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You are on page 1of 33

Chapter 6 Fatigue Failure

All machine and structural designs are problems in fatigue

because the forces of Nature are always at work and each object

must respond in some fashion.

Fatigue

• Fatigue failure is the fracture of a structural member due to

repeated cycles of loading or fluctuating loading.

• Fatigues is the single largest cause of failure in metals,

estimated to be the cause of 90% of all metallic failures.

• Fatigue failure are catastrophic and insidious, occurring

suddenly and often without warning. Static loading provides

sufficient time for deflection.

• The fatigue failure occurs at relatively low stress levels to

a component or structure subjected to fluctuating or cyclic

stresses.

1 of 33

Fatigue

• Fatigue is a complex phenomenon, and no universal theories

to describe the behavior of materials subjected to cyclic

loadings exist; instead, there are a large number of theories to

describe the behavior of particular materials.

• Most of the engineering design experience in fatigue is based

on an experimental understanding of the behavior of carbon

steels. Much effort has been directed toward extending these

semi-empirical rules to other ferrous and nonferrous metals, as

well as ceramics, polymers, and composite materials.

• For the most part, fatigue involves the accumulation of

damage within a material. Damage usually consists of cracks

that can grow by a small distance with each stress cycle.

Fatigue

• Experiments have found that fatigue cracks generally begin at

a surface and propagate through the bulk. Therefore, much

attention is paid the quality of surfaces in fatigue-susceptible

machine elements.

• Fatigue cracks begin at several sites simultaneously and

propagate when one flaw becomes dominant and grows more

rapidly than others.

• Fatigue testing is imperative to confirm safe mechanical

design.

2 of 33

Stages of Fatigue Life

Schematics of Fatigue Life

3 of 33

Examples of Fatigue Failure

Pure tension with no

stress concentration

Summary of Fatigue Failure

Thus far we’ve studied STATICSTATIC FAILUREFAILURE of machine elements.

The second major class of component failure is due to DYNAMICDYNAMIC

LOADINGLOADING

Repeated stresses

Alternating stresses

Fluctuating stresses

The ultimate strength of a material (S u ) is the maximum stress a material

can sustain before failure assuming the load is applied only once and

held.

Fatigue strength Resistance of a material to failure under cyclic loading.

A material can also FAILFAIL by being loaded repeatedly to a stress level that

is LESSLESS than (S u )

Fatigue failure

4 of 33

Approach to Analysis Fatigue-Life

Fatigue-Life Methods

Fatigue Strength and the Endurance Limit

Endurance Limit Modifying Factors

Stress Concentration and Notch Sensitivity

Fluctuating Stresses

Combinations of Loading Modes

Varying, Fluctuating Stresses; Cumulative Fatigue Damage

Fatigue-Life Methods

Three major fatigue life methods used in

design and analysis for safe life

estimation:

1. Stress life method (S-N Curves)

2. Strain life method (ε-N Curve)

3. Linear elastic fracture mechanics

method

5 of 33

Fatigue Regimes

Regimes

Finite Life

Infinite Life

Low-Cycle

Fatigue

3

1 ≤ N ≤ 10 cycles

High-Cycle

Fatigue

N

3

> 10 cycles

Stress-Life Methods

based on stress levels only

It is the least accurate approach, especially for

low-cycle applications.

Most traditional method:

• It is the easiest to implement for a wide range of

design applications

• It has ample supporting data

• It represents high-cycle applications adequately

6 of 33

Strain-Life Methods

Based on strain amplitude

Involves more detailed analysis of the

plastic deformation at localized regions

where the stresses and strains are

considered for life estimates.

Good for low-cycle fatigue applications.

Some uncertainties exist in the results.

Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanism

Assumes a crack is already present and

detected.

Predicts crack growth with respect to

stress intensity.

Most practical when applied to large

structures in conjunction with computer

codes and a periodic inspection program.

7 of 33

Stress-Life Methods

To determine the strength of materials under the action of fatigue loads, specimens are

subjected to repeated or varying forces of specified magnitudes while the cycles or stress

reversals are counted to destruction. The most widely used fatigue-testing device is the R.

R. Moore high-speed rotating-beam machine. The specimen is very carefully machined and

polished, with a final polishing in an axial Direction to avoid circumferential scratches.

