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ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY .
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lMaths) O.A. and B. DcIhi6. CHAND & CO.Sc. 600 1961 S.) BY SHANTI NARAYAN. N. Sreekanth M. Principal. TWELFTH EDITION Price : Rs. Hans Raj (Delhi University) M. DELHIJULLUNDUfeLUCKNOW .ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY FOR B.. (PASS and HONS.U. College.Sc. Mr.A.
CHAND & NEW CO. 1500 Rs. Defhi6. S. and Primed at R. Rs. 750 Rs. 1250 Rs. 1400 S. Rs. Printers. 700 625 500 Rs. 650 750 6'50 Rs. Rs. Chand <k Co. Asaf All Road Fountain Mai Hiran Gate Lai Bagh DELHI DELHI JULLUNDUR LUCKNOW Published by Shyam Lai Gupta. Managing Proprietor.. Delhi Kamla Nagar. K. Rs. . 80D.Other works of the Author Differential Calculus Integral Calculus Modern Pure Geometry Mathematical Analysis A Text Book of Matrices A Text Book of Vector Algebra A Text Book of Vector Calculus A Text Book of Cartesian Tensors Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable A Text Book of Modern Abstract Algebra A Text Book of General Topology ( Under preparation) Rs.
have endeavoured to develop the subject in a systematic and manner.PREFACE TO THE TWELFTH EDITION Chapter on General Equation of the second degree and reduccanonical forms and classification has been added.. am P. The book contains numerous exercises of varied types in a graded form.E. It is that the treatment is natural and simple and as such will hoped appeal to the imagination of the students. ..A. of the Government College. Lahore. PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION This book is intended as an introduction to Analytical Solid Geometry and covers as much of the subject as is generally expected of students going up for the B. improvements or LAHORE : SHANTI NARAYAN June. tion to A Hans Raj College. who very kindly went through the manuscript with great care and keen interest and suggested a large number of extremely valuable improvements. 1939. Pass and Honours examinations of our Universities. I shall be very grateful for any suggestions for corrections of text or examples. M. Some of these have been selected from various examination papers and standard works to whose publishers and authors I offer than my best thanks.. To help the beginner. B.. elementary parts of the subject have been presented in as simple and lucid a manner as possible and fairly large number of solved examples to illustrate various types have been introduced.S. The books already existing in the market cover a rather extensive ground and consequently I logical comparatively lesser attention is paid to the introductory portion is necessary for a beginner. I extremely indebted to Professor Sita Ram Gupta.A.Sc. 1961. January. SHANTI NARAYAN Delhi University.
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.. .1... . . 24.... 1*2.. 9 12 Angle between two lines in terms of their direction cosines Condition of perpendicularity of two lines . 2... 26. 4 6 7 7 7 Angle between two lines ... Equations of a straight line through two points.. 1*5. .. 25. .7. 2 10.. Transforma* tion of the equations of a line to the symmetrical form.... Angle between a line and a plane 37 42 43 The condition that a given line may lie in a given plane ... CHAPTER II The Plane 21... Equation of a plane in terms of its intercepts on the axes . z represents a plane .. . ..... 16. 23..CONTENTS CHAPTER I Coordinates Articles Page . 1*7. Symmetrical and unsymmetrical forms of the equations of a line. . P Equation of tho plane through three given points Systems of planes Two sides of a plane Length of the perpendicular from a given point to a given plane.. Equations of a line.. 1*1... . Every equation of the first degree in x Normal form of the equation of a plane t y.. Direction cosines of a line Relation between direction cosines Projection on a straight line . 22.. 1*8. Bisectors of angles between two planes Joint equation of two planes Orthogonal projection on a pla. . . 32 CHAPTER III Right Line 3.. ...ne.. . 19 19 . 27 . . 3*2 3*3. 2& 30 31 ... 29... Transformation of the general equation of a plane to the normal form. Projection of a given plane area on a given plane Volume of a tetrahedron in terms of the coordinates of its vertices . 1'9. 2 3 14. 111.... Tetrahedron ... . 1*3. Equations of a' straight line in terms of its direction cosines and^the coordinates of a point on it.. 242. 2'8. Direction cosines of normal to a plane Determination of a plane under given conditions. Introduction Coordinates of a point in space Further explanation about coordinates Distance between two points Division of the join of two points 1 1 ... 20 22 23 24 ...
. . Page lines The condition that two given may intersect .. Pole of a plane.. Formulae of transformation.... CHAPTER Loci 4*1. 6*9.. generators.... 63 3' 7.. 6*6. of arbitrary constants in the equations of a straight line. 69 CHAPTER V Transformation of Coordinates 5*1. .... Equation of the cone with a given vertex and guiding curve. 6*3. 65 Equations of two skow lines in a simplified form .(viit) Articles 3'4. . Triangular Prism 59 60 . .. Equations of cones with vertex at origin are homogeneous . Intersection of a sphere and a line. .. Enveloping cone of a sphere...... 85 Equation of the sphere through four given points Plane section of a sphere. Plane of contact.. intersecting three given lines 65 4*4. Tangent plane. Intersection of two spheres Equations of a circle. The degree of an equation remains unaltered by transformation of axes Relations between the direction cosines of mutually perpendicular lines .... The length and equations of the line of shortest distance between two straight lines line . 5*2. 105 107 . 65.. 72 74 75 . The equation to a surface The equations to a curve Surfaces generated by straight lines. Angle of intersection of two spheres. 4*2..... Coaxal system of spheres Simplified form of the equation of two spheres 95 103 . Sets of conditions which determine a line The shortest distance between two lines. 3*5. guiding curve.... .. ... 110 . Sphere through a given circle Power of a point Polar plane. 6* 7.. 3'8... Invariants Revision Exercises I 80 ^CHAPTER Definition and equation of the sphere VI The Sphere 6*1. 5 '3.. 6*8. 89 93 .. .. Some results concerning poles and polars... 86 88 6*4. Locus of a straight line . 44 49 Number 3*6.. . . vertex. VCHAPTER 7*1. 4*5. Introduction." . VII The Cone and Cylinder Definitions of a cone. Condition for two spheres to be orthogonal Radical plane. 64 64 4*3. 6*2. Length of the perpendicular from a given point to a given Intersection of three planes.. IV Interpretation of Equations Introduction .
. A'2. 119 . Paraboloids 174 892. Enveloping cylinder of a sphere .. 128 . Equation to the cylinder whose generators intersect a given conic and are parallel to a given line. 136 APPENDIX Homogeneous Cartesian Coordinates Elements At Infinity A'l.. Normals to a central conicoid 84. .. . 594. CHAPTER 8*1... polar lines. 7 3.... Shapes of some surfaces. conjugate points. 142 143 Relationships of porp3ndicularity. ... 121 127 7*7... 158 159 162 conjugate planes... Homogeneous Elements at Illustrations cartesian coordinates . .. 174 174 175 . Page . 148 153 Plane of contact Polar plane..... Condition that a plane central conicoid. Reciprocal cones Intersection of two cones with a common vertex 115 .. axis and semi vertical angle Definition of a cylinder. 144 .. conjugate ... 75..... Locus of midpoint8 of a system of parallel chords Conjugate diameters and diametral planes ' ... .. Enveloping cone Enveloping Cylinder Locus of chords bisected at a given point given centre ... 8*91... 176 .... may touch a . The Equation right circular cylinder. Nature of hyperboloid of one sheet. Tangent lines and . 862.. The general equation of the second degree and the various surfaces represented by it. 861.. : 163 164 166 Plane section with a .... . Director sphere 8*34.... Condition that the general equation of the second degree should represent a cone Condition that a cone may have three mutually perpendicular generators Intersection of a line and a quadric cone. 8*5.. 8*8... 872.. .. cylinder with a given axis and radius Revision Exercises II of the right circular . 139 infinity 140 141 A' 3..Articles 7*2. Properties of paraboloids . VIII The Conicoid 8*2. Nature of Ellipsoid. A*4. 8*93.... 871.. linos. . A*5. Nature of hyperboloid of two sheets Intersection of a line and a central conicoid. Condition that a plane may touch a cone. Equation of the right circular cone with a given vertex. 76.. Nature of elliptic paraboloid Nature of hyperbolic paraboloid Intersection of a line and a paraboloid . 7*4. 145 tangent plane at a point. . 83. . . 167 89. Tangent lines and tangent plane at a point.. 130 132 7 '8. Sphere in Homogeneous coordinates . Bight circular cone.
181 18ft . 198: of principal .. Condition for a rectangular hyperbola Axes of noncentral plane sections.... Condition for a rectangular hyperbola. 224 269' .. 103. Lines intersecting three lines 215 216 217 221 CHAPTER XI General Equation of the Second Degree Reduction to Canonical forms Appendix Index . Introduction ... . 193 9 '61... . 193 196 Umbilics of paraboloids 196 CHAPTER X Generating lines of Conicoids 10*1. . Circular sections of an ellipsoid 9'41... 189 190 192 lie on a sphere ... 10'7.. Area of parallel plane sections .. 102. . General Consideration. 9'6..Articles Page . ...... Determination of the nature of plane section of central conicoids Axes of central plane sections. 942... Central point. 10*5.. . Number 178 179* CHAPTER IX Plane Sections of Conicoids 91. ........ .. . Angle between the asymptotes of a plane section.. of normals from a given point to a paraboloid 8'96.. line of striction and parameter of distribution for generators of hyperbolic paraboloid. Quadric determined by three generators Quadrics with real and distinct pairs of generators Revision Exercises III .... 9*2. Area of the section. Umbilics Nature of plane section of paraboloids . . Circular sections of paraboloids 9*6.. 9*3.. Axes of plane sections of paraboloids. Any two circular sections of opposite systems 9'4... . Projections of generators on principal planes Locus of the intersection of perpendicular generators . Generating lines of hyperboloid of one sheet Equations of generating lines through points elliptic section .... 202 20$ 206 10*6.. .. 10*10.. Area of a plane section. Generators of any quadric. . Conjugate diametral planes 8*95. 10*9. . . 20& 211 .. 10*4. line of strict ion and parameter of distribution for generators of hyperboloid Systems of generating lines of hyperbolic paraboloid Central point.. 213 10' 8. 180 180' 9 '21. 961. ..
however. y Let QA=x. These three axes. 1 called the origin.CHAPTER I COORDINATES two numbers In plane the position of a point is determined by obtained with reference to two straight lines in the plane generally at right angles. z. . OB=y and 0(7=?. XOZ XOY. ZX known as Through any point. perpendicular straight Coordinates of a point in space. draw three planes parallel to the three coordinate planes (being also perpendicular to the corresponding axes) to moot the a. known as rectangular coordinate axes. 11. Z'OZ XOZ plane (The plane containing the lines X'OX and Z'OZ may be imagined as the plane of the paper the line OY as pointing towards the reader and OY' behind the paper). y. Introduction. . Through 0. YOZ and ZOX or briefly XY. taken in pairs. TOY. draw a line so that we have Y'OY perpendicular to the three mutually perpendicular straight lines X'OX. their point of intersection. in space. planes mutually at right angles. The position of a point in space is. The positive directions of the axes are indicated by arrow heads. P. x.xes in A B. C. We now proceed to explain as to how this is done. rectangular coordinate planes. determine three planes. Z e Y' M X O Y Fig. determined by three numbers x. y. Z'OZ be two lines. Let X'OX. YZ.
of the perpendiculars from the point P to the coordinate X'X. B. z. NBOA . is perpendicular to the line OA* 9 therefore Similarly PBOB and PC C axes Thus from the coordinates x. (ii) Draw through planes YZ. Y'Y and Z'Z is respectively. z. ZX Since PA lies in the plane PMAN which OC. . C planes parallel to the coordinate The point where these three planes point P. 1*11. 07. along OX. x. y. (See Fig. A. we have to draw three planes through P respectively parallel to the The parallelopiped. we have learnt that in order to obtain the coordinates of a point P. ZX and XY respectively. given three numbers. in question. y. we can find a point this. in the positive or negative direction. x. y. The three planes through P and the three coordinate planes determine a parallelepiped whose consideration leads to three other useful constructions for determining the coordinates of P. z. XY respectively. there are 2 3 = 8) points whose coordinates have the same numerical values and which lie in the eight octants. A line perpendicular to a plane perpendicular to every }jne in the . OZ equal to x. (ii) the coordinates x. (i) We have x=OA = CM=LP = perpendicular z=OC=AM=NP Thus distances of y=OB=ANMP P from perpendicular from = perpendicular from P on the YZ plane P on the ZX plane P on the XY plane. y. y. . Further explanation about coordinates. along the corresponding axis.2 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY These three numbers. will be positive or negative according as it is measured from O. whose coordinates are (f) To do x. In 1*1 above. z respectively. z of any point are also the distances the origin of the feet A. are called the coordinates of P. has six rectangular faces PMAN. 1). y. . 00. one in ( each. z of any point P. The three coordinate planes divide the whole space in eight compartments which are known as eight octants and since each of the coordinates of a point may be positive or negative. MAOC PLCM. * plane. LCOB PNBL. Any one of these x. B. OB. three coordinate planes. determined by the point P. are the perpendicular and from the three rectangular coordinate planes YZ. z. we proceed as follows : Measure OA. Conversely. y . intersect is the required Note.
y l9 Zj) and Q(x 2 .=0. coordinates of A. (Hi) z=0. L. (v) y by (vi) z = c.DISTANCE BETWEEN Ex. we have N PN J_Z7 NA OY \\ Exercises 1. z) on the Faxis. 9 .z ?9 c. z) from the 2 [Ans. (iv) x a. ?/. 2/=0. 6. show that which yb. TWO POINTS 3 What coordinate axes (Hi) ? are the perpendicular distances of a point (x t y. cos Y=2/r. inhere rOP. down the z}. 2/ = 0. In fig. y. y ar e and zaxis respectively . Find the lengths of the edges of the rectangular parallelopiped formed 7. 1. y. (Hi] ic=0. 5.and plane meeting it at meeting OX at A. P xavis. </(z*+x*) t < We have AN^OB =y Thus (Fig. z 2 ). by planes drawn through the points (1. y. Show that for every point (x. z). (i) :r (n) 2/=0. . we draw . z=0. C . 3. 2/rm". 2) if . 3 Then APCM NBLQ LCPB QMAN SPAN. To find the distance between the points P(XI. P write are (#. W hat is the (i) locus of a point for which (ii) 2/=0. 3. N/T2. [Ans. #=0. OP makes with cos a==x/r. 2. the anyles x~a. 6) parallel to the coordinate planes. coordinates of 2. p. B. 5. 4. Show that for every point (x. (v) z~c. cos p=7//r. 7.x=a. M N when the . z) on the ZX plane. (vi) (iv) yb. 2=0. Through the points P. z=0. ?/ 2 .v any point (x. Distance between two points. Q draw planes parallel to the coordinate planes to form a rectangular parallelopiped whose one diagonal is PQ. and a. 3) and (4. LCMQ . . 3. ^/(y +z 2 ). are the three pairs of parallel faces of this parallelopiped. a. Fig. What is the locus of a point for which = 0.
