OFT u SEE V E It'll Y \_~---'T-"-::--/'" WIftERE 'YOO WANJ T0 SErgO Ilf.I. BY ROLLING IT IN THE FlAME. IF HEATED TOO MUCH.B0W'1' TWO~el'lES.

.-/"'" .:: 1000 cubic centimeters (cm> or eel III .ECIMETER (I dm') OR 1000 CUBIC CENTIMETERS n ooo em' OR 1000 cc] OR 1000 Mllll· LITERS (l000 ml) OR 1 lITER (I I). 1/100..abbreviated to ill.. 10.GH./'" /'..:: 1000 milligrams (mg) = 1 meter {rn] .ETRIC UNItS OF WEIGHT 1000 groms (g) 1 kilogram (kg) 1 gram (gJ ...F WHOLE FIGURE IS J CUBIC D.-/"'" ...035 ounces avoirdu- 28.IN SCIENCE. I.. That the names of the-basic units are meter for lengths. V 'V V.:: 1000 milliliters [rnl] 1. I V r u..ILLiMETERS (1 00 mm). grams for weights .TRIC UNITS OF LENGtH 1000 meters 1m].946 liter (I) ..these two things: 1.)/ u I ! 1----+---+---+.. ~-r_-r_--+_-+_-+--+---~-~-~-. That 1000 of a kind are called kilo.. ...06 quarls (liquid) 0. ME.:: 39. VV v V l/IJ : l/tl V~ " V I 1-_-+-_-+-_-_l--_I-----1I--~-___I-__t-___t-___fVV t---t----+----t---+---------t--+---t---------ir--------t--.2 or 16 to go from one unit to the next..37 inches 2.E 1 liter (I) . J v t-----t-t-------t-----t--------i---+-----+---t---+-----f V V V V v~' ty /V V. 1/1000. It is much easier to work with when once you have learned it . centi .V V i IL ' V y V V..350 grams (g) dupois = 1 ounce ovoir- cubiccenti mete r em' = 1 cc mllllllter rnl = = .vr V 1I j' II . I I WATER WEIGHS I KILOGRAM (I kg).T IS 1 OECIMETER (1 dm) OR 10 CENTIMETERS (IO em) OR 100 M.:: 1 kilometer (km] I meter (m] = 1000 rriillirneterstrnml inch METRIC UNitS OF VOLUM../'" . and g (without a period after them). the metric system is preferred over our usual system.> /' ../'" ..:: t quort (liquid) liter liter M.../" // L_L L_L_ /L /L // ~I'/ 1""---11----t---+--+---t---t---t---t----t------r Making a Model ofa Cubic Centimeter __/ II . 2. hekto...F FIGURE IS 1 SQUARE DECIMETER (I dm'J OR 100 SQUARE CENTIMETERS (laO em').for instead of dividing or multiplying hy lZ or 3.. milli. Just remember. 100.... VV 1----+---+---+---+---+---+----+----+---1---.----r__.:: 1 gram (g) .VV BonOM LINE OF FIGURE TO THE RI. V/ V V j r-~---r--~--+_-----ir____-+---r--~--+_~V' ~~ __ ~ __ ~ __ ~ __ ~~ 1 cubic decimeter = __ ~ __ ~ __ L_~V liter 1000 cubic centimeten = 1000 milliliters centimeter ruler [ III J..540 centimeters (em) =1 m .... FRONT SURFACE O.. I9 inch ruler .../ /'.1/ 1/ ~....---4---4---4--~---. .. VOlUME D. you simply move the decimal point.:: pois 0. deca: 1/10 is called deci .. liter for volumes./' L L L /1 V vV V VV' vI" l.

10 9 8 7 6 j MAKING A GRADUATE Scotch tape 5 . 3 2 read at bottom of hollow !coiled miniscusl o pcrtern for bar and 0 tongue for hand balance o o o o o o o pattern for support for hand balance . FOR THIS. OPEN CAN AT SIDE. IF BEAM DOES NOT BALANCE HORIZONTAllY. NOT QUITE HALF ruu 10 ml. ETC. ASSEMBLEBALANCE AS SHOWN. CUT THE PANS WITH TIN SNIPS. YOU CAN USE 'IT FOR ROUGH MEASUREMENTS: TUBE NOT QUITE FULL IS 20 rnl.59 rider ~ 59 ~ YOU CAN USE COINS TO WEIGH 2. PUNCH HOLES WITH NAIL. ~ ==-2. CUT OUT AND BEND AS SHOWN TO THE lEfT.5 9 WEIGHTS.A HAND BALANCE MAKE THE TWO PANS fOR THE HAND BALANCE FROM TOP AND BOnOM OF A fROZEN-JUICE CAN. COpy THE RULER TO THE RIGHT AND ATTACH IT TO _ THE SIDE OF A TEST TUBE WITH SCOTCH TAPE FOR MEASURING ml's.5 g. 15 .t paper dip COPY THE PATTERNS ABOVE ONTO A PIECE OF PAPER. CUT A TIN STRIPTO WEIGH THE SAME AS A NICKEL THEN CUT IT IN FOUR 1 9 AND TWO . MAKE A HAND . FOR MANY EXPERIMENTS YOU NEED TO WEIGH CHEMICALS. USE PATTERN BELOW TO MAKE BEAM WITH TONGUE ATTACHED. FOLD BEAM LENGTHWISE. YOUR 6" TEST TUBE HOLDS 22 ml. 5 g. FOR SMALLER WEIGHTS.4 A GRADUATE IS USEO FOR MEASURING LIQUIDS.BAlANCE. FOR SMALLERAMOUNTS. PUT SMALL "RIDER" CUT FROM TIN CAN OVER ONE ARM OF THE BEAM.. CUT CAREFULLYWITH TIN SNIPS. 109.5 g. TRANSFER DESIGNS TO PIECE Of TIN CAN. 7.

FORE S. PLAY SAFE WHEN YOU PUT A GLASS TUBE IN A STOPPER.lASS TUBES THAT FIT SNUGLY INTO THE STOPPER HOLES.Get the habit of lining up equipment and chemicals you need on one side and placing used.. three considerations are of the greatest importance: SAFETY !EATNESS and EXA.: f-' . _- I'l h'~ -= _ '\jt1tl =-. 5 PLACE USED EQUIPMENT TO THE S DE FOR CLEANING WHEN EXPERIMENT IS COMPLETED. you want to know. Protect your clothes with a plastic apron.0. II there are younger children in the family lock up your chemicals when you are not working with them. USE THE RIGHT SIZE STOPPER FOR MOUTH OF CONTAINER. items on th opposite side . amount that will tell you what.Label all bottles and jars containing chemicals clearly and carr ctly..~ . you use )'OUl' alcohol burner.keeping the space between them clear for your experiments.l: Correct Laboratory Techniques home Iaboratory. ANID TIGHT-FinING RUBBER TUBING. Treat chemicals with respect. THEN PUSH THE TUBE INTO THE STOPPER WITH A SCREWDRIVER MOTION.~~~ ~L ==- - "\ CARE. have a metal pan under it for safety. Observe the chemical reactions carefully and make complete notes of them as ~lOU go along.2 SET OUT ALL THE EQUIPMENT AND THE CHEMICALS YOU NEED. MAKE SURE THAT ALL CONNECTIONS ARE AIRTIGHT. PROTECT YOUR HANDS BY WRAPPING TOWEL AROUND THEM. 16 .CTNESS. IN YOUR "'nen NKAT_ lESS . I.<- _ ___!.All the experiments in this book are safe when done in the correct laboratory way as shown on these pages.. G. Never taste anything unless specifically told to do so. » 1: ".- ~ ~ ~ ~ I:STRU.RE~ .-. Put chemicals away and clean glassware as soon as you have finished an experiment. E ACT -ESS . .FULLY BE . SAFETY . MOISTEN GLASS TUBE AND STOPPER WITH WATER. Where amounts of chemicals are not given. Be careful with fire.. WHEN YOU MAKE AN APPARATUS FOR A CHEMICAL EXPERIMENT. use the smallest.TARTING EXPERIMENT.:.

USE A GLASS ROD TO TH E STREAM WHEN POURING A LIQUID FROM ONE CONTAINER TO ANOTHER.TOPPER IN THE LEFT JSiiAND WHilE YOU POUR FROM THE BOTTLE IN YOUR RIGHT. ROLL JAR BETWEEN FINGERS OR TAP IT GENTLY WITH YOUR INDEX FINGER.. DO NOT HEAT BOTTOM OF TUiBE-CONTENTS frlAY "BUMP" AND SQUIRT OUT. RINSE IN COLD WATER. WHEN HEATING A SOLID IN A TEST tUBE.ECT : I WHEN HEATING A LIQUID IN A tEST TUBE.MAKE IT A HABIT TO READ A lABEl TWICE TO BE SURE YOU HAV. WAFT THE ODORS TOWARD YOU WitH YOUR HAND. TEST DO NOT BRING TEST TUBE UP TO YOUR NOSE FOR SMELLING. IN WEIGHING OUT A DRY CHEMICAL. HOLD TUBE WITH I>i. USE. T TAKE STOPPER OFF WITH YOU lEFT HAND.E THE RIGHT CHEMICAL. 17 .EAD. WITH THE LABEL FACING UP. PLACE THE TUBE IN A STAND AND MOVE THE flAME OF YOUR BURNER BACK AND FORTH TO HEAT THE CONTENTS EYENLY. BonLE G K6EP S.A TEST TUBE BRUSH FOR CLEANING TUBES.INT MOUTH OF TEST TUBE TOWARD YOURSelF OR TOWARD ANYONE ElSE.~_. o !R. THEN REPLACE THE STOPPER. INST. PLACE EQUAL· SIZED TISSUE PAPERS ON EACH PAN OF THE SCALE. KEEP THE TUBE MOVING. ___. NEVER PO. H®LD'ER.- TRAINED CHEMJSTS NEVER PUT STOPPER OF BOTILE ON DESKTHEY KEER IT IN ONE HAND.

WHITISH VAPORS CONDENSE INTO A SOLID. YOU WILL DISCOVER THAT IT IS THE BRIGHTEST PART Of THE fLAME THAT CASTS THE DARKEST SHADOW. it goes into CHEIvIICAL REACTIONS that reveal what it is made of. Faraday demonstrated tohis young audience. CANDLE CONSJSTS OF BURNING PARAFFIN VAPORS. As )'OU enter the study of chemistry.Mrij FaraJay'Js Candle IN THE winter of 1859. In burning a candle you start with a SOLID substance that turns. MAKE A GAS WORKS FROM A CANDLE BY HOLDING A GLASS TUBE. At the same time. gave a number of lectures for young people. The talks dealt with one subject only: the features or "phenomena" of . The melted c-andle grease is held in a level position by GRAVITY yet seems to defy gravity by rising in the wick by a force called CAPILLARY ACTIO!~. There is no better. 'under which any part of this universe is governed which does not come into play and is touched upon in these phenomena. there is no more open door by which you can enter into the study of natural philosophy than by considering the phenomena of a candle. a great British scientist. CANDLE FLAME IS BURNING VAPOR YOU WAYS CAN THAT PROVE THE FLAME IN SEVERAL OF A YOU CAN ACTUALLY LEAD THE VAPORS FROM A BURN" ING CANDLE THROUGH A BENT GLASS TUBE INTO A WATER GLASS. PLACE A BURNING CANDLE IN THE SUN AND CATCH THE SHADOW ON A PIECE OF WHITE PAPER. BLOW OUT THE CANDLE. into a LIQ D." Faraday told his listeners. Michael Faraday. THEN QUICKLY BRING A LIGHTED MATCH INTO THE VAPORS. you can do no better than to repeat for yourself some of the experiments that Mr. then into a GAS (or." He then set out to prove his point by lighting a candle and demonstrating all the processes involved.a candle! "There is not a law. DRAWN TO A POINT. IN THE FLAME AND UGHTING THE} VAPORS AT THE END . CANDLE IS AGAIN IGNITED. more correctl y into a gas-like vapor). tL OF TUBE. 18 . IF LEFT ALONE. first. In burning the candle produces ENERGY in the form of LIGHT and HEAT.

WHAT LIGHT .EW ICE CUBES AND SPRINKlE THEM WITH SALT. HOlD OVER BURNING CANDLE. 1 HOlD A COLD GLASS FOR A FEW MOMENTS OVER BURNING CANDLE. LIME WATER GETS CLOUDY FROM CARBON DIOXIDE. WATER DROPSWILL FORM ON THE OUTSIDE OF THE FOIL.0 1 uses oxygen for PLACE rEST TUBE OVER FUNNEL AND LLECTHO=FAIR..~ ANOTHER WA~ TO SHOW THAT CANDLE CONTAJNS CARBON IS TO P. POUR LIME WATER INTO TOBE AND SHAKE. WRAP IN ALUMINUM FOIL.CANDLE CONTAINS HYDROGEN A CANDLE FORMS WATER WHEN IT BURNS.·SCREENING COOLS THE FWltE AND SOOT FORMS. OUTSIDE OF FLAME SCORCHES A SOOTY RING. &~~~I~~~p7WHAT PART OF THE FlAME IS HOnEST? TO F'IND OUT.{KE DEW flOW TOGETHER INTO WATER DROPS.ROVE THAT CARBON DIOXIDE IS FORXH1DWHEN CANDLE BURNS. 2 19 . DEW FORMS ON THE INSIDE. . CANDLE CONTAINS CARBON PLACE PIECE OF WIRE SCREENING OVER FLAME. ONLY HYDROGEN BURNING IN OXYGEN FORMS WATER. CRUSH A F.. THE SOOT IS CARBON. li'\ BY WIPING FINGER INSIDE THE GLASS YOU CAN ~. PUSH PIECE OF CARDBOARD SIDEWAYS INTO FlAME.

THIS PROCESS IS CALLED "DECANTATION.S PROBABLY STIlL MURKY. ~'- <: : SOLUTION-STIR WATER INTO MIXTURE OF SALT AND DIRT." THE WANOT SALT DECANTA nON-LET DI RT -M IX ED SALT SOLUTION STAND UNTIL MOST OF THE DIRT HAS smLED. YOU NOW HAVE THE IN "WATERY SOLUTION. IT NEEDS TO BE FILTERED BY irrnrcc IT RUN THROUGH FILTER PAPER (PAPER TOWELING WILL DO). After two years of back-breaking work they reached their goal One night they went to the shed in which they had been working. They secured a whole ton of powdered are from a mine in northern Bohemia and set to work. THE TER WIll DISSOLVE THE SALT BUT THE DIRT. AlI around them. 20 . First the powder had to be boiled with strong acids to extract the mysterious substance hidden in it. They opened the door and stepped in without putting on the Iights.radium . TO ClEAR IT. What remained bad to be purified by various processes which the Curies had to invent themselves. and her French husband. Then the solution had to be filtered and boiled down. the containers that held the solutions of the new substance glowed in the dark! They had discovered a new element ." FILTRATION l-THE LIQUID I.a million times more active than uranium. ivlarie Curie. THEN POUR OFF THE LIQUID. Pierre decided to find out why a certain uranium are called pitchblende gave oft' rays that were much stronger than the uranium content of the ore could explain.IN 1896 a young Polish chemist.

They became obsessed with a desire to find out . DIRT IS "D. drafty shed that was their laboratory. FllTRATION. For the next two years they Iiterally slavst] in the . AND CRYS· TAUIZA TION. 21 . THIS IS KNOWN AS "EVAPORATION.not in the hope of gaining money or fame but to establish a scientific truth. the Curies made t. Before starting their work. SAlT CONSISTS Of TINY CU BES. CLEARED LIQUID IS CALLED "FILTRATE. NOW DECIDE THAT YOU WANT TO EXTRACT THE SALT FROM THIS MIXTURE AS EARNESTLY AS THE CURIES DECIDED TO EXTRACT THE MYSTERIOUS SUBSTANCE FROM PITCHBLENDE -WITH THE EXCEPTION THAT YOU KNOW WHAT YOU ARE AFT. THE IMPORTANT LABORATORY TECHNIQUES OF SOlUTION. BY CH. THE SALT MAKES ITS APPEARANCE AS T]NY CRYSTALS. The Curies were curious about the m~)'st.tell again the story of the discovery of radiumf Because it contains all the features that show the nature of the true scientist. 2 GET THE FACTS TOGETHER. ON THE BASIS OF WHAT YOU KNOW YOU SHOULD BE AB:lE TO SEPARATE THEM WITH A PAIR OF TINY TWEEZERS-BUT IT WOULD PROBABLY TAKE YOU A YEAR TO DO IT.EMICAL TESTS YOU CAN PROVE THAT IT IS SALT. 3 NEXT FlGUR. let us follow in their footsteps . figuring out the method they had to use to arrive at the result they were seeking. IT TASTES LIKE SALT.ery that lay in that greyish-black powder. OR YOU COULD DISSOlVE THE SALT IN WATER AND S8PARATE THE SOlUTION FROM THE INSOlUBLE DIRT .. THE SALT CAN NOW BE fREED BYR.EVAPORATION. DIRT PARTICLES ARE OF MANY DIFFERENT SHAPES.but with a much simpler problem: \Vh)' 1 MIX THOROUGHLY ONE TABLESPOON OF DIRT AND ONE TEASPOON OF ORDINARY TABLE SALT. what they had done.you are becoming a scientist yourself." EVAPORATION-THE FILTRATE CONTAINS THE SALT . THERE IS TOO LITTLE OF IT LEFT FOR THE SALT TO STAY IN SOlUTION. IN DOING THIS. 01RT DOES NOT DIS SOLVE IN WATER. ON THE SECOND WAY. SALT DOES. fiLTRATION 2-FOlD FILTER PAPER AS SHOWN ON OPPOSITE PAGE AND fIT IT IN FUNNEl. To this knowledge the)' added their own imagination.. the Curiesgathered all the known facts about the material with which they were to work. IN THE PROCESS. As an example of the scientific method the Curies used.RESUlT. After they bad made their discovery." SALT IS WHITE. YOU CHECK THE . Curiosity first.EJ.heir method of extracting radium known to the world so that other scientists could check and test.IRTY. DECANTATION. 5 FINALLY. POUR LIQUID ONTO FILTER PAPER . ~- By using the same procedure in all other experiments in this book you are learning the methods that real scientists follow in their work . YOU DO WHAT THE CURIES DID IN EXTRACTING RADIUM AND LEARN.E OUT A SUITABLE WAY OF SEPARATING THE TWO SUBSTANCES.E.\OVING THE WATER BY BOILING IT AWAV.R. 4 YOU DECIDE. USING THE STEPS SHOWN ON THE BOnOM OF THESE PAGES. THE WHITE SUBSTANCE lEFT AFTER EVAPORATION SHOULD BE SALTBUT IS IT? IT LOOKS LIKE SALT." CRYSTAUIZATION~AS WATER IS REMOVED.

Elem_enis, COlllponnJis, and Mixtures
IN ALL your experiments in chemistry, you will be dealing with "matter." 1 fatter is any-thing that takes up room and has weight (or "mass"). An iron bar is matter - it takes up room and is hea ... as you very well know. Water ·y, is matter ---..it takes up room when )'ou fill a pail with it, and a full pail weighs plenty. The air around you is matter - it takes up lots of room; it may not. seem very Ilea,,),",yet the earth's atmosphere presses down on every square inch of your body with a weight of almost fifteen pounds. Matter has three distinct forms. TrOD, for instance, is a SOLID. Water is a LIQUID. Air has the form of a GAS. H you should take iron and divide it again and
TWO ElEMENTS AND A MIXTURE

again until you couldn't divide it. any further, every tiny particle would still be :iron. A thing that consists of one kind. of matter only is called an ELEMENT. Take water, on the other hand. You will learn to break water up into two kinds of matter - each of them an element. A thing in which two or more elements are combined chemically is c-alled a COMPO ·ND. In a compound the proportions of the different elements that male iL up are always exactly the same. Air also consists of different kinds of matter but they are not combined chemically - the)" are simply mixed together. When you make a l\lIXT IRE, ~'OU can mix the ingredients together in any proportions that suit you.
MAKING A COMPOUND

MIX TOGETHER 2 9 OF flOWERS OF SULFUR AND 3.5 9 OF IRON FILINGS. PLACEMIXTURE IN A DAMAGED TESTTUBE. HEAT. SHORTLY A CHEMICAt REACTION TAKES PLACE. THE MIXTURE GLOWS AND BLACK IRON SULFIDE FORMS. THIS CANNOT BE SEPARATED INTO SULFURAND IRON AS IN PREVIOUS TESTS.

POWDERED SULFUR AND IRON CAN BE MIXED TOGETHER IN ANY PROPORTIONS AND AGAIN SEPARATED. 1 DRAG A MAGNET THROUGH THE SULFUR-IRON MIXTURE. THE MAGNET Will PICK UP THE IRON PARTICLES. POUR HYDROCHLORIC ACID ON SOME OF THE MIXTURE IN A TESTlUBE. IRON DISSOLVES,SULFURDOES NOT.

22

ELEMENTS ARE SUBSTANCES THAT CONSIST OF ONE KIND OF MATTER. ONLY. THEY CAN BE DIVIDED INTO METALS

METALS, METALLOIDS {METAL-LIKE}, NONMETALS. ERAL OF THE NONMETALS ARE GASES.

SEV·

METAllOIDS

NONME:TALS

anHmony •....
.

~

r.I ,,;Wl' -"
boron

~

:......' carbon

~ sulfur

1<5>1

silicon

COMPOUNDS-· -INORGANIC. ALL COMPOUNDS CONSIST OF TWO OR MORE ELEMENTS. INORGANIC ACIDS BASES

COMPOUNDS (WITH A FEW EXCEPTIONS) ARE THOSE THAT DO NOT CONTAIN THE ELEMENT CARBON.

SALTS

OTHERS

CARBON COMPOUNDS-ORGANIC.
COMPOUNDS

ORIGINALLY, MADE BY LIVING THINGS (PLANTS AND

ANIMALS) WERE CALLED "ORGANIC" TODAY ORGAN· IC CHEMISTRY COVERS THE. CARBON COMPOUNDS.

ElYDROCAR.BONSr ALCOROLSr

ACIDS,

.ETC.

MixtURES

CAN CONSIST OF ELEMENTS OR COMPOUNDS. SOME M[XTURES ARE COARSE .. SOME (COL-

LOIDS) CONTAIN TINY PARTICLES. STILL OTHERS (SO· LUTIONS) ARE OF SAME STRUCTURE THROUGHOUT.

GRAINY
rock

MIXTURES

COLlOlDS
soda
, .

SOLUTIONS

elly

~

egg while

23

o
WATER CYCLE
Evaporation

r
,

from ocean

:

r
,

~

iI .
1

~

I

~

Freezes at 0" C
(32° Fohrellheil).

is the most important of all chemical compounds. Without it there would be DO life - all human beings and all animals would thirst to death, and all plant. life would wilt and die. Fortunately, water is also the most common compound in the world. Almost three quarters of the earth's surface is covered by water. This water is forever traveling. It is turned into invisible vapor by evaporation from oceans and lakes and growing
YES, WATER

things. When cooled, the vapor forms clouds of tiny water drops. Further cooling makes the drops fall to earth as rain or snow that fill up rivers and lakes and oceans and continu the water cycle. Chemists use nature's method to produce chemically pure water. They tum ordinary tap water into steam by boiling, then turn the steam back into water by cooling. This process is c-alled distillation and the water is called distilled water.
WATER AS A CATALYST
WATER HelPS BRING ABOUT MANY CHEMICAL REACTIONS WITHOUT ITSELF ENTERING INTO THEM. A SUBSTANCE THAT ACTS THIS WAY IS CALLED A CATALYST.
warm weier

WATER AS A SOLVENT
THE MOST IMPORTANT FUNCTION OF WATER IN CHEMICAL EXPERI.MENTS IS AS A SOLVENTTHAT IS, A LIQUID IN WHICH CHEMICALS MAY BE DISSOLVED. FIND OUT BY AN EASY EXPERIMENT WHETHER HEATING THE WATER HELPS IN DISSOLVING A CHEMICAL. .:

1 TABLESODA IN % GLASS OF COLD WATER. STIR. PART OF THE SODA DISSOLVES SLOWLY. 2 REPEAT WITH HOT WATER. SODA DISSOLVES QUICKLY. HOT WATER IS USUALLY FASTER THAN COlD FOR PREPARING A SOlUTION.

