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Chapter 6 Fatigue Failure All machine and structural designs are problems in fatigue because the
Chapter 6 Fatigue Failure
All machine and structural designs are problems in fatigue
because the forces of Nature are always at work and each object
must respond in some fashion.
Fatigue • Fatigue failure is the fracture of a structural member due to repeated cycles
Fatigue
• Fatigue failure is the fracture of a structural member due to
repeated cycles of loading or fluctuating loading.
• Fatigues is the single largest cause of failure in metals,
estimated to be the cause of 90% of all metallic failures.
• Fatigue failure are catastrophic and insidious, occurring
suddenly and often without warning. Static loading provides
sufficient time for deflection.
• The fatigue failure occurs at relatively low stress levels to
a component or structure subjected to fluctuating or cyclic
stresses.
Fatigue • Fatigue is a complex phenomenon, and no universal theories to describe the behavior
Fatigue
• Fatigue is a complex phenomenon, and no universal theories
to describe the behavior of materials subjected to cyclic
loadings exist; instead, there are a large number of theories to
describe the behavior of particular materials.
• Most of the engineering design experience in fatigue is based
on an experimental understanding of the behavior of carbon
steels. Much effort has been directed toward extending these
semi-empirical rules to other ferrous and nonferrous metals, as
well as ceramics, polymers, and composite materials.
• For the most part, fatigue involves the accumulation of
damage within a material. Damage usually consists of cracks
that can grow by a small distance with each stress cycle.
Fatigue • Experiments have found that fatigue cracks generally begin at a surface and propagate
Fatigue
• Experiments have found that fatigue cracks generally begin at
a surface and propagate through the bulk. Therefore, much
attention is paid the quality of surfaces in fatigue-susceptible
machine elements.
• Fatigue cracks begin at several sites simultaneously and
propagate when one flaw becomes dominant and grows more
rapidly than others.
• Fatigue testing is imperative to confirm safe mechanical
design.
Stages of Fatigue Life
Stages of Fatigue Life
Schematics of Fatigue Life
Schematics of Fatigue Life
Examples of Fatigue Failure Pure tension with no stress concentration
Examples of Fatigue Failure
Pure tension with no
stress concentration
Summary of Fatigue Failure Thus far we’ve studied STATICSTATIC FAILUREFAILURE of machine elements. The second
Summary of Fatigue Failure
Thus far we’ve studied STATICSTATIC FAILUREFAILURE of machine elements.
The second major class of component failure is due to DYNAMICDYNAMIC
LOADINGLOADING
Repeated stresses
Alternating stresses
Fluctuating stresses
The ultimate strength of a material (S u ) is the maximum stress a material
can sustain before failure assuming the load is applied only once and
held.
Fatigue strength Resistance of a material to failure under cyclic loading.
A material can also FAILFAIL by being loaded repeatedly to a stress level that
is LESSLESS than (S u )
Fatigue failure
Approach to Analysis Fatigue-Life Fatigue-Life Methods Fatigue Strength and the Endurance Limit Endurance Limit
Approach to Analysis Fatigue-Life
Fatigue-Life Methods
Fatigue Strength and the Endurance Limit
Endurance Limit Modifying Factors
Stress Concentration and Notch Sensitivity
Fluctuating Stresses
Combinations of Loading Modes
Varying, Fluctuating Stresses; Cumulative Fatigue Damage
Fatigue-Life Methods Three major fatigue life methods used in design and analysis for safe life
Fatigue-Life Methods
Three major fatigue life methods used in
design and analysis for safe life
estimation:
1. Stress life method (S-N Curves)
2. Strain life method (ε-N Curve)
3. Linear elastic fracture mechanics
method
Fatigue Regimes
Fatigue Regimes
Regimes Finite Life Infinite Life
Regimes
Finite Life
Infinite Life