(0. equal to the difference between their # coordinates. y 29 z2 ) *v/ Cor. the coordinates and Q(x2 y^ . 7. 6). 2. (7. QM. 7. 3. (4. 6. (a. >/r3. Draw PL. RN perpendiculars to the XY. (2. 2) lie on a [Ans. 0). 0). 3. (0. 0). therefore. 5. 3). above Exercises 1. Division of the join of two points. ( 1. 2.XYplane. The lines PL. [Ans. Therefore AQPA. *i) and (x 2 . y. Let R (x. 6) (2. 4. Show that the points (3. and Hence Thus is NQ=z PQ 2 (x x )H(y ~y ) + (z ~z 2 2 2 1 2 ( 2 1) . Show that the three points (2. i&. 1. Hence Now. 0. line through R parallel to the line Let it intersect PL and LM shall lie in the QM at H and K respectively. The reader should notice the similarity of the formula obtained for the distance between two points with the corresponding formula in plane coordinate geometry. 0. sphere whose centre is (1. 2). c) and (0. Find the coordinates of the point equidistant from the four points [Ana. (1. 3. 4). Also refer 1*3. same . Find also its radius. QM. ( 1. 1. Find the distance between the points (4. 3). G) and 9. are collinear. (0. AQ lies in the plane QMAN which is perpendicular to the PA. 0. 2. 6).plane. 10). Jc). the distance between the points x i> 2/i.z lB . 5. 0. L. When P coincides with the origin so that we obtain. in the ratio m : n. 1. The plane.ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY Now _ANQ Also line is a rt. 3. 6. Note. form an 1) isosceles rightangled triangle. z) be the point dividing PQ in the ratio m : n. Therefore. N lie in a straight line which is the intersection of 9 the points this plane with the . Similarly AN=y 2 1 2 y1 ~. of the point dividing the line joining P(XI> Vi* *i) To find za ). Show that the points (0. PA is the distance between the planes drawn through the points P and Q parallel to the FZplanc and is. 5). 3. (a. EN clearly lie in one plane so that M. 0. we have x1 =^yl =z 1 =0 Distance from the origin. angle. 3).
Coordinates of the middle point of PQ. B (6. [An*. (i) A triangle. R PQ viz. C (9. (t) 5. (n) (2. we have : middle point. line joining the 4. 7. This idea is sometimes expressed by saying that (i) are the general coordinates of any point of the line joining P(x ly y lt zj and Exercises /I. PR/RQ.. Putting k for m\n. 2.DIVISION OF THE JOIN OP TWO POINTS are similar so that The triangles HPR and QRK we have ^^^^^^MQWR^z^z _ ~ Similarly. (4. 2. Thus we see that the point fkx 2 +x ( lies 1 9 Tcyt+Vi l+k l+k ' kzt+_zi\ l+k ) conversely . 3) the bisector of the angle BAC. : In case R is the so that Cor. 3. 2. " iW on the line PQ whatever value k may have and any given point on the line PQ is obtained by giving some suitable value to k. we see that the coordinates of the point R which divides PQ in the ratio k 1 are : ' l+k To every value and to every point ' ' % ~l+k~ l+k \ R on the line of k there corresponds a point on the line PQ corresponds some value of k.. Thus the coordinates of the point which divides the join of the points (xl5 y^ Zj) and n are (#a UK Za) in the ratio : The point M L Fig. coordinates of D. H) . 2. 1. : 6) in the ratios (1 4) and (w) (2 : 1). points Find the coordinates of the points which divide the (2. Find the . m+n by drawing perpendiculars planes. 6. 0). 6) are three points forming a meets BG at D. fl. AD (3. 2). 4 m : \ / m+n m : m+n n I I m+n : / Cor. i An ' (?f. Coordinates of any point on the join of two points. 3). we obtain to the XZ and YZ J m+n R m+n m divides PQ internally or n is externally according as the ratio positive or negative. 3). (4.
3). 2) is 7. 2. 0). and (# 3 7/ 3 z 3 ). as the line of intersection of two of the four planes. 3. / 4. (1. (3. 5. 2 . [Ana. [Ana. 4. general coordinates of any point on the line joining the given points are 1 + fc \l + k on the YZ plane. () (5. Find the ratio in which the (3. 8. . 1). C. Putting &= 2/3 in (t). 5. 3). B. 4(4. yr .5. 23). 19. 5. 8) and 6.ABD. (0. and any point D. lie and only its x coordinate is Hence the required ratio= 2 point of intersection is (0. zr ) . (1. D . This point will zero.12822^3. may be expressed in the form 1. section of three of the four planes. G. BC/CA^2. Then the four faces of the tetrahedron are the four triangles. 3. is Tetrahedron. 5) that the lines 9. 8. 3. 7. 2. 6). Also obtain the point of intersection of the line with the plane.CAD. (7/3. (8. 6). 3. each vertex arising as a point of interplanes. AD CA. . BD. 7). C(3.. 4). 8. Tetrahedron is a figure bounded by four It has four vertices. ABC. Show 7. To construct a tetrahedron. (x 2 j/ 2 z 2 ). AB and CD intersect. 4. 12). : : 2.6 3. 10). i. 2). the points 4) \a divided The by the YZplane. CD . (6. 2 1 . It has six edges each edge arising 4 C 2 =6). : (t) (2. ( 1*4. BC. (3. The three ABIBC=. 3) C( points X(0. are collinear. l+m\n l+m+n l+m+n ) Show that the centroid of the triangle whoso vertices are /s v ' ' * ^ (x r . 1 are the four points . the four vertices are the points A. ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY Find the ratio in which the line joining (2. 2). 4. Find in what ratio each point divides the segment joining the other two. 0) to (16. 4) and t . . 2. 3. r=l. 5). 4). (4.4. / if. 2. 2. wo see that the XY plane divides the join of (5. B. 2. Z>(5. . BCD. and the Fig. we start with three points A. that the point (1. Find the ratios in which the join of the points divided by the locus of the equation 3*2722/2j.e. the three points (x lt y^ z). (6. 0. Show that the following sets of points are collinear 6. ' ' '" 1ffc if. 0). B. ~~ . 1). [Ana. 11. show is common to the lines which join 6) to (2. not lying on the plane determined by the points A. 5 six edges are the lines AB. 5. : 3. . CA/AB^l. Show that the coordinates of any point on the plane determined by 10. 8/3. B(2. C. 4. J5(2. 4).
6 ^1*7. Def. or x=lr. Through that P draw PLJ_#axis the rt.e.e. Fig. generally denoted Ex. z=nr OP so y m.. cos y are called the direction cosines of the given line and are by I. Note 1. p. then cos a. Relation between direction direction cosines of any line. i. is already known to the We now give the definition of the angle between two nonstudent. coplanar lines. From angled triangle we have X i. cosines. CD joining separately the points. where Z. If a. n are the direction cosines of and r. The angle between two noncoplanar.m and n are the the sum of the squares of the direction cosines of every line is one. ymr. as given above. The m tetrahedron moot in a point. OLP. ^ 1'6. 0. but here wo simply assume this result. Direction cosines of a line.. // l.. 0. OL=x. n respectively. 1. then xlr. The angles between a given line and the coordinate axes are the angles which the line drawn through the origin parallel to the given lino makes with the axes. B and Exercises four lines drawn from the vertices of any tetrahedron to the a point which is at threefourths of the centroids of the opposite faces meet distance from each vertex to the opposite face. 1. Note 2.e. Similarly BC AD and CA. z=nr. / 1*61. To justify the definition of angle between two noncoplanar lines. 15.. J be the angles which makes with the positive directions of the axes. is the length of OP. 0. it is necessary to show that this angle is independent of the position of the point through which the parallel lines are drawn. 1. 9 The two edges AB. A. The meaning of the angle between two intersecting. What are the direction cosines of the axes of coordinates ? [Ans. coplanar lines. i Similarly we have 2/=mr.DIRECTION COSINES OP A LINE 7 D are called a pair of opposite edges.0. any line cos (3.e. // be the origin and (x y y y z) the co ordinates of a point P. then i. =6 . Show that the throe lines joining the midpoints of opposite edges of a 2. . i. 0. A useful relation. m. 0. nonintersecting lines is the angle between two intersecting lines drawn from any point parallel to each of the given lines. BD are the two other pairs of opposite edges. also sometimes called skew lines. Angle between two lines. C. 1.
3) = m. then the line angles a. 7 backwards through will make angles TT a. ra. cos are the direction cosines of OP. OZ. Squaring and adding.. x=lr. is to be chosen throughout. respectively. z) be the coordinates of any point P on this line. 6. a. Y) n backwards. OZ. Y with OX. Such numbers are called the direction specify the direction of Thus if a. c be three numbers proportional to the actual direction line. m t n 07. y=mr. P.8 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY Let OP that Z. If cosines Z. From above. znr. positive or negative. its direction ratios. Z.e. Thus if cos a=Z. It is easy to see that if a line Y. cos (3=w. COS(TT i. we obtain But ! 2 +m +n 2 2 =l. which are proportional to the actual direction cosines are sufficient to a line. OZ Let Let be drawn through the origin parallel to the given line so are the cosines of the angles which OP makes with OX . 6. Cor. 6) (x. see that a set of three numbers Direction Ratios. OP=r. OY. are the direction cosines of OP'. n of a we have ==4 ~~~ 2 a 8 V(0 +& +c ) XTf V=T T = = where the same *+ sign. we cosines are Note. the line OP produced . TC Y with OX. OP ^through the OP obtained by origin makes producing OP Fig. c be the direction ratios of a line. y. (Refer Fig. TT 3. then COS(TC Y=W COS(TC a)=.
(3/13. If Ii.3 their actual values 2. line. "T 2 V6' __ _ ""Ve' mi _ ~V^ ni V6' 5. . (6/7.v (*) 1 TTT. are proportional to the direction cosines of a line. if we ignore the two senses of a /. \/14 3 3 \/14 . 7T7 112 yb 1 v!4 4 7^' ~7^ yo ' "7^ yO 3 x 1 2 A/1 4 1 ' V26 V26 V26 V 14 V^ 4 1*8. Sw^Sn^O find them ? rx [Ana. 2. . we can think of the direction n determining the direction of one and the same m. that we have the relation Thus /. we have mi in 2 2 Alsov and . 2/7. = 0.. n are direction cosines.  What The The How many 3. ni and 1%.(ii) Find them ? Eliminating n between (i) and (ii) . 6. of two lines are connected by the relations . . . The direction cosines of (i) two linos are 7/ 2 f determined by the relations . we get or This equation gives two values of l/m and hence there are two lines. l/<\/3. Projection on a Straight line.. n or Exercises 1. This explains the ambiguity in sign obtained above. What are ? [Ana. such lines are there are the direction cosines of lines equally inclined to the axes? ? [Ana. m. W 2 n 2 ^ e ^ ne direction cosines of two lines. 4. m>i. n.PROJECTION OF A POlNf ON A line.. Projection of a point on a line. I.($) Q. of the line OP. 12/13. 3/7). /5m+3n=0. The foot of the perpendion a given straight line BC is called the a given point 1*81. ?//. 12. dbl/V 3 ) J 4 coordinates of a point direction cosines P are (3. The student should always make a distinction between direction cosines and direction ratios..2 . cular P from A . Find the direction cosines [Ana. 4). The two roots of (m) are 1 and j. + + 1 . (l/\/3. It is only when /. 4/13). Note. J2 ^ + ' 2 ' + 2 =0 * or . . cosines m..