1 PLACE 1 TEASPOON. DRY BAKING POWDER IN SMAll JAR. AITACH WIRE TO CANDLE. LIGHT CANDLE AND LOWER IT 1NTO JAR. CANDlE GOES ON BURNING. OW POUR WARM WATER ON THE BAKING POWDER. A CHEMICAL REACTION MAKES THE POWDER FOAM. THE GAS RELEASED IS CARBON DIOXIDE. IT MAKES CANDLE FLAME FLICKERAND GO OUT.

cold

water

hot water

24

YOU CAN GET THE REQUI'RED ElECTRICITY FROM THREE OR FOUR ORDINARY AND FLASHLIGHT BATIER1ES. CLOSE THE . " Performing the Electrolysis ELECTRODE UP 1 2 SLIP THE TOP OF A CARBON BIND THREE-OR. 2 A BARE THE! WIRE END OF 'fW0 SCRAPE (ARBON ReD ElEAN WITH Gl!ILL KtsllEJ. OF THE WATER WITH MOUTH WITH YOUR THUMB. SODA IN 1 PINT OF AND WATER THEN AS TEST TUBES GLASS AND TWO THIS SET UP THE SHOWN SOLUTION.E. TOP OF THE NEXT. GLOWING THIS IS TEST FOR OXYGEN. CLOSE I'fS MOUTH WITH YOUR THUMB.LS YQ\:I NEEID FOR EXPERIMEt>-ITS 0~ THIS ~ND SEVERAL FQLLOWING PAGES. AIR BUBBLES BEGIN TO COLLECT IN THE TWO TEST TUBESABOUT TWICE AS FAST IN ONE AS IN THE OTHER. WHICH IS MOSTLY MANGAI'>JESE 910XIDE. 25 .c->: Wo~bon 2 rod AT EACH CARBON ROD FROM AN BAITERY. BRIGHT FW. lHROW REMAINU'lG Ii'ARTS 61' tHE BAITERY AWAY. OF THE WIRE LEADING " 0" o 0 0 0 0 ELECTRODE TO THE TOP OF THE FIRST BAnERY. TIE ONE BARED WIRE AROUND OF CARBON o 3 DRY OUT THE MGlST BLACK POWDER.ELECTROLYSIS OF WATER ELECTRICITYCAN BE USED TO BREAK WATER APART INTO THE TWO ELEMENTS OF WHICH IT CONSISTS -THE GASES HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN. FLAME. 4 TAPE THE BARED END OF THE WIRE FROM THE OF LAST BAnERY. ALSO NEED TWO PIECES OF INSULATED COPPER WIRE MA:rERl/dlS EG)R EXiPERIMENT-5 Ahl OR~IN~R¥ FLASHLIGHT BAITERY wru GIVfi YOU MATER1~../.I. APPARATUS AT RIGHT. LIFT THE TUBE OUT OF THE WATER. CONTENTS BURN WITIH A SOFT "POP!" THIS IS THE TEST FOR HYDROGEN. nST FOR OXYGEN 1 WHEN SECOND TUBE IS FUll OF GAS. 1 2 LIGHT OUT A BROOMSTRAW. FOUR-flASHLIGHT ADHESIVE TAPE.. rw0 "ELECTRODES' ~~~ ~ Making Electrodes OLD 1 SCORE THE MIDDlE OF THE ~ ~"~ ~ . ROD BAnERIES AROUND RODS SO CARBON THAT NO 3 WITH OF ONE TOUCHING TAPE FASTEN THE BARED END FROM ONE CARBON IS EXPOSED. MOUTH DOWN. STORE IN JAR. TOGETHER ADHESIVE BrnER. BREAK THE ROD INTO 1 OPEN UP BATIERY CASE €AREFULLY "/.ITA CAN gPBNER AN0 CLEAt>l THE ZiNC €ASIN-I3. WITH BonOM INTO EACH OF THE TWO TEST TUBES. BRING LIGHTED MATCH TO THE MOUTH OF THE TUBE. OTHER ELECTRODE TO BonOM 0 Setting WATER up Electrolysis YOU OF IS A POOR CONDUC1 TABLESPOON FilL A <> TOR OF ELECTRICITY-SO DISSOLVE WASHING WATER WITH AS SOON AS CONNECTION IS MADE. YOU Will }'~DE FROM CARBON RODS.'IOOTH OF THE TEST BE FIRST FILLED WITH GAS. FOR 2" 18" USING A FilE. FbASHLIGHT TWO PIECES. LIFT THE TUBE OUT UP. BRING IN EM· END DOWN BLOW THE THE GLOWING BER BURSTS INTO THE TEST TUBE. LENGTHS OF INSIJLATED WIRE.

O OXYGEN Oxygen-The Breath of Life IF YOU could hold your breath for a few minutes so that no air could get into your lungs.1 weiglit of aIr. But it was not until Karl Scheele.. That's pretty much what chemists doexcept that they abbreviate the names to initials. How would you writ. AND FOR SENDING SATELLITES INTO ORBIT." In the lab. Slightly soluble . For thousands of years. Both of these scientist.in woter-3 volumes in 100 volumes at 20· C. Atomic wt. as you know. Colorless. O~ygen is the mod earth. odorless gas. use small numbers. in 1772. 1. supporting combustion (burningJ. you would die. oxygen is produced by driving it out of certain oxygen-containing compounds. The formula becomes H20. rygen. 16. 26 . people have known that no human being can live without air.OXYGEN OXYGEN Element 8. in r74. Water.Oxygen 1. You could write it: Hydrogen 2 . a Swedish chemist. you can use the manganese dioxide from an old flashlight battery (page 25). Hydrogen peroxide contains 2 parts of hydrogen to every 2 parts of oxygen. A good one to use in the home lab is hydrogen perox-ide. consists of 2 parts of hydrogen to 1 part of Q). and don't bother about the number 1. an Englishman. AIRPLANES AND SPACE SHIPS. For a catalyst.e it in chemical languages H202~ You're perfectly right! H~02 becomes water (H20) and gives oft' oxygen (0) when you throw a catalyst into it. and Joseph Priestley. Hydrogen peroxide is related to water.discovered that things burn more fiercely in pure oxygen than they do in the mixture of oxygen and other gases called 'air. discovered and described oxygen that people knew that it is the oxygen in the air that is important to life. IT'S A LONG STEP FROM THE DISCOVERY OF OXYGEN IN 1772 TO ITS PRESENT-DAY USE IN INDUSTRY AND HOSPITALS. You can get it at a drug store in a 3% solution.

" "~" FIT BOTTLE WITH STOPPER WITH L-SHAPED GLASS TUBE AND ENOUGH TO REACH HOLE OF BRIDGE. HEAT BURNER. EMBER GLOWS BRIGHTER AND MAY BURST INTO FlAME. WATER-FIllED 2 METAL "BRIDGE. CANDLE GOES OUT. MAKIN:G A SMALL AMOUNT O.. PEROXIDE. STRIP OF TIN CAN. [OR PUT STOPPER IN IT). OF "BRIDGE" FOR "PNEUMATMADE FROM SULIC TROUGH" BENT STRIP OF TIN CUT FROM CAN. ADD PINCH OF MANGANESE DIOXIDE FROM FLASHLIGHT BATTERY (SEE PAGE 2S). LOWER INTO 2 PLACE SMALL MATCH. WATER RI. TURN JAR RIGHT SIDE TO PREVENT THE OXYGEN OF STEEL WOOl TO RED HEAT OVER ALCOHOL TO WIRE. BLUE LIGHT. PIECE OF SULFUR IN CROOK IGNITE JAR OF OXYGEN.SES 11'1 JAR TO REPLACE OXYGEN USED. 2~ . FILL PIE PLATE WITH WATER. LIGHT CANDLE. MAKING OXYGEN IN THE HOME LAB 1 TO COLlEa OXYGEN. WITH LOWER INTO FUR BURNS WITH A BRILLIANT.1 FASTEN A SMALL CANDLE TO MIDDLE OF PIE PLATE WITH CANDLE DRIPPINGS. SLIDE A GLASS PLATE UNFROM ESCAPING. YB 4 OF MANGANESE PUT THE STOPPER IN. DER OPENING UP-QUICKLY. ADD RUSBER TUBE LONG 3 FILL BOTTLE Y. SULFUR 2Y2 ." THIS IS A DEEP. ~ A MOMENT LATER. YOU NEED A "PNEUMATIC TRAY WITH TROUGH. TEST FOR OXYGEN WITH GLOWING BROOMSTRAW. PLACE AN EMPTY JAR OVER CANDLE.. ON THE IT FILL JAR WITH WATER AND PLACE IT UPSIDE DOWN THAT THE OXYGEN OUT AND FillS WHEN IT BY fORCING REPLACING BRIDGE IN SUCH A WAY AND 5 BUBBLES INTO oxygen is slightly heavier than air -so keep mouth of jar up THE WATER JAR IS FULL OF OXYGEN. FULL OF 3"10 HYDROGEN PEROXIDE.F OXYGEN FILL JAR Y.c TEASPOON FULL OF 3"10 HYDROGEN DIOXIDE.

28 . you can make hydrogen by adding strips of zinc from a flashlight battery to hydrochloric acid which consists of hydrogen (H) and another gas called chlorine (Cl).CE E. OVERING HOLD A COLD GLASS OVER HYDROGEN THE INSIDE OF THE GLASS SHOWS THAT WATER IS FORMING'! HYDROGEN IS LIGHTEST GAS KNOWN 1 FTLLA POP BOTTLE MIXTURE OF y~ FULL OF HALF- AND-HALF HYDROCHLORIC ACID AND WATER. HENRY HAD WHEN NO CAVENDISH. hydrogen . ADO A COUPLE OF Z. IF TUBE WH. WITH LIGHTED MATO!. in 1783. LIGHT JET. For this reason one of its early uses was for filling balloons. and such common. this purpose was demonstrated in 1937 in the Hirulenburq disaster. the milk you drink. LET NO 2 3 FIT BAllOON WHEN FLAME COME NEARI OF BOTTLE. RISE TO IF PERM.. In the home lab. So is the food you eat. 3 PL(A.\EDIATELY.MPTY TEST TUBE OVER GLASS TUBE. AFTER ANOTHER TEttS~O\:J MINUTI1.EN PUT IT BACK. STRING CEILING REMOVE BALLOON OUT- BOnlE. the clothes you wear. Jacques Charles. DROP IN HALF A DOZEN ZINC STRIPS.. everydaythings as gasoline and fuel oil and cooking gas.of All HYDROGENis the lightest element in eristence-7l4 the weight of air . after a trip across the Atlantic Ocean.. COVERED ISHING IDEA OF THE ASTONHYDROGEN RELEASED IN A BOMB.INC STRIPS. TUBE 2 CLOSE TES:r T BE WITH RUBBER STOPPER WITH GLASS DRAWN TO JET POINT. when the hydrogen-filled Zeppelin dirigible exploded on arriving at Lakehurst few Jersey. It is found in all living things .your own body is approximately 10 per cent hydrogen. The zinc forms a compound (ZnClz) with the chlorine and sets the hydrogen free (Hz). HYDROGEN FORCE OF WHO IN DIS1766. COVER APPARATUS WITH A TOWEl.ITIED. BUBBLES OF HYDROGEN FORM IM}.. Hydrogen is one of the most important of all the elements. Water. HYDROGEN FORMS WATER WHEN IT BURNS 1 FILL TEST TUBE % FULL OF HYDRO. IT WILL SOAR UP IN THE SKY. AFTER 1 MINUTE. TRY AGAIN. DEW. AND OPENING FROM WILL DOORS." SOFT "POP' 4 GAS IS PUR!. TIE ON MOUTH BALLOON WITH IS INFLATED. is part. INDOORS. The first man-carrying gas balloon was sent up by the Frenchman. Thirty-six people lost their lives. TEST THIS TUBE FOR HYDROGEN "BARKS. as you know. FlAME. The danger of using an explosive gas for.CHlORIC ACID.

4 PLACE 1" LAYER OF SMALL PEBBLES ON BOnOM OF BOTTLE B." PURE HYDRO· GEN BURNS WITH A QUIET "POP. DROP ZINC STRIPSON TOP OF PEBBLES. COLLECT SOM.UBE C. MAKE ALL CONNECTIONS AIRTIGHT. WHEN FULLOF GAS. WATER·FILLEDJARS. fROM YOUR MAIN GEN· i ! i : I • IGNITE HYDROGEN ONLY FROM TEST TUBE GENERATOR DESCRIBED ON OPPOSITE PAGE.MAKING HYDROGEN IN THE LA.E IN WATER·FILLEDTEST TUBE. HYDROGEN FORCESACID FROM BOTTLE B BACK INTO . AS SHOWN ON PAGE 25. WHEN ACID NO LONGER TOUCHES ZINC.BUBBLEIT INTO UPSIDE·DOWN. CANDLE GOES OUT. FIT STOPPERS AND TUBESAIRTIGHT. some • TEST HYDROGEN FOR PURITY BY COLLECTING A TEST TUBE FULL OF IT AND BRINGING A LIGHTED MATCH TO . AND THEN ONLY AFTER YOU HAVE TESTED IT FOR PURITY. FOLILOW SAFETY RULES BELOW. 7 AS SOON AS HYDROGEN STARTSTO BUBBLEUP THROUGH WATER IN PNEUMATIC TROUGH. CHANGE S RING CLOTHESPIN FROM RUBBERTUBE OF BOTTLE A TO RUBBER TUBE OF BOTTLE B.A. HYDROGEN MIXED WITH AIR EX· PLODES WITH A SHARP "BARK." • KEEP flAME AWAY ERATOR BonLE. WHEN YOU KNOW FROM TESTING SAMPLESOF GAS COLLECTED IN TEST TUBES THAT HYDROGEN IS PURE.FILl SMAll JAR WITH IT. 29 . HYDROGEN BURNS AT MOUTH OF JAR. REACTION STOPS. BRING LIGHTED CANDLE UP INTO JAR. OR FORCE IT OVER BY BLOWING IN . HYDROGEN EXPLOSIVE. • MAKE ONLY SMALL AMOUNTS OF HYDRO· GEN IN THE HOME LAB. LIFT JAR OUT OF WATER. APE WITH MY ROGIN IS HIGHLY IN MIXTURES WIiTH AIR. TESTIT AS DESCRIBED BOTTOM OF PAGE.MOUTH OF TUBE. 6 CLOSE TUBE OF BOTTLE A WITH CLOTHESPIN. 8 WHEN YOU HAVE MADE THE EXPERIMENTSYOU WANT. MOUTH DOWN. WHEN AT HYDROGEN IS PURE. 5 POUR ACID FROM BOTTLE A INTO BOTTLE B. A 4·0Z. GENERATOR Will GIVE YOU All THE HYDROGEN YOU NEED.B t }·AAKETHE SAFm GAS GENERATOR DESCRIBEDON PAGE 12.

AND WHICH FORM THE CHEMICALS MIX CARBON FORCES OUT THE WATER. 30 . HA_VE already learned in experimenting with a burning candle that when something containing carbon burns in the air. carbon dioxide (COJ is formed. WRAP ATTACH SODA BICARBONATE PACKAGE SODA IN A SHEET OF TOILET TISSUE." When dissolved in water (H20).but you can see it when it has been cooled and compressed into a solid block of "dry ice. FILL BOTTLE HA["F FULL OF MIXTURE OF 1 PART VINEGAR AND 1 PART WATER.EXHAlE CAJ<BON OXYGEN TAKE IN CARBON OIOXJOE Yo . The reason is that green plants. by combining it with oxygen and hydrogen from water and with various minerals in the soil. in sunlight. TO TUBe WITH A RUBBER BAND. humans and animals eat. a gas. SIDE DOWN. Carbonic acid combines with many metals to make "carbonates. CHEMICAL CONTAIN SODA AND FIRE EXTINGUISHERS SOLUTION A WHEN OF BAKING SULTURNED UPDIOXIDE . carbon dioxide (C02) forms a weak acid (H2COZ)' You know the taste of this acid from soda water-the bubbles are CO2 being set free. MAKING A FIRE EXTINGUISHER MODEL . SHORT ITH A GLASS A TUBE RUBBER OF J TIP INTO STOPPER." You can drive the CO2 out of most carbonates with the help of a weak: acid .even with vinegar. PUT IN THE STOPPER. You cannot see the CO2 in the air .• _ BOTTLE OF FURIC ACID. This is one of the most important gases for human life. are able to take the carbon out of the carbon dioxide in the air and. which is diluted acetic acid. produce all the vegetable matter that.

FEATUR. OF INTO 2 LET STAND UNTil LIME SINKS TO THE INTO A BOTTLE. POUR A SMALL Af. PROCEED AS FOR fMKING IS A BURNING 31 .ES OF CARBON DIOXIDE MAK. POUR THE THE JAR THE DIOXIDE WHEN THE CARBON BURNING IN JAR CONTAINING HAS GONE OUT.PRODUCES CANDLE CANDLE CARBON DIOXIDE A A GLASS SHAKE PROVES A LIGHTED CANDLE DIOXIDE fORMED IN A JAR BY A WIRE. FROM fMRBLE ACID CARBON CHIPS AND DIOXIDE DilUTED IS USUAL~Y MADE HYDROCHLORIC PLACE CHIPS THEN [PAGE 29). odorless I gas.529 weight of air.ING LIME WATER Molecular wI.. 2 WAY PLACE 1 TEASPOON Of BAKING SODA IN A PITCHER. REACHES THE TOP OF THE CANDLE. WHEN LIME WATER UP WITH COVER TOP WITH THE AIR. TEST FOR CO2 CO2 MILKY TURNS BY LIME WATER CHANGING CALCIUM HYDROXIDE CO2 IN LABORATORY. BREATHE THROUGH GLASS TUBE INTO LIME WATER GETS MILKY. Does nol supporl I combuslion (burning]. YOU CAN PROVE BOTH POINTS: 1 STIR 1 TEASPOON HYDRATED LIME 1 PINT OF WATER. BOTTOM. OUNT HANG OF WHITE VINEGAR OVER THE SODA. Colorless. 44. ARBON IN THE PITCHER INTO THE FlAME FEW ml LIME WATER. PLATE. UME WATER THIS SHOWS THAT BREATH· PROCESS.. fairly soluble in woo CO2 IS HEAVIER THAN AIR AND DOES NOT SUPPORT BURNING. THAT CO~ HAS BEEN PRODUCED. 1. ' 1. GOES OUT.. ING IN TEST TUBE. Does nol burn. FILTER LIQUID CLOSE BOTTLE TIGHTlY. BURNING HANG . HYDROGEN ON TOP OF PEBBLES IN YOUR GAS GENERATOR. (1 PART ACID TO 1 PART WATER). MILKINESS YOU WOULD POUR WATER.co 2 CAR 80 N DIOXIDE Compound.

Slightly soluble in wo ter-l .for all plants Deed nitrates if they are to thrive. the hrown gas called nitrogen dioxide (NO~). 00 NOr INHALe. IT IS NITROGEN DIOXIDE.QQC. IN A cially with ammonia gas 1 -H3). hydrogen. Colorless. Yet. IN A WEU·VENTILAfED You will not have much satisfaction out of workROOM. It does not help in burning nor does it burn if you try to ignite it. tiny bacteria on the roots of certain plants can take nitrogen from the air and make it combine with ox-ygen and minerals. odorless Does net burn. the farmer must add them to his soil in the form of some . to form ammonia gas (I\IH3). kind of fer tiliz er.espeIN DRY nST ~UBE. UNUSED GAS IS ALMOST All NITROGEN-WITH SMALL PERCENTAGEOF RARE GASES AND CARBON DIOXIDE.. And that 'is of tremendous importance to " all of us . 0. A~G-ON . from which other nitrogen compounds CHon be made. co. ~GASIS VERY IRRITATING.. in the soil into "nitrates . thO f======~==1 :1 78 % NITROGEN 21% OXYGEN REPEAT CANDLE-BURNING EXPERIMENT ON PAGE 27. HEAT EQUAL AMOUN~S OF SALTPETER ing with nitrogen itself.1 2. If plants do not get nitrates naturally.nitrogen makes with oxygen. in nature. 32 NITROGEN DIOXIDE ment on earth. It is only at high temperatures and under great pressures that a chemist can make nitrogen combine with another element.. !-itrogen is what J'on might call a "lazy" element. but you will lind it interAND SODIUM. BISULfATE esting to deal with some of its compounds .NITROGEN GOES INTO 90'S..t~ON !::RYPTON XENON :HELIUM AlSO. 967 weigh! of air.. A BROWN GAS to have a look at one of the half dozen combinations FORMS.5 volumes in 100 vels.M l-HE ATMOSPHERE J % RARE GASES:'" . NITROGEN FRO.ingJ. supporl DOles nol combustion (burn. You will also want MOMENT.

WATER. HEAT CAN OVER tow FLAME.E.A OF PRODUCING IS TO GET IT FROM ITS Compound. BOTH JARS FILLWITH "SMOKE" OF TINY AA-\MONIUM CHLORIDE CRYSTAlS. MOUTH DOWN.AMMONIA DIS· SOLVES EASILY. 3 HOLD ON TO AMMONIA-FULED JAR AND P u CARD. OPEN TER. FIT STOPPER WITH 6" GLASS TUBE IN OPENING. TEST TUBE IS FULL OF AMMONIA WHEN MOIST. PLACE IT FIRMLY ON ros STOPPEROF APPARATUS. THE WHITE MYSTERY SMOKE 1 MOISTEN INSIDE OF J R WITH SMALL AfIlOUNT OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID. 3 BLOW INTO L-SHAPEDGLASS TUBE TO DRIVEA FEW DROPS OF WATER UP INTO THE UPPERBonLE.th strong.596 weight of ojr. COVER JAR WITH SQUARE OF CARD"BOARD. IT UPSIDE DOWN ON CARDBOARD. MAKING AMMONIA SAL AMMONIAC FROM 1 ON A PIECE OF PAPER. IMMEDIATELY. CLOSE MOUTH OF TUBE WhH THUMB. ADD A FEW DROPS OF. EMPTY BOTTLE WITH AMMONIA FROM GENERATOR CAN. RED lITMUS PAPER TURNS BLUE IN AMMONIA.BOARDAWAY. WATER SPURTS FROM LOWER BOTTLE UP INTO UPPERBOTTllE IN A FOUNTAIN THAT TURNS PINK AS AMMONIA REACTS ON PHENOLPHTHALEIN. 4 SUDDENLY. 33 . PLACE 2 FILLANOTHER JAR WITH AMMONIA. POUR EXCESS ACID BACK INTO ITS BOTTLE. PROVIDE TUBE WITH STOPPER AND L-SHAPED GLASS TUBE.MIX 1 PART OF SAL AMMONIAC WITH 2 PARTS OF HYDRATED LIME. NH·3 AMMONIA PRODUCING AMMONIA SIMPLEST WAY AMMONI. Molecular weight 17. KEEPING BOnlE UPSIDE DOWN. ADD 5 DROPS OF PHENOLPHTHALEIN SOLUTION-. SOLUBILITY OF AMMONIA TEST TUBE FROM GAS GENERATOR CAN. . PLACE TEST TUBE OVER GLASS TUBE. Colorless gas wi. penerrcfinq odor. 1 MAKE UP APPARATtlS AS SHO K1IN ILLUSTRATION. Fill PINT CAN ONE QUARTER FUll OF HQIJSEHOLO AMMONlA. Highly 501- SOLUTION AS HOUSEHOLD AM· MONIA. TESTIT WITH LITMUS PAPERAND FOR SOLUBILITY. MOIST.. ---2 FILL DRY. RED LITMUS PAPER HELD AT ITS MOUTH TURNS BLUE. AMMONIA'S EXTRAORDINARY SOLUBILITY CAN BE SHOWN IN A SPECTACULAR DEMONSTRATION. THEN HEAT OVER LOW FLAM. WATER RUSHES IN AND FILLS TUBE. DROP MIXTURE INTO A TEST TUBE. FILLIT WITH WATER. 2 COllECT AMMONIA IN DRY TESTTUBE.

5 9 (Va TEASPOON) ACID. Chlori1_1e-F rienJ and Foe a gas of great importance. Sniff this if you get too strong a whiff of chlorine. GRAINS STARCH WITH 30 ml (AS 1 Put. FORMS. Atomic wI.. . which is a solution of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO). We wouldn't be certain of safe drinking water in our cities if it weren't for chlorine .MOUTH OF TUBE. NOTE: Perform these experiments out-of-doo·rsor befor·e an open: window. Have a bottle of diluted household ammonia (90% water.MIX . which consists of hydrogen (H) and chlorine (CI).S 9 (~. WATER. Chlorine is also used extensb .• CI CHLORINE Element 17. ADD 3 m! (Va CHLORIC TEST TUBE) UNDILUTED HYDRO- A SMALL AMOUNT AS TWO OF POTASSIUM HEAT GENTlY. PAPER TURNS BLUE. STARCH·IODIDE OF FILTER PAPER IN MIXJURE. 34 . CHLORINE IS You can produce chlorine as a greenish-yellow gas by driving it out of one of its compounds .rea·the fumes. But it is dangerous when used improperly because it affects the lungs .. WAFT A LlTILE CAREFULLY TOWARD TEST GAS BY HOLDING YOU FOR A SNIFF. MANGANESE CHLORINE DIOXIDE INTO DISSOLVE IN MIXTURE IODIDE O.F RICE). TEST TUBE. 10% household ammonia) on band.MOISTENED PAPER AT ..As a "poison gas" it caused many casualties in World War 1. Be careful not t·ob.· Chlorine is a friendly gas when it is used correctly.hydrochloric acid (HC1).ely in bleaching.a small amount of it in the water kills the dangerous germs that may lurk in it. DIP STRIPS THEN DRY THEM. MAKING TEST PAPER FORCH.LO RI N E CHLORINE FROM HYDROCHLORIC ACID . or a common laundry bleach ("Clorox" or others). MUCH BRING TEASPOON) TO BOIl.

MAKING CHLORINE 1 MAKE RIGHT.BINES WITH THE DOES THE BLEACHING. THE CHLORINE. CHLORINE. THE LIB- WITH WATER. BonLE V2 A. 1 FILL A BonLE WITH CHLORINE GAS. HEAT IT WITH A J. SHAKE . NOT WOOD YET THAT THE CHLOPERTHE CHLORINE DIRECTLY WILL WITH COMBINE SEVERAL RINE FORMS BLEACHING. COM. POUR A SMAll BOTTLE AMOUNT WITH OF WATER INTO CLOSE THE YOUR PALM. THE BonLE THE SUCTION CHLORINE GREAT TON USE BLEACHING AND HAS IN COTLINEN IT IS CREATED... NOTHING IS NOT ..BROWN CHLORIDE BOnLE. THE CHLORINE WlTH THE HYDROGEN DLE AND FREE AS SOOT. DISSOLVES AND A AND CHLORINE GAS. THE CLOTH SOON AND AGAIN HANG FADEIT COLORED COTCOLOR OF HAPPENS. C HAS LYE TEASPOON IS DISSOLVED. DROP IN Sani Flush TLE C ABSORBS EXCESS OF CHLORINE GAS. ERATED OXYGEN 35 . ONLY TRULY "FAST" IN CONTACT HYDROGEN AND THE COLORS COLORS REMAIN. TAKE STOPPER OUT OF BOntE A. A CHLORINE-FillED MOUTH BonLE.AFFECTED. WITH OTHER IT IS ELEPARNOTE" EACH TIME YOU R MOVE TO SHOW THE SOLUBILITY OF CHLORINE. HANG IN IT (FROM A CORK OR FROM A PIECE OF CARDBOARD) A STRIP OF DRY. POURS OUT. LIBERATES OXYGEN. FORMED. COMBINES IN IT OF THE CAN- SETS THE CARBON AND PULP. C TO STICKS TO YOUR PALM FROM FROM GEITlNG CHLORINE OUT IN THE ROON. SMOKE A HEAVY MOISTEN IN THE CHLORINE. BRIGHTlY FASTEN A SMALL WAD OF TON ClO~H 2 CLOTH. LOWER A BURNING A BOTTLE DENSE OF SMOKE OF CANDLE CARBON INTO A IS MENT. WHEN REACTION SLOWS ADD MORE SODIUM BISULFATE WITH CHLORINE MOST MENTS.'tATCH RINE-FillED . TICULARLY AND MANY ACTIVE HYDRO- HYDROGEN lIfE GAS-COlLECTING BOntE B FOR EXPERICONNECT BOntES PREVENT GEN COMPOUNDS. STEEL WOOL AND LOWER TO A [PIECE OF IT INTO OF CHLOIRON WIRE. BLEACH BOntE WATER POUR IN THE HOME SHOWN OF BonLE LAB AT APPARATUS 1 INCH INTO LIQUID (CLOROX) IN WHICH B IS EMPTY.