Low-Cycle

Fatigue

3

1 N 10 cycles

High-Cycle

Fatigue

N

3

> 10 cycles

Life Low- Cycle Fatigue 3 1 ≤ N ≤ 10 cycles High-Cycle Fatigue N 3 >
Stress-Life Methods based on stress levels only It is the least accurate approach, especially for
Stress-Life Methods
based on stress levels only
It is the least accurate approach, especially for
low-cycle applications.
Most traditional method:
• It is the easiest to implement for a wide range of
design applications
• It has ample supporting data
• It represents high-cycle applications adequately
Strain-Life Methods Based on strain amplitude Involves more detailed analysis of the plastic deformation at
Strain-Life Methods
Based on strain amplitude
Involves more detailed analysis of the
plastic deformation at localized regions
where the stresses and strains are
considered for life estimates.
Good for low-cycle fatigue applications.
Some uncertainties exist in the results.
Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanism Assumes a crack is already present and detected. Predicts crack growth
Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanism
Assumes a crack is already present and
detected.
Predicts crack growth with respect to
stress intensity.
Most practical when applied to large
structures in conjunction with computer
codes and a periodic inspection program.
Stress-Life Methods To determine the strength of materials under the action of fatigue loads, specimens
Stress-Life Methods
To determine the strength of materials under the action of fatigue loads, specimens are
subjected to repeated or varying forces of specified magnitudes while the cycles or stress
reversals are counted to destruction. The most widely used fatigue-testing device is the R.
R. Moore high-speed rotating-beam machine. The specimen is very carefully machined and
polished, with a final polishing in an axial Direction to avoid circumferential scratches.
Figure: Test-specimen geometry for
the R. R. Moore rotating-
beam machine. The bending
moment is uniform over the
curved at the highest-stressed
portion, a valid test of
material, whereas a fracture
elsewhere (not at the highest-
stress level) is grounds for suspicion
of material flaw.
Fatigue Test Machine R. R. Moore rotating-beam fatigue testing machine
Fatigue Test Machine
R. R. Moore rotating-beam fatigue testing machine
Fatigue Test (Ferrous Metals and Alloys) With an endurance limit!
Fatigue Test (Ferrous Metals and Alloys)
With an endurance limit!
Fatigue Test (Aluminum Alloys) Without an endurance limit!
Fatigue Test (Aluminum Alloys)
Without an endurance limit!
Fatigue Strength of Polymer Figure 7.7 Fatigue strengths as a function of number of loading
Fatigue Strength of Polymer
Figure 7.7 Fatigue strengths as a function of number of loading
cycles. (c) Selected properties of assorted polymer classes.
S-N Diagram Under Cyclic Stress Cyclic stress is a function of time, but the variation
S-N Diagram Under Cyclic Stress
Cyclic stress is a function of time, but the variation is
such that the stress sequence repeats itself
N
c =1
N
c =1/2
Strain-Life: Hysteresis under Cyclic Load
Strain-Life: Hysteresis under Cyclic Load
Diagram of Reversals to Failure Fatigue Ductility coefficient (N=1) Fatigue Strength coefficient (N=1) Slope of
Diagram of Reversals to Failure
Fatigue Ductility
coefficient (N=1)
Fatigue Strength
coefficient (N=1)
Slope of plastic
strain line
Slope of elastic
strain line
Strain Life Theory Manson-Coffin Relationship StrainStrain (Crack)(Crack) ElasticElastic PlasticPlastic Fatigue
Strain Life Theory
Manson-Coffin Relationship
StrainStrain (Crack)(Crack)
ElasticElastic
PlasticPlastic
Fatigue ductility
Total strain
'
σ
exponent