Figure: Test-specimen geometry for

the R. R. Moore rotating-

beam machine. The bending

moment is uniform over the

curved at the highest-stressed

portion, a valid test of

material, whereas a fracture

elsewhere (not at the highest-

stress level) is grounds for suspicion

of material flaw.

Fatigue Test Machine

R. R. Moore rotating-beam fatigue testing machine

8 of 33

Fatigue Test (Ferrous Metals and Alloys)

With an endurance limit!

Fatigue Test (Aluminum Alloys)

Without an endurance limit!

9 of 33

Fatigue Strength of Polymer

Figure 7.7 Fatigue strengths as a function of number of loading

cycles. (c) Selected properties of assorted polymer classes.

S-N Diagram Under Cyclic Stress

Cyclic stress is a function of time, but the variation is

such that the stress sequence repeats itself

N

c =1

N

c =1/2

10 of 33

Strain-Life: Hysteresis under Cyclic Load

Diagram of Reversals to Failure

Fatigue Ductility

coefficient (N=1)

Fatigue Strength

coefficient (N=1)

Slope of plastic

strain line

Slope of elastic

strain line

11 of 33

Strain Life Theory

Manson-Coffin Relationship

StrainStrain (Crack)(Crack)

ElasticElastic

PlasticPlastic

Fatigue ductility

Total strain

'

∆

σ

exponent

f

(

'

)

b

'

(

'

) c

ε =

2

N

+

ε

2

N

f

2

E

Stress at fracture

(one cycle)

Number of

Fatigue ductility

Fatigue strength

cycle

coefficient

exponent

Cyclic Properties of Metals

b

c

12 of 33

Limitation of Strain Life Theory

Strain-life theory gives insight into important properties in

fatigue strength determination: as long as there is a cyclic

plastic strain, no matter how small, eventually there will be

failure.

StrainStrain (Crack)(Crack)

ElasticElastic

PlasticPlastic

'

∆

ε

σ

(

)

a

f

'

'

(

'

) α

=

2

N

+

ε

2

N

f

2

E

• Total Strain at failure is the difficult to determine

• Strain concentration factors are nowhere

Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics

Regime A: slow crack growth. It is strongly affected by material microstructure,

environment effects, and stress ratio R s .

Regime B (Paris Regime): related to micro-structure, mechanical load variables,

and environment.

Regime C: high growth rate. micro-structural effects and loadings, cleavage

13 of 33

Crack Growth

∆ =βσ −σ

K

(

)

π =β∆σ π

a

a

I

max

min

Initial crack length

Crack Growth

da

m

=(∆ K

)

I

dN

1

da

f

f

∫ N

dN = N

=

∫ a

f

m

0

C

a

(

)

i

β σ π

∆

a

14 of 33

Fatigue Strength

1725 rpm

10

6 cycle -1.5day

10

8 cycle -40day

The fatigue is affected by

• Stress concentration

• Residual stress

• Surface roughness

• Environment (temperature and corrosion)

Fatigue Test: Best-Case-Scenario

Endurance Limit

0.5

S

S

≤

200

kpsi

(1400

MPa

)

ut

ut

'

S

=

100 kpsi

S

>

200 kpsi

e

ut

700 MPa

S

>

1400 MPa

ut

15 of 33

'

S-N Equation under Given Failure Stress

σ

F

Basic S-N Eq.

(

'

)

'

S

=σ

(

2N

) b

f

F

N

True Failure stress

'

m

σ σε

=

or for H

<

500

F

0

B

'

σ

=

S

+ 50

kpsi

/ 345

MPa

F

ut

For exponent b

(

'

'

)

log

σ

/ S

F

e

b =−

l

og

(

2 N

)

e

For N=10 3

(

(

b

'

)

'

3

)

S

=

σ

2 10

⋅

=

fS

f

3

F

ut

10

'

σ

F

(

3

) b

f =

2 10

⋅

S

ut

S-N Equation under Given Fatigue Strength Fraction f

Fraction f:

See plot for 70

≤

S

≤

200

kpsi

ut

for

S

<

70

kpsi

f

=

0.9

ut

S-N Eq.

b

S

= aN

f

For a and b

(

2

fS

)

1

fS

ut

ut

a

=

; b

=−

log

S

3

S

e

e

For N

1/ b

σ

rev

N =

a

16 of 33

Fatigue Strength Example

A steel rotating beam test specimen has an ultimate strength

of 120 kpsi. Estimate the life of the specimen if it is tested at

a completely reversed stress amplitude of 70 kpsi.