ICALS WITH EB sulfur oxygen hydrogen o 00]) ammonia JOHN DALTON SUGGESTED MARKED CIRCLES TO INDICATE DIFFERENT ElEM. he added a small letter 36 to one of the symbols to .the same system scientists use today. THE A1CHEM. These circles served to explain Dalton's theory but they were too difficult to work with to show complicated. an English scientist.' -Where two names started with the same letter.how else could they retrace their steps in case they actually hit upon the gold they were seekingi' Tbey in ented a whole line of complicated symbols that only they could understand." The smallest possible part of the compound that re ulted he called a ' compound atom"today we call it a "molecule.ENTS. ~~~~~~~~3 Au aurum 19o1dl C cOrbo (corban) JONS JAKOB zsuus BER- DEVELOPED IN WHICH OF ARE THE SYSTEM USED TODAY. worked out a simpler system . The first to invent a usable s stem was Jabo Dalton. THE NAMES ELEMENTS ABBREVIATED. it will seem the simplest and most logical thing in the world to use these abbreviations of the names of the different elements rat bel' than the full names. A Swedish chemist. For his symbols he took the first letter of the Latin name of each eIement." To explain his 'atomic theory" Dalton made use of circles." Before long. But it became necessary for the alchemists to write down their experim nts . In the early days of chemistry no one bothered to do much writing about it." S for 'sulfur. The invention was almost forced upon him.Chemical ShorthanJ SO FAR you have experimented with ox--ygen. J ons Jakob Berzelius. and chlorine.ISTS WORKED. In taking notes of your experiments you are certain to have 1earned that it is much quicker to write HH" than "hydrogen. carbon dioxide and nitrogen. and have combined the two elements iron and sulfur into a chemical compound.and hydrogen. These particles he called "atoms. each with a marking to indicate a specific element." and easier to write "CO~"than "carbon dioxide. As chemists delved deeper and deeper into the mysteries of matter it became more and more important for them to write out their experiments in such a way that all other chemists would know what they were trying to explain.C for "carbo. Yet it took chemists hundreds of years before they settled on -this uniform method of writing out their chemical formulas. chemical reactions. you have also separated water into the two elements of which it consists. In his study of chemistry he had become convinced that all chemical reactions could be explained in terms of the tiniest possiblepart of one element reacting with the tiniest possible part of another. USED FANCIFUL FIGURES TO WHICH THEY REPRESENT THE CHEM.

or "smash" atoms into still smaller parts-neutrons. FeS." placed at the lower right of the symbol .ENUCLEUS IN AN "INNER SHELl" AND FOUR MORE WHIRLING AROUND IN AN "'OUTER SHELL" IF YOU COUL. In recent years it has been necessary to change Dalton's idea of an atom as being the smallest indivisible part of an element. Joseph Louis Proust. one atom of carbon and two atoms of oxygen make carbon dioxide.. and electrically charged protons and electrons ." One atom of carbon and one atom of oxygen make carbon monoxide. shorthand" method any scientist has ever devised for writing them down. had discovered that whenever elements form compounds these are always of a very definite composition . According to today's atomic theory protons and neutrons form the nucleus of the atom and electrons whirl around the nucleus with such tremendous speed that they seem to form a "shell" around it. But even with our new idea of an atom. To describe these things in a simple way Berzelius made each of his symbols stand not only for a specific element but also for its relative weight as compared to the weight of other clements-its 'atomic weight." Water molecules. 37 AN ATOM MIGHT LOOK LIKE A BALL SUCH AS THIS IF YOU ENLARGED IT A BILLION TIMES.D HALT AN ENLARGED CARBON ATOM COMPLETELY. WITH A "SUN" (PROTONS AND NEUTRONS) IN THE CENTER AND "PLANETS" (ELECTRONS)AROUND IT." To show the composition of a compound he simply put together the symbols for the elements into a 'formula"-CO. Dalton's main theory is still useful for ex-plaining chemical reactions. But Berzelius went an important step further. and so on.. CO2. IT WOULD LOOK A lOT LIKE OUR SOLAR SYSTEM. always contain the same number of hydrogen and oxygen atoms. for example. When a compound contained several atoms of the same element Berzelius indicated this by placing a Dumber in front of the symbol. And Dalton had found that when two elements combine in different ways they do this in simple proportions . By then the French chemist. and Berzelius' method is still the simplest . Nowadays we have machines. THE "SHELl" IS NOT SOLID-IT CONSISTS OF ELECTRONSMOVING SO FAST THAT THE'( SEEM TO FORM A SOLID SHEll.the "Law of Definite Composition. .he used Ca for "calcium. such as the cyclotron.H20. It was later found Dece5SOO'y change this to a smaller number called to a "subscript. "CO" then not only meant that one atom of carbon and one atom of oxrygen combine to make one molecule of carbon monoxide." for instance to distinguish it from carbon (C).the "Law of Multiple Proportions. but also that 12 weight units of carbon (12 being the atomic weight of carbon) combine with 16 weight units of oxygen (16 being the atomic weight of m. IF YOU COULD SLOW DOWN AN ENLARGED CARBON ATOM YOU MIGHT SEETWO OF ITS ELECTRONSTRAVElING AROUND TH. that can bombard. HCI.distinguish the two elements from each other . J'gen) to form 28 weight units of the compound carbon monoxide.

2 76 Tungsten 183. NEUTRONS IT CONSISTING HAS A NU· OF PROElECTRONS THE (n). aurum (gold .91 5S B1:I Barium T37. water. argentum (silverMORE THAN All A THOUSAND DRY AND THAT YEARS PHILOSOPHERS UP OF AND BffiER FOUR COlD.991 THE iliA PERIODIC TABLE OF VI A THE VII 24 Mn ELEMENTS A 25 Fe Iron 55.27 Promethium 145 Samorium 150.91 41 Mo 42 Tc 43 Ru 44 5 Krypton 83. sulfur (8). ' elements.3 S4 C5 Cesium 132.Au).FROM: THE earliest times people have tried to explain what "matter" was made of. NOW! FOR INSISTED THAT SUBSTANCES WATER AND WERE MADE WAS MOIST H 1 1. The early Greek philosophers thought the entire universe was composed of only four basic-substances: fire.05 72 Ta Tantalum 180. They called them. 8 n 3 Ne Neon 20.86 Rhenium 1B6. by their Latin names (the same we use today in chemical s-ymbols): carbo (carbon .9-5 73 W 74 Re 75 Os Osmium 190.9 VA 22V ~3 Vcrnadium 50.1 Xe 6 Rn Xenon 131. WITH IN RINGS AROUND . 94 36 Rb Rubidium 85. 'lost earlyphilosophers agreed that "matter" was made up of what they called.se 54 . This explanation made sense at the time and was DOt seriously challenged for many centuries... of course.01 Mangane. WE KNOW 1 Hydrogen e o 2 He Helium 4.85 Magnesium 24·32 A 18 K _Argon 39.92 Neodymium 144.96 Chromium 52.1 Ilca rv A ~] TI Titcrnium 47.50 Cerium 140.22 INERT GASES Ir _ I ALKALI METALS D 61 93 Pu ALKALINE EARTH METALS ROWS RIGHT UMNS RUNNING FROM LEFT 10 ARE CALLED PERIODS.C).05 88 Act~non$ 89103 0D Hf Hafnium 178. earth.35 BOTTOM ARE CAllED GROUPS.008 hYdf0 gen(0p 4 EtEMENTS:FIRE HOT AND AIR THAT WAS THAT WAS COlD HOT.63 38 Y Yrtrlum 88.48 371.22 40 Nb Niobium 92.92 39 Zr Zirconium 91. COl( RUNNING FROM TOP TO I La 57 Ce 58 Pr- 59 Nd 60 Pm Sm 62 Lanthanum 138.Sr Strontium 87." But their idea of an . and air.92 Ac 89 Actinium 227 PrOJeodymium 140..944 19 4 Kr Potassium 39.07 92 Np 94 Protadinium 231 Neptunium 237 Plutonium 242 38 .003 IA II A 3 Be Beryllium 2 Li Lithium 6.183 10 Na Sodium 22.8 Molybdenum 95.13 Th Thorium 232.940 9. EARTH THAT WAS MOIST.95 Technetium 99 Ruthenium 101.36 56 57-71 lanthanons 7 Radon 222 86' Fr Francium 223 87 'Ra Radium 226.element" was quite different from what we mean by that word today. 8 0 20 Cr 26 Scandium 44.95 Calcium 40 . 1 90 Pa 91 U Uranium 238.. DRY.013 11 Mg t:2 @ < ~ -- "w'poxygen CLEUS IN TONS THE MODERN (p) AND PICTURE OF AN ATOM CENTER. THE ELEMENTS WITHIN A GROUP HAVE MANY TRAITS IN COMMON. The old Romans actually knew nine of the substances we call elements today.

457 9 VIII Co 27 Ni Cobalt 58.82 IV B 5C Corbon 12.Cu).04- 70 Lu lutetium 174.99 71 Am 95 em 97 Cf 96 Bk 98 Americium Berkelium Curium Colifornium 243 247 249 249 E Einsteinium 254 99 Fm lOT 100 Mv Mendelevium Fermium 256 255 No Nobelium 251 102 ? 103 39 ..09 200.94 69 Vb Ytterbium 173. produced by splitting the atoms of other elements.98 30 Ga Gallium 69. I HEAVY METALS L.J..09 26.066 Fluorine 19 Chlorine 35.82 P 15 5 30.93 162..4 Ir Iridium 192. L__jMETAlS '--_--' I RAR E EARTH METALS L-=-_. ON THIS BASIS DISCOVERED THE PE~ RIODIC LAW AND DEVELOPED THE PERIODIC TABLE.71 ) IB Copper 63.011 VB 6N Nilrogen 14.2 Ag 47 Cd Cadmium 112.Ph).BER Of PROTONS IN AN ATOM.-=. ~ rthin the next ten -years. In this table you will find listed the 102 elements that are known today.94 67 Er Erbium 167 . mCignesium OCCUR PERIODICAllY. A YOUNG ENGLISH SCIEN· TIST.. cuprmll (copper . THE RUSSIAN SCIENTIST. Each element is described by its chemical symbol.IS ITS ATOMIC NUMBER. 7 2 68 Tm Thulium 168. its atomic number. DM.51 Holmium 164.61 Polonium 210 52 I 53 77 Pt 81 78 AD 79 Hg 80 T1 Mercury Thallium Pfatinum Gold 195. I UNSTABLE ElEMENTS Eu Europium 152 64 Tb 63 Gel 65 Dy 66 Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium 157. HENRY MOSELEY. ferrum (iron .__---".Al). time. hydrargyrum (mercury-« Hg).ITRI MENDELEEFF.7 lead 207. kalium (potassium .21 32 As 33 Se Selenium 78. III B B Boron 10. (sodium1Ia). By 1800. By the beginning of the twentieth century.008 VI 70 B 8 VlI B F Oxygen 16 Sulfur 32.""""::--"-".the last ten man-made.91 16 C) 17 Phespherus 28 Cu Zinc 65.39 197 Pb 82 Bi 83 Po 84 At ~taline 210 85 . stannum (tin .975 Arsenic 74. AN ATOM ALWAYS HAS THE SAME NUMBER OF PROTONS AND ELECTRONS.88 u 29 Zn B 13 Si 14 AI Silicon Aluminum 28. Within a short.K). thirty-four elements had been discovered. Today the number has reached 102 .38 31 Ge Germanium 72.91 35 Rh 45 Pel 46 Rhodium Palladium 102.54 Silver 107.6 Tin 118. Element 103 will probably he discovered.61 204..72 Indium 114. its full name.So). and its atomic weight. HE DISCOVERED THE LAW OF ATOMIC NUMBERS AND ARRANGED THE ELEMENTS ACCORDING TO THE elECTRIC CHARGE FOUND IN THE NUCLEUS. PERFECTED THE PERIODIC TA· BLE.26 158..41 48 In 49 5n 50 Sb Antimony 121.94 Nickel 58. chlorine THE NUM. plumbum (lead . and aluminium.Fe).76 Bismuth 209 51 Te Tellurium 127. eighty-four elements were known.___j LOJDS r--l METAL· r==--l Ho NON- . HYDROGEN IS THE SIMPLEST OF All ATOMS. (aluminum .96 34 Br Bromine 79.91 106. .916 Iodine 126. thirteen more had been added and had been given made-up Latin namesamong them nalrinm.Ag).

ADD FLASH· BULB TO END OF ONE TRY DIFFERENT SOLU· BULB NOT IN GLASS.The Mysteries of Solutions earliest days. NaCI). It is the ions that conduct the current through the solution. SVANTE ARRHENIUS YOU CAN USING EXPERIMENTS USED IN A SI.sugar among them . on the other hand. His idea was that when a chemical that conducts electricity is dissolved in water. His theory has been modified somewhat over the years hut in most respects holds true today."electro! ytes. Arrhenius' theory of ionization helped explain a great number of things that have puzzled chemists. TlONS DUCT LIGHTS AND LIGHT PAGE 25.into electrically charged atoms or groups of atoms. He was only 25 years old at the time." Vi'hen table salt (sodium chloride. They were good couductors . for instance. ' The chemical dissolved was the "solute. FR01>f THE IN HIS EARLY EXPERIMENTS. The reason that non-conductors do Dot conduct electricity is that they do not dissociate into ions.. They were "non-conductors. is dissolved in water. BULB DOES UP. OTHERS DO NOT 40 . the negative ions rush to the positive pole. conducted electricity very easily. YOUR OWN LAB. The liquid they used for making a solution (usually water) they called the "solvent. When that happens. EASILY REPEAT SOME OF HIS CONDUCTIVITY OF SOLUT10NS SET UP THE SAME APPARATUS AS ON LIGHT WIRE."dissociated" . These atoms or groups of atoms Arrhenius called "ions" from a Greek word that means "to wander." Some chemicals." In 18-4 a Swedish scientist named Svante Arrhenius developed a theory to help explain the mysterious behavior of solutions. The solution in water of a great number of chemicals .«sthrough." His new theory came to be called "Arrhenius' theory of ionization. it ionizes into positively charged sodium ions ( -a") and negatively charged chlorine ions (Cl")." When chemists began to use electricity as one of tools they discovered that different solutions behaved in different ways. scientists ex-perimenting with chemistry have worked with solutions. SOME CON· ELECTRICITY AND THE UP. each molecule is broken up .did not let electricity pa. These ions "wander" about in all directions until an electric current is applied to the solution. the positive ions to the negative pole.MPLE SET-UP.

ADD 109 MORE SALTAT HIGHER TEMPERATURES (AT BOILING.\PERATURE CUP. SOM.INE AT WHAT BOILS. CLEAR 2 LIQUID KNOJ TION IS SATURATED [AT MAKES AT ROOM TEMPERATURE. ADD POUR INTO WATER SO ml IS BOILING MEASURE 40 ml WATER INTO STIR TO WATER ADD CUSTARD DISSOLVE. ~~~-=~. ADD 6 9 SALTPETER [POTASSIUM NITRATE).·7H20 ~ CRYSTALS POUR LOWER FREEZING POINT THAN THE SOLVENT USED. SOON SALTPETER IS DISSOLVED. SOLUTION WITH WATER OF POINT HAS HIGHER BOILING THERMOMETER. POINT 1 PINCH MORE 10% (10 PER CENT) SOLUTiON. ONE CUPS NEEDLE-LIKE NEXT 2 PINCHES. AU THE SALTPETER DISSOLVES. I EPSOM SALT DISHOT OVER GLASS WITH DEFeSO . 20 ml H20 DISSOLVES 49 9 SALTPETER. IN TRAY WITH INDIVIDUAL SOLUTION PANE OF CLEANED TERGENT. STIR.} BURNER.) POUR SOLUTION TO THE 50 ml GRADUATE.. SALTED SOLVE 1 PINCH lEAVE P~CE MENT. USING 10 ml TEST TUBE GRADUMEASURE 40 ml WAYOU . 2% SQLUTION: CUP.) 4 TAKE SOLUTION OFF FIRE. (TO MAKE A CUSTARD CUP. 50 ml. WHAT rr DISSOlVE ADD QUICKER. MAKE A . TO 1 9 OF THE CHEM.SATURATED SOLUTIO'NS A SATURATED SOLUTION IS ONE IN WHICH NO MORE OF THE CHEM. V.. IN ONE. ADD 5 9 OF THE CHEMICAL POINT THAN THE SOLVENT USED. TER INTO STIR. WITHOUT LEAST MAKE INTO IN FREEZING COMPART- MAKING 50 ml GRADUATE A NARROW SOLUTIONS FIRST: MEASURE 50 ml WATER JAR. 5 ml WATER AND TEASPOON SALT UNTIl SOLVES. 3 PLACE CUSTARD CUP OVER ALCOHOL All PETER.. MUCH OF THE SALTPETER LIQUID IS AGAIN COMES OUT AS CRYSTALS BY SLOW CRYSTALLIZATION.RDOES NOT DISSOLVE. DISOF SALT.E A SATURATED SOlUTION. AS IT COOLS. 41 . A SOlUTION SATURATED AT ROOM TEMPERATURE. 1 POUR 20 ml WATER OF ROOM INTO A CUSTARD TE}. READ AGAIN..ICAL. TO HEAT THE WATER SLIGHtlY. ATE SHOWN ON PAGE 15.E OF THE ADDED PETE.. IT TAKES MORE SOLUTE TO MAK. IN SALT. 50 ml GRADUATE. POUR WATER INTO EACH CUP. ~ ICE CUBE CUPS. SALT- STIR. CANDY DETERM. MANY CHEMICALS FORM CRYSTALS OF DISTINCT SHAPES. BEHAVIOR OF SOLUTIONS CRYSTALLIZATION CRYSTALLIZATION MgS04.--- - SALT. AND SO ON.RK AT 50 ml LEVEL FREEZE FIRST.ICAL WILL GO IN SOLUnON AT THAT PARTICULAR TEMPERATURE. 20"C. 2 ) ADD 3 9 MORE SALTPETER.MAY WANT INTO MARK. 6. ADD NOW? ADD SALT.3 9 SOLU- SATURATED IN 20 ml WATER. MAKE NETWORK. HEAT MIXTURE OF OF IN TEST TUBE.

sulfuric acid and nitric acid should NEVER be used in the home lab. They are much too DANGEROUS. But what is an acids Earlier. PLACE A STRIP OF ZINC IN CUT RED DROP STEEP UP OR IN HOT GRATE LEAF.PAGE 44) STRIP OF PAPER.IZE BASES.D? T Working ~th Acids ACIDS TASTE SOUR. and hydrochloric acid (H'Cl).protons to another substance.DS NEU1i'iRAl. ADD 5 ml ·HYDROACID TO 15 DROP CHLORIC rnl WATER. wherever PLACE CHLORIC lITMUS DROP ACID OF ON DILUTED HYDRO· BLUE CHANGES (CONTINUED HOME-MADE Ol . USE A TEST TUBE.bROPS OF MIXTURE IN GLASS OF WATER.. IN. You will rememh er that the nucleus 0 f an a tom contains positively charged protons. sodium bisulfate. But with the modern understanding of the atom. DIP FINGER IN THIS HIGHLY DILUTED ACID. They taste sour.. 5 . subatances-s-whlch are called "indicators. ACIDS ACT MET. The first two . (Wherever a chemical experiment would ordinarily call for sulfurie acid. ZINC THE FREE. WATER. And so we say that an acid is a substance that will give up ~ or "donate" . POUR A FEW rnl ON HYDROCHLORIC IT. ACID DISSOlVES. PHTHALEIN SOLUTION.HOW DO YOU KNOW AN ACI. AS INDICATOR.S. Acids are "proton donors . The foremost acids used inind ustry " are sulfuric acid (H!SOJ.. nitric acid (HN03) . 4. ACI.DICATORS 3. HOUR. FINTASTE DROP ON GER TIP. YOU CAN EX. ACIDS have many traits in common.y flOWERS MATTER WHICH AND A!ND FRUITS CONTAIN COLORING BASES. They neu tralize base-s. a different definition is used. Thcy destroy the skin and might hlind you if :you got them in the eyes. THE COlOR TO RED.N." They contain hydrogen (H) that can be replaced hy a metal. POUR INTO 5 ml HYDROCHLORIC DISAPPEARS.AI. They change the color of certain plant. HYDROGEN CABBAGE FOR SmrNG OF ACID 1h POUR OFF LIQUID.jaHSO~. "Sani-Flush' . this book uses sodium acid sulfate. the "acidic" traits were used tv define an acid.TRACT WITH HOT WATER FOR ACIDS AND USE AS AN INDICATOR 42 . Anids in solution liberate protons as ions (H+). MJ.

(CONTI1nJED 01... . Do not touch lye flakes with your fingers and do not gel the solution n your ikin . LYE IN 50 ml DROP 5 DROPS OF SOlUTION IN GLASS OF WATER. FAT DISSOlVES TO FORM SOAP. RED LITMUS BLUE. ON IN· LABORATORY INDICATORS o LITMUS PAPER IS MOST COMJ. 2.is used in many households to clean sluggish drains and to keep sinks from stopping up ("Drano")." The most important bases are sodium hydroxide ("lye.05 g) IN 50 ml DENATURED ALCOHOl!. 5 mf LYE SOLUTION. Bases are "proton acceptors. It is particularly dangerous to get lye in your eye . They change the color of . The first of these .or "aocept'I-> positively charged protons from anotberub tance. PHENOlPHTHALEIN 2 POUR INTO TRE MIXTURE TURNS A BRILLIANT PINK. II ·you get lye on ~-ou. HEAT GENTLY. and calcium hydro::. ACT WITH '4 BASES NEUTRALIZE WHITE TURNS PHENOLPHTHALEIN PINK WITH BASES. ammonium 'hydroxids ("ammonia. ON TASTE IN THIS DROP DILUTED FINGER TIP.~ONLY LITMUS US.sodium hydrox-ide . DIP FINGER HIGHLY BASE. BASES ACT WITH INDICATORS.ED INDICATOR. BASES taste brackish . these ions take on . with LOTS OF 'VATER. BASES TURN pHYDRION IS MORE INDICATOR ACIDS AND PAPER EXACT FOR BASES.Working~th Bases HOW DO YOU KNOW A BASE? 1. ' They contain a combination of oxygen and hydrogen atoms called "hydroxyl" (OH)." _-H~ OH). THE COLOR STANTLY CHANGES TO BLUE. A base is a substance that will accept and combine with protons from another substance. FROM GET S}'''ALL AMOUNT DRUG STORE. BASES TASTE BRACKISH. ADD TINY LUMP OF FAT TO 5 ml LYE SOLUTION. b c---. They neutralize acids. AN ACID TURNS BLUE RED.:ide ("slaked lime. 43 1 TO 2 mJ DILUTED Hel ADD A SINGLE DROP OF SOLUTION. ·When a base is neutralized. But what I:S a haseil When a base is dissolved in water it Iiherates negatively charged hydroxyl ions (OH-). "CSE IT ·WITH GREAT CARE in your exp crimen ts. indicators. dilute it quickly DISSOLVE 5 9 (1 TEASPOON) WATER. DISSOlVE A PINCH (0.it dissolves the natural oil.PAGE 45) PLACE DROP OF LYE SOLUTION RED LITMUS PAPER." Ca(OHh).' 1 aOB).

this book produces it in a mixture of a nitrate.ADD . HOLD MOISTENED BLUE lITMUS PAPER OVER FLAME. del' the name of "muriatic ACID FROM A SALT " SHOWN.2 ml WATER TO TEST TUBE B. Or neutralize it with bicarbonate of soda (but. SULFUROUS ACID FORMED TURNS IT RED.eJ nitric acid would be called for.AKE. THE LOWER THE NUMBER BELOW 7. K1"'f03• and sodium bisulfate. Hydrochloric acid is used in many households unacid. THE MORE ACID THE SOLUTION. If any of it gets on you.HOUSEHOLD ITEMS CONTAINING ACIDS u' ACID FROM NON·METALlIC OXIDE AciJs-C01tD.nlllllln. RESULT IS WEAK HYDROCHLORIC ACID. SH. PURE WATER HYDROCHLORIC IS NEUTRAL WITH pH7. THE HIGHER TOMATOES I CONTENTS SALIVA BORIC ACID MILK 81 I 1 ACID LEMONS ACETIC ACID SAUERKRAUT STOMACH SULFURIC ACID LITMUS 8 I~ I~ I eJl 44 ~ I (3 I RED CABBAGE PHENOLPHTHALEIN . MUS RED. pH SYSTEM IS A WAY OF DESCRIBING THE RELATIVE ACIDITY OR ALKALINITY OF A SOLUTION.) IGNITE A SULFURCANDLE (OR A TINY HEAP OF flOWERS OF SULFUR] ON A PIECE OF TIN. dilute it quickly with LOTS OF 'YATER." 'Whenc\Ceryou use hydrochloric acid in an experiment. not if in the eyes).U E IT WITH GR EAT CARE.