f
(
'
)
b
'
(
'
) c
ε =
2
N
+
ε
2
N
f
2
E
Stress at fracture
(one cycle)
Number of
Fatigue ductility
Fatigue strength
cycle
coefficient
exponent
Cyclic Properties of Metals b c
Cyclic Properties of Metals
b
c
Limitation of Strain Life Theory Strain-life theory gives insight into important properties in fatigue strength
Limitation of Strain Life Theory
Strain-life theory gives insight into important properties in
fatigue strength determination: as long as there is a cyclic
plastic strain, no matter how small, eventually there will be
failure.
StrainStrain (Crack)(Crack)
ElasticElastic
PlasticPlastic
'
ε
σ
(
)
a
f
'
'
(
'
) α
=
2
N
+
ε
2
N
f
2
E
• Total Strain at failure is the difficult to determine
• Strain concentration factors are nowhere
Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics Regime A: slow crack growth. It is strongly affected by material
Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics
Regime A: slow crack growth. It is strongly affected by material microstructure,
environment effects, and stress ratio R s .
Regime B (Paris Regime): related to micro-structure, mechanical load variables,
and environment.
Regime C: high growth rate. micro-structural effects and loadings, cleavage
Crack Growth ∆ =βσ −σ K ( ) π =β∆σ π a a I max
Crack Growth
∆ =βσ −σ
K
(
)
π =β∆σ π
a
a
I
max
min
Initial crack length
Crack Growth da m =(∆ K ) I dN 1 da f f ∫ N
Crack Growth
da
m
=(∆ K
)
I
dN
1
da
f
f
∫ N
dN = N
=
∫ a
f
m
0
C
a
(
)
i
β σ π
a
Fatigue Strength 1725 rpm 10 6 cycle -1.5day 10 8 cycle -40day The fatigue is
Fatigue Strength
1725 rpm
10
6 cycle -1.5day
10
8 cycle -40day
The fatigue is affected by
• Stress concentration
• Residual stress
• Surface roughness
• Environment (temperature and corrosion)
Fatigue Test: Best-Case-Scenario
Endurance Limit  0.5 S S ≤ 200 kpsi (1400 MPa ) ut ut 
Endurance Limit
0.5
S
S
200
kpsi
(1400
MPa
)
ut
ut
'
S
=
100 kpsi
S
>
200 kpsi
e
ut
700 MPa
S
>
1400 MPa
ut
' S-N Equation under Given Failure Stress σ F Basic S-N Eq. ( ' )
'
S-N Equation under Given Failure Stress
σ
F
Basic S-N Eq.
(
'
)
'
S
(
2N
) b
f
F
N
True Failure stress
'
m
σ σε
=
or for H
<
500
F
0
B
'
σ
=
S
+ 50
kpsi
/ 345
MPa
F
ut
For exponent b
(
'
'
)
log
σ
/ S
F
e
b =−
l
og
(
2 N
)
e
For N=10 3
(
(
b
'
)
'
3
)
S
=
σ
2 10
=
fS
f
3
F
ut
10
'
σ
F
(
3
) b
f =
2 10
S
ut
S-N Equation under Given Fatigue Strength Fraction f Fraction f: See plot for 70 ≤
S-N Equation under Given Fatigue Strength Fraction f
Fraction f:
See plot for 70
S
200
kpsi
ut
for
S
<
70
kpsi
f
=
0.9
ut
S-N Eq.
b
S
= aN
f
For a and b
(
2
fS
)
1
fS
ut
ut
a
=
; b
=−
log 
S
3
S
e
e
For N
1/ b
σ
rev
N = 
a
Fatigue Strength Example A steel rotating beam test specimen has an ultimate strength of 120
Fatigue Strength Example
A steel rotating beam test specimen has an ultimate strength
of 120 kpsi. Estimate the life of the specimen if it is tested at
a completely reversed stress amplitude of 70 kpsi.
0 5
.
S
S
200
kpsi(
1400
MPa )
ut
ut
'
S
=
100
kpsi
S
>
200
kpsi
e
ut
700
MPa
S >
1400
MPa
ut
Fatigue Example A shaft in bending is made of AISI steel. It has a tensile
Fatigue Example
A shaft in bending is made of AISI steel. It has a
tensile strength of 95 ksi and yield strength of 74
ksi. Estimate (a) endurance limit, (b) fatigue
strength for 10 3 , 10 4 , 10 5 and 10 6 cycles of life
0 5
.
S
S ≤
200
kpsi(
1400
MPa )
ut
ut
'
S
=
100
kpsi
S
>
200
kpsi
e
ut
700
MPa
S
>
1400
MPa
ut
High-Cycle Fatigue Example The pressure vessel lids of nuclear power plants are bolted down to
High-Cycle Fatigue Example
The pressure vessel lids of nuclear power plants
are bolted down to seal the high pressure
exerted by the pressured water. The ultimate
strength is 157 kpsi. Find