A is the projecon Zaxis also B and C are the projections of P on Faxis and Zaxis respec Thus of P 8. B' are the projections of A. x.10 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY the purpose of this the same point where the plane through the given point and the perpendicular to the given line meets projection for line orthogonal projection (or simply book) of the point on the and is B _ B Ex. where is the angle between AB of a line AB and CD. B' respectively so that A'B' is the projection of AB. Direction cosines of the join of two points. AB CD CD B the line CD. CD by planes through are the projections [Ana. the direction cosines of the line joining the two points To find . the plane which is Hence = ABco*0 D Fig. Bat Through P. A'B = AB cos f 6. z). of The OP on coordinates of a point ? P are What the coordinate axes Theorem. A draw a line AP CD \\ to meet the plane through Now. A'B' of respectively on 182. Fig. . y. Also AP BP lies in II CD. A. Clearly A'B' is the intercept each perpendicular to CD. line. made on (x. The Projection of a segment of a line on another line. on any Let the planes through A and B perpendicular to the line CD meet it in A'. y. ^ c tion P in Fig. 9 Clearly A'B' PA is a rectangle so that we have Hence Cor. z. tively. is the segment of a segment of a line on any line projection where A'. page 1. line CD is AB The projection of a given segment cos 0. 1. AP=A'B'.
. 3. 1. . (Maths) Ci#2=P ro i ection of PI?*. The projections of a line on the axes are 12. Also QiQn= projection of PiPn . 1.xis=l.. . the projection of Similarly projecting LPQ=x Xi. (n) (7. 8).. Show that the points (1. direction cosines of the line joining the two points fa. 4). . ~~ == n Thus the.... Q 2 > Qz . 4/13. (2. 3.. 2/2 . PlPl> ^2^3) ...Qn P 19 be the projections of the points P*> P.. 2/3. > Qn H cm the same line we have.. 2/7. (0.PQ.. &. 9) and (5. the JCaxis respectively so that M Q to OL=X Projection of PQ on Xaxis=ZJlf PQ Also if I.. (6/7. Then M. *2 *! Exercises Find tho direction cosines of the () (4. then the sum of the projections of .. > Pn Mr ft ~Uonated by  N.. 8). If P ly P 2 P 3 .. 1/3) 2.. . 5. 3. 3/13) Projection of a broken line (consisting of several continuous segments). z2 ) xtxi. direction cosines of PQ. P*PZ> Q*Qa~ and so on.. 4. [Ans..... are proportional to *i) and (x 2 . 2.. line.&.. 3.Sreeka ( on the given line.PROJECTION OF A BROKEN LIKE 11 Let L 9 be the feet of the perpendiculars drawn from P. ^nl^n > on any line Let is equal to the projection of PiP n on the same line.. n be the on Xa. lines joining the points [Ana. As Qi. Find the length and 13 . (12/13. we get _ I m 2/i.. 10) 3/7). .&. [Ana. (2/3. 5) and (2. 3. are collmear. 3). PQ on 7axis and 2 Zaxis. P n be any number of points in space. the relation Qi for all Hence the theorem. 7.. 2/22/i.Sc... m.. the direction cosines of the 1*83.. relative positions of these points on the line.
(See Now lines PA. are respectively parallel to #axis. 3.ANALYTICAL $OLID GEOMETRY l*84. >(0. To show that on a line with direction cosines Z. . Find the [4 /is. 4. n are The NQ zaxis. . (3. Show by projection that S (1. 6). therefore equal to the sum of the the required prozjn. 10 n 2 respectively and the angle the axes are Z x HI and 7 2 l9 t between the given lines is the angle between OP\ and OP%. 13/7 are the points (6.) (2. Q draw planes form a rectangular parallelopiped whose one diagonal Fig. . 2). Z Fig. yaxis. are four points. Let the coordinates of P2 be (x2t yz z2 ). (32 z i) n  As the of PQ on. yi)m+(z 2 7). 13/3. AN. m. 4). . 2. Therefore. To find the angle between lines whose direction cosines are (^. ra l5 %) and (/ 2 2 n 2 ). 6. AB on CD (5. m . AN. m m . . v/l*9. m. and of CD 4. A(6. ti. if on /!#. . 1. 0). 3. <2. on any line is NQ that line. jection is (x a Xj)l 9 (y a 2/i)w. Let this angle be 0. their respective projections on the line with direction cosines I. Projection of the join of the projection of the line joining v/ two points on a line. n is Through P. . . Angle between two lines. projections of 2. xjl+fya C(3. 2) respectively then P^ _[_#. Page 3). parallel to the coordinate planes to is PQ. 4. 9.7. fa projection projections of PA. 5) Exercises 1. P. Let OP 1? OP 2 be lines through the origin parallel to the given lines so that the cosines of the angles which OP l and OP2 make with .
we have . (161) OP 2 Second Method. The expressions for sin Cor.OP^ =n 2 . 1. z 2 ) OP\ whose xt direction cosines are is Also this projection is OP2 .OP2 . (1*61) We have Also from Trigonometry.0P2 y^m^.e. Zi^r^. /2 . cos 0=PiP 2 2 we obtain COS 0=^24^1 and tan in : and tan 0. 2\* 1 _L BO that if 9 be the angle between the given lines. o sin0 B 6 ===  2/^2 proportional to v7~7  &!. OPt But or a? 2 cos O^ z2 =Z a . 2) Then and ^1 = ^1. 2 =r2 . Therefore. 0) line and P 2 (x 2 . OPr^ 0P P 2. 2. 2 I >. 0. 2/1=^^1. c l5 and If the direction cosines of two lines be actual values are 2 5 2) C 2' tnen their . we have cos tf PiPf^rf+rftoft . cos 0. I 2 it i > L T. 1. from (i) and (n).. be (a^.ANGLE BETWEEN TWO LINES 13 The on the projection of the line OP2 joining 0(0. Sin a convenient form are obtained as follows sin 2 0=l cos 2 sin 0= and Cor..() r^+Sva i. y... y1? 2^) and (a:2 . COS 0=(y cos = Ijlg Suppose Let the coordinates of Pj. respectively. tan0= cos 2.
Hence show that if these three lines be concurrent. n be the direction cosines of the given lines. '(t) 5. When Conditions for perpendicularity and parallelism. they are also coplanar. 13 .V31. for. a b 2 also otherwise evident. I. (4. 2. 5. (i) for tan e is of the same form whether we use direction cosines or direction ratios. 2. m. 1). a &iC 2 62^=0. the given lines are perpendicular. 1). Find the angles between the 3. Show that the Find If the by the / 3. P. li v ^ mutually perpendicular lines.4. 3. . direction cosines proportional to (2. therefore. This gives which is true only ajftj when o 2 6 1 =0. 4. the lines through the origin drawn parallel to the parallel lines coincide and. ^^ A. Sol.' angle between the lines whose direction cosines are triven fe direction cosines of the line which is perpendicular to the lines with direction cosines proportional to (7. (0. is TT. we have Z(0)+m(2)f n(l)=0.. w/3. 1.2. eg CjO. 4. 2. Exercises 1.V31. 2).' a 1 a 2 fb 1 b 2 (ii) +c 1 c 2 =0.1. n x .14 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY cos 0= ~ The expression Cor. 2. line perpendicular to the OZf 2m+n=0. /2 ^2* n 2 re the direction cosines of two 5.e. 0=90 This gives so that cos 0=0. These give l ' == _!!L == _!L. cog l(j/65) (ii) 1. 6284=0. their direction cosines must be the same and hence direction ratios is This result propor tional. i. 4. When the given lines are parallel. 0=0 so that sin 0=0. 12. (6. Show that the direction cosines of the line perpendicular to them bofa t m . relations in Ex. 9 [Ans. 5). 2 V[2 2 + "("lTa"+2] 2 ~T' w = 1 F' n== 2 T"' Show that a line can be found perpendicular to the three lines with 4. 2). lines whose direction ratios are [Ans .
wi 8 .0). (2. (4. 2. (J 3 .EXERCISES Sol. 2. 1) [Ans. 3. [Ans. 5) are the vertices of a parallelogram. 4) . AC.6. As 0=90. 3). n2 =0. Find the point in which the join of by the perpendicular from the origin. Zf 2wj3/i=0 are perpendicular. 5) and (11. 1) . 4. that the points 3. Hence lines. lines. (1 2> m2 .} Find the angle between the 15. is met A(~ 1. 6). the result. 6.3. 7). Show that the points.4. 3). 4) are tho vertices of a rhombus. 2. 10). Find the coordinates of D. (1. (2. that three concurrent lines with direction cosines (I l9 m lt wj). 4(1. B(0. ^ equations are perpendicular or parallel according as =Q or . n be the direction refines of the required 111 11 wo have + nvmi f nni 0. 23). 11. D is tho foot 2). 1. 8) . 7. 4. we have sin 0=1. 0. (2. (9.2. Wj. B(5. (4.) . (1. 0. 15 line. 5.1 Show that the pair of lines whose direction cosines are given by 16. Show if. 5) AB < . (5. (1. 9. (7(2. Ii+kl 2 nii+kmty HI~\ kn 2 are coplanar with them k being any number whatsoever. 5. (4. Find the coordinates of the points which divide BC in the ratio lines whose direction cosines are given by the equations 3Jfra5w=0 and 6mn2nl\5lmQ. If l t in. 13. 3. 11. Show that the join of points (1.2) are the vertices of a square. 9. (0. (1. cos. n 2 ). (25.4). 6. 1) are throe points and ^12. (2. 2. (4. 8. 4). [Hint. Show that the Straight lines whose direction cosines are given by the 17. : and (11. 20. 8. [Ans. 2). 7. m3 8. 1). Show that the points 10. n8 ) are coplanar h. 4. . = 0. 3. of the perpendicular from A on BC . the direction cosines of the bisectors of the angle BAG are proportional to 14.5. 1). (7. C'(0. n t and 1 2 m 2 n 2 arc the direction ratios of two intersecting that lines through the intersection of these two with direction ratios . (Show that they all have a common perpendicular direction. Show 6). Show li. 7) is parallel to the join of tho points (4.1). (1. Show that 1) are three points. . 2). 32w 4lri\mn = Q. 2 f mm 2 f n n 2 These give where 8 is the angle between the given .
mj. n 2 are the direction cosines of two concurrent lines. + w 2 Again. then equation giv es ?2 /l 7' ? '2 C nl z w ] ?? 2 6 or Similarly the elimination of /?. a we have ?/(&/// 4c/?)  a" .. AO my. B on the two concur at the origin O and let OA. .16 Sol. w? 2 . that the direction cosines of the lines bisecting the angles between them are to Show proportional Sol. OB be the two lines. lines such that (X4=0J3=r. Let (7. (ly. A' respectively are (fy. ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY Eliminating /. gives. Let the lines Take points A. The condition for this is ( If a +v ' ~ 0. 11 point A' on produced such that AO=OA'.. n 2 r) . if I l9 (i) w 1} rij and ?J?1 1 2. ny) . C" be the midpoints of AB and A'B. ~Wjr. n x r). a*(v\w} for perpendicularity is b z (w+u) c 2 (?/ + + + = 0. their dueotion cosmos are equal so that the two values of mjn must be equal. OO' are the required bisectors. ni .) Show that the straight lines whose direction cosines are given by if are perpendicular and parallel if 19. The result. follows from the fact that the coordinates of A. w 2 r. (or by symmetry) For perpendicular lines Thus the condition 18. say. 7 2 .(i) (b*u+a* i)''* + 2Hbc>nn\(c2u+a2w)n*=Q tho lines be parallel. 2 . Also take a Fig. between the given 2 relations. rw>n =0 n or . Then O(7. w< 2 7? be the direction cosines of the two l ?/ lines. B. now. /i. +vw . ?. (Z2 r.
then so example may is the third. // the edges of a rectangular parallelepiped are a. S with the four diagonals of a cube . we have r2( r3#l) +2 Adding (?') and (iV). Take one of the vertices O of the parallelopiped as origin and the three rectangular faces through it as tho three rectangular coordinate planes. (0. n C^V The angle between are OP and CN ^ ^ . then its pairs of opposite edges are at right angles. (#3. Page 1). (See Fig. Prove that OC^AB. we have As OB_[_CA. 6. 20 above and suppose that the direction cosines of the given lino are I. .r lf T/J.A. mj. 2/3. 0. are (0. 21. (. BM. y. we obtain which shows that 0(7 23. z3) be the coordinates of the points respectively. p. M. c 17 show that the Sol. c).r 2 . As OA^BC. therefore. angles between the four diagonals are given by b. C are (a. Show that the direction % W inclined at an angle 9. OB=b. n.%r$> . y By C Zj). 0. b. OC=c The lines OP. 7. in a tetrahedron OABC. (a. m. t a b _ . is Similarly tho angle between any one of the six pairs of diagonals can be found. (P. are four points not lying in the same plane and such that OAJ^Bd and OB^JIA. Let(M=a.EXERCISES 20. 0) . c). If. 7/ 2 z 2 ). c) . . prove that cos 2 a + cos2 pf cos 2 y+cos 2 5 = 4/3. ON are the four The coordinates of A. diagonals. What wellknown theorem does this if become four points arc coplanar result of this ? : The also be stated thus "// two pairs of opposite edges of a tetrahedron be at right angles. 6. 0) (a. Direction cosines of OP are . 0. 0. to 2 cos i 9 2 cos 2 cos J 9 <p bisects tho angle between these two directions.B. 0.0. AL.U. ' _ ' . Let as A (. 2 n 2 are tvvo directions each other. 0). ) 22.** a a V% V2> ~7^>'> a V2 Direction cosines of AL are are "1 2 . 0) L. /j." Take as origin and any three mutually perpendicular lines through coordinato axes. \ AB. B. 1932) (Choose axes as in Ex. A line makes angles a. c) . 6. N Pare (0. (a. and / 2 24. C. (0.