You will use it in a great number of experiments. Also watch your nose wben yOU work with ammonia. DISSO[ CARBONATE) IN A CUSTARD TEASPOON SODA.ICAl DUCES SODIUM CALCIUM DIUM CIUM WATER. CLEAR LIQUID CONTAINS HYDROXIDE CARBONATE (LYE). SAL SODA (WASHING blue from 50 ml WATER. LUTION. BASE FROM A SALT CUP. THE . LIME HEATS UP. HEAT SLIGH LY. PLACE A CALCIUM LUMP OF OXIDE) LIME (QUICKLIME. WATER AS POWDER IN A CUSTARD ADD AS MUCH OFF STEAM. THE MORE ALKALINE AT WHAT THE SO- CHANGES COLOR.CALIS HELD BY THE FILTER. SODIUM E IN red Ii trn us tIu rns base. CUP. THE NUMBER ABOVE 7. It has a very strong smell. YOU CAN DETERMINE YOU THE ACIDITY ARE TESTING. LUKEWARM IT WILL ABSORB. CHEM.HOUSEHOLD ITEMS CONTAINING BASES BASE You can also neutralize it with vinegar (but not if FROM in the eyes). Ammonia is a common household cleaning liquid. Ammonia should also be handled with care and should he washed off quickly if "you get it on you. GIVES CRUMBLES INTO OF SlAKED LIME (CALCIUM HYDROXIDE). PROAND FILTER. ADD SLAKED LIME MIXED WITH STIR. Calcium hydroxide is a white powder. THE SOBACK REACTION HYDROXIDE CARBONATE. WHEN YOU KNOW pH AN INDICATOR OR ALKAlINITY OF THE SOLUTION JWf~RlNE 7 SEA WATER 1BORAX OF MILK OF MAGNESIA AMMONIA LYE LIME WATER BICARBONATE SODA ~ ~j t3 l~ ~I J ~ LITMUS 45 .

HOH a The result is water and sodium chloride .S0.Salis-Chemicals of Many Uses IS USED EXTENSIVELY IN CHEMICAL ANAlYSIS IN A TECHNIQUE CALLED TITRATION. SODIUM ClilORITE SALTS -rc REMEMBER: -Ie ACIDS FORM -ATE SALTS.S SULFUROUS ACID NITROUS ACID CHLOROUS ACID HYDROH.SO.M -IDE SALTS. 1 FOR A TRY AT TITRATlON. tiI. 2 POUR 10 ml DILUTED HYDROCHLORIC ADD INTO MEASURING TUBE. + + e-: HOW THE ACre Sl!ILFURI!Z A. Na2CO~. DROP ACID SLOWLY INTO THE AMMONIA MIXTURE UNTIL COLOR IS COMPLETelY GONE. in gardening.ordinary table salt which has given its name to other substances of a similar nature. YOU NOW KNOW HOW MANY rnl ACID YOU HAD TO USE TO NEUTRALIZE THE AMMONIA. on the other hand. BY CHECKING ACID USED HE FIGURES STRENGTH OF BASE. POUR SOME OF THIS ACID INTO THE AMMONIA UNTIL COLOR HAS ALMOST VANISHED.CD. Our way of life would be completely disrupted if our country's industry did not have enough of these two salts. are insoluble . for example is what happens when you neutralize sodium hydroxide with hydrochloric acid: °aOR HC}.H.all the nitrates (salts of nitric acid) and most of the chlorides (salts of hydrochloric acid). In your chemical experiments )'OU II be working with two classes of salts: normal salts (such as I aCl.SO.CID NITRIC ACle CARBONIC ACID ACETIC A(IID THE NAMES OF SALTS ARE MADE UP BORMULA AND NAME Of. HClO.H.in cooking and baking. You'll probably find at least half a dozen different salts used daily in your home . Some of these salts dissolve easily in water . HC. for cleaning. SODIUM SULFITE NeNO.S SODIUM CHLORIDE SODIIJM SULFIDE HI>JO. and the metal atoms of the base combine with what remains of the acid to form a salt. NaHC03) which contain replaceable hydrogen. -OUS ACIDS FORM . and acid salls (such as NaHSO~.SO. 3 PICK UP A FEW rnl OF THE MEASURED ACID IN AN EYE DROPPER (PIPETTE). HNO.lrE 46 .CO. ACID 1=1 . NEUTRALlZAnON W!L'\T HAPPENS when )'orr neutralize an acid with a base or a base with an acidf The hydrogen atoms (H+ ions) of the acid combine with the hydroxyl groups (OH. HYDROGEN SULFATE HVIDRQGEt>l NITRATE HYElROGEN CAR80NATE HYIllROGIiN ACfTA'JE HYDROGEN CHLORIDE HYDROGEN SULFIDE I=IYDROGEN SULFITE HYDROGEN NITRITE HYDROGEN CHLORITE H¥DROCHLORIC ACIO HCI HYDRDSULfURIC ACID H. Numerous other chemicals are produced [Tom them. Of all the salts used in industry table salt _ aC1) and washing soda (I 'a2C03) are of greatest importance.O. SODIUM NITRATE Ne.SODIUM ACETATE NeCI Ne.ions) of the base to form water.lST DROPS INTO IT FROM A LONG TUBE-A BURmE-AS MUCH ACID OF KNOWN STRENGTH AS IS NECESSARY TO NEUTRALIZE IT. THE CHEM. Many salts. ACIDS FOR. Ne. Or simply: BASE plus ACID turns into WATER plus SALT This. THIS WILL COLOR THE MIXTURE A DEEP PINK. MIX A FEW ml OF HOUSEHOLD AMMONIA WITH 40 ml WATER. Kl) which contain no free hydrogen or hydroxyl ions. SODIUM NITRITE NeCIO.most of the carbonates (salts of carbonic acid) and most sulfides (salts of hydrosulfuric acid). 80DIWM SULFATE NaNO. FORMUlA AND NAJ"E OF SALT Na. ADD A DROP Of PHENOLPHTHALEIN. RETURN ACID NOT USED TO MEASURING TUBE. TO DETERMINE THE UNKNOWN STRENGTH OF A BASE.0. SOOIUM CARBONATE NaC. Many other salts are necessary for our well-being.

POUR INTO HOT EPSOM SALT SOlUTION.! CaC03 C:aCI \I. 1 DISSOLVE 5 9 EPSOM SALTS (MAGNESI- UM SULFATE) IN 20 11'11. MARBLE. WATER. OR OYS· TER SHELLS (All BONATES) ACID. you produced a salt: base and a salt to form a new base and a new salt: C_a(OH)1 another acid: + Na 2 ----+- 2NaOH + CaC0 3 A salt and an acid often form another salt and Fe Zn + -. - + Ha Two soluble salts may also form two other saltsone of them insoluble: When you made sodium hydroxide you used a 47 + Mg'i .'F£S -----. . PLACE 1 TEA POON OXIDE GLASS.) THE CHLORINE. MAGNESIUM DROP PIECES OF CHALK.HOUSEHOLD ITEMS CONTAINING SALTS Sani DIFfERENT WAYS OF PRODUCING DROP Flush SALTS ZINC A IN TEST A STRIPS TUBE. (QUICKLlMf) ADD WHitE STIRRII'IG.znCL. ACID ACID. you made a salt: + 2Hi + HaC03 (H 0 + CO~) 2 + 2. CONTAINS THE FILTRATE SODIUM SULCAR- FATE. CARBONIC CARBON OF THEM CALCIUM CHLORIDE CARAND IN A FEW ml HYDROCHLORIC ACID (WHICH DIOXIDE AND BREAKS UP INTO WATER). 2 DISSOLVE 5 9 SODA IN 20 ml WARM WATER. BRING TO BOIL. "".. DISSOlVES AND CALCIUM IN A THE HYDROCHLORIC IN THE QUICKLIME CHLORIDE fORMING CALCIUM WATER. COUPLE DIS- SALT FROM METAL OXIDE SALT FROM METAL AND ACID INTO POUR ACID. PLACES FORM WITH OF ml HYDROCHLORIC THE ZINC THE HYDRO- GEN OF THE ACID TO A SALT (ZnCI.. BONATE IS RETAINED BY RESULT IS CALCIUM THERE ARE many ways of producing a salt in addition to neutralization.'hen you made iron sulfide directly from the two elements iron and sulfur.-'hen you caused zinc metal to react with hydro-chloric acid. 3 FILTER THE MILKY SALT FROM ANOTHER SALT AND ACID MIXTURE.

Hypo in solution forms a colorless compound with iodine. Sublimes with viole! color. . Iodine has the bad habit of staining practically MAKJNG IODINE IN A PYREX CUSTARD CUP DIOXVIOLET Element 53.in photography and in the preparation of various medicines and dyes.. ADD SHAKE rUBE. AI. FUMES EMERGE. I IODINE everything with which it comes in contact with a brown stain that won't come off in washing. THE VIOLET BOTTOM SHINY 1 IDE. That's . GRAYISH-BLACK." Y au are probably familiar with the 2% alcoholic solution of iodine known as "tincture of iodine.'"hy it is advisable to have sodium thiosulfate _ photographer's fixing salt.. These crystals can he further purified by turning them into vapor again. I . 126. . HEAT SOON IODIDE. I I' . VJ iodine dissolves With brown color in olcohol. IS It is easily driven out of its compounds as beautiful. "'~ iodine makes violet soluhon In carbon tetrachloride. SOLUBILITY OF IODINE 4 . Iodine has many other uses . Be careful not to breathe fumes. Gray-block crystals of a peculiar odor. ~L- . I . wI. DROP A FEW CRYSSOLVENT AND TALS IN EACH OF FOUR TEST TUBES·. CRYSTALS.91. Combines directly with metals and n o nmetals. . metalliclooking crystals on cooling. It has a density of 4.4 TOGETHER 9 SODIUM 2 9 POTASSIUM BISULFATE. ." It is found in almost every home medicine cabinet and is used as a disinfectant for wounds. 2 9 MANGANESE MIXTURE GENTlY. r . violet fumes that turn into grayish-black. - ~ f'?' F== I ::==:::: :L_ TO TEST SOLUBILITY OF _"'_'-c ~ hardly any iodine dissolves when put in plain water.. ~-_. This process is called "sublimation. "hypo '_ around when JOU work with iodine.9.IODll'<"E all interesting element to experiment with.• __ :_ -_ IODI.j•. PLACE JAR AS A CUSTARD SETTlE ON LID ON OF TOP OF FUMES JAR AS IODINE CUP. ~ iodine dissolves in water If you add potassium iodide.NE. DROP HALF A DOZEN ICE CUBES I TO A JAR. and again cooling them into cry-stal form. ADD A LITTLE WATER.

49 . ADD TO HOT WAT·ER.IODINE FREEl) BY CHLORINI THE CHLORINE IN ADD OF A LIQUID BLEACH ALSO FREES IODINE. 10 ml SOLU- COLD WATER IN A TEST TUBE. HEAT I. DISSOLVE A FEW CRYSTALS OF SODIUM OVER LmERS AS HYPO FORMS THIOSULFATE ("HYPO") COMPOUND IN WATER.MIX A FEW CRYSTALS (AS MUCH AS A PEA) OF POIODIDE WITH SODIUM TASSIUM TEASPOON DISSOLVE POTASSIUM GRAINS OF A FEW CRYSTALS OF IODIDE AND SODIUM SHAKE. POUR DROP OF MIXTURE WATER. A FEW BISULFATE THE FREE FATE. MORE CHLORINE BUBBLES THE MAKING IODIDE fROM IT CLEARS AGAIN COlORLESS IODINE BY .EASED. IOE>INE COlORS LIQUID BROWN. YOU WILL GET WHITE OF STARCH WITH COOl. ALSO HYDROGEN THAT RED. IN 5 ml WATER. FREED IODINE. TO SOlUTION FEW IODIDE A COUPLE OF DROPS POTASSIUM CRYSTALS IN 10 ml WATER. wrrrso GENTlY. PAINT WITH THIS SOlUTION WITH IODINE. MAKE SOlUTION OF % 9 PO- TASSIUM IODIDE IN 40 ml WATER. ADD BRIGHT INTO DROP OF IODINE BLUE COLOR RESULTS. SET UP APPARATUS AS DESCRIBED ON PAGE 35 WITH THIS EXCEPTION: THROUGH WHEN IN BOntE 8. COLOR. "BRING TO A BOIl. IODIDE-AN TURNS V~ BISULOF PLACE STRIPS LITMUS PAPER AT IODINE ACID IS RE- THE MOUTH OF TUBE. ADD HYDROGEN PEROXIDE. BLUE LITMUS STARCH IODINE IODINE STAIN PAINT PAPER WITH THE BROWN COlORLESS SHAKE UP A PINCH IODINE. AS CHLORINE THIS SOLUTION WITH IODIC IT TURNS BROWN ACID FORMS. TION.

~---------. 50 .. brennen...ELTED FORM BY ~ ---="='_~ A PROCESS INVENT.07 ..f""~' ~ OF THE GROUND ... people were certain that the devil himself was around. SULFUR CANDLES. SOME SUlfUR USES TN THE old days. Herman Frasch. 119°C..Y\lben it burned with a blue . sulfur was called "brimstone" {"burning stone" . big deposits. Until fairly recently. Yellow crys-'._ IN M.. AND AS A POWDER (FlOWERS OF SULfUR}.-_-_ -"'_ MOST OF OUR SUL• F\J~.._:-tals.... About a hundred years ago. -:. gummy Taw rubber into elastic rubber usable for automobile tires and other li"ubber products. then forced the melted sulfur to the top with compressed air. to burn).. superheated water underground to melt t.flame and a suffocating smell. But by far the greatest use of sulfur is in the prsparation of sulfuric acid (H:/. The problem of getting it up was solved in 1894 in a very clever way by a young German emigrant.. But today.. were found in Louisiana.. Sulfur itself is used for many purposes.S04)' This acid enters into the (CO -TINlJ"""ED ON PAGE ... several hundred feet underground.from an old word. By a proeess called "vulcanization" it turns sticky.- IS' Element Atomic 5 UL FUR 16 ..: 32.~ ED BY HERMAN~.52) SULFUR CAN USUAllY BE BOUGHT IN THREE DIFFERENT FORMS: AS STICK SULFUR. at at in air with blue flame. most sulfur came from the volcanic Italian island of Sicily. lnsoluble Melh Boils Burns in water. He piped.he sulfur. UNDER MICROSCOPE. Density: 2. America produces most of the world's sulfur.. IS PRODUCED ~~ BY DRIVING IT OUT . _ FRASCH.066 .~"!". SULfUR POWDER P'ROVES TO BE RHOMBIC CRYSTALS . 444°C. Sulfur also goes into such things as matches and gunpowder and medical preparations.. wt.

IT NEXT BECOMES SLOW-FLOWING.fD uouro. CARAM EL-BROWN.MAKING MONOCLINIC CRYSTALS OF SULRJR WHEN YOU MelT SULFUR.ELTED WITH LIGHT COLOR. YOU WlLl see THAT SULFUR HAS FORMED TINY NEEDlE·L1KE CRYSTALS. OPEN UP fILTER PAPE. IT f. MELT GENTLY HIGH ABOVE FLAME.i 1 MAKE A MOLD fROM A NICKEL BY ATIACHING A WALL OF SCOTCH TAPE AROUND THE EDGE OF IT.• HEAT 1fz TEST TUBE FULL OF FLOWERS OF SULFUR TILL IT IS M. POUR MELTED SULFUR INTO A DRY FILTER. PLASTIC SULfUR HEAT THE THICKEI'IED SULFUR FURTHER UNTIl IT flOWS FREELY AGAIN.R. IT BECOMES LIQUID AGAIN AND B_OlLS WITH YELLOW VAPOR . IT TURNS ALMOST S011D. SOON IT NO LONGER flOWS. 3. YOU CAN TURN TUBE UPSIDE DOWN WJII:IOUT ANYTHING COMING our. 2 FILL TEST TUBE VJ FULL OF FLOWERS OF SULFOR.D SUlfUR DISSOLVE A FEW CRY5TALS OF HYPO (SODIUM THIOSULFATE) IN 1fz TeST TUBE WATER. CONTINUE HEATING.. IN A FEW DAYS THIS AGAIN BECOMES YELLOW SULFUR. SOON LIQUID TURNS MILKY Of EXCEEDINGLY FINE PARTICLES OF SULFUR. STRAW-COlO8. THEN POUR THE DARK FLUID INTO GOlD WATER. POUR INTO MOLD. 4. 1 MElT liz TEST TUBE POWDERED SULFUR. ADD 1 DROP OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID. 2.ITTURNS INTO A PLASTIC MASS. AS SOON AS CRUST FORMS ON TOP. IT GOES THROUGH FOUR 5TAGES: 1. PRECIPIT ATE. 51 . .IRST MELTS INTO A WA1ERY. WHEN COOlED YOU HAVE A PERFECT CAST.

SULFUR DIOX. Does not burn nor support combustion. WHEN JAR IS FULL OF fUMES. 52 . Highly soluble in woter-3. MAKING SULFUROUS ACID LIGHT SULFUR IN BonLE CAP. TEST fOR ACID WITH BLUE LITMUS PAPER. ~~~~~~d~ Moleculor wt. Colorless gas with a chok.2 weight of oir. in 100 vels. REMOVE SULFUR. The smell of rotten eggs on the other hand.lDE AND PRECIPITATE OF SULFUR RESULT. By a special. IN A SHORT WHILE. 64. LOWER BURNING SULFUR INTO JAR.The first step in making sulfuri acid from sulfur is to burn the sulfur. SULFUR DIOXIDE FROM production .JAR FillS WITH FUMES OF SULFUR DIOXIDE. each atom of sulfur takes on two atoms of oxygen to make ODe molecule of sulfur dioxide gas (80-2). plastics and explosives. AFTER A FEW MOMENTS.A. LIGHT THE SULFUR. COVER THE JAR WITH GLASS PLATE TO EXTINGUIS SULFUR. SO 2 SULFUR Hydrogen SuIfide-_1lany sulfur compounds have unpleasant. SHAKE. DISSOLVES IN WATER IT fORMS A WEAK .H.directly or indirectlyof practically every manufactured article we use today. It combines with metals into salts (sulfides) that can be distinguished from each other by their colors and by the way they react with acids and other chemicals. comes from the simple compound hydrogen sulfide (Hl ). at 20° C. 2.LT () DISSOlVE V2 TEASPOON iHYPO (SODIUM THIOSULFATE) IN 40 ml WATER. DROP INTO JAR APPLE PEELINGS AND . LOWER BURNING SULFUR INTO A JAR:. BRIGHT-COLORED FLOWER. ADD A FEW ml WATER. ADD A FEW ml HYDROCHLORIC ACID.just imagine a skunk producing a chemical with this formula: CH3CH2CH2CH2SH. H.ing odor.SO. LIFT GLASS PI.\OISUi'lED. this makes sulfuric acid: H!O+ 03 -- H~S04 A SA.937 vols.. COLORS HAVE BLEACHED. fibers and films. and thousands of other chemicals. It is used in refining gasoline.h water.DIOXIDE FOR SUlFlJR BLEACHING 1 AnACH WIRE TO SMALL BOTILE CAP. 'i -il. FILL THE BOTILECAP HALF FULL OF SULFUR POWDER. Sulfur Dioxide . penetrating smells.. Be careful not to breathe fumes.ACIDSULFUROUS ACID. COVER AGAIN WITH GLASS PLATE.. t\l1lenburning in the air. in making steel and paper. Hydrogen sulfide is used in chemical analysis to determine what metals are found in a certain substance.. Some of these compounds have very complex molecules . ulfur dioxide can be forced to take on another oxygen atom and form sulfur trioxide (SO!). complicated pro ess. AS SO.

o No. HYDROGEN SULFIDE HAS SMELL OF ROITEN EGGS in wcter -2.NOTE:Perform these experiments out-of-doors or before an open window.58 vels.E H. LEAD GLASS TUBE INTO THE SOLUTION. YOU CAN ACTUAH Y "DRAW" WITH THE H.S CdS ZnS 53 . of air. ANOTHER TEST TUBE. H2S ~~~ ~~~ HYDROpound.. BREAK THE TEST TUBE (IN A PAPER . in 100 DROP INTO A DRY TEST V~ TEASPOON POWDERED SULFUR AND A LUMP OF CANDlE WAX AS LARGE AS A PEA. BECAUSE OF INCOMCOMBUSTION. HOLD IT IN H. HYDROGEN SULFIDE FROM FeS 'AAKE IRON SULFIDE AS DESCRIBED ON PAGE 22.S 1 PUT STOPPER WITH GIiASS ruse WITH JET POINT IN TESri :rUBE IN WHICH YOU MAKE H. Burns flame 1. ruas _-1+-+1---. EXPERIMENTS WITH H.S STREAMING OUT Of JET. BY ADDING HYDROCHLORIC ACID YOU MAK. MOISTEN A SILVER COIN. IF THIS CONTAINS SALT OF ONE OF THE HEAVY METALS.S.S INTO A SOLUTION CONTAINING A SALT OF A HEAVY METAL WILL HElP TELL YOU WHAT METAL IS FOUND IN THE SALT.. SET UP APPARATUS AS SHOWN.S FlAME.S FlAME. A PRECIPITATE WILL FORM. PLm rss COLOR OF THE SULFIDE FORMED WHEN YOU LEAD H. MAKE SOLUTION IN TEST TUBE OF CHEMICAL YOU WANT TO ANALYZE. DROP SMALL PIECES IN. 3 HOLD COLD GLASS PLATE IN .BAGJ. ges rotten wilh weight a to form Iy soluble 34. with Molecule Colorless odor of eggs.17 Felrr HYDROGEN SULFIDE IS AN IMPORTANT LAB TOOL FOR CHEMICAL ANALYSIS. blue SO. HEAT TEST TUBE WITH SULFUR MIXTURE.S. CRUSH THE FeS WITH A HAMMER. SULFUR IS SET FREE. wI. Be careful not to breathe fume·s. HYDROGEN SULFIDE BUBBLES INTO TEST SOLUTION. IT TURNS BLACK FROM SILVER SULFIDE.

and soda. Forms about 27% of the earth's crust. So are the glazes on our cups and the enamel on our hathtubs. chemists have developed a whole line of new silicon compounds called silicones. silicon compounds are insoluble in water. Silicon is found in nature in combination with oxygen (mostly the dioxide. Si02) and in different silicates (salts of various silicic acids). The silicates of sodium and potassium dissolve in water. A concentrated solution of sodium silicate (Na2SiOa) is sold in hardware stores under the name of waterglass. for fireproofing wood and for preserving eggs. With few exceptions.MAKING CEMENT powder. rock or cement. _.1lost glass and many glazes are made by fusing together sand (SiO!). flint) is the second most abundant element on earth .after oxygen. Still others are rubber-like. And that is a good thing for all of us. oxygen. The glass of our windows and the glasses from which we drink are silicates. Some look like putty ("Silly Putty").SAND-40% 54 . limestone. It is used as a glue.E SILICON PRECIOUS STONES OX.lDES OR SILICATES. MINE. Burns in. Paper and cloth can be made water-repellent by being treated with suitable silicones. SILICON (from the Latin silex.RALSAND MANY AR. Whether you are walking on sand or clay. Some of them are oil-like. Within recent years. almost half of what you're stepping on is silicon.

DROP IN CRYSTALSOF VARIOUS SALTS YOU MAY HAVE: IRON SULFATE. WEAKNESS OF SILICIC ACID SlllCIC ACID IS SO WEAl< THAT CARBONICL ACID [H1CO./ TIN A TEST TUBE.D=--_--_-" MAKING SIL'ICON DIOXIDE IN ONE GLASS. YOUR SILICATE "JUNGLE" IS FUllY "GROWN. MAKING SIL.) GIYES UP WATER (H20) AND TURNS INTO A GRAYISH-WHITE POWDER OF SIUCON DIOXIDE (Si02).: .SiO. AND 5 ml WATER.INTO A THIRD GLASS. 1 DILUTE 5 ml WATERGLASS (l'Io..--. r.SrO.EDIAT ELY. PER SULFATE. COP. MIX 10 ml HYDROCHLORIC ACID AND 10 ml WATER. IN ANOTHER.. PLACE V2·INCH LAYER OF SAND. YOU WILL HAVE A CLEAR SOLUTION OF SODIUM SILICATE (No:>. IN A PINT JAR. 2 9 lYE (NoOH).ICON DIOXIDE YOU MADE.) WITH 5 ml WATER.. THE CRYSTALS SEND UP "SHOOTS. MIX 1 gOF THE SIL.J. DILUTE 20 ml WATERGLASS WITH 20 ml WATER. 2 DISSOLVESMALL CRYSTALOF COPPERSULFATE IN WATER.. TURNS INTO A JELLY ("GEL") SO STIFF THAT SPOON STANDS BY ITSELFAND YOU CAN TURN THE GLASS UPSIDE DOWN.~ __ --. POUR THE TWO MIXTURES AT ONE TIME . PLACEIT IN A SPOT WHERE IT Will NOT BE DISTURBED. POUR ON TOP OF THIS A MIXTURE OF EQUAL PARTSOF WATERGLASSAND WATER." IN A FEW HOURS. !II STAND SPOON UPRIGHT IN THE MIXTURE WHICH. ALUM. HEAT CAREFULLY. HEAT. BY POURING HYDROCHLORIC ACID OVER MARBLE CHIPS. MAKE THE CO. EPSOM SALT. PLACESOME OF THE Gel ON A METAL JAR LID.ICATES 2 AFTER FILTERING. "GROWING" A SILICON II JUNGU" 3 ADD A FEW DROPS TO THE WATERGlASS TO GET PRECIPITATE OF COPPERSILICATE.SiO. ALMOST IMM.THE SILICICACID (H.) DRIVES IT OUT OF WATERGLASS. MAKING SILICIC ACI. MOVING TUBE." 55 .

the fastest form of transportation imaginable. But YOIl are probably more familiar with boron CERTAIN METAL OXIDES. boron may be put in zip-fuels for space missiles . t.sr: '.ETALS CAN BE RECOGNIZED. Its carbon. OXIDIZE THE CHEMICAL IN VERY HOT FlAME GENERATED WITH HELP OF A BLOWPIPE. TO MAKE TEST. green flome.hey develop a tremendous amount of power. HEAT TO FORM BEAD. FUSED INTO A "BEAD" OF MELTED BORAX. TOUCH BEAD TO CHEM· ICAl TO BE TESTED. When tbeseboranes or boron hydrides burn. containing the element boron. Boron bas the ability (as does carbon) to combine with hydrogen in a number of ways. is almost as hard as diamond. Boron can be is-olated as a hard brownish-black powder.about the slowest transportation you can think of. boron carbide (B{C). HEAT WIRE lOOP. STUDY THE COLOR OF BEAD. S@WiGlroL-FutureRocket-PowerElelllent? LEss THAN A hundred years ago a mineral called borax. Someday. hot IRON COPPER NICKEL 4 cold B a e G 0 G) hot MANGANESE COBALT CHROMIUM 0 0 ~ cold 0 0 0 56 . HOT AND COOlED. DIP HOT lOOP IN BORAX.. was carted ont of Death' alley in California by twenty-mule teams . PRODUCE DISTINCT COLORS BY WHICH THE M. compound.