(1) how low the stress has to be for a life of
10,000 cycles;
(2) A 5% decrease in this stress would give how
many cycles of life.
High-Cycle Fatigue Example The maximum compressive stress in the jack is 190 MPa when the
High-Cycle Fatigue Example
The maximum compressive stress in the jack is 190 MPa when the car
is jacked up so high that both wheels on one side of the car are in the air
and the load on the jack is 8000 N. How many times can the jack be
used for a small truck that weighs 6 tons and loads the jack to 17,000 N
before it fails from fatigue? The jack material is AISI 1080 steel.
Fatigue Strength under Low Cycle Fraction f: See plot for 70 ≤ S ≤ 200
Fatigue Strength under Low Cycle
Fraction f:
See plot for 70
S
200
kpsi
ut
for
S
<
70
kpsi
f
=
0.9
ut
S-N Eq.
b
S
= aN
f
For a and b
1
a
=
S
;
b
=
log
(f )
ut
3
For S-N
log f
3
 S 
f
S
=
S
N
3
,
N
=
log 
f
ut
log f
S
ut
Endurance Limit Modifying Factors Fatigue experiments assume that the best circumstances exist for promoting long
Endurance Limit Modifying Factors
Fatigue experiments assume that the best circumstances
exist for promoting long fatigue lives. However, this
situation cannot be quarantined for design applications.
Component’s endurance limit must be modified.
'
S
= k k k k
k k
S
e
a
b
c
d
e
f
e
'
S
= endurance limit from experimental apparatus
k a = surface finish factor
k b = size factor
k c = load modification factor
e
Besides Stress
k d = temperature modification factor
k e = reliability factor
k f = miscellaneous factor
Concentration
Effect….
Surface Finish Factor ' S = k k k k k k S e a
Surface Finish Factor
'
S
= k k k k
k k
S
e
a
b
c
d
e
f
e
b
k
= aS
a
ut
Example: A steel has a minimum ultimate strength of 520
MPa and a machined surface. Estimate k a .
Size Factor k b ' S = k k k k k k S e
Size Factor k b
'
S
= k k k k
k k
S
e
a
b
c
d
e
f
e
For bending and torsion:
− 0 107
.
 0 869
.
d
0.11 in
<
d
<
2 in
− 0 157
.
 0 91
.
d
2 in
<
d
<
10 in
k =
b
− 0 107
.
1 24
.
d
2.79
<
d
<
5 mm
1
− 0 157
.
 1.51d
51 <
d
< 254mm
For axial loading:
k =1
b
Equivalent Diameter for Size Factor k b Equivalent diameter d e : equating the volume
Equivalent Diameter for Size Factor k b
Equivalent diameter d e : equating the volume of material
stressed at any above 95 percent of the maximum stress to
the same volume in the rotating-beam specimen.
For rotation round
cross-section,
For rectangle
cross-section,
π
(
2
))
A
=
d
(
2
0 95
.
d
0 95
.
σ
4
2
= 0 0766
.
d
For non-rotation
round cross-section,
A
= 0 . 05
hb
0 95
.
σ
0
.
05
hb
d
=
= 0 808
.
hb
e
0
.
0766
2
A
= 0 01046
.
d
0 95
.
σ
d
= 0 370
.
d
e
Equivalent Diameter for Size Factor k b
Equivalent Diameter for Size Factor k b
Loading Factor k c ' S = k k k k k k S e
Loading Factor k c
'
S
= k k k k
k k
S
e
a
b
c
d
e
f
e
1
Bending
k
=
0
.
85
Axial
c
 Torsion
0
59
 .
Temperature Factor k d ' S = k k k k k k S e
Temperature Factor k d
'
S
= k k k k
k k
S
e
a
b
c
d
e
f
e
(
3
)
(
5
)
2
(
8
)
3
(
12
)
4
k
=
0 975
.
+
0 432 10
.
T
0 115 10
.
T
+
0 104 10
.
T
0 595 10
.
T
d
F
F
F
F
o
70
T
1000
F
F
k d can be applied to S t or S e .
Reliability Factor k e ' S = k k k k k k S e
Reliability Factor k e
'
S
= k k k k
k k
S
e
a
b
c
d
e
f
e
k
= 1− 0.08z
e
a
Miscellaneous Effects ' S = k k k k k k S e a b
Miscellaneous Effects
'
S
= k k k k
k k
S
e
a
b
c
d
e
f
e
Figure: The use of shot peening to improve fatigue properties. (a) Fatigue
strength at two million cycles for high strength steel as a function of
ultimate strength; (b) typical S-N curves for nonferrous metals.
Fatigue Stress Concentration Bending/Axial Load endurance limit for notched specimen K = f endurance limit
Fatigue Stress Concentration Bending/Axial Load