/i. show that Hence . wi lf (B. iVCC^aWi) 2 ^^!^^!) 2 !^!^^^) 2 ].U.r 2 2/ 2 2 2 ) is . Show that the direction equally inclined to the three mutually perpendicular directions W 2 > ^3 ??? 3> n 3 /2> lit W'i HI Z> J is given by the direction cosines /26. 7 "2 W'3 ! 7? 1 ^? 2 ^3 are also the direction cosines of three mutually perpendicular lines. show that hy J 3 .18 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY Show 25. wl . and (. Wt. /2 w j 2 ? *2 J ^3 7?? 3 ?? 3 are the direction cosines of three mutually perpendicular linos *1.1958) . . Show that the area of the triangle whose vortices are the origin and the points (x^ yj. Zj). that these direction cosines are the actual values. 27.
for it lies in the plane which is . . Take any point P(x. y. c general equation of the first degree in x. But.(ii) Multiplying (ii) by k and adding to (z). m. K being the foot of the normal. so that O y . y the first The most where a. z represents where the plane Q ax+by+cz+d meets the three coordinate axes. The To show on the this. the length of the normal from the origin to it and Z. z) on the plane. Then OK=p and I.CHAPTER II THE PLANE ^ 2*1.(i) 0.. locus of this equation will be a plane if every point of the line joining any two points on the locus also lies on the locus. To find the equation of a plane in terms of p. Normal form of the equation of a plane. General equation of first degree. 6. regarded positive). we get The relation (iii) shows that the point _ V 1+k ' l+k ' 1f k is also on the locus. degree in x. ** 2*2. therefore. a plane. Hence every equation of the first degree in x. Now.. z is are not all zero. Every equation of y z represents a plane. Let OK be the normal from O to the given plane . represents a plane. m. Ex Find the coordinates of the points y.. n are its direction cosines. The given equation. y.. we take any two we have points locus. these are the general coordinates of any point on the line PQ. PKOK. for different values of k. Thus every point on the straight line joining any two arbitrary points on the locus also lies on the locus. n the direction cosines of that normal (p is to be always .
y. djp=\/(a 2 +b 2 {c and Thus. we shall take positive or negative vention.20 ANA LYTICAL Therefore the projection of SOLID GEOMETRY OP on Fig. origin with direction cosines proportional to (1. The equation of any plane is of the first degree in x. To transform the normal form plane. being satisfied by the coordinates of any point P(x. is negative or positive. As these two equations represent the same we have p Thus. d. [Ans. z. 14) Hence lx+my+nz=p. 4cc 5y 7z=0. whose direction cosines are on the line OK I. is m n z as p. if d be positive. 0. according to our con) to be always positive. represents the plane and is known as the normal form of the equation of a plane. Ex. p. Find the equation of the piano containing the lines through the 1). (1*84. z) on the given plane. 0) and P(x 9 y. 2. ^23. 3. 12 Also the projection of the line OP joining 0(0. Aquation to the Transformation to the Normal form. . n > is l(xQ) + m(y~0)+n(z0)=lx+my+nz. m. sign with the radical according as. Cor. y. z). 2) and (2. This equation. This is the converse of the theorem proved in 2'1.
y. 2/3. Angle between two planes is equal to the angle between the normals to them from any point. 2*~t/+z=6. z in its equation the direction ratios of the normal to a plane are the coof x. 2/3.+62/f 22=4. a. that the normals to the planes 1/3. (it) Ex. if aa 1 +bb 1 +cc 1 =0. 2. 1. [Ana. y. Parallelism and perpendicularity of two planes. Show (Ans. and is ax \b$\. Find the angles between the planes 3. a i> b i> s\> and is. CO8~* (4/21). Thus the normal form of the equation ax\by\cz\d=0 is be p 8itive if : ' d be ncgative ' Direction cosines of normal to a plane. any plane are proportional to the or. Thus the angle between the two planes ax\by{cz\dQ. z in its equation. 2'33. c.PARALLELISM AND pERpEtfoicuLARitY OF iWo PLANES 21 If d be negative. From above we deduce a very important fact that the direction cosines of normal to ^ 2*31. 3/7. Thus. (t) 2/7. therefore_. a/a 1 =b/b 1 =c/c 1 and will be perpendicular. 6. 6/7. w/3.c L z\d ~ l equal to the angle between the lines with direction ratios a. x+y+2z=7. are inclined to each other at an angle 90. Thus the two planes ^ Two them ax+by+cz+d=0 will be parallel^ if and ax + 1$ f c Lz + di=Q . (l) 2xy+2z (ft) [Ana. that efficients coefficients of x.H2/+22l = 0. c are the direction ratios of the normal to the plane Ex. 6. Find the direction cosmos of the normals to the planes (t) a3/ + 65 = 7. () . Exercises /I. planes are parallel or perpendicular according as the normals to are parallel or perpendicular. (ttt) . we have only to change the signs of all these. 3a. Angle between two planes. V' 2*32.
tively to 'YZ. YZ. in this which 1 A = . Show that the piano 4. b. The coordinates of the point Xaxis are given to be we obtain (a. ~. below a few sets of conditions which determine a plane passing through three iioncollinear points (ii) passing through two given points and perpendicular to a given plane (in) passing through a given point and perpendicular to two given : We give (i) . The three constants can then be determined from the three resulting relations. Similarly JL= L D ~b The equation (1) . Let the equation of the plane be Ax+By+Cz+D=Q. .22 2. To find it the makes on the axes. Note. ZX XY t Tf22/3zf4 = is perpendicular to each of the planes * 2'4. 6. d) and. equation of a plane in terms of the intercepts a. (0. after substitution. planes. c separately vanish. ZX. a 5 as the required equation of the plane. 0). a plane can be found to satisfy three conditions each giving rise to only one relation between the constants. Intercept form of the equation of a plane. so that what we have really done here is to determine the three ratios of the coefficients in (1) in order that the same may pass through these points. B C . (0. 0. 2). ^ planes. The general equation ax\by\cz\d= of a plane contains three arbitrary constants (ratios of the coefficients a. ..(1) plane meets the Substituting these in equation (1). on the three axes is equivalent to the statement that it passes through the three points (a. Show that ax}l>y\cz\d=^Q represents plane. The fact that a plane makes intercepts a. (Similar to Ex. . Determination of a plane under given conditions. 0. c). 6. therefore.s. cz\ax\ q=0 represent planes respectively perpendicular to XY.?_=_L D T" can be re. 0. b.. c. planes. b 3 c which 2'41. by\ cz+p~Q. perpendicular respec3. ^"fl"^ we obtain c 1' A + b +_*=!. c. 0). ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMEfkY Show that the equations Q. if a. 0).written as A so that.
. general equation of a plane through P(2. 4. C(3. a b c we have as the required equation. A piano meets the coordinate axes at A. 2. 2*42. 2/3. we have Eliminating a. which is the required equation of the plane. (7. Plane through three points. Find the equation of the plane through 0. 1). 1). 7?. Ex. 5) and show that it is perpendicular to the XZ plane. the student would find venient to follow the method of the first exorcise below. *> 2/2. (#3. Find the intercepts of the plane 2x axes. 2. To find the equation of the plane passing through the three noncollinear points (*i. more con Exercises v 1. JR(7.. a) Let the required equation of the plane be As the given points lie on the plane.(t) through Q and 5a2& + 7c=0. 1. l) 3 c.. C such that the eentroid of the triangle ABC is the point (a. 25) . THkOUGH THkEfi POINTS 3y f4z= 12 on the coordinate 4. The P(2. Ex. B. we have ' "<. if 25. y\> *i). 3. (**> y*> **}. d from (i) (iv). These give W=T = =ii Substituting these values in (t).*>LANE Ex. 1). #. (1. 1. 6). passes through a fixed point. 2). 1. 6. 2. Find the equation of the plane through the three points (1. c) show that the equation of the plane is #/f #/6fz/c=3. y. 3. 3. 3*4 . [Ans. In actual numerical exercises. Prove that a variable plane which moves so that the sum of the reciprocals of its intercepts on the three coordinate axes is constant. b. 1) is a (x2) + b(y It will pass 2)fc(fl)=0 (Refer 4. it Note. /12. [Ans.
ZX Obtain the equation of the plane through the point ( 1. 4). B. Show that the four points (6. 5). 1) and 5(1. that the join of points (6. C. 13. of (1.. (5. 2) and 10. . 1) and perpendicular to the plane x{2y+ 2z =5.T. 2. b. 3. 2. 7. 4) intersects the join 3). 3. which cut off from the axes (6. 1. Show 2. . from the point F(a. ZX If. 2x 37/ 6z=6 Qx+3y2z=\S. 3) and (13. planes are x+ 2/jl = . equation of the plane through the points 1. 2. 1) and containing the 4. 2). V8. ^24 32 40" we see that the (*"). 5). (t) through (9. (1. 22+7=0 y+ 2z=*6 respectively. 3. (3. . (3. It will pass . Find the equations of the two planes through the points (0. A variable plane is at a constant distance p from the origin and meets the axes in A. whose sum is zero. (3. * 11. (0. v'l'S. 1..2. 2x+2y 32+3=0. 6) and perpendicular to the plane (2. (2. 1) is Any plane through (*2)f&(7/2)+c(c~l)=0. thus giving rise to an infinite number of planes. Show that the locus of the centroid of the tetrahedron OABC* is a. ( Show that (3. Find the equation of the plane through A ( 1. 2x4y+3z + 8 = Q. The following are the equations of a few systems of planes involving one or two arbitrary constants. be drawn to YZ perpendiculars PL. and [Ans. ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMfiTfcV Obtain the equation of the plane passing through the point line joining the points (1. The arbitrary constant which is different of the system is for different members called a parameter. 5) and perpendicular to XY. [Ans. 4. [Ans. x that the equations of the three planes passing through the points. 0) if a(92) + 6(32) fc(Gl) = The plane (i) will be perpendicular to the given plane if 2f GHGcO. Systems of planes. PM 6. c). = c r T^ a b == c 4~ 5* is equation of the required plane 3rf 4?/ 5z*=*9. Olns. 4. called a system of planes. 4. 3.) [Ans. 2. planes. 1) are coplanar. 4). v/5. 2. the points . 4). and (2. Similarly the equation of a plane satisfying one condition will involve two parameters. 2) (1. . perpendicular to the two planes #f 2?/f2z=5 3#{3?/f 2z = 8.2).4. 1.24 /3. 1) and (9. 2.2+ 2/ 2_^22 == i6J9 2. 2. 4. 12. bcx+cayabzQ. The Equation of a plane satisfying two conditions will involve one arbitrary constant which can be chosen in an infinite number of ways. 8. 3) other than the plane through the origin. 1). 3).. find the equation of the plane OLM. Find the the cireumoentre of the triangle formed by (3.(Hi) From (ii) and (Hi). we have b === a Substituting in or 9. intercepts (M. a 3*/6z+8=0. 7. (1. 0. 3) is 5). 1. 17. Show . YZ.
Find the [Ans. for (i) the equation. 2a^f. 21). ( 2*33.. =3/1 4 in (i). p. 1) if Putting A..(2) . evidently satisfied by the coordinates of the points which and (3). the equation is of the first degree and is clearly satisfied by the point (x l3 y l3 z^ 3 whatever be the values of the ratios .. we obtain which is /2 2(Xrf23#f26z 69=0.. Oia?+6 J y+c 1 2+d! l =0 . the required equation of the plane. The equation = (ax + by+cz+ty+kfax}. z.1. 2. being of the it is first degree in x. The equation represents a system of planes parallel to the plane ..(1) represents a system of planes passing through the line of intersection of the planes ax+bycz+d^Q. B. .. whatever value k may have. >. of the co efficients. 3. The equation ax}by\cz{k Q represents a system of planes perpendicular to the line with direction ratios a. nil . The system of planes passing through the point (xly y^ zj is where the required two parameters are the two ratios of the co efficients A. 1). (ii) satisfy (2) 4.3i/f 42+5=0 The plane a+2/ + z6 + fc(2z+3*/+42+5) = 0. c k being the parameter.. Obtain the equation of the plane through the intersection of the planes #+2#f3z +4=0 and4^+3?/f2z + l=0 and the *+ 3. k being the parameter.(i) passes through the intersection of the given planes for It will pass values of k. (2*31. 1. 3#f2#fs=0..(3) k being the parameter. equation of the plane passing through the line of intersection of the planes 2# y=0 and y 32 y=Q and perpendicular to the plane 3z=8. C for. b. Exercises k Find the equation of the plane passing through the intersection of tJie planes a+2/+z = 6 and and the point (1. through (1. represents a plane .6 y + c 1 2+^ 1 J ) . y. 21). . origin. 1. . * / V/i.