You know this kind of glass by its trade Dame PYTex. MAKING BORIC ACID ADD 4 ml HYD OCHLORIC ACID TO HOT BORAX SOLUTION. and borax (sodium tetraborate. TO MAKE TEST PAPER. REMOVE FROM FIRE. DRY STRIPS. STIR. BORIC ACID GIVES GREEN EDGES TO THE FlAMES. WHEN FILTRATE HAS RUN OFF. It is used for soldering. WASH MUSTARD OFF.'lOH!O). 4 SPREAD OUT FILTER TO LET BOR. HEAT BORIC ACID IN AN OLD TEASPOON.d in almost every household: boric acid (H3B03). BORIC ACID CRYS· TALLIZES OUT AS SOLUTION COOLS. TARD POUR CONTENTS OF CUS· CUP INIOA FILTER. DIP STRIPS OF PAPER TOWELING IN MUSTARD. IT GIVES 0FF WATER AND TURNS TO SYRUPY MASS OF MELTED BORIC oxIDE (B20. YEtLOW TURMERIC It'fDICATOR PAPER TURNS BROWN WITH BORIC ACID.) WHICH YOU CAN DRAW I)qTO THREADS WITH GLASS ROD. WASH BORIC ACID REMAINING IN FIL· TER WITH A SMAU AMOUNT OF COLD WATER TO REMOVE NeCI AlSO FORMED IN THE PROCESS. TESTS FOR BORIC ACID DROP A FEW CRYSTALS OF BORIC ACID IN A CUSTARD CUP. a2B40. used as a mild antiseptic. and for making other boron compounds. YELLOW COLORING MAnER IN TABLE MUSTARD IS TURMERIC.t. Kitchen utensils and laboratory ware made of Pyrex glass have the great advantage over ordinary glass that they can be placed directly on the fire and do Dot break so easily when they are subjected to sudden heating or cooling. • IN A CUSTARD CUP. The glass industry uses large quantities of borax for making boron-aluminum-silicate glass.hrough two of its compounds which are fOUTI. Borax bas a great number of uses outside the home. STIR WITH GLASS ROD. USE FOR EXPERIM:ENTS ONlY. ADD A COUPLE ml DENATURED ALCOHOL. IGNITE. BRING TO BOIL STIR UNTIL BORAX IS DISSOlVED. used for cleaning purposes and as a water softener.IC ACID CRYSTALS DRY. ADD ~ BORAX TO 15 ml WATER. for producing certain kinds of soap. 57 .

HCI + Nc2SO ..ED: NcHSO . He called them sodium (from soda ash) and potassium (from potash). HYDROGEN CHI:ORlDE IS SET FREE AND SODIUM SULFATE IS I'ORM. pick up potassium from the soil.. FILTER IT... BOn STIRRING WITH WITH TOP END 'i~~~~'~---REDUCE " SAL'F (NoCl) 19 9 TABLE 50 ml HOT SOLUTION. CRYST ALLIZl NG SAL'T BY EVAPORATION 1 DISSOLVE TIm S. Humphry Davy. 1 MAKE SATURATED SOLUTI. THE ACID CARBONATE (NcHCO.: 22 . These are still their English names. succeeded in isola ring the metals found in these salts. Reacts with woler. WATER.).from abbrev-iations of the Arabic names: of the ashes: nairun.ROM SODIUM SULFATE IS PRODUCED BY HEATING SODIUM ACID SULFATE WITH SODIUM CHLORIDE. Densily. Atomic WI.gJish: Sodiurn] Silver-white metal. and al q. 2 SET UP APPARATUS fOR MAKING COl AS SROWN ON PAGE 31. Sodium chloride (NaCl) is the most common sodilIll1 salt it is the chemical that makes ocean water "salty. IN A TEST TUBE.. PLACE IN SUNNy WINDOW FOR WATER TO EVAPORATE SLOWLY.: 0. IN WATER. SALT fORMS FINE CRYSTALS. ..ili (alkali). THEN SET ASIDE.. LEAD CO2 INTO SODA SOLUTION FORI 0 MINUTES. '>ADE BY LEADING CO2 TO NORM.At CARBONATE (Na2CO. (En. BUT NOT COLD. But in chemical formulas they are referred to as natrium (Na) and kalium (K) .97 .DNBY S'HAKING 3 TEASPOONS WASHING SODA IN 30 rnl com.ALTS of sodium and potassium have been used for thousands of years in making soap and glass and for a great number of other purposes.] IS . K2C03)· In 1807... Inland people boiled out wood ashes in large pots to get "potash" (potassium carbonate. They proved to be wax-soft and silvery. Oxidizes in air.. NoCI _. "SALARY" COMES FROM SALARIVM -THE WAGES PAID IN SALT TO ROMAN SOLDI EI'S.ED Will BE MUCH LARGER. HEAT A MIXTURE OF 2 g SODIUM ACID SULFATE (SODIUM BISULFATE) WITH 1 9 TABLE SALT (Noel). on the other hand. 2 POUR CLEAR UQUID INTO LARGE PIE PLATE. UNTIL HALF THE WATER HAS BEEN EVAPORATED. GLASS TUBE SEALED (TO MAKING ACID SALT FROM NORMAL SALT "BUMPING"). THE CRYSTALS FORM. NaiC03)." Plants growing in the ocean take up so much of the sodium that people along the seacoasts of the world used to burn dried seaweed to secure "soda ash" (sodium carbonate. MAKING NORMAL SAlt ACID SALT F. + 58 . Element 11. 'Burns with yellow flame .". can be cui with knife. Inland plants..99 J. SHORTLY NcHCO" CRYSTALS APPEAR. the British scientist.

87. COLLECT FilTRATE IN A CUSTARD CUP. 2 FILTER THE MIXTURE OF ASHES AND WATER. 2KNOz + O. -. NITRATE TO NITRITE WHEN YOU HEAT POTASSIUM NITRATE. 50 soft it can be cuI with knife. SKIM OFF WOO REMA. POTASSIUM COMPOUNDS GIVE VIOLET FlAME. STIR UP SEVERAL TEA· SPOONS OF FRESH WOOD ASHES WITH ARM WATER. Reads with water. FLAME COLOR TEST FOR SODIUM AND POTASSIUM THE COMPOUNDS OF CERTAIN METALS GIVE DISTINCT COLORS· TO A FLAME. EVAPORATEMOST OF WATER. IT GIVES UP OXYGEN AND BECOMES POTASSIUM NITRITE: 2KNO. DIP NICHROME WIRE IN HCI TO CLEAN IT.100. Oxidizes in air.K KALrUM PIONEER WOMEN MADE POTASH FROM WOOD ASHES. 59 . TO CRYST AUIZE OUT. (English: Pa-. Bums with viclet flame. USE BLUE GLASS TO SCREEN OUT YEllOW OF No. Density: 0. HEAT IT. TO SEEVIOLET COlOR OF PO· TASSIUM IN MIXTURE WITH No.: 39. Element 19. SODIUM COMPOUNDS GIVE THE FLAMEA BRIGHT YELlOWREDCOlOR. Atomic wt. THEN DIP LOOP IN COMPOUND AND HOlD IN FlAME. THEN COOL TO PERMIT K2CO.INS.. fosslum) Silverwhite metal.

CalciuJLn. (SEE ALSO PAGE 45. it again takes on the full amount or H20 and hardens into a hydrate similar to the original gypsum.!___. This explains the formations in our famous limestone caves. of clams and mussels and billions of tiny sea creatures. The name of calci urn was given to the metal bidden in limestone by its discoverer.. some goes in solution as calcium bicarbonate (Ca(HC03)~).. He can do it with.. In falling from the cave ceiling and drying.!'-'-~ (...) 60 .:. \ . Calcium carbonate (CaC03) is the starting point.~> ' c. each molecule of sulfate has two molecules of water attached to it (caSol• 2H:iO). But if the water contains carbon dioxide. -~ ~'. it loses three quarters of its water and becomes plaster of Paris (2CaSO~· H~O). for most calcium compounds . IT LOSESCARBON DIOX.MARBLEARE ALL CALCIUM CARBONATE....for Building You can do it because your bones contain calcium. WHEN LIMESTONE IS HEATED IN KILNS.~b . EA SHEllS. STALACTITES AND STALAGMITES ARE UNDERGROUND DEPOSITS OF CaCO". the old Latin name for lime.POWDe:R OF SLAKED OR HYDRATED tIME (Ca(OHhl. STA1\'D TJP STRAIGHT.. Tell a mason to put up a brick house.. Tell a hen to "go lay an egg. CORAL. UMESTONE. In this.-'-ltL. Rainwater containing carbon dioxide seeped through the ground and dissolved a small amount of limestone.. Humphry Davy. ~--.. . He will make it from marblecalcium again. Calcium carbon ale is almost insoluble in water.L. It is found in nature in cliffs and mountain ranges in the form of chalk and limestone and marble..and for other chemicals as well. A widespread mineral called gypsum Is the sulfate of calcium. 'When gypsum is heatad. the drops gave up H20 and CO2 and left CaC03 behind.. Tell a master builder to build a monument." She can do it if she gets enough calcium in her feed to make the shell. When you mix plaster of Paris and water... And it makes up the shells. The minute deposits of falling drops during thousands of years created the stalactites hanging from the roof of the caves and the stalagmites rising from the floor..lDE AND TURNS INTO QUICKllME-CALCIUM OXIDE. It comes from calx. . WHEN WAteR IS ADDED TO LUMPSOF QUICKLIME lCaO). THEYCRUMBLEINTO A WHITISH ._. mortar containing calcium.

InURNS MILKY THROUGH FORMATION OF CoC03• CONTINUE LEADING CO.INSOLUBLE CaCO. water to be distilled is in this can can upside down-bottom M.ECIPIT A TID CALCIUM CARBONATE 1 WHEN MARBLE CHIPS HAVE DISSOlVED IN ACID IN BOTTLE B IN EXPERIMENT ABOVE.TESTING HARDNESS OF WATER 1 MAK TION BY D1SS5iVING 1 9 SOAP FLAKESIN 20 ml DENATURED ALCOHOL. HARD TAP WATER MAKES VERY LITTLE FOAM. IN BOTTLEB. DISTILLED WATER MAKES lARGE AMOUNT OF FOAM. SOFT TAP WATER GIVES FAIR AMOU T OF FOAM. SHAKE VIGOROUSLY. PLACE MARBLE CH PS ON TOP OF PEBBLES. All IMPURITIES[CALCIUM CARBONATE AND SULFATE. ~~'.0) IS USED IN POLICE WORK FOR MAKING CASTS OF TRACKS.AKING "HARD" WATER SET UP GAS GENERATOR AS SHOWN ON PAGE 3 . ~ WHEN HOT. . FILTER. POUR SOLUTION INTO CUSTARD CUP.Iz. THIS IS DONE BY EVAPORATING THE WATER AND CONDENSING THE STEAM. HEAT. YOU GET A HEAVY WHITE PRECIPITATE OF CALCIUM CARBONATE. BOHLE A CONTAINS H:fDROCHLORIC ACID." a IN THE SCIENTIFIC LABORATORY. HARD WATER SOFTENED WITH WASHING SODA MAKES FOAM. INTO MILKY SOLUTION. POUR ACID ON MARBLE CHIPS TO MAKE CO" l. WITH PLASTER OF PARIS PLASTEROF PARIS (2CoS04'H. HAS BEEN TURNED INTO SOlUBLE Co(HCO. LEAVE TO SETONE HOUR. POUR IN TRACK. YOU CAN MAKE A DISTILLATION APPARATUS fROM TWO PINT-SIZE CANS./' /<7-: 61 .EAD THE CARBON DIOXIDE INTO LIME WATER. ADD SOLUTION OF 2 TEASPOONS WASHING SODA IN 50 ml WATER. MIX PLASTERWITH WATER UNTIL IT HAS CONSISTENCY OF MEDIUM CREAM. CHECKAMOUNT OF FOAM. KINESS DISAPPEARS. CASTING PR. THIS IS THE SUBSTANCE THAT MAKES MOST HARD WATER "HARD. CLOSE MOUTH OF JAR.' Fill A SLENDERJAR HALF FUll OF WATER TO BE TESTED.AND OTHERS)MUST BE REMOVED FROM WATER TO BE USED AS SOlVENT. ADD 10 ~_DROPS Of SOAP SOLUTION.

WHITE -.HOLD 2-!NCH PIECE OF MAGNESIUM RIBBON WITH A PAIR OF PlIERS. SOLUTION . Before World War II. they are found both have the Roman numeral II would indica. InOIS YELLOW WHEN HOT. AND InS0. ~._' "J ~ BRILLIANT.. In their compounds they are very much alike.INC.FATE IN 40 rnl WATER. EVEN WITH VINEGAR-Mg WITH COLD VINEGAR.4 ARE COLORLESS. But in some of their reactions -they do not behave alike .mainly in flash photograph-y because it burns with a blinding.SSOLVE4 91 COPPER SUl.. That is exactly the case. One atom combines with one atom of oxygen to form the oxide (MgO and ZnO).as you wil11earn.. . HOLD IT IN FLAME.te that they are related. I! TEST MIXTURE WITH RED UTMUSPAPER. IGNITE IT. white light. The fact that the two families in which. . NOW TOUCH ZINC WITH A COPPER WIRE.. Zn SLOWLY. GO INTO. flAME. and one atom replaces two atoms of hydrogen in fanning a salt (IvlgCl2 and ZnCI2.. (MgO) WITH WATER. MIX ASHES ::. REACTION SPEEDSUP. for instance). IT BURNS WITH BLUISHGREEN FLAMETO ZINC OXIDE. . 2 POUR SOlUTION OF J 9 SOD. TAKE A WOK at tbe periodic table of elements on pages 38.39. 2 COPPER IS FORCED OUT AND Mg AND Zn. CAUSED BY ELECTRICPROCESS.IUM BISULFATE IN 10 rn WATER ON Mg AND z-. DI. WHITE WHEN COOl. Mg REACTSFAST. In column IIA you find the metal magnesium.ACIDS. But the fact that they are in separate "subgroups" would suggest that tbey cliffer in certain respects.1 -~_ CUT SLIVER OF Z. 62 . IF ENOUGH METAL IS USED.. in column lIB the metal zinc. THE BLUECOLOR DISAPPEARS. THE OTHER HALF OVER SLIVERSOF ZINC. POUR HALF CF THE SOlUTiON OVER STRIPSOF MAGNESIUM. But the metal became important when lightweigbt planes were neededmelted together with other metals it forms an "alloy" REPLACEMENT OF COPPER 1 BOTH METALS REACTWITH WEAK . In WITH HOT.. IT BURNS WITH A .MgSO . ' . magnesium had little use .

"galvanized iron. 63 . THE Mg JAR. FORMS.E. Zinc has been used for ages to coat iTOn pails and pipes to prevent them from rusting .TATE. when healed to Reacts with boilfng boiling. Zn ~e~en~ Atomic 3~ wI. 0 ens i IY : : 3 Densil'y: 1 .M. IS FORMED.Mg"· . Zn(OH). 1 2 SETUP HYDROGEN SULFIDE.BUT NOT OF MAGNESIUM SUlFIDE. Zn AND M9 WITH H. 5 .Hl. Zl1(OHh FORMS.) RESULTS . 3 LEAD H.. .. white Ught.(OHl. DISSOLVES.). ADD SMALL AMOUNT OF NoOH SOLUTION TO 01. THE Zn(O.MONIA (AMMONIUM HYDROXIDEJTO MAG· NESIUM SULFATESOLUTION. fORMING COMPOUND WITH NH. ma'i!eabJe. PRECIPITATEDISSOIV..•)_ YOU GET A WHITE PRECIPITATEOF InS.• 7H 0) IN 20 ml WATER.' 7.: ~ Atomic 'Nt •. A '2 LEAD HYDROGEN SULFIDE(H]'S) INTO DILUTEDTlNNERS' flUID ( nCl. BI u ish-while 7 melal. PPARATUSSHOWN ON PAGE 53." Zinc is also a part of many alloys (German silver and brass) and is import-ant in the making of dry-cell batteries..SNtALlBOT· TlE OF . M... 14 ADD SMALL AMOUNT OF AMMONIA TO DILUTED TINNERS' FLUID.. THIS IS A STRONG SOLUTION OF ZINC CHLORIDE. ZnCO. of magnesia (!vtg (OH)g) and Epsom salt (!I.. malleable. Ductile and '1er-wl'iit·e metal. 3 MAKE SOLUTION OF 5 9 WASHING SODA [SODIUM CARBONATE~ IN 50 rnl WATER. HERE A SO YOU GET WHITE PREC!PI.AKING MAKJNG tHE CARBONATES tHE HYDROXID·ES 1 ADD SODIUM HYDROXIDE SOlUTION TO SOlUTION OF MAGNESIUM SULFATE. ADD MORE.RDWARESTORE..lBQM HA.MgSO .. ADD MORE NaOH. LUTEDT1NNERS' FlUJD(ZnClxl.. Bums lnoir made 10 bum with with v'ery brilliant bluish flome. Distils ~'Duc:iHe.. ADD SOME OF THIS SOLUTION TO THE OTHERTWO. 2. IS SET FREE AND BASIC ZINC CARBONATE (In(OH) •.Zn 0. CO.WHITE Mg(OHl.1.AtT(MgS04}.5 1 DISSOLVE 2 9 EPSOM SALT (MAGNESIUM SULFATE... ADD A.S INTO SOlUTION OF EPSOM S. AGAIN Mg.4 . ~~GUN'~ 'Element 12.ESWITH FORMATION OF SODIUM ZINCATE (Na. Some magnesium compounds are used in medicine: milk. GEl:. 3 B. IN BOTH JARS YOU WILL GET A HEAVY WHIU PRECIPITAT. THIS IS NORMAL IN MAGNESIUM CARBONATE (MgCO •.. IN Zn JAR..TINNERS'FlUIID . FOR}'~S.1gS0~·7HlO). 6 5 .. that is light ·yet very strong. 2. DilUTE 5ml OF FLUID WITH 15 ml WATER. THIS REACTSWITH THE WATER TO MAH Mg(OH). Sil. Can be water.).

HEAT GENTlY AGAIN UNTIL ALL IS DISSOLVED. DISSOLVING AlUMINUM 1 CUT ALUMINUM FOIL IN SMAll STRIPS. ductile.AluminUIn-in IT IS A. Silver-white metal.LMOST Ahundance H. malleable. DROP THEM IN A LITTLE DILUTED HYDROCHLORIC ACID. impossible to imagine our world without aluminum. AI ALDMINUM Element 13. 64 . SPRINKLE IN flAME TO MAKE SPARKS OF BURNING ALUMINUM. Fora number of years aluminum was so expensive that it was considered in class with gold and silver. HANG THIS IN SOLUTION FROM A PENCIL PLACE IN QUIET SPOT. SET ASIDE TO COOl. Amphoteric. Density.e r-----'==-~a high polish. COOL 3 POUR COOLED SOlUTION INTO NARROW GLASS.98. metalfrom the pots :in the kitchen to the airplanes flying overhead. POUR LIQUID OFF UNDISSOLVED ALUM. 1 HEAT WATER UNTil IT IS SLIGHTlY MORE THAN LUKEWARM. The solid aluminum cap placed on top of the Washington Monument in 1884 was first put on public display so that everyone could have a look at such a great rarity. HYDROGEN IS FREED AND SODIUM ALUMINATE (NaAIO~) IS fORMED. Almost everywhere you look you see items made of this silver-white.SENTED BY THE CRYSTALS YOU REMOVED. CHARLES HALL OF THE UNITED STATES FOUND' A CHEAP WAY OF PRODUCING IT IN 1886. PICK OUT LARGEST ONES. C. ALUMINUM CHLORIDE IS fORMED. -2 WHEN CRYSTALS HAVE FORMED. 2.: 26. able to ~ak. STIR INTO IT POTASSIUM ALUM OR AMMONIUM ALUM UNTIL NO MORE DISSOlVES. Although aluminum is the most abundant metal on earth.70. Atomic wt. Will burn in oxygen with white flame. no one had ever seen it lllltil1825 when a Danish scientist. 2) DROP STRIPS OF tuMINUM FOlLIN 10% NaOH SOLUTION. ADD TO SOWTION AS MUCH MORE ALUM AS IS REPRE. isolated it from aluminum chloride (AIC13). irr THE CRYSTAL GROW FOR A WEEK OR MORE. HYDROGEN IS RelEASED. Hans Christian ¢rsted. Two GROWING ALUM CRYSTALS MAKE A SMALL AMOUNT OF ALUMINUM POWDER BY FILING IT OFF AN OlD ALUMINUM POT. TIE THREAD TO LARGEST CRYSTAL YOU PICKED. QlRSTf:D OF DISCOVERED ALUMINUM IN 1825.

OR fROM A FLOWER POT. -lit IN ANOTHER JAR. CLEARING WATER WITH ALUM ] :2 DISSOlVE I 9 [Y4 TEASPOON) ALUM IN 10 rnl WATER. AMMONIA ADDED TO ALUM SOLUTION G1VES ALUMINUM HYDROXIDE.IS· SOLVE % TEASPOON ALUM. THIS Will DfSSOLV. AlLUM MAKES ALUMINUM HYDROXIDE WITH SODA. O. YOU GET JelLY-LIKE ALUMINUM HYDROXIDE. is an aluminum silicate.BRING PRECIPITATE INTO A TEST TUBE... The mineral bauxite (AlH02. AND SODA (. NO COl IS FORMED . which means that it can form not only a base (Al(OH)3). AFTER WASHING.) TO 14 TEASPOON OF AlUM IN 20 ml WATER. MAKE A SIMILAR MIXruRE. WASH ITRE'BY SQUIRTING WATER INTO IT.E IN MORE NoOH TO FORM SODIUM ALUMINATE.E SHOULD BE CARBONATE-8UT IS IT? n ('2"l a ruTEOlY FILTER THE PRECIPITATE.. fRECIPITAT. MAKING ALUMINUM HYDItOXIDE Two things about aluminum will interest you as a chemist. ADD % TEASPOON SODA IN 20 -:. !HIS IS NOT A CARBONATE.S04) and am-ith monium sulfate «_ ffi4) aBO 4) into beautiful cubic crystals of double salts called "alums". potassium sulfate (K. Al(OH)3) is our main source of aluminum.AMMONIA. IN THIS.:ml WATER . a 22~year-{)ld American chemist. 65 . ADD 1 TEASPOON . ALUMINUM HAS NO CAR· BONATE. BUT THIS DOES NOT DISSOlVE IN MORE AMMONIA. ADD HYDROCHLORIC ACID. but also an acid (HAl07). Clay" for instance.j(S04)3) has the ability to combine . INTO IT 1 TABLE· SPOON EARTH FROM THE GARQEN. I 1 POUR WATER INTO A pINT JAR AND STIR.. DJRT SETIlES FASTER IN THIS JAR THAN IN THE FIRST JAR.O. The other is tbat aluminum sulfate (A}. ADD A umE 10% NoOH SOLUTION.. One is that aluminum is an "amphoteric" element. Since then aluminum has become one of the most popular of all metals .years later. Charles Martin Hall.KAl (S04h' 12H10 and NHtAl (SO4k12H. invented a way of prodncing aluminum cheaply from aluminum ox-ide (Al!Os). But aluminum is also found in natureas ox-ideand in many complex silicates..mostly because of its lightness.