0 5

.

S

S

≤

200

kpsi(

1400

MPa )

ut

ut

'

S

=

100

kpsi

S

>

200

kpsi

e

ut

700

MPa

S >

1400

MPa

ut

Fatigue Example

A shaft in bending is made of AISI steel. It has a

tensile strength of 95 ksi and yield strength of 74

ksi. Estimate (a) endurance limit, (b) fatigue

strength for 10 3 , 10 4 , 10 5 and 10 6 cycles of life

0 5

.

S

S ≤

200

kpsi(

1400

MPa )

ut

ut

'

S

=

100

kpsi

S

>

200

kpsi

e

ut

700

MPa

S

>

1400

MPa

ut

17 of 33

High-Cycle Fatigue Example

The pressure vessel lids of nuclear power plants

are bolted down to seal the high pressure

exerted by the pressured water. The ultimate

strength is 157 kpsi. Find

(1) how low the stress has to be for a life of

10,000 cycles;

(2) A 5% decrease in this stress would give how

many cycles of life.

High-Cycle Fatigue Example

The maximum compressive stress in the jack is 190 MPa when the car

is jacked up so high that both wheels on one side of the car are in the air

and the load on the jack is 8000 N. How many times can the jack be

used for a small truck that weighs 6 tons and loads the jack to 17,000 N

before it fails from fatigue? The jack material is AISI 1080 steel.

18 of 33

Fatigue Strength under Low Cycle

Fraction f:

See plot for 70

≤

S

≤

200

kpsi

ut

for

S

<

70

kpsi

f

=

0.9

ut

S-N Eq.

b

S

= aN

f

For a and b

1

a

=

S

;

b

=

log

(f )

ut

3

For S-N

log f

3

S

f

S

=

S

N

3

,

N

=

log

f

ut

log f

S

ut

Endurance Limit Modifying Factors

Fatigue experiments assume that the best circumstances

exist for promoting long fatigue lives. However, this

situation cannot be quarantined for design applications.

Component’s endurance limit must be modified.

'

S

= k k k k

k k

S

e

a

b

c

d

e

f

e

'

S

= endurance limit from experimental apparatus

k a = surface finish factor

k b = size factor

k c = load modification factor

e

Besides Stress

k d = temperature modification factor

k e = reliability factor

k f = miscellaneous factor

Concentration

Effect….

19 of 33

Surface Finish Factor

'

S

= k k k k

k k

S

e

a

b

c

d

e

f

e

b

k

= aS

a

ut

Example: A steel has a minimum ultimate strength of 520

MPa and a machined surface. Estimate k a .

Size Factor k b

'

S

= k k k k

k k

S

e

a

b

c

d

e

f

e

For bending and torsion:

− 0 107

.

0 869

.

d

0.11 in

<

d

<

2 in

− 0 157

.

0 91

.

d

2 in

<

d

<

10 in

k =

b

− 0 107

.

1 24

.

d

2.79

<

d

<

5 mm

1

− 0 157

.

1.51d

51 <

d

< 254mm

For axial loading:

k =1

b

20 of 33

Equivalent Diameter for Size Factor k b

Equivalent diameter d e : equating the volume of material

stressed at any above 95 percent of the maximum stress to

the same volume in the rotating-beam specimen.

For rotation round

cross-section,

For rectangle

cross-section,

π

(

2

))

A

=

d

−

(

2

0 95

.

d

0 95

.

σ

4

2

= 0 0766

.

d

For non-rotation

round cross-section,

A

= 0 . 05

hb

0 95

.

σ

0

.

05

hb

d

=

= 0 808

.

hb

e

0

.

0766

2

A

= 0 01046

.

d

0 95

.

σ

d

= 0 370

.

d

e

Equivalent Diameter for Size Factor k b

21 of 33

Loading Factor k c

'

S

= k k k k

k k

S

e

a

b

c

d

e

f

e

1

Bending

k

=

0

.

85

Axial

c

Torsion

0

59

.