4) and parallel 8. 1934) [An*. 3). [Ans. 5x6y+lz = 2Q. Find the equation of the plane through the intersection.e. Find the equation of the piano which is and which contains the (L. 2. / Find the equation of the plane through the point (2. 3.tf. 4. 2.r2/ + 2zl=0.rfy2 + 6=0. i. 28.. of the planes 6. 4. 5U. *S 11. 1) and is normal to the line joining the points (3. x +5y 6zf19=0.c 17?/f 9z = 0.** u . for some . z^) and parallel to the plane ax+by+cz\d=Q. 22x + 5y 4. and perpendicular s to the X Y plane. ^5. A. is [Ans. 10. 1.. to the plane 5x 6?/f 7z=3. perpendicular to the plane / 4. The plane is parallel to the given plane for all values of k. find the equation of the plane in its new position. y. 9. line of intersection of the planes x + 2</+3z4 = 0. i. Show tJiat the line of intersection of the first two planes is coplanar with the line of intersection of the latter two and find the equation of the plane containing the two lines.e. The and and planes *+2y23+A.+ 15?/5(b+ 173 = 0.e.t' + 3# 4^ 5=0. 7. wo get a( which the required equation.26 The plane ANALYTICAL SOLiD GEOMET&V 2xy+k(3zy) = 0. 24(l+fc)'5+3fc( 3)=0.(1 %+3fc2=0. The plane x 2*/f 32=0 is rotated through a right angle about its line of intersection with the plane 2. line joining (1.235 = 0. 1) and (2. if Subtracting. Find the equation of the plane that passes through (3. (3. coplanar if. x = are four planes. 2x. 5).2/fzfl)==0 separately contain the two lines. 6). [Ans. The two lines will be. 1c passes througli the line of intersection of the given planes whatever It will be perpendicular to if may be. aj+2y23 = 0. 3. 3.(3*2/+22l) = 2*22/+322+A/(a. t/j2}l 2x2y+ 3z 2=0. x(aci "^ . Obtain the equation of the plane that bisects the at right angles. It will pass through (x lt y lt z{). [Ans. Obtain the equation of the plane through the point (x^. Thus the required equation is i.
A \ 2*6 Two sides of a plane. according as the expressions are of the in a point P and let P divide in the ratio r 1 so that r is positive or negative according as P divides internally or externally. c) and meets the coordinate axes in A. Ex. Of these two sets of valuer.r ly+3z+ 13=0.3=0 coplanar with the lino of intersection of x 3^/4. 4(2*1. *l)> Two points 2/2. fc'=2.e. Show that the locus of the point common to the planes through A. variable plane passes through a fixed point (a. C parallel to the coordinate planes is 13. Thus the two planes become identical for k = 3/2 and 7c' = 5. (2.. #(*2 22 lie. [A ns. is Thus the theorem proved.tw6 values of k and A. This requires 2fc _\+2k_3k 0. y\. according as A and B lie on the opposite or the same side of the plane. a 3/4241 0. and fc=2. Hence the two lines are coplanar and the equation of the plane containing them is 12.(m) and (M) give fc3/2. (i) . fc' = 6. ax2 + 6t/2 + cz 2 +d same or different signs. 4s43y224. 3. B. 3) lie on different sides of . B. Let the line AB meet the given plane AB : AB Since the point P V whose coordinates are L+ft r+1 ' 1 r rLi + ' ?^5A r l + l) lies on the given plane. i.'.. 4. 6..43 + 6 0. fc= 3/2 and fc'= 5 satisfy (Hi) also. SIDES OF A PLAN!S 2? 1 they become identical. on the same or different sides of the plane ax + by4cz~\d=Q.7^+16 0. is Show that 7JJ4J/4. therefore or This shows that r are of the is negative or positive according as ax L + byi + czi + d. the line of intersection of the planes = = = Obtain the equation of the plane through both. Show that the origin and the point the plane o?f3y 5^47 0. same or different signs. C.
(x l} y l9 z^) to the plane obtained by substituting xi> yi.n<10K'=p Draw PL _L given Then Cor. ANALYTICAL SOLtD Length of the perpendicular from a point to a plane. 4) from the plane [Ana. a and dividing the same by Exercises /I. _o_ "* VS* 1 __ 6 _ c . P(*i* 2/i> To find the the perpendicular distance of the point *i) from plane parallel to the lx+my\nz=p. distance from the plane 2# ^f 2z=3.H3* 2 ~4o^+8a?z42/z12#f6t/. OKK' parallel planes be the perpendicular from the origin and K' so that meeting them in to the two K OK=pa. plane. Find the distances of the points (2. the distance of any point on is its Find the locus of the point whose distance from the origin 3. is 1/6. respectively in the expression. 4) and (1. 0. .for x. 1. 3. [Ana. perpendicular from (x lt T/I. i _ ^ _n VSo^ VS*'* is V2a'~ the required length of the perpendicular aj^by^+^Zifd 3 2 2 V(a + b fc ) ' Thus is the length of the perpendicular from ax \by{cz \d~Q 2i. zj to the The normal form of the given equation of the plane being . ^2. z. .12. y. Show that the distance between the parallel planes 2x 2^/+2f3=0 and 4# 4y42zf 5 = is (The distance between two parallel planes one from the other) . three times 3a. ]L LP=OK'OK To find the length of the plane ax+by+cz + dO. The equation of the plane through P(x lt yl9 z) given plane is fof wy + wz=jp jf where Let .2S 2*7. lx 1 {my L {nz 1 pi. 16/7.249=0. 1 .
r .. z = 0. acute or obtuse.. the four planes #=0.?/5. the triangle ABC is 6. the expressions ax \by\cz\d and by a 1 . 1 l.18 = 0.rKyhl:h + l=0.(in) . 3p.. 1/8.r } bisecting planes are 3__ J 27/423 or 2x + 7. This gives a test for determining which angle. the points (. The equations of the two . 1/8) is in the centre of the tetrahedron formed by 4.t. Since. wo express the equations of the given planes so that d and di are positive.. Thus the equation (A) represents the plane bisecting that angle between the planes which contains the origin. B. Note. Consider the equation <1l 2 ) "' ( } equality (A). x+2y + 2z=l. Sum of the distances of any number of fixed points from a variable 5. variable plane which remains at a constant distance.e. z) be any point on any one of the planes bisecting the angles between the planes.2U0. (V) bisects the acute angle. then the perpendiculars from this point to the two planes must be equal (in magnitude). y. If 8 be the angle between the planes (?) and (Hi).BISECTORS OF ANGLES BETWEEN TWO PLANES 29 Show that (1/8.. Hence and the other the obtuse angle between the given planes.. 7/ = 0. y z) on the locus lie on the origin or the nonorigin side of both the planes. and specify the one which bisects the acute angle. Find the equations of the are the equations of the two bisecting planes. 3.r. from the Show that the locus of centroid of origin cuts the coordinate axes at A. .. virtue of the t . plane is zero show that the plane passes through a fixed point.(t) .+6 1 ?/f CiSlf/x must ha\e the same sign (denominators being both positive). Bisectors of angles between two planes.. and consequently. Ex. Of these two bisecting planes.(it) a+2// + 2^3 = 0. tions of the bisectors of the angles between the planes To find the equa If (x. The bisector of the acute angle makes with either of the planes an angle which is less than 45 and the bisector of the obtuse angle makes with either of them an angle which is greater than 45. To do this. the points on the locus lie in the angle between the planes containing the origin. we see that is greater than obtuse angle. which 45.. Sometimes wo distinguish between the two bisecting planes by finding that plane which bisects the angle between the given planes containing the origin.. Hence (Hi) bisects the being greater than 1. each bisecting plane bisects. C. A 2*71. H9// + 31:.(it) and we have _ so that tan 8= \/14/"2. i. one bisects the acute plan ex bisecting the angles between the planes .
0. ft'. homogeneous second degree equation To find the condition so that ax> + by*+cz*+2fyz+2gzx+2hxy=0 . Exercises 1. ff. 3. l'm + lm'. we have to eliminate n V m' n' from the above six relations and this can be easily We have effected as follows. Find the bisector of that angle between the planes origin. 9 z.e+]2y 13* = 0. for. o i'. Zr f Z'Z. and + m'y^n'z There cannot appear constant terms in the equations of the planes. r&. ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY ax 4. the Joint equation of two planes.by \cz\d ~ represents the plane bisecting the other angle between the given planes. rin+nri g _ Q =S(abc+2fghaf*~bg*ch ? /> 2 ) . we obtain a ll'. Let the two planes represented Ix \rny \nz. ri. ram' \nl' } + m'm. 162#47zf 44 = 0. ra. In order to find the required condition.. o ra. G7u: 3. Show that the plane bisects the obtuse angle between the planes 33 + 4 y _r>3 + l=0. 2/ m'n f mri 3 2g In + I'n. their joint equation will not be homogeneous. r. m'n{mn' rim+nm'.r2?H 6: + 8 = 0. l'n+ In' Im n'l +Z'ra. I.30 Similarly.. . 2. ra'. Find the bisector of the acute nnglc between the planes 2*2/ + 22f 3 = 0. by I'x (1) be 0. otherwise. + I'm.(I) may represent two planes. b mm') c  = nn 2h = Im ' and ra. [Ans. n. We have ax* + by* + cz* + 2fyz + 2gzx + 2hxy~(lx + my + nz) (I'x + m'y+n'z) so that comparing coefficients. ^2*8. ra'. which contains the [Ans. z.
If Q planes represented by (1). In particular. [vln*. is called the 2*9. The projection of the A . then . The projection of a curve on the plane of projection is of the projection on the plane of any point on the curve. the projections of an area. Angle between planes. A. the projection of a straight line is the locus of the foot of the perpendicular drawn from any point on it to the plane of 2*91. we have be the angle between the tan e = IV \mrn' \nri ^ V /HV + W abbcca) ~~ 2 ( a+b+c The planes will be at right angles if a+b + c=0. p. // A X9 A y A z be the areas of A. [Ans. n be the direction cosines of the normal to the plane of the area A. (?) 12#2_2#2_G2_2. . area. Cor. the length of the projection is is the same as that of AB. cos~ 1 (4/21). are respectively the . enclosed by any curve in a the angle between the plane of the area cos being plane and the plane of projection. on the three coordinate planes. 1) L. for then is 90. cos 6 its projection is AB In case (3) AB AB is parallel to the plane of projection. cos~i(4/9). the a given plane.r?/f 7?/z+6za. be perpendicular to the line of interIf a line (2^ section of this plane with the plane of projection. Theorem. ZX and planes. in a plane. TC. 2 (n) 2^ 2^H4*H^~ + %~ + ^?/=0. plane TT.=0. called the plane of the projection. This plane. (Fig. Show that the following equations represent pairs of planes and also find the angles between each pair. orthogonal projection of the point P Thus projections of the point the YZ. then . Ex. The following : simple results of Pure solid geometry are assumed without proof (1) The projection of a straight line is a straight line. TT. Let /. Areas. P to on Orthogonal projection on a plane. m. Determination of Plane The foot of the perpendicular drawn from any point Def. 1. is M N P on. then the length of Q being the angle between the two planes.ORTHOGONAL PROJECTION ON A PLANE Hence is 31 the required condition. XY orthogonal the locus enclosed The projection of the area enclosed by a plane curve is the area by the projection of the curve on the plane of projection. the projection.
4). (3..2. Let F be the volume of the tetrahedron ABCD. A y m. 3).A. 29 Similarly. (D.U. \ P Then where p is the length of the perpendicular AL from any vertex A to the opposite face BCD and /\ is the area of the triangle . 1 Therefore. 1. 2. 13 . the volume of a tetrahedron 2/4 Zl)> (*2 2/2. (^ 2 . YZ plane and the and Hence . f f . in terms of the coordinates (#1> 2/l To find (#3> 2/3. (0. To find the area A projection of tho same The vertices of the projection of tho triangle on the (1. 1947} of the XY plane are ==2. C prove that the area of the triangle ABC is r^lZx'y'z'. (0. the area of the triangle '* 2. Find the area of the triangle whose vertices are the points (1. + Find the areas of the triangles whose vertices are tho points (i) (ii) (a.r 3 . and 1 =_. . . (. Z2)> *3) (*4 2 4) o/ ^5 vertices A. 6. 1. 2 Exercises Vjl. B. D. 0). a plane is drawn at right angles to OP to 3. so that of this triangle. Azn. From a point P(x y c'). z 3 ). meet the coordinate axes at A. therefore Similarly.A. Hons.4. ?/ 2 . Fig. (x l9 y l9 2j). 0. (2. we find tho areas ori the coordinate planes. 2*10. c). Ax AV Az . 7/3. Volume of a tetrahedron.32 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY Since I is the cosine of the angle between the plane of the area A. B. where r is the measure of OP. . C. 0. (2. 2). A x*+A y *+A z 2 =A 2 (l +m*+n*)=A*. (3.0). 0).0). 4. c 2 ).0).
(it) ^/ 4. 2/3. .. 2/2. . b e the areas of the projections of A on the 1 YZ planes respectively. If XY A*. Ay Az 2/2. ^4 . we obtain 2/3. * . 2/4. 1 #4. ^ 4.VOLUME OF A TETRAHEDRON 33 The equation of the plane BCD is = 0.