~~ INTOH.000. IT GIVES UP OXYGEN). 1 DISSOLVE % 9 PO'TASSIUMPERMANGANATE IN 50 ml WATER.000. POUR 10% SOlUTION OF NoOH UNTIL NO MORE PRECIPITATE FORMS. and red. Rinse thoroughly with water afterwards. 2 AFT:ERA 'FEW MINUTES. YOU AN IDEA OF SMALLNESSOF MOlECULE.000.so hard that it is suitable for machine parts that areexposed to a lot of rough wear. white and pink. HEAT MIXTURE GENTLY. The compounds of manganese come in almost any color )'ou can think of: black and brown. YOU ON OF 1 T 1. WILL GfVE.000. ADD 30 rnl WATER.000.IS SET fREE. PLACE A FEW CRYSTALS OF POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE ON BOTTOM OF A TEST TUBE. FILTER. 6 9 soDIUM BISULFATE. This " is nothing but yOUT old friend manganese dioxide (!VInO!)which -you fouod in your flashlight battery II. OR 1/100. IT WIll BUBBLEVIGOROUSLY BECAUSEOXYGEN . The most common ore from which manganf'cSeis extracted goes under the name of "pyrolusite .000..ALF OF THE MANGANESE SULmE SOLUllON YOU HAVE MADE.000 MOLECULES OF KMnO~.MANGANESE DIOXIDE TO MANGANESE SULFATE 2 MANGANESE SULFATE TO MANGANE.SE HYDROXIDE 1 IN A PYREXCUSTARD CUP. your fingers and glassware may get brown. IT OXIDIZESHCI AND SETS CHLORINE 'FREE. AGAIN. REDUCING KMnO. THE KMnO~ IS REDUCED [THAT IS. 5 m] TO 45 ml WATER FOR SOlUTION 1/1.000. THIS GIVES A SOlUTION OF 1 TO 100. Y Oll can get rid of this stain easily with diluted hydrochloric acid.rHIS SOLUTION WITH 45 ml WATER. F.FILTRATECONT'Ji:1NS MANGANESE SULFATE(MnSO~) AND SODIUM SULFATE.rIETALLIC MANGANESE and have already used in a great number of your chemical experiments."mauganese steel" . In working with these compounds. 66 . WHITISH Mn(OH): OXIDIZES INTO BROWN MnO[OH}.000. OR 111. MIX 2 9 MANGANESE DIOXIDE. LOR YOU STILL SEE IS CAUSED BY THE PRESENCE OF MOR THAN 600. EXPERIMENTS WitH POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE KMnO. But add up to l~ per cent of it to steel and the result is an alloy .AND 10 ml WATER.. DROP A FEW DROPS OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID ON THEM. violet and green. has no use by itself.

.94.. ADD A CRYSTAt Of' POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE TO GIVE THE SOlUTION ~ LIGHT RED COLOR.). WHITE PRECIPITATE IS MnCO.MnO J. Density: 7.THE EXPERIMENTS ALONG THE TOP Of THESE PAGES SHOW HOW IT IS POSSIBLE TO MOVE fROM ONE COMPOUND TO ANOTHER. DISSOlVE A fEW CRYSTALS OF POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE IN WATER.: 54. MANGANESE CARBONATE SETTLE. PASSING THROUGH FILTER PAPtR HAS CAUSED KMli04 TO BE REDUCED TO POTASSIUM MANGANATE (K. WATER.j 9 SODIUM CARBONATE IN 10 ml WATER. MANGANESE MANGANESE SULFATE TO CARBONATE " MANGANESE CHLORIDE TO MANGANESE SULFIDE MANGANESE CARBQNATE TO MANGANESE CHLORIDE Element 25. COLOR DISAPPEARS AND OXYGEN IS LIBERATED.44. Atomic wt. POUR SOlUTION OF . lis compounds with oxygen range from bases to acids. WATCH E FILTRATE.RON SOLFATE (FERROUS SULFATE. ~eS04J IN HAlf A TEST TUBE FULL Of. 67 .).). ADD TINY AMOUNT Of SODIUM BISULFATE (TO MAKE SOLUTION SOUR). POUR THE RED SObtlTION INTO A FILTER.). 2 DISSOLVE A COUPLE OF KMn04 ~ HALf TEST TUB Of WATER. IT IS G~E~ INSTEAD OF RED. ADD HYDROCHLOR[C ACID BY THE DROP UNT[L· DISSOLVED. Reactswilh woler. GREEN FERROUS SULFATE IS OXIDIZED TO BROWN FERRIC SULFATE (Fel(SO . POUR LIQUID OFF PRECIPI· TATE. Mn MANGA- N ESE 5 4 'INTO SECOND HALf OF SOLUTION. 2 1 DISSOlVE A SMALL CRYST~L OF I. POUR IN A LITTLE HYDROGEN PEROXIDE [H20. CRYSTALS 3 POUR I'ERMANGANATE INTO IRON SALT. Silvery-gray metal wilh reddish tinge. RESULT [S MANGANESE CHLORIDE (MnCI. 1 DISSOL E 1 g SODIUM HYDROXIDE IN 50 ml WATER.

~i 1 -I ~II --. Gray-while metal.C . THE CHLORINE TURNS THE GREEN A DEEP BLUE PRECIPITATE OF FERROUS CHLORIDE {FeClzjINTO A BROWN PRUSSIAN BlUE. The moment you step outdoors you will be even more amazed. Dudi!e end malleable. of being attracted and influenced by a force called magnetism. IRON HAS REACTED WITH OXYGEN AND MOISTURE TO FORM RUST-{FezO. 2 IN ANOTHER.86 •. releasing Oydrogen.:{Ii 3 TO EACH. IN A FEW DAYS. BfLUTE SOME OF THE FERROUS CHLORIDE SOlUTION WITH WATER. WEDGE IT IN BonOM OF A GLASS.1 TEASPOON (SEE PAGE 35). Reocts Wtlh most acids. INTO BOnlEB POUR FERPOTASSIUM FERROCYANIDE IN ROUS CHLORIDE SOlUTION YOU HAVE JUST 50 ml WATER".).85. W e Live METAL 11:t an Age of IIL""o}lll TWO KINDS OF IRON COMPOUNDS IRON FORMS TWO KINDS OF COMPOUNDS.}. MAKES LIGHT BLUE PRECIPITATE. DILUTE SOME FERRIC CHLORIDE SOLUTION WITH WATER.EN FilTRATE CONTAINS FERROUS CHfORIDE (FeCI.G A FERROUS SALT 1 POUR HYDROCHLOR.__I 55. They would range in size from the car in the garage and the refrigerator and stove in the kitchen to the nails in the walls and the needles and pins ill yow' mother's IRON RUSTI.E AS STEEL WOOl DISSOLVES. ==:::. ADD A FEW DROPS SET UP APPARATUS FOR M. EACH IRON ATOM HAS REPLACED THREE HYDROGEN ATOMS.RIC SALT MAKES MADE.AKING CHLORINE Of SOlUTION OF 1f. If you should walk around your home and touchdiITerent things with a magnet. IN FERRIC SALTS. 2 lIGHT-GRE.:s::-~~:-=---_____o. -=~~~~~~~~= 68 . you would be surprised at the large number of them that would prove to contain iron. Densily: 7. GREEN FERROUS SALTS EASilY OXIDIZE INTO RED-BROWN FERRIC SALTS. FERROUS SALT FERRIC CHLORIDE {FeCI. MAKlN. IN FERROUS SALTS. INVERT GLASS IN PIE P·LATE Of WATER. Skyscrapers and MOISTEN A WAD OF FINE STEEt WOOL WITH VINEGAR (TO SPEED UP ACTION).--__. has the peculiar quality of being magnetic ~ that is. and look around.lz"3 Hp.EST FOR IRON SALTS 1 IN ONE TEST TUBE.ACID OVER STEEt WOOl. FIlTER THE SOLUTION.. WATER HAS RISEN IN GLASS.!. MAKING A FERRIC SALT T.-----:. EEJS. EACH IRON ATOM HAS REPLACED TWO HYDROGEN ATOMS. HYDROGEN IS SE-t EItE.NG OF IRON sewing box.

This is done either by the Bessemer process (named for an Englishman Henry Bessemer) or by the open-hearth process. ADD A FEW CRYSTALS OF SODIUM BISULFATE TO KEEP THE SOLUTION SOUR. -\ADE WITH NO OXYGEN PRESENT IS WHITEBUT YOU GET MUDDY. BECAUSE OF IMPURITIES. WHITISH-GREEN PRECIPITATE OF FERROUS CARBONATE. has nothing to do with copper but comes from an old French word.also called "green vitriol' and "copperas. This. A blast. the last name mislead youit. with more coke forms carbon monoxide. the limestone mbines with various impurities to form a glass-like compound called "slag.. To tum it into st el. iron is poured out into moulds and cooled into bars of pig iron. TO FERRIC SULFATE (Fe2(S04). The coke burns "With great heat. YOU GET DIRTY-GREEN PRECIPITATE OF Fe{OHll' SOON OXIDIZING TO BROWN FERRIC HYDROXIDE. Eaeh Iuruace can make as much as 1 000 tons of iron at one time from 2. and 500 tons of limestone. also Iarge amounts of the coal from which to make the coke that goes into iron production. In chemical language. .hridges.. + 3C0 i 2 At the sam time.5 per cent. PURE CARBONATE .5 to 1. ADD SOLUTION OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE.000 ton' of coke. 2 TO ANOTHER PORTION OF FERROUS SULFATE SOlUTION ADD SODIUM CARBONATE SOLUTION. 69 TO SOLUTION OF % TEASPOON FERROUS SULFATE I 50 ml WATER." This is removed wh n 'the white-hot.)· Pi In chemical experiments. EVENTUAllY TURNING INTO fERRIC HYDROXIDE. in turn. hips machinery of all kinds .. of hot air is forced through the mi . the carbon must be burned au ~ until amy from . reduces the iron oxide to metallic iron. PURE FERROUS HYDROXIDE IS WHITE. 1.. coaperose. H101 HAS OXIDIZED FeSO . The finished steel is molded into "ingots" and shipped to manufacturing plants all oyer the country. not only large amounts of iron ore but.ture. 2 ADD HYDROGEN PEROXIDE SOLUTION. the most commonly used iron compound is th iron sulfate (ferro us sulfate. and this. remains. The iron is driven out of its ore (mostly Fe~O~) in huge furnaces. this is what happens: FROM FERROUS SALT TO FERRIC + O CO CO + C~." Don't leI. LIGHT-GREEN FERROUS SULFATE SOLUTION TURNS REDDISH-BROWN. railroads and. to arbon dioxide." The pig iron is brittle becaus it contains close to 5 per cent carbon.all of these d pend all iron (in the form of steel for their existen c.000 tons of are. Fe· O~· -H20) . We are very lucky to have in Am rica.2CO Fe!03 + 3CO C 22 2 plus heat 2F I ) IRON HYDROXIDES AND CARBONATE I DISSOLVE % TEASPOON FERROUS SULFATE IN 50 m! WATER.

"-.. \ \)"'"' ·11 . some early coppersmith discovered that copper and blue in coloI'. ~ ~ . Tbis was remedied when salts (s~h~ci'ipric sulfate. . In cuprous salts.5H~O) are bright. -.--~~. . The main trouble as cdprous chloride..~ v~ _ -_ . -- \ C({])lrnlTller-YesterdLay1t" l... tin (also found free in nature) melt-ed together formed an alloy that was much harder than either of the two metals._ ---=-=----:. Copper became especially valuable less than a hundred yearn ago when a satisfactory method for producing a steady flow of electricity was invented. .-~~ ~. de Grece). wll·e\. VI'hen the)' were dug out of the ground..--.o_-~ \\\HE \ \ _. within recent 'y!k'll"S.'NG ...~." This deposit was called verdigris .. euso. GREEK AND TROJAN W ARR10RS.__ . copper is the best conductor of electricity.:in cu~ric salts. It consis ts of basic cupric carbonate .. terl.._ ~~~~~~~5~1~~\~"~-... ? .III . Cuprous salts (such times for weapons and utensils.-~-i~~.the same compound you will see on a bronze statue or a copper-clad church spire exposed to wind and weather. :':.. i au WI fi d: copper In t h e wirmg in your own nome and in every electrical gadget you use. ' A great number of weapons from the Bronze Age have been found in Greece. some aluminum has taken its place for high-tension 70 "~.. ll~ /. .. ilie)' were covered with a green "rust.the period called the "Bronze Age .:-. Today. one opper-atom has taken the place of one hydrogen COPPER IS ONE of the few metals found free in il~~atom. It serves to bring the current from the place where it is produced to the place where it is to be used (although. CuCI) are colorless.---. That is why it was used long before historic place of two hydrogen atoms. BE~RE THE GATES OF TROY USED SWORDS AND SHiElDS OF . the most important use for copper is for electrical purposes." Todd\. --_. one copper atom has taken the ture.~-~~-~ ~-:. . This alloy gave its name to more than two thousand 'years ofhuman history . After silver. .:t MOST IMPORTANT USE OF COPPER TODAY IS fOR ELECTRIC WIRING..t" _ topper" makes two Kinds of salts.~' <: '" "- . -. C~~~~.literally "green of Greece" (from old French. RONZE-AN ALLOY MADE UP OF COPPER AND TIN. while cupric with it was its softness..

4 WITH HYDROGEN SULFIDE. CU 1 LET CUPRIC HYDROXID (IN EXPERIMENT ON TOP OF PAGE) SETTlE.97.RON REPLACEMENT SERiES POTASSIUM SODIUM CALCIUM MAGNESIUM ALUMINUM 1 CRUSH A FEW CUPRIC SULFATE CRYSTALS.. ADD HYDROCHLORIC ACID UNTIL All IS DISSOLVED. BY JREA-rING THiS WITH METALLIC GGPPER. HEAT TO BOILING. BROWN ISH·B LACK PRECIPITATE OF CUPRIC SULFIDE. THEN !'OUR OFF LIQUID. SEVERAL CLEAN NAILS INTO A SOLUTION OF COPPER SUL· FATE.is the best conductor of electricity. 10% SODIUM HYDROXIDE SOLUTION PRECIPITATES DIRTY-BLUE CUPRIC HYDROXIDE (Cu(OH). YOU GOT CUPROUS CHLORIDE. Nellt to silver. Easily rolled and drawninlo wire. INSOLUBLE IN WATER. BLUE CRYSTALS FORM. COPPER Element 29. WHEN YOU DISSOLVED CUPRIC HYDROXIDE IN HCI. Atomic wt. NOTHING HAPPENS. HEAT WHILE STIRRING UNTIL THEY HAVE TURNED INTO A WHITE POWDER. 2 NAILS ET ALLIC TION ARE NOW COATED WITH COPPER AND THE SOLUCONTAINS fERROUS SULFATE. 2 3 ADD SAKE.54. POUR 10 ml INTO EACH OF FOUR TEST TUBES.: 63. WITH AMMONIA YOU'lL ALSO GET Cu(OH)" BUT THIS DISSOLVES IN MORE AMMONIA WITH DEEP BLUE COLDR. ONE DROP OF WATER. COPPER WITH I. LEAVE FOR HALF AN HOUR.'" 71 . 3 SODIUM CARBONATE SOLUTION GIVES BLUE-GREEN CUPRIC CARBONATE PRECIPITATE.\ENT SERIES.). TIN lEAD COPPER MERCURY SILVER SHAKE UP A LITTLE ANHYDROUS C PRIC SULFATE WITH CARBON TETRACHLORIDE. POUR A FEW DROPS OF THE HOT SOLUTION INTO'" LARGE AMOUNT OF WATER. Soft metol of reddish color. ANY METAL IN THE SERIES WILL DRIVE OUT ANOTHER METAL BElOW IT AND TAKE ITS PLACE IN THE SALT. PLATINUM GOlD . IjDD Sh\ALL PIECES OF COPPER WIRE. 8. Density. ~ ----=---~ . YOU MADE CUPRIC CHLOR DE WHICH IS SOLUBLE IN WATER. REPLACING WATERFREE (ANHYDROUS) CUPRIC SULFATE SHOWS IF WAJER IS PRESENT IN A LIQUID BEING TESTED.z. 1 DROP ZINC CHROMIUM IRON NICKEl I .KING COPPER COMPOUNDS DISSOLVE 109 COPPER SULFATE IN 100 ml WATER.MA. YOU GET A WHITE PRECIPITATE. METALS CAN BE ARRANGED IN A REPLACEJ.

BOIL GENTLY.5 TO ANOTHER PART OF Agel. A g..own into wi.. to extract. BUT OF SILVER . Pure silver has one drawback . Bed knewnccnducto~ of . metals from their ores. IT TURNS ViOlET FROM M. BRIN . I . 1 6 . HEAT UNTIL HYPO MEtTS. .ITATE IS SILVER CHLORIDE (Agel). SOLUTION. DlSS.LIKE COPPER and gold . TO A BOIL. ADD AMMONIA. . Only %J of American silver coins is silver . ADD SODIUM THIOSULFATE SOWTlON. POUR CUP HALF fU.880.SILVER IS MALLEABLETHAT IS..E...) SOlUTION.a famous alloy used for jewelry . ADD WATER AND SODA. Sterling silver .ETAllIC SILVER. white meted with bright . Atomic wi.. S oft. PLACE TARNISHED COIN ON FOIl. vith copper to make it harder.is found free in nature and was therefore known to man long before he learned. ADD AMMONIA. PLACE A FEW CRYSTALS OF SODIUM THIOSULFATE ("HYPO") ON A SILVER COIN . SOlUTION. h SILVER COMPOUNDS GET 5 g SilVER NITRATE IN YOUR lOCAL DRUG STORE. AgCI.SILVER SMITHING IS AN ANCIENT ART.2 TO ml AgNO.oT Of HYDROXIDE. 4 TO PART OF AgGI PRECIPITAT.oLVE IN 50 ml WATER. REMOVING TARNISH FROM SILVER Juster. i Eo.. you get yourself involved in a series of complicated.. 10.re. ' -3 TO 5 ml AgNO. UNEBOTTOM OF CUSTARD CUP WITH ALUMINUM FOil.OU GET DARK-BR.. HYPO HAS lEFT STAIN Of BROWN-BLACK SILVER SUL'FIDE.all of them having to do with silver. ADD TABLE SALT (~aCI) SOlUTION.ES.LL OF WATER. SILVER CHLOIRIDE 01S5OLV. YOU CAN USE THIS METHOD FOR CLEANING SILVERWARE.~MEREDINTO ANY SHAPE DESIRED.oWN 'P·RECIPITATE""""':N. Y.electriCity. That's why most silver is alloyed . 1 TARNISHED I SILVER SILVER TARNISHES WHEN IT IS EXPOSED TO SULFUR. SIL v"BR . PRECIPITATE OF SILVER OXIDE DISSOlVES WHEN veu ADD MORE AMMONIA.54.5 parts silver. chemical processes . 6 PLACE REMAINING AgCI IN THE SUN. 72 . IT CAN BE HA/. SILVER Element 47. WASH. De nsify. THE SILVER BECOMES SHINY AGAIN. l""ARtlISH VANISHES. When you take a snapshot.oXIDE . DD SODIUM HYDROXIDE SOlUTION. PLACE SILVER TO BE CLEAI'-IED IN ALUMINUM TRAY. DISSOLVES.5ily ham-' dr.: 107.it is almost as soft as copper. TO 5 ml SILVER NITRATE (AgNO. It is hard to believe that the blacks and grays you see when yon look at a photograph are various concentrations of metallic silver.contains 7. CHEESEUKE PRECIP.the rest is copper. ADD % TEASPOON SODIUM CARBONATE.5 parts capper to 92.

GET A f. FlATIEN PRINT IN A BOOK. and drying. 'When fully developed.In making a photographic film the manufactur 'r spreads an emulsion of gelatin that contains silver bromide (AgBr) over a transparent sheet of cellulose acetate. dey eloping fixing. 3 DRY THE PRINT IN THE AIR ON TOP Of NEWSPAPER. I· FROM A C0MMERCIAL PHOTOGRAPHER.A CAMER. you have a photographic negative in which tbe whi~ parts you photographed appear black and the black parts appear white. __ ~ 73 . After washing and drying. th film is placed in a fixing bath which removes all unexposed silver bromide. AFTER FIVE MINUTES. EXPOSETO SUN UNTil PAPER IS BLACKISH-VIOLET. a certain amount of it gives up metallic silver (AgBr . WHEN DRY. ON TOP OF IT. MORE THAN 150 TONS OF SILVERARE USED EACH YEAR IN MAKING FILM fOR THE MOVIES. PL CE SHEET ON PIECE OF PLyWOOD.Ag Br). as above.IN THE SHADE. To make a natural-looking pi ture. LAY A LEAF AND A SHEET OF GLASS. When the silver bromide is ex-posed to light. yon place the negative on a piece of photographic paper and go through a similar procedure. More of this silver is brought out in the developing bath. WASH IN RUNNING WATER. ENSJTlZED SIDE UP. washing. HOLD IN POSITION WITH SPRING CLOTHES PINS.EW SHEETSOF." A SLOW PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER. + PHOTOGRAPHY INVOLVES A WHOLE SERIES OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES.A 2 FIX THE LEAF PRINT IN A SOLUTION OF 109 HYPO IN 100 ml WATER. PHOTOGRAPHING WlTHOUT . "PRINTING-OUT PAPER. of exposing.

. two hydrogen atoms with one atom of oxygen (H20).RBON ATOM (W1TH FOUR POSfTIVE VALENCES) COMBINES WITH TWO ATOMS OF OXYGEN (EACH WITH TWO NEGATIVE VALENCES) TO FORM ONE MOLECULE OF CO.USING PATIERNS AT LEFT. (ARROW POINTING UP INDICATES THAT THIS . Two oxygen atoms combine with one carbon atom to make CO!. strength). studied the chemical formulas in the text.IS A GAS). and three hydrogen atoms with aile atom of nitrogen As YOU R<\" VB (l\1H3)· The capacity of one atom to hold on to other atoms is called its valence (from Latin taleniia. USE AS PATTERNS FOR CUTIING CIRCLES OF CONSTRUCTION BOARD. PUNCH HOLES AS INDICATED.that gives oxygen a valence of 2. ONE CA. ONE MOlECULE CARBON DIOXIDE COMBINES WITH ONE MOLECULE CALCIUM HYDROXIDE TO FORM ONE MOLECULE OF CALCIUM CARBONATE (ARROW POINTING DOWN INDICATES THAT IT IS A PRECIPITATE) AND ONE MOLECULE OF WATER. The chart on page 75 shows some of the common AO~ TQ THESE DIAGRAMS SHOW WHAT HAPPENS WHEN YOU BURN CARBON AND TEST FOR CO. Carbon has a valence of 4. 74 . No atom has a lower valence than the hydrogen atom. Two hydrogen atoms combine with one oxygen atom . PUNCH THE HOLES NECESSARY TO INDICATE VALENCES. itrogen has a valence of3. CUT OUT SEVERAL CIRCLES OF CONSTRUCTION BOARD IN VARIOUS COlORS. TRACE EACH OF THE CIRCLES SHOWN ABOVE ONTO CARDBOARD. so we use hydrogen as OUT starting pain t and give it a valence of 1. you will have noticed that one atom of hydrogen combines with one atom of chlorine (Hel).

) WITH TWO NEGATIVE VALENCES. Hydrogen with one plus (H +) and oxygen with two minuses (0 .. OH -2 -1 -1 -2 -2 B AA S Si NH .you need H2 to combine with O.) that goes into the making of salts. c c B N B B C 0 S I' B B A Fe H K Mg A B B A Mn No CO. YOU CAN MAKE UP A SINGLE CIRCLE TO STAND FOR THE SULFATE RADICAL ISO . but some of them are :'radicals" . NO. B II SO. es and minuses. IN MAKING THE CIRCLE fOR SULFUR. there must be the same number of pin. C with 4 (C++++) takes two 0 each with -2 (0--).-) wo uld not. and the sulfate radical ( 0.BRASS CLIPS. B valences for making up formulas. With these models you will be able to figure out how compounds are made up and what happens in the various chemical reactions yon will cause in your experiments. fit together . Notice that some valences have plus (+) signs.that is groups of atoms that hang together in chemical reactions. INSTEAD OF USING ONE SULFUR CIRCLE AND fOUR OXYGEN CIRCLES TO INDICATE A SULFATE. HOLD THEM IN PLACE WITH SCOTCH TAPE. Similarly." BRASS CLIPS IN HOLES SHOWING POSITIVE VA· LENCES. in order to balance..~ Item SOME 'OMMON Circle VALENCES Negafive Item Valences Positive Valences Valence Valence Circle 'A A Ag +1 +3 +3 +4 +2 +1+2 +2+3 +1 +1 +2 +2 +1 +4+6 +4 +1 A C (I J -1 -1 -3 -2 -2 AI B c Co Cu PUT V.. C C A SO. + SULFUR HAS SEVERAL VALENCES. WRITE THE NAMES OF THE ELEMENTS WITH CRAYONS. IT HAS A VALENCE OF -2 IN H~S. others have minus (-) signs. formula for a compound.). 'iVben )'OU make up the. such as the ammonium radical C\1JIJ that behaves as a metal. 75 . YOU CAN SHOW THESE VALENCES WITH TWO EMPTY HOLES AND SIX . Arost of the items are elements. OF +4 IN SO" AND OF +6 IN SOl AND IN SULfURIC ACID (H2SO . To get a clear understanding of chemical formulas make yourself a set of atom models as shown on these pages...

Eventually. carbo meant coal. humid climate.To THE OLD RO:llA_l'iS. INTO THE COAL WE USE TODAY. They thrived in the hot. in hundreds of thousands of compounds produced by nature and in many thousands more created in the laboratory.huge tree ferns. The soot from a smoking candle is almost pure carbon.plants and animals . All the GOal we mine deep underground today is made up of the remains of plants that grew around three hundred million years ago .and in many dead things. It is hidden in the whitest sugar and the reddest rose and the greenest apple. pressure and heat turned them into coal.the other 10 to 20 per cent is made up of various substances from which a great number of important and valuable chemical compounds are made. HEAT TURNED TREES AND OTHER PlANTS 76 . During the ages they were covered by other dead trees and by layers upon layers of mud. giant club mosses and horsetails. To the modern chemist. died and tumbled to the ground. The coal that we use for fuel contains from 80 PRESSURE AND to 90 per cent carbon . So is also the graphite that forms the "lead" of your pencil and the diamond in the jeweler's window. carbon is an element found in an living things .a black rock that would burn.

CARBON Elem~nt 6. At c rn i c wI.: 12.011. Found in nature as diamond [density 3.52), 05 grophite (density 2.25), and 05 coal. Diamond burns in oxygen, coal in air.

C

THRU FORMS

OF

CARBON
GRAPHITE IS A SOFT FORM OF CARBON. IT FEELS SLIPPERY.

diamond

rough

lignite

uses of graphite bituminous cool
ANTHRACITE IS ALSO CALLED HARD COAl. BITUMINOUS GRAPHITE IS A SOFT FORM OF CARBON.

cut diamonds

~~
COAL IS SOFT COAl. LIGNITE IS BROWN COAl. IS THE HARDEST SUBSTANCE KNOWN.