Temperature Factor k d

'

S

= k k k k

k k

S

e

a

b

c

d

e

f

e

(

−

3

)

(

−

5

)

2

(

−

8

)

3

(

−

12

)

4

k

=

0 975

.

+

0 432 10

.

T

−

0 115 10

.

T

+

0 104 10

.

T

−

0 595 10

.

T

d

F

F

F

F

o

70

≤

T

≤

1000

F

F

k d can be applied to S t or S e .

22 of 33

Reliability Factor k e

'

S

= k k k k

k k

S

e

a

b

c

d

e

f

e

k

= 1− 0.08z

e

a

Miscellaneous Effects

'

S

= k k k k

k k

S

e

a

b

c

d

e

f

e

Figure: The use of shot peening to improve fatigue properties. (a) Fatigue

strength at two million cycles for high strength steel as a function of

ultimate strength; (b) typical S-N curves for nonferrous metals.

23 of 33

Fatigue Stress Concentration Bending/Axial Load

endurance limit for notched specimen

K

=

f

endurance limit for notch free specimen

K

is fatigue stress concentration factor

f

Notch sensitivity

K

− 1

f

q =

K

− 1

t

Fatigue stress

concentration factor

K

=1+ q(K −1)

f

t

Concentrated stress

σ

= K

σ

1

max

f

0

Neuber equation :

q =

1 +

a / r

. ()S

−3

. ()S

−5

2

. ()S

−8

3

Neuber constant :

a

=

0 246

.

−

3 08 10

+

1 5110

−

2 67 10

S

−

kpsi

ut

ut

ut

ut

Fatigue Stress Concentration Torsion Load

endurance limit for notched specimen

K

=

f

endurance limit for notch free specimen

K

is fatigue stress concentration factor

f

Notch sensitivity

K

− 1

fs

q

=

shear

K

− 1

ts

Fatigue stress

concentration factor

K

=1+ q (K −1)

fs

shear

ts

Concentrated stress

τ

= K

τ

1

max

fs

0

Neuber equation :

q =

1 +

a / r

. ()S

−3

. ()S

−5

2

. ()S

−8

3

Neuber constant :

a

=

0 190

.

−

2 5110

+

1 35 10

−

2 67 10

S

−

kpsi

ut

ut

ut

ut

24 of 33

Fatigue Stress Concentration Example

The rotating shaft is machined and subjected to F=6 kN. Find

the minimum factor of safety for fatigue based on infinite

life. If the life is not infinite, estimate the number of cycles.

Check for yielding as well.

Fatigue Stress Concentration Example

The driveshaft for a Formula One racing car has a diameter of

30mm and a half-circular notch with a 1-mm radius. The shaft

was dimensioned for equal shear and bending stresses. The

shaft material has an ultimate tensile strength of 965 MPa.

Assume the equivalent stress is proportional to

2

2

σ

= σ + 3τ

e

Determine the fatigue stress concentration factors for bending

and torsion of the driveshaft. Also, determine if increased

acceleration or increased curve handling will give the higher

risk of driveshaft failure.

25 of 33

Modified Endurance Limit Example

The bar is machine-made of low-carbon steel

(AISI 1020). Find the fatigue at 10 4 cycle for

the notched and un-notched bars.

Tensile loaded bar. (a) Un-notched; (b) notched.

Characterizing Fluctuating Stresses

Mean

σ

+

σ

σ

max

min

=

m

stress

2

Stress

σ =σ −σ

r

max

min

range

Stress

σ

σ

−

σ

σ

r

max

min

=

=

a

amplitude

2

2

Common cyclic patterns

σ

Stress

min

R

=

s

ratio

σ

1. Completely reversed

(

σ

= 0,

R

=−1,

A

=∞)

m

s

a

max

2. Nonzero mean

(

σ

≠ 0)

m

3. Released tension

(

σ

=

0,

R

=

0,

A

=

1)

min

s

a

Amplitude

σ a 1 − R

4. Released compression

s

(

σ

=

0,

R

=∞ =−

,

A

1)

A

=

max

s

a

ratio

a

σ

= 1 + R

m

s

26 of 33

Cyclic Stress Example

A tuning fork is hit with a pencil and starts to vibrate with a

frequency of 440 Hz. The maximum bending stress in the

tuning fork is 2 MPa at the end positions.

• Calculate the mean stress, the range of stress, the stress

amplitude, the stress ratio, and the amplitude ratio.