endurance limit for notched specimen
K
=
f
endurance limit for notch free specimen
K
is fatigue stress concentration factor
f
Notch sensitivity
K
− 1
f
q =
K
− 1
t
Fatigue stress
concentration factor
K
=1+ q(K −1)
f
t
Concentrated stress
σ
= K
σ
1
max
f
0
Neuber equation :
q =
1 +
a / r
. ()S
−3
. ()S
−5
2
. ()S
−8
3
Neuber constant :
a
=
0 246
.
3 08 10
+
1 5110
2 67 10
S
kpsi
ut
ut
ut
ut
Fatigue Stress Concentration Torsion Load endurance limit for notched specimen K = f endurance limit
Fatigue Stress Concentration Torsion Load
endurance limit for notched specimen
K
=
f
endurance limit for notch free specimen
K
is fatigue stress concentration factor
f
Notch sensitivity
K
− 1
fs
q
=
shear
K
− 1
ts
Fatigue stress
concentration factor
K
=1+ q (K −1)
fs
shear
ts
Concentrated stress
τ
= K
τ
1
max
fs
0
Neuber equation :
q =
1 +
a / r
. ()S
−3
. ()S
−5
2
. ()S
−8
3
Neuber constant :
a
=
0 190
.
2 5110
+
1 35 10
2 67 10
S
kpsi
ut
ut
ut
ut
Fatigue Stress Concentration Example The rotating shaft is machined and subjected to F=6 kN. Find
Fatigue Stress Concentration Example
The rotating shaft is machined and subjected to F=6 kN. Find
the minimum factor of safety for fatigue based on infinite
life. If the life is not infinite, estimate the number of cycles.
Check for yielding as well.
Fatigue Stress Concentration Example The driveshaft for a Formula One racing car has a diameter
Fatigue Stress Concentration Example
The driveshaft for a Formula One racing car has a diameter of
30mm and a half-circular notch with a 1-mm radius. The shaft
was dimensioned for equal shear and bending stresses. The
shaft material has an ultimate tensile strength of 965 MPa.
Assume the equivalent stress is proportional to
2
2
σ
= σ + 3τ
e
Determine the fatigue stress concentration factors for bending
and torsion of the driveshaft. Also, determine if increased
acceleration or increased curve handling will give the higher
risk of driveshaft failure.
Modified Endurance Limit Example The bar is machine-made of low-carbon steel (AISI 1020). Find the
Modified Endurance Limit Example
The bar is machine-made of low-carbon steel
(AISI 1020). Find the fatigue at 10 4 cycle for
the notched and un-notched bars.
Tensile loaded bar. (a) Un-notched; (b) notched.
Characterizing Fluctuating Stresses Mean σ + σ σ max min = m stress 2 Stress
Characterizing Fluctuating Stresses
Mean
σ
+
σ
σ
max
min
=
m
stress
2
Stress
σ =σ −σ
r
max
min
range
Stress
σ
σ
σ
σ
r
max
min
=
=
a
amplitude
2
2
Common cyclic patterns
σ
Stress
min
R
=
s
ratio
σ
1. Completely reversed
(
σ
= 0,
R
=−1,
A
=∞)
m
s
a
max
2. Nonzero mean
(
σ
≠ 0)
m
3. Released tension
(
σ
=
0,
R
=
0,
A
=
1)
min
s
a
Amplitude
σ a 1 − R
4. Released compression
s
(
σ
=
0,
R
=∞ =−
,
A
1)
A
=
max
s
a
ratio
a
σ
= 1 + R
m
s
Cyclic Stress Example A tuning fork is hit with a pencil and starts to vibrate
Cyclic Stress Example
A tuning fork is hit with a pencil and starts to vibrate with a
frequency of 440 Hz. The maximum bending stress in the
tuning fork is 2 MPa at the end positions.
• Calculate the mean stress, the range of stress, the stress
amplitude, the stress ratio, and the amplitude ratio.
• Calculate how much stress the tuning fork can sustain
without being plastically deformed if it is made of AISI
1080 steel.
Fatigue Failure Criteria for Fluctuating Stress
Fatigue Failure Criteria for Fluctuating Stress
Fatigue Failure Criteria for Fluctuating Stress
Fatigue Failure Criteria for Fluctuating Stress
Failure Criteria Under Fluctuating Stress σ σ 1 Soderberg Line a m + = S
Failure Criteria Under Fluctuating Stress
σ
σ
1
Soderberg Line
a
m
+
=
S
S
n
e
y
σ
σ
Goodman Line
1
a
m
+
=
S
S
n
e
ut
2
n
σ
 n
σ
1
Gerber Line
a
m
+ 
=
S
S
n
e
ut
2
2
 n
σ
  