IT FEElS SLIPPERY. DIAMOND

IN REGULAR DISTILLATION (SEE PAGE 61), A CHEMICAL IS PURIFIED. IN DESTRUCTIVE OR DRY DISTIlLATION, T E SUBSTANCE IS BRO· KEN INTO SEVERAL DIFFERENT CHEMICALS.

for dry distillation of wood, whittle twig into slivers, or use wooden matches without heads.

for dry distillation of coal, crush lump of bituminous coal into powder.

FILL TEST TUBE V~ FULL OF COARSELY POWDERED BITUMINOUS COAL (OR SLIVERS). PLACE SMAll WAD OF COTTON AT MOUTH OF TEST TUBE. CLOSE MOUTH OF TUBE WITH STOPPER WITH l·SHAPED GLASS TUBE DRAWN TO A JET POINT. PLACE TU.BE HORIZONTALLY IN HOLDER. HEAT COAL [OR WOOD).

1

000

2

AFTER A WHILE, COTTON

DENSE FUMES DEVELOP. THEY CAN

BE IGNITED

AT lET.

WAD DISCOLORS FROM TAR CONDENSING

AFTER BEING DISTIllED.

4 STOP HEATING. MOUTH OF TUBE. IF MONIA (A). IF YOU ACID (B). COAL HAS
CARBON SUGAR IN

REMOVE STOPPER. BRING MOISTENED LlTMUS PAPER TO YOU DISTILLED COAL, RED LITMUS TURNS BLUE FROM AM· DISTILLED WOOD, BLUE LITMUS TURNS RED FROM ACETIC TURNED TO COKE, WOOD HAS BECOME CHARCOAL

YOU CAN PROVE PRESENCE OF CARBON IN THE FOOD YOU EAT BY HEATING SMALL SAMP.LES OF CHEESE, BREAD, MEA, SOGAR. BE SURE TO DO THIS OUTDOO TO PREVENT EXPER(MENTS FROM SMELLING UP T E WHOlE HOUSE.

HEAT 1 TEASPOON CANE SUGAR IN A CUSTARD CUP. FIRST, SUGAR MELTS. THEN IT TURNS BROWN -IT "CARM\ELlZES." NEXT IT GIVES OFF THICK VAPORS THAT CAN .BE IGNITED. FINAllY, A PURE FORM OF COAL REMAINS.

RUB A lUIYIR OF SUGAR WITH CIGARrnE ASHES (TO ACT AS CATALYST). IGNITE. DIP TEST TUBE IN LIME WATER. HOLD QVER BURNING SUGAR. FILM OF CALCIUM CARBONA E SHOWS CO~ IN FLAME-PROVING THAT THERE IS CARBON IN SUGAR.

IT WAS ONCE BELIEVED THAT ORGANIC COMPOUNDS COULD BE PRODUCED ONLY BY LIVING ORGANISMS.

THE CHEMISTS of about two hundred years ago divided all compounds very neatly into two groupsorganic and inorganic. The organic compounds were those produced by living organisms - that is, plants and animals. The inorganic compounds were made up of dead things - rocksa:nd minerals, water and various gases. _ -0 organic compound, these chemists insisted. co~d ever be produced artificially - they required the force we call "life" for their creation. And then, in 1828, a German chemist, Friedrich Wohler, completely upset this idea. In his laboratory, Wohler had mixed ammonium sulfate(NHj)2S0j) and potassium c)'anate (KCI-O), expecting to get ammonium cyanate. After evaporating, he analyzed the compound he had made. To his amazement he discovered that it was not ammonium cyanate at all, but urea - a compound produced in the kidneys of living animals, including man. The atoms of the ammonium cyanate molecule had rearranged themselves into a urea molecule. -ffi1 CNO had turned into (NH2}2CO.

A few years later, another organic compoundacetic acid - was made artificially. And then the lid really blew off. NIore and more products of plant and animal life were put together - synthesized - in the laboratory. And as if tills were not enough, chemists began producing organic compounds that were not even found in nature. It became clear that the old meaning of organic chemistry no longer was right. And so, the definition was changed. Today, organic chemistry is defined as "the chemistry of the carbon compounds." Tills definition is almost, but not 100 per cent, correct. The metallic carbonates, for instance are still considered to he inorganic compounds, and c-arbon dioxide and carbonic acid are regarded as being both organic and inorganic. You may think it odd that a whole branch of chemistry should deal with the compounds of a single element. But you will not be surprised at all when you start experimenting with a few of the close to 1,000,000 carbon compounds.

78

HYDROCAltBOl'lS
CARBON AND

CONTAIN T'NO ELEMENTS ONLY: HYDROGEN. HYDROCARBONS WITH

FEW ATOMS TO THEIR MOLECULES ARE GASES. OTHERS WITH MANY ATOMS ARE LIQUIDS AND SOUDS.

AtCOFfO:kS

MAY BE CONSIDE.RED HYDROCARBONS IN WHICH A HYDROGEN ATOM_IS REPLACED BY OH.

CAR:BO_HYI;»RATES ARE IN MANY OF OUR MOST VALUABLE FOODSTUFFS AS STARCH AND SUGARS.

£ST£R~ IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY CAN BE COMPARED TO SALTS IN INORGANIC CHEMISTRY. FATS AND OILS

ARE THE MOST IMPORTANT ESTERS. THESE ARE THE "SALTS" OF GLYCERINE AND FATTY ACIDS.

a
Carlor Oil

~

eeocl'"

Winlll(gr'.. :e:n

Oil of

CARBOXYLIC ACIDS ARE NAMED FOR THE CARBOXYL GROUP-COOH-FOUND IN THEIR FORMULAS.

PROT:E:IN"S ARE COMPLEX COMPOUNDS THAT CONTAIN CARBON, HYDROGEN, OXYGEN, NITROGEN.

QiHH CARBON COMP-OUNDS;--IN ADDITION TO THE MAIN GROUPS ILLUSTRATED ABOVE, THERE ARE

NUMEROUS OTHER KINDS OF CARBON COMPOUNDS. MANY HAVE VERY COMPLICATED FORMULAS.

79

H H H H H H H H H erhylene. WHy""S: but -C- ~c - =C= Then hook them together. acetylene)~ A German chemist and professor. But bow explain compounds consisting of two atoms of carbon and six of hydrogen (C!HG. Carbon has a valence of 4. C~H4 ocerylene. THE PROB- lEM WAS SOLVED. Friedrich August Kekule. The answer was quite simple: While the atoms of most elements "hook on" to the atoms of other elements according to their valences.GBEFORE HIS EYES. But there were still many carbon compound formulas that would not line up in.) : H~C-C-H " / H 'H H. in these three _ C~C_ =C=C= -C5CNow add a hydrogen atom to each of the free bonds . A RING. To understand this.ethane (ClEo). BY ARRANGING THE SIX CARBON ATOMS IN. 80 . It was easy enough toexplain carbon dioxide. it was Kekule who offered the explanation. It was also easy to explain the molecule of the simple hydrocarbon methane (CH~). -.the formula had to be CO~.'S BENZENE RING H H=C I. /H H-- H"C=C-:: H• H-C-C-H ~H So far so good. This time it came to him in a dream.4. Again. two by two. or two of carbon and only two of hydrogen (C2H!.MOlECUtE IN A DREAM. He had been KEKUL'E.. write out carbon atoms with four lines to indicate the valence arrange the lines in these three different bonds. CH" How IS IT FOSSIBLE for carbon to make 80 many different compounds of such tremendous "ariety~ That was one of the great questions facing chemists during the last century. ethylene) . ethane). H C~H2 r:nelh(:lIH~. C~6' for instance-s. an important hydrocarbon obtained by distillation of coal.and there you have the formulas for the three hydro-carbons .ED TO WHIRL IN A RIN. ethylene (C~Hl)' and acetylene (CzH. A SNAKE SEE}. the atoms of carbon "hook on" to each other as well. C ~ C c::=J H ~ H =C .~ ~ ~ c H I C = H ~ AUGUST KEKUlE H.. oxygen of 2 .IT UPON THE STRUCTURE OF THE BENZENE .benzene. or two atoms of carbon and four of hydrogen (C!11~. this kind of arrangement. came up with the solution. different ways.

This dream gave Kekule the clue: the carbon atoms in benzene hang together in a ring. I -... . FOR HOME-MADE MODELS OF CARBON ATOMS..E RING AS SIX MONKEYS HANGING ON TO EACH OTHER WITH ONE OR TWO HANDS... THIS IS HOW THE BENZENE MOLECULE WIlt LOOK WHEN YOU P' TOGETHER FROM HOME-MADE BON ATOMS.. the lines of formulas turned into snakes. .ENE MOlECULE LOOKS WHEN IT IS CONSTRUCTED FROM PARTS USED TO MAKE UP LABORATORY MODELS FOR DEMONSTRATION. . IN THEIR FREE HANDS. USING THIS PATTERN. TAPE WITH SCOTCH TAPE. VALENCE BONDS ARE SHOWN BY RODS (B).. ' . YOUR OWN MODEL OF METHANE MOlECULE. III the evening he dozed b fore the fire.. MAKE UP TETRAHEDRONS FROM CARDBOARD. . IN MODELS OF CARBON ATOMS.. In his dream........ modern scientists can figure out the most complicated chemical formulas.. . HOLDING BANANAS.......... THE FOUR VALENCE BONDS POINT AWAY FROM THE CENTER (NUCLEUS] TOWARD THE CORNERS OF A TETRAHEDRON-A FIGURE MADE UP OF FOUR TRIANGLES.I . YOU CAN THINK OF THE BENZEN... twisting and twining .hydrogen atoms TWO LABORATORY MODELS SHOWING THE METHANE MOlECULE. I I I IN A CARBON ATOM (AI. each atom using three of its bonds to hang on to the atoms next to it. with one bond free to book onto a hydrogen atom. .. FOLD AT DOTTED LINES. 81 .. of organic formulas. THIS .until suddenly one of the snakes grasped its own tail and whirled around in a ring. Starting from these yery simple formulas.ISTHE WAY THE BENZ. working all day with long lines. " I I I I represent . I I -. YOU CAN DO WITH SCOTCH TAPE... .

possibly along the line of C2JIwC21H~rC22H45' And SO)VOU take offon hydrocarbon tires. By replacing one or more hydrogen atoms with hydroX)d groups (OH) or carboxyl groups (COOH) or chlorine atoms (Cl). FUEL OIL. Yes. WAX. "Fill 'er up!" The attendant pours what may be a hexane-septane-octane-nonane mixture into the gas tank. Even the red coloring of tomatoes and the yellow of carrots are hydrocarbons.. ASPHALT. it is possible to build up more complicated compounds . Coal and natural gas provide several others. (r. r 82 . for instance. motor oil. LUBRICATING OILS... " CRUDE OfL ASPHALT THE FAMILY CAR stops at the service station. and rubber are all hydrocarbons .. and countless other things. as well as to "crack" those with large molecules into others with smaller ones (as when a heavy oil is' cracked" into gasoline).g~b • h~ . And that is exactly what chemists are doing today . One of the remarkable things about hydrocarbons is that it is possible to combine some of those with small molecules into others with larger ones (as in making synthetic rubber).r~ . FRACTIONATING OF OIL THE FIRST JOB OF THE Oil REFINERY IS TO SPLIT UP THE OIL INTO THE PARTS (OR FRACTIONS) OF WHICH IT CONSISTS. turpentine.which can then be built up further and further. plosives. plastics and m.compounds that COIltain only hydrogen and carbon.-:. camphor. to mention a few.. OIL FIELDS ARE FOUND IN SEVERAL STATES. gasoline. But that is only the beginning.. mister]" Into the engine goes another hydrocarbon mixture . --. THIS IS DONE IN TALL TOWERS. rl ?'~. _. A HUNDRED YEARS AFTER THE FIRST OIL WELt IN PENNSYLVANIA. THE VAPORS RISE IN THE TOWER. THE LIGHTEST FRACTIONS-GAS AND GASOLINE-GO TO THE TOP.natural rubber. A great number of hydrocatbons come from petroleum (crude oil)... "Check your oil.. THE OIL IS HEATED. FOLLOWED BY KEROSENE.. Many more are produced by nature .giving us medicines and dyes.

HAMMER to~PS ElF BITUMINOUS COAL INTO A COARSE POWDER. GIVING OFF A BLACK SMOKE OF CARBON WHICH YOU CAN COllECT IN A JAR.. SET UP APPARATUS FOR COLLECTING GAS AS SHOWN BELOW. 83 .COONc). PLACE A SMALL WICK IN A IT. FIRST THEY MELT.H. MIX 5 9 SODIUM ACETATE (CbI. IS OFF. HEAT STEEL WOOL A LITTLE LATER." 1 TO TO % GIVEN WHITE MAKE SODIUM ACETATE. 2 TURN JAR UPSIDE DOWN.ITTlE TURPENTINE INTO BOTTLE CAP. IGNITE TURPENTINE. PLACE BOTTLE CAP ON PIECE OF PAPER. TO DEMONSTRATE THIS.H. METHANE IS MADE BY HEATING WATER-FREE SODIUM ACETATE WITH "SODA LIME. ADD WASHING SODA CUSTARD CUP VINEGAR UNTIL NO MO~E CO.. IS USED IN MAKING MOTH BAlLS. TURPENITINE- NAPHTHALENE C. FILL JAR WITH WATER. DROP INTO ISST TUBE. Fill FUI'INEL WITH IT. PLACE A WATERFILLED TEST TUBE OVER FUNNEL IN A FEW DAYS. IN THE LABORATORY. Oil IS CRACKED INTO GAS THAT BURNS WHEN IGNITED. EVAPORATE MIXTURE AT lOW HEAT TO GET POWDER OF SODIUM ACETATE. ALSO HEAT THE OIl. AND 5 9 CALCIUM OXIDE. + + " ~lliiill~ NAPHTHAUNE~. HEAT THEM IN A CUSTARD CUP. PUT JAR FILLED WITH ICE WATER OVER CUP.. NAPHTHALENE CAN BE PURIFIED BY SUBLIMATION. POUR A !. HEAT TO MAKE METHANE: CH.COONo NoOH ~ CH4 No. CRACKlNG OIL POUR A FEW ml HOUSEHOlD 011 IN TEST TUBE. IT BURNS INCOMPLETElY. CLOSE IT WITH STOPPER THAT HAS A GLASS TUBE WITH JET TlP. TUBE IS FILLED WITH METHANE. THEN GIVE OFF VAPOR. PLACE WAD OF STEEL WOOL NEAR MOUTH OF TUBE. CRUSH A COUPLE OF MOTH BALLS. BRING FUNNEL INTO LARGE JAR. NAPHTHALENE SETTLES ON BOTTOM IN LEAFY CRYSTALS.CO. 5 9 SODIUM HYDROXIDE.

and evaporated..nen) and shelter us (wood). when we talk about "hydrates" we mean chemicals that contain water.CGHI20. The result is purc. while setting ox-:ygen freealong this line: 6H20 6CO~ sunlight ---.5E SUGARS ARE MADE IN.CoRnO.. the chlorophyll in them combines the hydrogen from water with carbon dioxide Irom the air.. and oxygen in which the proportion between hydrogen and. S -CARS . C12H22011 (sucrose) + lItO . SUGAR IS BOILED-DOWN SAP OF SUGAR MAPLE USUALLY. or 10 and 5 to 6 carbon atoms (C6HI00. Carbohydrates are produced by plants by a remarkable process called photosynthesis .. They make 1I1) a large part. li. Another carbohydrate called cellulose helps to clothe us (cotton." When green leaves are exposed to sunlight. (glucose) + C H"O. 6 (fructose) (CONTI ~ -ED ot PAGE 86) . Th sucrose picks up water ana splits into glucose + + + t THE SWEETNESS OF FRUITS AND BERRIES COMES FROM A MIXTURE OF TWO KINDS OF SUGAR CALLED FRUCTOSE AND GLUCOSE.. The juice is pressed out. THE GREEN LEAVES OF THE PLANT AND SENT INTO THE FRUITS FOR STORAGE. oxygen is the same as in water (H20) ~ that is. cleared."putting things together with the help of light. filtered.MUCH OF THE SUGAR WE USE IS MADE BY EVAPORATING THE JUICE OF SUGAR BEETS AND SUGAR CANE. often in the company of still another sugar of the same formula called fructose (C5Hn06). of our food supply in the form of sugars and starches. But when we talk about carbolrydrates we mean organic compounds of carbon..• is found ) in ripe fruits.white crystals of a sugar with the chemical name sucrose {CuHnOli}· Another sugar called glucose (C6HI~O. These two sugars can be made in the laboratory by treating the more complicated sucrose with an acid. twice as much hydrogen as oxygen. 602 Carbohydrates are of tremendous importance to all of us. hydrogen.Most of our sugar comes from sugar beets or sugar cane. And so we find carbohydrates that have 22 atoms of hydrogen and 11 atoms of OA'J'gen to 12 atoms of carbon (Cl~HnOll)' or 12 hydrogen and 6 oxygen to 6 carbon (CoHl~06)'. THE..).

TEST FOR GLUCOSE 5 U GAR FEHLING A 1 A GERMAN SCIENTIST. BERRIES. SEVERAL CONTAIN GLUCOSE AND GIVE RED PRECIPITATE.. RED PRECIPITATE OF CUPROUS OXIDE (Cu"O) SHOWS GLUCOSE IS PRESENT. 2 FEHLING B. YOU DO NOT GET RED PRECIPITATE.r~~. ADD A FEW DROPS OF SOLU· TION TO BE TESTED. 1 FEHLING A. ADD A FEW ml SUGAR SOlUTION. HEAT FEHLING SOLUTION IN ANOTHER TEST TUBE.. DISSOLVE 25 9 ROCHELLE SALT (SODIUMPOTASSIUM TARTRATE)I FROM YOUR LOCAL DRUG STORE.LESPOONS WATER AND 2 TA· BLESPOONS llGHT SYRUP. HONEY. REMOVE WHEN COLD. d / clt-. THEN CONTIINUE HEATING WITHOUT STIR· RING UNTil A SAMPLE DROPPED INTO COLD WATER FORN. OVER LOW HEAT AND WHILE STIR. f~llll· IT IS EASY TO MAKE lOLLIPOPS. II 8. iff-I/-V-85 .. TWO SOLUTIONS ARE REQUIRED. MAKING SUGAR CANDY 1 SUCROSE TO GLUCOSE ff=2. ADD 10 DROPS HYDROCHLORIC ACID. ~-p~e~rf~O~rm kitchen. YOU GET RED PRECIPITATE. THEY ARE MIXED JUST BEFORE USE. MAPLE SYRUP. ~=~~SE:~ " HEAT A MIXTURE OF 2 ml FEHLING A AND 2 ml FEHllNG B IN A TEST TUBE. MOLASSES. HERMAN fEHLING. DISSOLVE % CUP SUGAR IN 2 TAB. HEAT AGAIN. thiS. GLUCOSE HAS BEEN FORMED. ORANGES. CANE SUGAR IS NOT GLUCOSE BUT ANOfHER SUGAR CALLED SUCROSE.. LEMONS. !'lent in the experi- 1 DISSOLVE 1 9 CANE SUGAR IN 10 ml WATER IN A TEST TUBE. DISSOLVE 7 9 SODIUM HYDROXIDE IN 70 mI WATER. SUGAR IN MILK (LACTOSE) GIVES Cu20 PRECIPITATE. IN THIS SOLUTION. TEST CANE SUGAR WITH FEHLING. DISSOLVE 5 9 COPPER SULFATE IN 70 mI WATER. THOUGHT UP THE TEST FOR GLUCOSE THAT HAS HIS NAME. SPOON OUT TABLESPOONFULS ONTO A SHEET OF GREASED ALUMINUM FOIL PUSH STICK IN EACH BLOB.. _ . FOR THIS TEST. / I d111-~~-' . /~ '. ALSO TRY JUICES OF VARIOUS FRUITS: PRUNES. HEAT AGAIN. HEAT GENTLY FOR A FEW MINUTES WITHOUT BOILING. USE FEHLING TEST TO fIND OUT IF DIFFERENT SWEETTASTING FOODS CONTAIN GLUCOSE SUGAR: CORN SYRUP. .S BRITTLE THREAD. RING.

Starch is distributed in most pI ant parts.At first. REMOVE BtACKPAPER STRIPS.. KEEP lEAF IN ALCOHOl UNTIl All CHLOROPHYll IS OUT.EN TS W1iTHPHOTOSYNTHES J5 ] POT UP A NASTURTIUM OR GERAN. THEN FASTEN STRIPS OF BLACK PAPER ACROSS BOTH SIDES OF ONE OR MORE lEAVES.IUM PLANT AND PLACE IT IN THE DARK. NOW EXPOSE THE GROWING PLANT TO THE SUNLIGHT FOR TWO HOURS. TRACTS THE CHLOROPHYll FROM THE LEAF. 3 PLACE LEAF IN IODINE TEST SOLUTION.it. gl ance it looks quite simple. You can break this polysaccharide ("many-sugar") into the monosaccharide ("single-sugar") glucose by treating it with an acid. FOR A COUPLE OF DAYS. The paper OIl which this hook is printed is specially treated cellulose. 86 .D CUP IN A POT OF BOILING WATER.INBY THE ROOTS) WITH CARBON DIOXIDE fROM THE AIR (TAKEN IN THROUGH THE LEAVES) TO FORM SUGAR FIRST AND THEN STARCH. THEN DROP IT INTO DENATURED ALCOHOl IN A CUSTARD CUP. It makes up the cell walls of leavesand st-alks. 2 PICK OFF A LEAF. A GROWING PLANT IS THE MOST ASTONISHING CHEM· ICAt FACTORY ON EARTH. EXPERI M. DIP IN BOI. Cotton is 95 per cent cellulose. PARTS EXPOSED TO SUN TURN BLUE. It is a carbohydrate with very large molecules. But note that little x . AS ALCOHOl GETS HOT. Take a look at its formula: (CJIIOO ~)~. wood and fibers.F SUNLIGHT IS ABLE TO COlA· BINE WATER (TAKEN . IT EX." A single molecule of starch may weigh 6. CELLULOSE is the building material of the plant world. THE GREEN SUBSTANCE IN LEAVES-CALLED CHlORO· PHYLL-WITH THE HELP D. THIS PROVES PRES· ENCE OF STARCH. So is the cellophane around your candy and the rayon that goes into ladies' dresses. For more about cellulose in natural fibers and rayon. stands for "any number of times. PLACE CUSTAR.STAR CHE~ . see pages 102:-103.lING WATER FOR A MOMENT TO KILL THE LEAF. UNEXPOSEDPARTSBECOME BROWN.000 times as much as a single molecule of glucose.

POUR REST INTO A JAR FOR FURTHER SmUNG. POUR OFF MOST OF WATER. SQUEEZE.E OF GRATER. EACH CONTAINING 5 ml WATER AND 1 DROP IODINE TEST SOLUTION. SOLUTION FOR TESTING STARCH CAN. LET STARCH IN POT. THEN COOL SOLUTION. 1 PEEL A COUPLE OF POTATOES. OR YOU CAN MAKE IT BY D. TO 10 ml 1 PER CENT STIARCH SOLUTION ADD 10 DROPS HYDROCHLORIC ACID. GRATE PLACE POTATO PULP ON DOUBLE LAYER Of CHEES~LOTH. BOIL FOR 2 MINUTES. ADD 2 DROPS OF SALIVA [SPITHE) TO 5 ml STARCH SOLUTION.t.PREPARING STARCH TEST FOR STARCH IT IS A SIMPLE MATTER TO GET STARCH fROM POT A TO ES. COlOR GETS LESS AND LESS BlU. BRING TO BOIL WHILE STIRRING. STIR %9 STARCH IN 5 ml COLD WATER. rliEM UP ON FINE SID.REATED STARCH SOLUTION DOES NOT REACT WITH THE FEHLING SOLUTION. YOU GET RED PRECIPITATE THAT SHOWS PRESENCE OF GLUCOSE.E. DROP 3 DROPS SAtiVA-STARCH MIXTURE INTO A TEST lUBE WITHIOD1NE SOlUTION. WITH 2-MINUTE INTERVALS.ISSOlVING A FEW IODINE CRYSTALS (fROM EXPERIMENT ON PAGE 48) IN A SOLUTION OF I 9 POTASSIUM 10DlD.E IN 50 ml WATER. SALIVA DIGESTS THE STARCH AND TURNS IT INTO A SUGAR. WATER. UN. 87 .IVES A BWE COlOR TO STARCH. MALTOSE. FOLD UP AND TIE. PLACE THIS IN GLASS OF WARM (NOT HOT) WATER. SHAKE. BE MADE BY DILUTING 5 ml REGULAR TINCTURE OF 10DIN. LINE UP FIVE TEST TUBES. DIP BAG IN POT 'OF. DIP AND SQUEEZE UNTIL MOST STARCH IS OUT. IODINE G. TESl THE RESULT WITH FEHUNG SOLUTION. ADD 45 ml MORE WATER. sernr EXPERIMENTS WITH STARCH TO MAKE 1 PER CENT STARCH SOlUTION. IN ANOTHER TEST rUBE.E WITH 45 ml WATER.

methane. ClH6. wine.2C2H50H 2CO! The ethanol is finally separated [rom the watery liquid by distillation. alcohol is the strong stuff in beer.HuOs). and hard liquor. up from the names of tbe hydrocarbons to which they are related by giving these an "-01" ending. But to a chemist. Alcohols may be considered hydrocarbons in which one or more hydrogen (H) atoms are replaced by hydroxyl (OB) groups. methanol (also called methyl alcohol). to a great extent. the yeast cells give off a substance called zymase. the tin)' plant cells of yeast are made to grow in the solution of a simple sugar such as glucose (C. Their names are made.GLYCOl - AND GREAT-GRANDCHILDREN. and so on.'T PEOPLE. STYRENE ETHYLENE . CH~. Glycerol (C3H:. in the same way in which it was made thousands of years ago. Methanol (CH30H) was originally called wood alcohol because it was made by the destructive distillation of wood. This acts as a catalyst and turns the glucose into ethanol and carbon dioxide: CJII!O. . + I THE "FAMILY TREE" OF ETHANOL-WITH SOME OF ITS CHILDREN. ethane. It is very poisonous and is therefore used to "denature" ethanol. this is just one of many alcohols. In this. becomes C2HsOH.(OH)J) is still another alcohol which you probably know better under the name of glycerin. becomes CH30H. making this unfit for drinking. ethanol (also known as ethyl or gram alcohol) . To Ethanol (CZH50H) is produced today. GRANDCHILDREN. by a process called fermentation. SYNTHET1C 'PLASTICS OXALIC ACID RUBBER EXPLOSIVES BUTYL ALCOHOl ACETONE CEllULOSE ACETATE - - ~CHLOROFORM PHOTOGRAPHIC TEXTTLE FIBERS PROPIONIC -VINYl ACID FILM ACETALDEHYDE ACET ALD EHYD E CYANOHYDRIN ACETIC ANHYDRIDE ALCOHOL ACETANILIDE 88 .110!'. In growing. In this way. Glycerol may be considered a product of propane (C3H ) in which not on but three H atoms have been replaced by OH.