B. Let the * direction cosines of OC be We OA. ABC. OABC ni a6c 6 . the volume of the tetrahedron 0. (l\a. . OB. 2) 1. A variable plane makes with the coordinate planes a tetrahedron of 3. constant volume 64fc 3 Find (i) (ii) [Ans. the locus of the foot of the perpendicular from the origin to the a 2 3 3 2 [Ans. C are ^i^O (^2^> ^tjby n 2 b) j (^jC. OB=b. 14 take as origin and any system of three mutually perpendicular lines through O as coordinate axes. w 3 c. Therefore. OC=c. 3. 2. t2/ z ) =384A: . 1. Find the volume of the tetrahedron in terms of three edges which meet in a 4. 0. m^fiy J5. w 3 c. (4. 1). is a plane paralKl to the plane . plane. 6). 24. Now m3 . 1 Exercises The vertices of a tetrahedron are (0. C are three fixed points and a variable point P moves so that the volume of the tetrahedron PABC is constant show that the locus of the . 0. A. the locus of the centroid of the tetrahedron. (a. (P. point and of the angles ichich they make with each other. 1 n2 n 3c 7?? 3 c. Let CM=a. we see that the required > yi.U. 2/4. point P . 11 i > y%> ? z i> i x =*A ?=* . show that its volume is 6. 2). 3. Lot and Z_AOB=v. 0. n3 . (2. (161) Therefore.r?/z. 1939) Let OABC be a tetrahedron. the coordinates of A.34 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY Therefore. denominator of p=[ volume *i> From (i) and (if). xyz*=6k*. (3. Fig.
r(l. the equations of whose faces are V=0.. we have = 0.EXERCISES 1. ! from (1).23). cos V. yi. . C 2 63. similarly \Ve write i. cosv. <7 3 d respectively in the determinant ALet (a?!.(2) . the volume of the tetrahedron 1.4) where Aw the determinant j^ D%. one of the vertices of the tetrahedron. z 2 ). i + (< 7 1  7 Also. d%.2/3. (#4> 2/4> 24) be the other vertices. is Let obtained. C 4 . (#2. * #3 3.D 3 Z>4 are tJie cofactors of d. . 64. 4 . 4). (2). c3 . cosv. 3. COS cosX 1 X.... .e. C 3 a 3> Cf =0. Show that the volume of the tetrahedron. (4). COS [JL. 04. we have . OABO cos v. 1... z) 2/ 2 . so that (ar lf yi. z{) be the point of intersection of the three planes a rx{b r y\c r z\d r =Q. (3).3. (^3.(3) .(4) Eliminating x i9 2/1. Therefore. cos \L a&c 6 COS V..2. 5. 64* C 4> 0^2* 62. cos(i 1. COS X 1 COS X. r = (2.
( . 0. We. C7. f^?i*. have . 0. (P.. _ A k l9 0. 0. 0. * 4 Therefore the required volume 6. . =  3 Find the volume of the tetrahedron formed by planes whose equations 2/42=0.0 A C2 C 3> ( 2 .0. ^4?/r=0 and x +y+z= 1. 2/1. 0. 0.36 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY & Similarly a3 x t+ b 3^3+ c 3 z 3+ d 3 =Jc 3=^ . z4#=0. now. 1. fr 3 .0 0. 79^2) 2/3.
give the equations of the line. Let P (r. Equations of a if line. z r and of the Zaxis are equations of the } axis are # 0. a straight line in space is represented by two equations of the < Now..Xaxis is the intersection of the taken together. therefore. z = XZ x=Q. we obtain x Xi=lr. y. and. ~/3*ll. first Of course any given In XY the . therefore.1) Symmetrical form of the equations of a line. A line may it. on the line. m> n by three numbers proportional to them. Projecting AP on the coordinate axes. and having direction cosines. . z) on the given I m Thus are the two required equations of the line. Ex.. y. line can be represented by different pairs of degree equations. m. and particular.5. y=0. its equations are ?/~0. I. z. z) be any point on the line and let AP=r. Similarly planes. Thus. y. (2. the equations (ii) of the line are not altered if we replace the direction cosines I. [Ana. This follows from the fact that any point on the line lies on both these planes and. taken together. its coordinates satisfy both the equations and conversely. first degree in x. be determined as the intersection of any two planes through ax+by \cz\~d ^0 and a i x + ^j^+Ci. yy =mr l 9 z Zinr line. for we may take any pair of planes through the line and the equations of the same will constitute the equations of the line.() so that for all points (#. n. then these two equations. Clearly. Find the intersection of the line with the plane 0.CHAPTER III RIGHT LINE 3*1. any point whose coordinates satisfy the two equations lies on both these planes. . as the . To find the equations^ of the line passing through a given point A(x ly y l9 Zj).2+^ 1 = be the equations of any two planes through the given line.
y. The equation ' I. Note* Exercises /I. From the relations (i). y^yi+mr. we have x=x i +lr. z%)\ X being the parameter. Note 2. 10/7. line Find two points on the z2 on either side of (2. Line through two points. ii line.(l l. Any value of r will give some point on the line and any on the line arises from some value of r. Similar statements may be made about the perpendicular of the of first XO equations in __ n . m degree. It direction (*a> 2/i> should be noted. may be perpendicular to each 2. n are between the points and (x. f . Z 2 ~2l are proportional to the direction equations are cosines of the line. The symmetrical form (ii) of the equations of a straight line proves useful when we are concerned with the direction cosines of the line or when wo wish to obtain the genoral coordinates of any point on the line in terms of a parameter. through the two points Since 3*8 To find the equations of the line ~*1. n = I The equations represent a pair of planes through the given ii. (3. represents a plane through the line drawn Y plane. 2j) and (x%. y%. m. ^3*12. ~2~ from it. 2). being froo of z. 2/22/1. y + 3 ** z 46 3 i~^~ 2" 3. z=z 1 +nr. Cor. the required x 2 Xi y 2 yj z a Zi Results obtained in Cor. Find k so that the lines ____ x I y 2__z 3 x \_jy5 26 [Ans. Note 1. other. 2 page 6 may be regarded as the parametric equations of the line through the two points (arj.5.3). t/i. that cosines that r gives i) it is only when distance the the actual I. 5) and at a distance [Ans.7). which are the general coordinates of any point on the line in terms point of the parameter r.38 so that ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY cosines it suffices to use direction ratios in place of direction while writing down the equations of a line.
we r ~. The line through P perpendicular to the given ^ by a plane is _____ so that the coordinates of ^ see that (2r+l. 3. 2 . (P. 8/29).2 Q Fig. 2. . Find the distance of the point (1. 5) 13. 3/29. '8. 2) \/l5(Fwhich different from (Why ?) X 4. from the plane (2.10=^5 intersection ( or r=2. y lf zj) perpendicular to the plane ax+by\cz+d~Q and the coordinates of its foot. 4) in the plane If two points P. (5/3. 60/7.5. Find the coordinates of the foot of the perpendicular drawn from the also find the coordinates of the point . Find the point whore the line joining (2. crf zj) where r= (ax 1 f62/ 1 4cz 1 +d)/(a 2 f &Hc2 ). Supp. 10. _ r +3. (2/29. >/ 7.) [Ans. If it also lies on the given plane.lOrf. 6. 3. 2). Q be euch that the line is bisected perpendicularly plane. '5.3r3. is Hence the required point of Its distance from the point the value 2 of r. (1. 9. (ar+x lt 6r+j/ 1 . then either of the points is the image of the other in the plane. Find the equations to the line through (#1.r + 4) use of the fact that the mid point Making of Q are of the form PQ lies on the given plane. 7). 6/29. we have 3r 3fl2r 12. 5. Find the image of P (/. measured along a / with direction cosines proportional to the point 2). Find the distance of the point line (3. 3. Deduce the expression for the perpendicular distance of the given point from the given . plane 2jc+y\z = 7. Find the coordinates of the x+l ~~ ?/f3 ~~ 22 1 point of intersection of the line 3 2 with the plane Let ~T~ so that the point lies ^^. 10) from the point of inter1 section of the line (. [Ans. 3. 1934) [An*. 1). 3 ~2~~' rl.r 2) = J(yf I) = j 2"(2 2) and the plane zt/ + z = 5. 2) and perpendicular to the plane zf 2y+ 22=3.U. 1. x (P. (3. 2/3).U. is 1. 2r+2 on the given line for all values of r. 5) cuts the 3. 2). 4/29) (4/29. [Ans. 5/3. 5. is (1. [Ana. = plane. the length of the perpendicular and the coordinates of its foot. 4. [Ans. 4. Find the equations to the line through ( 1. origin to the plane 2xf3i/~ 4zfl which is the image of the origin in the plane. 15 so that the image of P is (3.
2l^ + c~ 2 l. 3*14. that the equations to the straight line through = (?/ &)/0= (z c)/0. to the Xaxis are (.oint Q OP. 1). Show that (r)//=(y&)/i=Czc)/0 is a straight 15. /12. lines Show that 2 2 [Ans. c) parallel 14. fc . 3'12. whose squares is constant and equal to 2 Find the locus of the foot of the perpendicular from the origin to the plane. that the straight line Cra)/J=(^p)/M.t7) = line is intersects the planes in the same point and deduce that the coplanar with the line of inter section of the planes. [Ans. Deduce the conditions 16. 6. (3. P OP is the line such that any point on the plane lx\'iny\nz=p and a . lino Show perpendicular to the Zaxis.r3)/3 = (2 intersects the lino .)(. Find their point of intersection. The second form sideration is unsymmetrical and is deduced from the conthat a straight line is the locus of points common to any it. 6. (9. zr> ^2~' a. is taken on A variable plane makes intercepts on the coordinate axes the sum of 17. straight line which we generally 3*11.( S r)/ meets the lotus of the equation a. = 0. the symmetrical form deduced from the consideration that a straight line is completely determined direction and the coordinates of any one point on two points on the line are given.r+2y + 3. (a. Cr2 + 2/. 18.r2+2/ 2 +z 2 ) 2 = fr 2 the equations of the lines bisecting the angles between the . when we know its or when any it. Show that the line (. ANALYTICAL SOLID Show that the line i(.OQ=p* show that the locus of Q is .+ 2. 3_y + 4 ~~4~12 =s g 6 "~F" 5 "36"* "38" 49" ~^\l' ~lT ~2F It has been seen in 3*13. in two points.e )/! 13. two planes through In the next section it will be seen be transformed into the other. Show (a.40 11. how one form of equations can Transformation from unsymmetrical to the symmetrical the equations form. that the equations of a One is employ are of two forms. . To transform to the of a line symmetrical form. for the two points to coincide at [Ans.
we require and (ii) the coordinates of any one point on it. 0*0/2= (y 4)/7= (2 5)/5. find the point of intersection of the line with the plane 2=0. 1) and perplanes. Find out the points of intersection of the line with the 4.a^b j > ~i i!> \ / ab^ a^b Thus. (j?42) 3. 2^32/442 = 5. We. a i9 6 1} c^ we have al \bm\. Find. Since the line both the planes ax\~by\. X Y and YZ r endicular to the line [Ans. in the symmetrical form. a:6i/ I Find the equations of the / line through the point (1. 2. This point which is given by the equations bc^ b^c Now. < __ m _ n caic^a ab^ a^b coordinates of any one point on the line and there is an infinite number of points from which to choose. r. [Ans.en = 0. 1. line. 1937) Obtain the symmetrical form of the equations of the x2y 432=4. Find the equation of the plane through the point (I. .U. x2y 22=5. 4) parallel to the line 2=4. Let Z. c . m. ratios of the normals to the two planes are a.cz}d Q and a^ + ^j^+CiZ + d^O. the equations of the given are line bci biC c&i Cjd abi a^b Exercises 1. equations. As the direction it is perpendicular to the normals to both of them. 5. n be the direction ratios of the the direction ratios of the lies in line. b. for the sake of convenience. and hence put down the symmetrical form of its [Ans. a:4l/3  t/42/3 2121 line (P.41 To transform (i) these to the symmetrical form. the equations of the line and find its direction cosines. in a symmetrical form. we require the is }C ( ~r~ \ao L . 2. Ans.
is What (t) 2/=6. [Ans. that the equation of tho plane parallel to the join of (3. xj\ () 3*2. al+bm + cn=0.. 4xy2z = 6. Exercises if a line be parallel to 1. 3) . if = a plane. [Hint. and parallel = 5 and 3x + 4:y\5z = 6. 6. The i. straight line also evident is parallel to the plane. [Ana. 90 Find the angle between the lines / 90. l m. Show that the condition for the lines xaz}b y t to Le perpendicular 9. 2z 3. is which it is perpendicular to the from the fact that normal to it. the Since the direction cosines of the normal to the given plane and of the given line are proportional to a.2) and parallel to the line 4* Show [Ans.0. is 3) and (4.42 6. n respectively.. and passing through tho points (2. x a. t 3. y m we have . ] ^ " =y m y\ ^ 1:^ l ?^ zz . 8z. 1). are the symmetrical forms of the equations of the lines = (y z=o [Ana. 8. between [Ans. 4). 5) and(0. (x+2) = i(2/3) = (24). (3.me is the complement of the angle between the line and the noimal to the plane. (ca)/Q=(y To find the line T . al+bm+cn where 6 is the required angle. Show that the line {^ 2) = (?/~3) = J(2 4) is parallel to the plane to the planes 2^h3yf 4z Find the equations of the line through the point (2. 3.3. (zl) = (lt/)/2=(z2)/3.e.by\czd the angle. of the lino arc given by the relations 2. 11) 1. n.2.2.C7. Find the equation of the piano through the points (1. 4. ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY JFind the angle between the lines in which the planes 3x7y5z=l 5#13#+3zf 2=0 t cut the plane 8a?lly+20 7. (Z/. c and I.) [^r?5. The direction ratios. # _ #. . ax plane Angle beween a line and a pl.