• Calculate how much stress the tuning fork can sustain

without being plastically deformed if it is made of AISI

1080 steel.

Fatigue Failure Criteria for Fluctuating Stress

27 of 33

Fatigue Failure Criteria for Fluctuating Stress

Failure Criteria Under Fluctuating Stress

σ

σ

1

Soderberg Line

a

m

+

=

S

S

n

e

y

σ

σ

Goodman Line

1

a

m

+

=

S

S

n

e

ut

2

n

σ

n

σ

1

Gerber Line

a

m

+

=

S

S

n

e

ut

2

2

n

σ

n

σ

1

ASME-Elliptic

a

m

+

=

S

n

e

S

y

S y

Langer static yield

σ +σ =

a

m

n

28 of 33

Safety Factor under Fluctuating Stress

Goodman Failure Example

The bar is made of cold-drawn1040 steel. The cyclic non-

zero axial load varies from -100 kN to 290 kN. Using

Goodman failure theory to determine the safety factor

R=10mm

60mm

40mm

Thickness =40mm

29 of 33

Goodman Line Example I

A straight, circular rotating beam with a 30-mm diameter and 1-m

length has an axial load of 30,000N applied at the end and a

stationary radial load of 400N. The material is AISI 1040 steel,

f

k =0 75 k =k =k =k =k =1

.

.

Fi

n

d

t

h

e sa ety

f

actor

f

or

i

n

fi

n te

i

lif

e

a

,

b

c

d

e

f

by using the Goodman line.

Goodman Line

σ

σ

1

a

m

+

=

S

S

n

e

ut

Goodman Diagram Example II

The cantilever shown in sketch j carries a downward load F that varies

from 300 to 700 lbs. (a) Compute the resulting safety factor for static and

fatigue failure if the bar is made from AISI 1040 steel. (b) What fillet

radius is needed for a fatigue failure safety factor of 3.0 (use the constant

notch sensitivity)?

Notes: This solution assumes that the shoulder is machined, but it may be

reasonable to use a ground surface if the application is critical.

30 of 33

Fatigue Failure of Brittle Material

The fatigue for a brittle material differs markedly

from that of a ductile material because

• Yielding is not involved

• S uc >S ut

• No enough work down on brittle failure

S

1 −

S

/ S

a

m

ut

=

σ

1 + S

/ S

e

m

ut

n

σ

1

−

nS

/ S

=

S

1

+

nS

/ S

e

m

ut

r =

σ σ

/

a

m

rS

+

S

4

rS

S

ut

e

ut

e

S

=

− 1 +

1

+

a

2

2

(

rS

+ S

)

ut

e

Influence of Multi-Axial Stress Status

Simple Multi-axial Stress

Complex Multi-axial Stress

31 of 33

Combinations of Loading Modes

• Completely Reversing Simple Loads

• Fluctuating Simple Loads

• Combinations of Loading Modes

1

/

2

2

(

)

σ

'

(

)

(

)

a

[(

)

]

2

σ

(

)

axial

=

K

σ

+

K

+ 3

K

(

τ

)

a

f

a

bending

f

fs

a

torsion

bending

axial

0 85

.

torsion

1

/

2

2

(

)

σ

'

(

)

(

)

(

)

m

[(

)

]

2

σ

=

K

σ

axial

+

K

+ 3

K

(

τ

)

m

f

m

bending

f

fs

m

bending

axial

torsion

torsion

0 85

.

Cumulative Damage

Instead of a single fully reverse stress history block

composed of n cycles, support a machine part, at a

critical location, is subjected to

• a fully reversed stress σ 1 for n 1 , σ 2 for n 2 , ….or

• a ‘wiggly’ time line of stress exhibiting many

and different peaks and valleys

Linear Damage Rule (Miner’s Rule):

'

'

'

Failure is predicted if

n

n

n

1

2

3

+

+ +L≥ 1

'

'

'

N

N

N

1

2

3

32 of 33

Cumulative Damage Example

For the un-notched bar with the machine-made of low-

carbon steel (AISI 1020), the fatigue stress is 25 ksi for

20% of the time, 30 ksi for 30%, and 35 ksi for 40%,

and 40 ksi for 10%. Find the number of cycles until

cumulative failure.

33 of 33

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