n
σ
1
ASME-Elliptic
a
m
+
=
S
n
e
  S
y
S y
Langer static yield
σ +σ =
a
m
n
Safety Factor under Fluctuating Stress
Safety Factor under Fluctuating Stress
Goodman Failure Example The bar is made of cold-drawn1040 steel. The cyclic non- zero axial
Goodman Failure Example
The bar is made of cold-drawn1040 steel. The cyclic non-
zero axial load varies from -100 kN to 290 kN. Using
Goodman failure theory to determine the safety factor
R=10mm
60mm
40mm
Thickness =40mm
Goodman Line Example I A straight, circular rotating beam with a 30-mm diameter and 1-m
Goodman Line Example I
A straight, circular rotating beam with a 30-mm diameter and 1-m
length has an axial load of 30,000N applied at the end and a
stationary radial load of 400N. The material is AISI 1040 steel,
f
k =0 75 k =k =k =k =k =1
.
.
Fi
n
d
t
h
e sa ety
f
actor
f
or
i
n
fi
n te
i
lif
e
a
,
b
c
d
e
f
by using the Goodman line.
Goodman Line
σ
σ
1
a
m
+
=
S
S
n
e
ut
Goodman Diagram Example II The cantilever shown in sketch j carries a downward load F
Goodman Diagram Example II
The cantilever shown in sketch j carries a downward load F that varies
from 300 to 700 lbs. (a) Compute the resulting safety factor for static and
fatigue failure if the bar is made from AISI 1040 steel. (b) What fillet
radius is needed for a fatigue failure safety factor of 3.0 (use the constant
notch sensitivity)?
Notes: This solution assumes that the shoulder is machined, but it may be
reasonable to use a ground surface if the application is critical.
Fatigue Failure of Brittle Material The fatigue for a brittle material differs markedly from that
Fatigue Failure of Brittle Material
The fatigue for a brittle material differs markedly
from that of a ductile material because
• Yielding is not involved
• S uc >S ut
• No enough work down on brittle failure
S
1 −
S
/ S
a
m
ut
=
σ
1 + S
/ S
e
m
ut
n
σ
1
nS
/ S
=
S
1
+
nS
/ S
e
m
ut
r =
σ σ
/
a
m
rS
+
S
4
rS
S
ut
e
ut
e
S
=
− 1 +
1
+
a
2
2
(
rS
+ S
)
ut
e
Influence of Multi-Axial Stress Status Simple Multi-axial Stress Complex Multi-axial Stress
Influence of Multi-Axial Stress Status
Simple Multi-axial Stress
Complex Multi-axial Stress
Combinations of Loading Modes • Completely Reversing Simple Loads • Fluctuating Simple Loads • Combinations
Combinations of Loading Modes
• Completely Reversing Simple Loads
• Fluctuating Simple Loads
• Combinations of Loading Modes
1
/
2
2
(
)
σ
'
(
)
(
)
a
[(
)
]
2
σ
(
)
axial
=
K
σ
+
K
+ 3
K
(
τ
)
a
f
a
bending
f
fs
a
torsion
bending
axial
0 85
.
torsion
1
/
2
2
(
)
σ
'
(
)
(
)
(
)
m
[(
)
]
2
σ
=
K
σ
axial
+
K
+ 3
K
(
τ
)
m
f
m
bending
f
fs
m
bending
axial
torsion
torsion
0 85
.
Cumulative Damage Instead of a single fully reverse stress history block composed of n cycles,
Cumulative Damage
Instead of a single fully reverse stress history block
composed of n cycles, support a machine part, at a
critical location, is subjected to
• a fully reversed stress σ 1 for n 1 , σ 2 for n 2 , ….or
• a ‘wiggly’ time line of stress exhibiting many
and different peaks and valleys
Linear Damage Rule (Miner’s Rule):
'
'
'
Failure is predicted if
n
n
n
1
2
3
+
+ +L≥ 1
'
'
'
N
N
N
1
2
3
Cumulative Damage Example For the un-notched bar with the machine-made of low- carbon steel (AISI
Cumulative Damage Example
For the un-notched bar with the machine-made of low-
carbon steel (AISI 1020), the fatigue stress is 25 ksi for
20% of the time, 30 ksi for 30%, and 35 ksi for 40%,
and 40 ksi for 10%. Find the number of cycles until
cumulative failure.