CONDITIONS 5.U.. Show that the lino ic}10=(8 . General equation of the plane containing the line I m 1 1) n f is A(xx )+B(y~y 0(3^) 0. frofe A LIKE To Ufc IN A PLANE line 45 Find tho equation of tho plane containing the '2x5y+ 22 = 6.(1) (1). show that the two planes [Ans. Here. 2(# /Xminj W2Wi)s=0. 1957) Find the equation of the plane through the point (/. if. Cor. 2. g. Conditions for a line to a plane. [Ans. if (i) line will lie the normal to the plane is perpendicular to the line. 2* + 3t/ z=5 Qx\~y and parallel to the line 6. parallel 8. x 2t/+2z=0. 2xf 2t/+z=0. and only if. lie in are perpendicular. Hons.en) is all values f an identity. the coordinates of any point on the line satisfy the equation of the plane for of r so that rial \brn {. This gives al which are the required two conditions. 5/3 from it . (D. Find the equations of the two planes through the origin which are t ) . and is Wj=tfi#Jparallel to the line * 7. h and to the lines x/lr =y/w r =z/n r rl. A B C are : : the parameters subjected to the condition Exercises 1. To find the conditions that the line I m n may lie in the plane line The would lie in the given plane. where Al+Bm+Cn=Q. and (t?) any one point on the line lies in the plane. . Prove that the equation of the plane through the line 16=0. These conditions lead to the geometrical facts that a in a given plane.y)/2=z lies in the plane . x = y/6= 2/7. parallel to the lino and distant J'3. [4nj.
() C are any numbers subjected will pass The plane (t) through (xi. 1. C from (i) 9 (ii) and (m). . 8* direction cosines of the projection of the given line on the given (L. Deduce the plane. ^nfi^yyi ^nii and ?HI za lj ss= n y__ya= ~*.(y + 15/8)/29= (2 . of the projection of the . is 26.J)/10 . To 3*4. 7. i(*+ on the plane a722/ [Ans. 7. What is and the point (0. [Ans. (x. line and the point 4. 1939) The general equation where A. B. : first lino m 2 n l)~0' xl . if Eliminating A. y^ 9 sj). 3j. Find the equation of tho plane containing the and parallel to tho second. zc as the required equation. 4) lies on the geometrical relation between tho two lines and the plane ? Find the equation of the plane containing the line 6. be coplanar. 3..U. 2(2 i)( m'i r*2~~~ Show that the equation of the plane through tho line 5. in the Ik. B. 0.. Find the equation of the plane containing tho (0. w. w are two straight lines. we have xa. find the condition that the two given straight lines should intersect 9 i.e. Find the equation of tho piano which contains the lino \ and is (*l)/2 perpendicular to tho plane = yl = (33)/4 a+2^/+2 = 12. na a 2.c lly 172 109=0 and show that the point (2.0)/16. the line ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY line $(a? 2) = (y+2) = J(2 3) in the piano Zi) Find the equation to the plane through the point (x^ y^. and through (P. [Ann. Coplanar Lines. ll [Ans.) [Ans. yb.44 and the 2. line 9x 2y5z+ 4=0 Find the equations. of the plane containing the given line * to the condition is . 7) and show that tho lino x 1/)= J(z}7) lies in tho J(7 same plane.^^ y+6 2 __i and parallel to #_2 2 ?/! z =^3=^ +4 it. x y+z = Q.U. (*a)ll=*(yb)lm = (zc)ln.2//f 0^12 = 0. symmetrical form. 4fc. 0). Condition for the coplanarity of lines.. 10A% where Jt = ]/v/(165). A(xa)+B(yb) + C(ze) = Q.
. we get =0. C from (i). (iv). (iv) we get to intersect. line is perpendicular to the normal to it. (ffi #2) f ^1^2 ='0. =0. ( 3*3). which is the equation of the plane containing the two in case they intersect. C from (ii). / <i> ni m> 2 . we have Tlo which is the same condition as (A). these points should coincide for some This requires values of rl and r 2 .COPLANAR LINES Let the given straight lines be 45 T~ If the lines intersect. B. 72 . Eliminating r ls r 2 . In case the lines intersect. (A) which for the lines is the required condition eliminating A. Second Method. (ii). if the point (x 2) y 2 z 2 ) . plane containing the line (1) is ' w/ lie " TO ^ they must in a plane. Equation of any with the condition lies The plane (i) upon it and the will contain the line (2). obtained as follows : The condition for intersection may also be are the general coordinates of the points on the lines (1) and (2) respectively. B. This requires Eliminating A. (Hi). Again h. n2 lines.
to intersect. Thus for intersection. i. * Thus the equation of a plane containing two intersecting line 9 is obtained finding the plane through one line and parallel to tho other or.e. the equation xx lt yyi. the values of the unknowns x. ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRV In general. should satisfy the fourth also. (r+4. . the condition (A) shows that tho point (#2 2/2 ^2) nes on the n rst plane and the point (x lt ?/ lf 2^ on the second. 3/1. 7r~l) and (2r' + l. y. and only if. In case the lines are coplanar. there exists a point whoso coordinates satisfy the four equations. i.. 7/2> and the equation r x2 y z Z2 1 2. These two planes are then identical and contain both the intersecting lines. 4r~3. Now. Prove that the lines ~~ 1 XI 4"" ' ~~ 7 2 3"" 8 intersect and find the coordinates of their point of intersection. parallel to (2). as obtained by eliminating x. zz represents the plane through (1) and . Note 2. Examples 1. we require that the four equations should be consistent among themselves. the coordinates of the point of intersection are obtained by solving any three of tho four equations simultaneously. through one line and any point on the other. given in tho unsym metrical form. this condition is satisfied. are to be coplanar. It is sometimes comparatively more convenient to follow this method to obtain the condition of intersection or to prove the fact of intersection of two lines. is 2. by Note 3. But we know that three unknowns can be determined so as to satisfy three equations.46 Note 1. Two lines will intersect if. y. whose equations. The condition for the lines. The condition of consistency of four equations containing three unknowns is obtained by eliminating the unknowns. as obtained from any three equations.. 8/10) are the general coordinates of points on the two lines respectively.e. z. c2 . z from these equations. two of each line. d2 4 6 4> C 4> In case. 7??2 ^2 represents tho plane through (2) and parallel to (1).
or 6# 5y which is clearly satisfied by the point ( 1.. clearly. Note. 1. satisfy (m). and parallel Z / 4.. .7 2=0*=# 3/f2z 13 The or and find the equation to the plane in ivhich they lie. This equation can also be solved by first finding the point satisfying three equations . Hence the lines intersect and their point of intersection obtained by 7. r2r' + 3=0.EXAMPLES 47 They will intersect if the three equations .. 5. (i) 4r3r'+2 = 0. a point on the second line. Show that the lines s+j^y+5^ 2" ar<? 7 " " 3 r3 ' 4 5 f first line coplanar and find is the equation of the plane containing them.. . general equation of the plane through the second line is This will be parallel to the if first lino 3(3+4) + (23t)2(l+2fc)^0.. 4=J. 3. are simultaneously true. Thus the two lines are coplanar and the equation of the plane containing them is 3.e. " ' . (a) and (ii) give r=l. 6). . Show that the lines #+f>_ y 3x f 27/+Z are coplanar f 4_z . I 4' _4 _ 7 2 3' and then showing that the same point also satisfies the equation ~3 2. 3 = 1 z=0. The equation of the plane containing the to the second 5. i. (ii) (m) r'=2 which also. or r' = 2 is (5. putting r=l. Hence this plane contains also the second line.. I). . 7r8r' + 9=0.
Show that the condition that the two straight linos 7. 4. 3/2) 5 a?2 Show that the lines z . which thev . _ 1 intersect.r/=2//=z/w. equation of the plane [Ans. Find also the coordmates of their point of intersect ion and the which they ho. . U. 1 . [Ana. 2(^^)^=0. Show that the linos 4 4z are coplanar. m . 7) and so contains Thus the two lines are coplanar and lie in the plane 21a. . 1949} \Ans.6 5 in Find their point of intersection and Iho plane (I/I'. (D.a?3 = J(2/+2) = i is given by 9. (5. lio. and perpendicular to the plane containing xlm=y/n=zll and . 2. 4. r intersect and find the coordinates of the point of intersection and the equation / of the plane in which they he. 5. Prove that the lines intersect 6. 3. Prove that the 2 linos  " 8 " ' 3 ~I 1 [Ans. 4. that the plane which contains the two parallel lines f 4*i(y3) = J(22). are coplanar. 1. y = nz\b and x = in'z\a' y=n'z\b t ^ Show (a~a')(nn') = (bb')(mm ). V+3_2f 5 5" T t 2_7/ . Find the equation of the piano passing through rr//=i//?n=z/7?.= 6i/+5 Prove that the 3 rT+ ] _ interscct. (a + a' b + b' c+c') ^j:(bc' 6 c) = 0. Hons. xci__y~b_zc " 17 ~ r. Find also their point of intersection lines and the plane through them. 7.. (2. 7 "~r~ f [Ans. Exercises 1. 6) . ( 5. x should intersect 8* is f n\z+a.19?/+22z125=0. lU. . (3.48 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY Hence the equation of the plane containing the second parallel to the first is line and which clearly passes through the point also the first line. [Ann. Prove that the lines . llz2/3z = 3r>. ~'~T' 7 c" a a'_yb'__zc "~~b c t . 2). 1/2. 3) 45r 17i/f25z + 53 = C. and find the coordinates of their point of intersection.
lino Obtain the condition for the (sa)/Myp)//*=(zY)/ to intersect the locus of the equations a^ 2 f6z/ 2 =l. ?/i . = 0. The symmetrical form of the equations of a lino apparently involves six constants x\. If.1 only two are independent as one of them can always be arbitrarity chosen as described below A lino cannot be parallel to all the coordinate planes. now. line. z^ to four arbitrary I. : t . ?/f z=3a (M) . in particular. c d. of the three apparently independent numbers a*j. a straight A to line it.3i are. The equations of the planes through PQ perpendicular to the YZ and ZX planes are respectively of the forms z = cy\d. but they are really equivalent constants only as is shown below 2 2 n. equivalent to two independent constants only. c = ' 3*5. so that I mx^ li ny^ m n m n are the four arbitrary constants or parameters. the equations of the line PQ and contain four 9 can be regarded as the intersection of any two planes In particular. at right angles if af6f c 11. we may take the two planes perpendicular arbitrary constants a. wo may take the point where the line meets the plane x=x at the point . n. Note. Hence wo rrmy give numbers contain & The fact that the general equations of a straight line four arbitrary constants may also be seen directly as follows : We see that ^ipi^yyi y^yi^** I m ' m n are equivalent to ra m m 9 ' n mz n respectively. Also. Let the given line. y\b=z\c intersect the four lines ?y=0. YZ and ZX planes. #l. x^ bo assigned any value. : ( x l>Vl> z l) The three to r 1 any value wo please. bo not parallel to the YZ piano. b. z+a?=3& . say. Hence the equations of a straight line involve four arbitrary conslants as it is always possible to express them in the above form. and z = ax~\b which are.2/i. . (tn) 2=0 . PQ through two of the coordinate planes.CONSTANTS IN THE EQUATIONS OF A STRAIGHT LINE 10. y^. Number of arbitrary constants in the equations of a straight To show that there are four arbitrary constants in the equations of line. m to two independent constants only. which are connected by the relation / 2 7/i fn =l are equivalent Z. 49 Show that the lino x+a (i) #=0. therefore. therefore. m.
to have a given direction. The two lines Wl+ AiVi=0=W2tX a v2 are. X 2 are The line +V . know that the equations of a straight line involve four arbitrary constants and hence any four geometrical conditions. . and so on. for instance. 2 h'es in the plane w 1 +X 1 vi=0 contains the line w 1 =0=?? 1 Xj. then the general equations of both are a straight line intersecting them where any two constant numbers. ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY Determination of lines satisfying given conditions. lines. therefore. fix a straight line. w t f x^j^ 0=?/ 2 which again . A (i) given condition may sometimes give rise to t\\o relations between the constants or as. consider the various sets of conditions which determine We now a line. the condition of the line (ii) to pass through a given point.50 3*51. intersecting (ix) two given lines at right angles intersecting a given line parallel to a given line . Some below : further sets of conditions which determine a line are given (v) (vi) passing through a given point and intersecting two given lines intersecting two given lines and having a given direction . (vii) intersecting a given line at right angles and passing through . ^1=0=^1 and hence they intersect/. be required to fix the Equations of lines have already been discussed under the following sets of conditions (i) passing through a given point and having a given direction : . a given point (viii) . An Important Note : // ==0=i' i and ?/ t/ 1 v 2> be two straight lines. will In such cases only two more relations straight line. . . and passing (x) through a given point passing through a given point and perpendicular to two given lines . (ii) (Hi) (iv) passing through two given points passing through a point and parallel to two given planes passing through a point and perpendicular to two given . coplanar . It may be noted that the conditions for a line to intersect a given line or be perpendicular to it separately involve one relation between the constants and hence three more relations are required to fix We the line. each giving rise to one relation between the constants.