DISTill OFF A FEW ml ETHANOL AT lOWEST POSSIBLE HEAT. GAS IS CO~. DROP A FEW DROPS OF METHANOL (OR DENATUREDALCOHOl] ONTO HOT MlXTURE. ETHYL AlCOHOLETHANOL 1 IN A PINT BonLE MIX % CUP CORN SYRUP WITH 1 CUP WARM WATER. rr--/ rP:-' 89 . YOU GET SMELL Of WINTERGREEN OILMETHYL SALICYlATE. HEAT.EWARMWATER. 2 FILTER HALF OF THE FERMENTED LIQUID INTO A -PINT SCREW-TOP CAN. SET UP APPARATUS FOR DISTILLATION AS DESCRIBED ON PAGE 61 WITH THE EXCEPTION THAT HEATING IS DONE ON A WATER BATH MADE FROM HALF A QUART CAN WITH WATER. MIX WITH V4 TEASPOON SODIUM BISULFATE. GAS DEVELOPMENTSLOWS DOWN. LEAD VAPORS THROUGH l-SHAPED GLASS TUBE INTO TEST TUBE IN MIXTURE OF WATER AND ICE. FILL A TEST TUBE ONE THIRD FUll OF SLIVERS OF WOOD. CRUSH AN ASPIRIN TABLET. LEAD THE GAS INTO LIME WATER. ADD V2 PACKAGE YEAST THAT HAS BEEN SOFTENED IN LUK. SHORTlY THE LIQUID BEGINS TO BUBBLE. HEAT. PLACE BOTTlE IN A WARh\ SPOT.METHYL ALCOHOLMETHANOL METHYL SALICYLATE vapors burn with blue flame METHANOL CAN BE PRODUCED BY DRY DISTILLATION OF WOOD. IN A FEW DAYS.

90 .ACETIC ACID IS WHAT MAKES VINEGAR TASTE SOUR. This COOH combination. USED FOR TANNING.IN MANY UNRIPE FRUITS-GREEN APPLES.NAME COMES FROM LATIN . LATIN FOR WillOW. PLUMS. in which they are found. Still other of these organic acids are produced by the action of bactaria (acetic acid from wine or cider..C ACID IS THE HIGHLY IRRITATING ACID THAT ANTS {fORMICA} PUMP INTO YOU WHEN THEY BITE YOU. lactic acid when milk turns sour. AND A GREAT NUMBEROF OTHERS. malin acid). OXALIC ACID ORIGINALLY CAME FROM THE WOOD SORREL PLANTOXALIS.. others as esters (products of acids and alcohols.>LfI. when CH3COOH (acetic acid) forms CH3COO_ ~a (sodium acetate).BER OF TREES AND IN GALL APPLES ON OAK TREES.MAWS-APPLE TREE.AND ORANGES. STIch as fats and oils and the flavors of many fruits and the odors of many flowers). butyric acid in rancid butter). Some organic acids can be eJl:i.NNIC ACID.racted directly from the plant parts. for instance. has given the organic acids their scientific name. When these acids form salts it is the H in tbe carboxyl group that is replaced by a metal. CITRIC ACliD GIVES THE TART TASTE TO CITRUS FRUITS-lEMONS. IT WAS FIRSTMADE FROM BARKOF WILLOW TREES. liMES.i YOUTHTh-:K Organic acids have ODe thing in oommon. lA. and one hydroxyl group (OR). CURRANTS. carboxylic acids." THAT IS WHAT IT USED TO BE. tannic acid. But to get them in pure and concentrated form it is usually necessary to turn them into sodium or calcium salts and then free the acids from the salts 'with a stronger acid . MALIC ACID IS fOUND . of anything more refreshing than a glass of cold lemonade on a hot summer's day~ Or anything better than cranberry sauce for adding a tang)' taste to the Thanksgiving dinnerj The tartness of lemonade and cranberry sauce comes from organic acids. These acids are found ready-made in nature in great numbers. NOW IT IS MADE ARTlFICIALlY. Some of them OCCllI as free adds (citric acid. called a carbox-yl group (from a joining-up of the words carbon and hydro:ryl). fORMI. as. C. IS FOUND IN THE BARK OF A NUM. Many of the acids which were formerly obtained from plant parts can now be made artificially in thelaboratory. one oxygen atom. GRAPEFRUITS. SALlCYUC ACID GOT ITS NAME FROM SAUX. VINEGAR MEANS "SOUR WINE. They all contain a combination of one carbon atom.

o CALCIUM OXIDE UNTIL NO MORE DISSOLVES. FILTERSOLUTION TO REMOVE UNDISSOLVED CALCIOXIDE. SALICYUC ACID ] BOil % TEASPOON TEA IN 50 ml WATER. MIX A SMALL AMOUNT OF SAl... POUR OFF TliE CLEAR LIQUID.YOU NOW HAVE A SODIUM SALICYLATESOLUTION. 3 IN A DRY TEST TUBE. REMOVE TUSE FROM HEAT.NO~ FROM SALICYLIC ACID 1 SHAKE UP 1 g SALICYLIC ACID WITH 10 ml WATER. USE LIME FOR MAKING THE CALCIUM SALT-{CH3COO)2Ca. YOU GE"F:_-·~·i---T:. HEAT GENTLY. 5 COPPERSULFATEGIVES THE GREEN COPPER SAliCYLATE. EVAPORATESOLUTION UNTIL ALMOST DRY. 4 A FERRICSALT GlVES WINE. YOU WILL GET A BLACK PRECIPITATE OF IRON TANNATE.-\ SHARP ODOR OF ACETIC ACID. RED FERRIC SALICYLATE. VINEGAR VINEGAR IS DILUTED ACETIC ACID. 91 .). HEAT GENTLY. U SALICYLATE GIVES REDBROWN FERROUS SAliCYLATE. THEN LET IT STAND TO STEEPAND COOL. SNIFF. TANNIC YOU CAN GAIN DRIVElACETIC ACID OWT OF ITS CALCIUM SALif. 2 ADD 10 PER CENT NaOH SOLUTION BY THE DROP UNTIL ALL SALICYLIC ACID IS DISSOLVED. M. 2 DISSOLVE A CRYSTAL OF IRON SULFATE IN 5 ml WATER AND ADD TO THE TEA.ACETIC ACID YOU HAVE ALREADY MADE SODIUM ACETATE (ON PAGE 83). PHf. THE ACETATE BREAKS UP INTO CALCIUM CARBONATE AND ACETONE (CH. 1 WARM 50 ml WHITE VINEGAR IN A CUSTARD CUP. FILTRATECONTAINS CALCIUM ACETATE.ICYLIC ACID WITH AN EQUAL AMOUNT OF CALCIUM OXIDE. YOU GET THE ODOR OF PHENOL-ALSO KNOWN AS CARBOLIC ACID. MOISTENED BLUE LITMUS PAPER AT MOUTH OF TUBE TURNS RED. SEVERAL OF ITS SALTS-ACETATES-CAN BE MADE FROM VINEGAR.IX CAtCIUM ACETATE WITH AN EQUAL AMOUNT OF SODIUM BISULFATE. PLA6E [ DRY TEST TUBE.COCH. IT DOES NOT GO INTO SOLUTION. ACID TANNIC ACID IS FOUND IN TEA. DO NOT ERHEAT-IF YOU DO.

. eat is used for your growth. combinations of fatty acids with the alcohol.C3H.the most concentrated energy foods available. cottonseed.MOST FATS PRODUCED BY PLANTS ARE LIQUID OILS FOUND IN FRUITS AND SEEDS. The rest you get from fats . The liquid olein in peanut. Some fats (butter. glycerol (glycerin). and soybean oils is made to pick up hydrogen and become a solid fat known as stearin: (C17Ha•3COO). All fats are esters. Liquid fats can be turned completely into solid fats by a process called hydrogenation. That is how veget-able shortenings ami margarine are made. the liquid fats turn solid. Much of this energy comes from carbohydrates (sugars and starches). COO)3CSH. SOIDe of it for giving yau the energy to do. (olein) (stearin) SOME OF THE FOOD )'OU . But when heat-ed. the solid fats melt. (C17 Ha. others are liquid (olive oil. all the things you want to do. corn oil). more hydrogen atoms are added to their molecules with the help of a catalyst. that is. lard) are solid at usual room temperature. In this. +3H~ -. when cooled. and.

THE ALMOST TRANSPARENT "GREASE SPOT" IS A TEST FOR FAT. THE SMEll is FROM ACROLEIN WHICH IS PRODUCED BY BREAKING DOWN THE GLYCERIN IN THE FAT. BOIL WATER FOR TEN MINUTES OR MORE.{OH). DROP THEM IN A TEST lOBE. 93 . THEN IMMEDlATEL Y DESTROYS IT.O DISSOLVE V2 TEASPOON SOAP POWDER OR FLAKES IN 50 ml WARM WATER ADD 10 ml HYDROCHLORIC ACID. 2 IN A CUSTARD CUP. WAFT THE IRRITATING ODOR TO~ WARD YOU AND SNIFF CAUTIOUSLY. -').EXTRACTING FAT SHAVE A SMALL SQUARE OF BAKER'S CHOCO~ LATE OR BIITER CHOCOlATE INTO FINE BITS.0+2H. not to breathe fumes. AFTER COOLING YOU CAN LIFT OFF THE FAT AS A SOLID DISK. STEARIC ACID IS ADDED TO PAR~ AFFIN IN THE MAKING OF CANDLES. 1 CRlfSH A COUPLE OF PEANUTS. DROP IT INTO HOT WATER. TEST FOR GLYCEROL (GLYCERIN) FATTY ACIDS IN A DRY TEST TUBE ADD % TEA· SPOON SODIUM BISULFATE TO 1 ml VEGETABLE OIL AND HEAT GENTlY. LET CARBON TETRACHLORiDE EVAPORATE. Be careful RENDERING FAT "RENDERING" MON METHOD IS THE MOST COM~ OF EXTRACTING FAT. GLYCEROL lOOSES WATER AND TURNS INTO ILL~SMELLING ACROLEIN: C. C. COVER THEM WITH CARBON TETRAeALORIDE AND LET STAND ABOUT 5 MINUTES. 1 CUT UP A SMAll AMOUNT OF SUET-THE fAT FROM A PIECE OF BEEf. POUR CARBON TETRACHLO~ RIDE OVER THE CUT·UP CHOCOLATE AND STIR. REMOVE THE RENDERm~OUT SUET.. FILTER CHOCOLATE-TETRACHLO· RIDE MIXTURE. THE NoHS04 SeTS THE GLYCEROL FREE. PO~ A FEW DROPS ON A PIECE 011 PAPER. PLACE CUS· TARD CUP IN REFRIGERATOR. LET FILTRATE STAND UNTIL CARBON TETRACHLORIDE HAS EVAPORATED AND YELLOW·WHITE COCOA BUITER IS LEFT.H . 2 LOOK AT THE PAPER AGAINST THE LIGHT.H. YOU WILL GET LUMPS OF THE fATTY ACIDS OF WHICH SOAP IS THE SODIUM SALT-MOSTlY STEARIC AND PALMITIC ACIDS.

Cl1H3~COO. THE Oil DROPS ARE SURROUNDED BY THE SOAP MOLECULES DIPPING THE OIL-DISSOlVING ENDS INTO THE OIl. WHEN OIL IS SHAKEN UP IN SOAPY WATER. ~AJlyou need is water and plenty of CH3CH!CH2CH!CH2CH2CH2CH2CH. . 1 -0 one knows who invented it. a substance more generally known as soap. . HERE IS A RECIPE: 5 9 SOAP.but the method for making it was passed down from father to son. SEVERAL STORIES HIGH. THE OTHER END IN OIl.. THE WATER-SOLUBLE ENDS HOLD THE OIL DROPLETS SUSPENDED. The early soap makers first had to burn wood to get potash (K~C03-see page. CH2CH!CH!CH2CR2CH2CH2CH~COONa . ONLY A FEW GALLONS OF SOAP COULD BE MADE AT ONE TIME. 59) or dried seaweed to get soda ash (l\Ta2C03).except that the boiling is done in tremendous soap pans under steam pressure. -_. 100 ml WATER. and this. Soap has been used for cleaning for thousands of years. in turn.a lor short. AND 10 ml GLYCERIN.see page 4-5). was boiled with fat to make soap. the sodium salt of stearic acid. STRONG SOAP BUBBLES RESULT WHEN YOU ADD GLYCERIN TO THE SOAP SOLUTION. /I IN MODERN SOAP PANS. Very much the same method is used today . 8 THIS IS THE WAY SCIENTISTS BELIEVE THAT SOAP ACTS: ONE END OF THE SOAP MOLECULE IS SOLUBLE IN WATER. WHE_iEVER YOUR RANDS get dirty it is an easy matter to get them clean.IN THE OLD~FASHIONED SOAP KFTTLE.. UP TO 100 TONS OF FAT CAN BE TURNED INTO SOAP.This was treated with lime to make potassium or sodium hydroxide (KOH or ~TaGH . 94 . from mother to daughter.

S FINAllY. 3 AGAIN. CONTINUE HEATING AND ST1RRING UNTIL A SMALL SAMPLE DIS· SOlVES COMPLETELY IN % TEST TUBE WATER. TESTING SOAP AND DETERGENTS DISSOLVE 1 9 OF YOUR HOME· MADE SOAP IN 50 ml LUKE· WARM WATER. 1 POUR 10 ml OF THE SOAJ> AND DETER· GENT SOLUTIONS INTO SEPARATE TEST TUBES. CHEESE-LIKE CURDS. 2 SHAKE 5 DROPS OF QIL INTO EACH SOLU· TION. SHAKE AND NOTICE THE DIFFERENCE IN THE AMOUNT OF fOAM MADE BY EACH SOlUTION IN THIS "HARD" WATER.ILAR PRODUCT] IN A CUSTARD CUP ON THE WATER BATH. THE SOAP MAKING (SAPONIZATION) IS THEN COMPLETED. 95 .MAKING SOAP MAKE A WATER BATH BY POURING 1 INCH WATER INTO A TIN CAN. 2 DISSOlVE 5 9 SODIUM HYDROXIDE (NoOH) IN 15 m WATER. 4 TIE A PIECE OF CHEESE CLOTH OVER THE TOP OF A JAR. THE SOAP WlLL "SALT OUT" IN THICK. POUR THE HOT SOAP MIXTURE INTO THIS SOLUTION. ALSO MAKE SOLUTIONS IN 50 ml WATER OF 1 9 TOILET SOAP. ADD 15 ml DENATURED ALCOHOL (TO SPEED UP THE ACTION). 1 9 J>OWDERED DETERGENT. 1 MElT 109 SHORTENING ("CRISCO" OR SIM. AND 1 ml LIQUID DETERGENT. TEST EACH SOlUTION FOR ACID AND BASE WITH LITMUS PAPER AND PHENOLPHTHALEIN. WASH THE SOAP BY POURING TWO TEST TUBES OF ICE·COLD WATER THROUGH IT TO REMOVE MOST OF I SAlT lHAT'S STILL ON IT. 1 9 SOAP POWDER. 1 9 SOAP FLAKES. NOTE THE DIFFERENCE IN THE WAY THE SOLUTIONS MAKE EMULSION WITH 011. ADD 5 ml LIME· WATER TO EACH. POUR 10 rnl OF EACH SOlUTION INTO SEPARATE TEST TUBES. POUR THIS SOLUTION INTO THE MELTED SHORTENING WHilE STIRRING. POUR THE SAlT SOLUTION WITH THE SOAP CURDS INTO CHESSE CLOTH AND LET SALT SOLUTION DRAIN OFF. SQUEEZE OUT THE WATER AND SPREAD T THE CHEESE CLOTH TO LET THE SOAP DRY. 3 DISSOLVE 100 9 TABLE S IT IN 300 ml WATER.

You would hardly think of eating hair and nails. hamburgers or frankfurters for lunch. steak or chicken for dinner. One of them." IT CAN NOT AGAIN BE MADE SOlUBLE. We drink milk mostly for the sake of its proteins. SEPARATE WHITE FROM YOLK BY lmING WHITE HOW INTO A CUP WHILE RETAIN· ING YOlK IN EGG SHELL. many of our desserts are protein prod-en ucts .(CO~ 'TI rnso 01 PAGE 99) THE PROTEIN . Vlhile most other foodstuffs. and oxygen.. furs and feathers . IT HAS BEEN "DENATURIZED.from ioe cream to Jell-O. has this estimated formula: C696Hlm. E . hydrogen. IT COAGULATES INTO A F1Rllt.~" SHAKE 5 rnl EGG WHITE WITH 5 ml WATER.B. consist of carbon. for the most part. 96 .every meal. CRACK AN EGG.yet these are all proteins. WHITE MASS. ALMOST AT the proteins also contain nitrogen and.RING TO A BOIL THE HEAT CAUSESTHE ALBUMIN TO COAG~ ULAH. sulfur. FILL CUSTARD CUP HALF FULLOF WATER.B. such as carbohydrates and fats. IT IS CAllED "POACHING. TH!S METHOD IS USED IN COOKING.ENATURED ALCOHOL THE ALCOHOl CAUSeS THE ALBUMIN TO COAG· ULATE OUT IN WHITE 'FLECKS. albumin in egg.O~ooN 19051S' Not all proteins are edible. Their molecules arei'giants' compared with the molecules of oilier chemical compounds. ADD 5 rnl D..IN THE EGG WHITE THAT IS LEFT.IN EGG IS CALLED ALBUMIN PROUININ EGG (." SHAKE 5 rnl BEATEN EGG WHITE WITH 5 rnl WATER.. BRING TO A BOIL POUR . we look forward especially to the proteins: ham and eggs for breakfast.EAT WHITE WITH FORK.

HEAT. AMMONIA IS NH a. TION.WOOl. VAPORS SMELL OF AMMONIA AND TURN wrrrso RED UTMUS PAPERBLUE. 3 HEAT THE M.IXTURE. FORM HNO. THIS COlORS THE ALBUMIN YELLOW. TESt FOR SOLID WHITE PROTEIN EONTAIN? I IN TEST TUBE. NaHSO . 2 ADD HOUSEHOLD AMMONIA. AND KNO.DROP IN SMAll PIECE OF COAGULATED EGG WHITE.. 1 SHAKE 5 ml OF THE YOI. ALBUMIN THEREFORE CONTAINS CARBON. POUR A FEW DROPS OF THE EGG WHITE SOLU· TION ONTO A BRIGHT SILVERCOIN. ADD ~ TEASPOON POTASSIUM NITRATE. _MilK. IN THE END. TKE YELlOW ALBUMIN TURNS BRIGHT ORANGE. LET CARBON TETCHLORIDE EVAPORATE. WHITE GOES IN SOLUTION. CHICKEN. GREASE SPOT REMAINS. UMA BEANS THE SAME WAY. WHAT DOES ALBUMIN CONSIST OF? T PLACEA SMALL PIECEOF COAGULATED EGG WHITE ON A PIECE OF TIN. Be careful not to breathe fumes. BLOOD.K WITH 5 ml CARBONTETRACHLORIDE TO FIND OUT IF IT CONTAINS FAT. YOLK AND WHITE BOTH CONTAIN AlBUMIN. COVER IT WITH 5 ml 10% NoOH SOlUTION. HEAT. -2 POUR A LITTLEOUT ON PAPER. IN A FEW MINUTES SILVER COIN TURNS BROWNISH-BLACK FROM SILVER SULFIDE. DISSOlVE 1h TEASPOON SODIUM BISUlFATE IN 5 ml WATER. CARBON REMAINS.ALBUMIN MUST CONTAIN NAND H. HEAT. 97 . AND GRAIN. IT ALSO CONT AlNS OXYGEN.. TESTCHEESE.THE ITEMS ON THE TOP OF THESE TWO PAGES AU CONTAIN PROTEINS. 1 2 DROP A SMALL PIECEOF COAGULATED EGG WHITE INTO A EST TUBE. - ALBUMIN IS FOUND IN EGGS. PROVING THAT ALBUMIN CONTAINS SULFUR. 2 CONTINUE HEATI G .YOU GET A WHITE COAGULA.-NITRIC ACID.

TO A CUSTARD CUP.BAG IN WA· TER AND SQUEElE SEVERAL TIMES TO WASH OUT WHEY AND VINEGAR.. TIE A PIECE OF CHEESE CLOTH OVER A JAR. SPREAD OUT THE CHEESE CLOTH TO LET THE CASEIN DRY.R MIXTURE OF 8 TEA. ADD ONE TEST TUBE fUU. POUR Yz CUP SKIM MILK {O. MAKING CA.F WHITE VINEQAR TO THE WARM SKIM MILK. FOLD CHEESE CLOTH UP AROUND T E CASEIN. '* 98 . WHAT ElSE IS. CHEESE IS SPECIAllY TREATED CASEIN. FILTER THE WHEY. THE RESULTING SMOOTH PASTE IS AN EX· CELLENT GWE FOR PAPER AND FOR WOOD. I.N MIL.4 9 CASEIN WITH rnl WA HR. YOU WILL SEE TINY WHITE FlECKS. TEST THE FILTRATE WITH FEHLING SOLUTION (SEE PAGE B5).EIN Al.PITATE. THE PROTEIN IN MrLKIS CALLED CASEIN . SQUEEZE TH. DlPTHE .K? 1 POUR THE VINEGAR·MIXED WHEY INTO A CUSTARD CUP AND BRING IT TO A BOil. MILK SUGAR GIVES RED Cu20 PRECI.PROTEIN IN MILK MILK IS AN IMPORTANT SOURCE OF PROTEIN. THESE ARE ALBUMIN COAGULATED OUT BY THE HEAT. SPOONS SKIM MILK POWDER AND V2 CUP WATERjIN.SEINGLUE SOFTEN .MOST DRY. KEEP THE LIQUID. WHITE CURDS. POUR THE CURDLED MILK INTO THE CHEESE CLOTH. SHAKE UP 1 9 CALCIUM OXIDE IN ... HEAT GENTLY UNTIL IT FEELS JUST SUGHlL Y WARM WHEN YOU TEST IT WITH A FINGER. POUR THE CALCIUM OXIDE MiX· TURE INTO THE CASEIN WHILE STIRRING..4 ml WATER . LET LIQUID (WHEY MIXED WITH VINEGAR) RUN OUT. THE CASEIN SEPhRATES IN H.EAVY.O.E CAS.

3 FILTERTHE SOLUTION. ON COOLING. some of it you eat (ice cream and cheese).GELATIN IS A PROT"EIN GELATIN IS MADE FROM ANIMAL BONESAND HIDES.Casein is another protein that goes into your diet. DROP IT IN A TEST TUBE. In GOld water it merely swells. LEAVING A flEXIBLE SUBSTANCE CALLED OSSEIN. ACID. It is then pressed and stored until ripe. ." For more about colloidal dispersions. In cheese making. The chemist's term for this change is "denaturation"the egg white has changed its nature.from Latin olbus. it atays transparent and almost liquid. 99 . IT HAS TURNED FROM "SOL" TO "GEl. the casein is separated from the liquid part of the milk ." Proteins-Continued You are certain to be familiar with three common.the whey. COVER WITH 3 ml HYDROCHLORIC ACID IN 12 ml WATER. ALB _HI. horns and hooves.into a solid white mass which 'you can not again "dissolve" in water. WASH OFF THE. but in hot water it "dissolves" readily. it turns into a jelly-like form called a "gel. white. But what happens when you heat it~ You know from frying or boiling an egg: It hardens ." TEST FOR LIQUID PROTEINS MIX 5 ml OF LIQUID TO BE TESTEDWITH 5 ml 10% SOLUTION OF N~OH.it is another kind of "solution" called a "colloidal dispersion. EXTRACT THE GELATIN IN THE OSSEIN BY BOILING IN WATER_ . ADD TWO DROPS or A 2 % SOLUTION OF COPPER SULFATE (1 9 IN 50 ml WATER).Gelatin is a protein made from animal skins and hones. pure proteins: albumin in eggs. CASEIN .coagulates . you get what looks like an almost clear solution.. 13 per When you shake up egg white with water. But this is not a "true" solution such as you get when you dissolve salt or sugar . forming a colloidal dispersion.E. GELATIN . and gelatin. casein in milk. LET STAND FOR 3 DAYS. REMOVETHIGH BONE fROM AN UNCOOKED CHICKEN LEG. The flavors of cheeses are caused mostly 'by esters created during the ripening. SCRAPE IT CLEAN OF MEAT. Some of the casein you drink (milk). AB long as you keep this dispersion warm. As long as egg white is kept cool. LIQUID WILL TURN REDDISH-VIOLET. it remains in a liquid form that is called a "sol. IT BECOMES JELLY-LIKE." When GOaled. Gelatin behaves in a peculiar manner with water. see pages 100-101.Egg white contains around cent albumin . THE DILUTED HYDROCHLORIC ACID DISSOLVES THE CALCIUM SALTS IN THE BON.

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