2#7t/ + 42+7=0. . 1.EXAMPLES same line intersects the lino ?/ 2 = 0= v 2 This conclusion will be found very helpful in what follows.e. 2. i. to the line that intersects the lines 2s 3 and is parallel to the line jx == J/ =: Z ' ~T lines are "V 3 lines intersecting the The general equations of the two given which will be parallel to the given line if A x A 2 be so chosen that the two planes representing it are separately parallel to the given line. tho  61 Examples 1. are ) ) A2 =f 4^4. P(r ra. if The required equations. This requires and (3+4A a + 2(l+5A 2 )+3(l2A 2 = 0. are x\y+z = 2 and # + 22=4. with direction cosines proportional to 2. i.. 1. 'Find the equations of the line that intersects the lines and passes through the point (2. 2 meets each find out the coordinates of each of the points of intersection. r r'. 3 = 0. 1). a. 1. The required equations of the line. . 7i/62 3. 1). therefore. The line intersects the two given lines for all values of A 1} A 2 This line will pass through the point (2. Find the equations. For the sake of illustration. r) and P'(2r' a r r') are the general coordinates of points on the two given lines r 9 t 9 T r "~ _ ' ~~r i 2 i i direction cosines of PP' r are proportional to r' 2r'+a.e. of the lines given by the equations A line 7. Similarly. if + A^O AJ 1. 1 . we give below a few examples. therefore.. and A2 1+A 2 =0.
(2/3. requires 2(2r3)+3(3r+2HH4(4r+3ll) = is (2. 1. a. . 1. 3) (tn) (0.+2)=(y2)=(s+3) (4. 2. a) which are the required points of intersection. 3a) and (a. 0). 11) be perpendicular to the given line. Obtain also The the foot of the perpendicular. 1939) [Ans. Find also the points of intersection. 1) is drawn to 2. (1. 3r+2. 0.2. 1/3. 2). (3l)/0(y.. (0. V(66). 17. Putting r=3a and r 'a in the coordinates of we get (3a. P and P'. 4r+3. to 2^f yfz 7 = 0=2. 1. Find the equations of the perpendicular from (3. This will be the required foot of the perpendicular if the line joining This it to the point (3. J. (7. 1. 0) to af 2?/f 3z+4 3) (.l)/l(sl)/3 . 1) to t (it) (2. 2/ + a_r  TJ j a = JT. 2). Find the equations to the line that intersects the lines #+2/+z=l. Therefore the required foot of the perpendiculars are . 1. A line with direction cosines proportional to (7.) (2. 7) or r=l. 0. /=. 3. and the required equations r G * 4 Exercises 1. (w) *(a. [4n. Find the equations of the perpendicular from (t) (2.+2) =(y2) = (2+3.52 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY r Now. 2# i/ 2=2 x y 2=3. . 11) to the line the point l*=J(y2) = i(*3). 1. 4. (4. 1. 2x+4y 2=4 and passes through the point (1. 4. (1.f3?/f 4?f 5.r2)i(2/4) =i(=+l). we choose and r r' such that the line PP' has direction cosines proportional to (2. (4. 4/3). 2).1). J) . (P. (ti) a. 5. Obtain also the feet of the perpendiculars.2). 1).r 2 2 . coordinates of any point on the given line are 2r. 1. 4. 3). which give r 3a. 5. cepted on it. (m) . = 0=4^fs~14.^2 = ^=2/4. 2a. (*) x(. > s intersect the lines ^^ ==^1 7 = 2 + 2 ^+ 3 ^2/^3=f~ 5 1 " 3 ' i i' _$ 2 4 Find the coordinates of the points of intersection and the length inter[Ans.
v/3'6. b mk. 1 . 3. 20. b. . given lines at right angles*.SHORTEST DISTANCE BETWEEN 4. . 3. .r. Find the distance of the point parallel to the piano ( 2. 4) x=yz. 5. 11. straight line is drawn through tho origin meeting perpendicularly the prove that tho straight line through (a. 1). 6. CD A line is right angles. Let A J5. n direction cosines of the line are proportional to 13. x = y/2=z z= y = z/2. Find tho equations of the straight X axis and line through the intersecting the line point (2. (2. . [Ans. Find the equations of the straight line intersect tho lines #=2. 4ar12i/33+l perpendicular to the = 0. 1]. (46 + 2a)/5. A a Ik. 1. will through the origin which and prove that the secant is divided at the origin in tho ratio 1 2. completely determined Case viii). [Ans. . distance between two lines lies along the line meeting them The both at right angles. 3. measured 9. (2. (See if it intersects two lines at Thus. y3 The straight line . c) with direction cosines I. (ar+4)/3(y3) = (s 4) from the line 1) . at . P 2 z 3y +25z*=25. which passes through the points (11. always lies on tho surface \2x * [Ans. drawn through the point (1. 8. Find tho equations of the two lines through the origin which = z at angles of 60. 1] fl[(o26)/6. there is one and only one line which intersects the two and H. (462a)/5. and intersecting the x=2y=2z 6. 17/2. the line (x3)/2 = : intersect [Ans. shortest To show that tfw shortest distance between two lines. 11. parallel to :r/2 Find the equations to the drawn = 2//3 = z/4 so as to intersect the lines 7. 3x+4y=\ lino 4o. [Ana. 4[(26+a)/5. in. tWO LINES 53 origin to Find the equations to tho straight lines drawn from the intersect tho lines (P. 1942) [Ana. cnk where ksal\bm\cn. are From the point P(a. find the coordinates of lines y=2x. Find tho equations of tho lino drawn through the point (4. c) perpendiculars PA. z=l and t/ 2. 3. 3) is intersected by a straight line drawn through (15. 14. 3). 18). parallel to the plane x+2y z 5 so as to intersect the line Find also the point of intersection. 3*51. U.+5z=2. 2= PB A drawn to the and J5. 12. 2y z=2. 0. 1. be two given lines. 8). say. Obtain the equations of the lines line 13z132/f24z=0=8z12t/+3z. if P moves so that the angle APB is always a right angle. 8) at right angles to Jaxis show that the two lines intersect at tho point (5. 10. 1). Prove that.
Therefore. then GH clearly the projection of AC on itself and. where that Z. To find the equations of the line of shortest distance. 16 ' If AB. then.(Hi) (i) Line (m) is perpendicular to both the lines and (n). one on each of the given lines (i) and (n). line with direction cosines Taking the projection of the join of (x l9 y l9 Zj). we have I _ m __ m n^n^^ I j % 2 ~I 2 m 1 l sm where is the angle between the given lines. then GH is the line of shortest distance between the given lines and the length Gil is the magnitude. one on each of the two given lines.. the To find magnitude and equations of the line of shortest distance between two straight tines. be any two points. n.54 AKALVtiGAL SOLID GEOMfcTkY A. is is. we observe it is . m. GH C GH^AC where is cos 0.. n have the values as given coplanar with both the given in (iv). we see that the shortest^distance . &m The line Til' $  ~ . Let the equations of the given lines be . GIKAC. m. the angle between]## and * AC. the shortest distance between the two lines for. is the the shortest distance between the two lines AB and CD. (x 29 y2 z 2 ) on the I.. sm0 ^ n sm ^ of shortest distance is perpendicular to both the lines.__y P_z 7 . Hence Thus GH 3*61. if. therefore.. lines. CD bo t\\o given lines and G /7 the line which meets them both at y right angles at G and II. Therefore the magnitude of the shortest distance is the projection on the line of shortest distance of the line joining any two points.(it) and let the shortest distance GH lie along the line x a.
Note.. w=. n are given in (iv). As and it is we have __ "24 or 36 72' m Hence Z=f. of shortest distance. line of shortest distance. 29. where and (w) are the two equations of the m. therefore.(w) m. first Again..f+38. Other methods of determ>mng Iho shortest distance are given below where an example has been sol\ed by three different methods. n be the direction cosines of the perpendicular to the two lines. 10). w=f. 1. Find the Examples and the equations of magnitude : the line of shortest distance between the lines " 3 1 / ' 16 ::: 2_9 s== 7 2 r5 5 3 First 8 Method Let /. I. distance and is. ^ n lines (ii) and that of the plane containing the coplanar and (Hi) is =0. on the line of the shortest = 7. the projection of the of the points (8. the equation of the plane containing the of the two . 9. m. is The magnitude of the join shortest distance 5). line Thus (v) /.f=14. } w.f5. (15.EXAMPLES 55 lines (i) The equation of the plane containing the coplanar (Hi) is and n I. .
16. 7r+10). z 8. the line of shortest distance between them. z 10 7 3. 7r+5r' + 5. ^y. CD be the given lines and GH. This method is Third Method. . 3. I or 1 llx f 4?/41z490=0. if it is perpendicular to both the given / 3(3r3r'7)16( 16r 8r'38)+7(7r+5r' + 5) = 0. Hence the equations Second Method of the shortest distance line are P(3r+8. 13. 7. 3) and P are and (9. 157r + 77r' 3110 and llr f 7r' + 25=0 r which requires which give ~ 1 . 2. 3(3r3r ~7)+8(16r8/38)5(7r+5/+5)0. distance. =0. derations : This method depends upon the following consi Let AB.8r'3S. 15). 1 Therefore coordinates of P (5. its Hence. the shortest distance PP' = 14 and x _y 7__z 3 6"' 3 equations are Y sometimes very convenient and is specially useful when we require also the points where the line of shortest distance meets the two lines. 16r9. P'(3r'+ 15. y + 9. 8r' + 29. the Also the equation of the plane containing the shortest distance line is second line and xL*)) y 3. or 9# ty 2=14. o 5 6 1=0. 3.56 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY is given lines and the line of shortest distance * 8. 5r' are the general coordinates of the points on the two lines respecThe direction cosines of PP' are proportional to tively. Now PP' and or will be the required line of shortest lines. 16r. 2. 3r3r'7. r' = 2.
210 16. or 2*+3*/+6z49:=0 (15. 29. This distance between distance between the parallel planes a and p.(iv) or (fff) is 117z + 42/4l2490=:0. the parallel. we easily see that the plane through the lines AB. 8. 7 2. CD perpendicular to the plane V. from this plane on the = 30 f 87+30 49 7 which (fff) is is the required magnitude of the shortest distance. 16. therefore..8. Again. or 9# 42/z=14. 3. 5).. (f) The equation of the plane through perpendicular to the plane 3. y29. GH is perpendicular to the plane perpendicular to the plane 'P' and.EXAMPLES denote the plane through AB and parallel to Let be the plane through CD and parallel to AB. . =0 5 . GH is and the plane through CD. is the line of intersection of the planes separately drawn through AB. 25 8. 6 .15.. We now solve the equation. 3.. (v) are the equations of the line of shortest distance..(v) Hence (ft. OH V The equation of the plane containing the the line (ii) is line (i) and parallel to . . 3. V CD and let *(3' The line is AB.. also to V. parallel pianos being the distance of any point on one from the other. Thus GH.(Hi) 3.). 5 6 =0 2. lying Perpendicular distance of the point second line. W3 see that it is enough to determine only one plane say 'a' and then the magnitude of the shortest distance is the distance of any point on the second line from the plane V. therefore. CD of shortest distance GU being perpendicular to both normal to the two planes so that the two planes are 9 The length of the shortest distance is. y+9. the line of shortest distance. The equation of the plane through plane (ft) and perpendicular to the a.
k^ c/c'. Obtain the coordinates of the points where the shortest distance 7a... _z9 x+l _yl _z. line between in^. any plane through the second given i.. Substituting this value of k in (i). is the distance of any point on zaxis from the = perpendicular from f (0. g j.. 11..e. Transform the equations to the symmetrical form..U. . 1. Find the magnitude and the position of the shortest distance between the lines (i) [^4n.. 1948. [^4i5. r 2. (a?4) = (y2)/3 = ( 2 3)/5 .U. (t) 4. (a point on zaxis) 2 * ~" V[(c'  dc _d'c a'c~)H (be' 6'c) ] Exercises Find the magnitude and the equations of the between the two lines 1. a:. third method given on page 56 (D. Hons. : lino of shortest distance i ____. Find the length and the equations of the shortest distance x 2/423=0. 7).e. 0). 0. 3. i. if the normal to the plane J_ zaxis..y. "=T~ 3 9 4 [Ans. B. j (n) x I_y+l_z+ 2 3 .e. 1955) will prove very convenient in line is Now. we see that the equation of the plane through the second line parallel to the first is The required S. 2 (11.3 __ 2/ 9 3 . (t) x=y=z  .D. S.] [Ans. 5. 1x 4?/22=0. be parallel to zaxis whose direction cosines are is .22/llzf20=0=13ic between the lines a:23_3/19 _225 ' a?~12_yl ^ g5 ^^6 meets them. 0. if. 31) and (3. It will (a+ka')x+(b + kb')y+(c+kc')z+(d+kd') = 0. (t) . V^' >. plane ().D.58 2. AfrALYfiCAL SOLID fcfcOMfiTRY Find the shortest distance between the axis of z and the line The this case.(*) 0. 132+24 17yC/39. i. (tt) _ r 4_z+2.
J. . 1. n. The expression^for PQ 2 can be put in an elegant form as follows : We have. (P. Show that the shortest distance between the lines i = 2y = l2z and x=i lines 7. Hons. x+y+z=a shortest distance intersect at the point is Sa/y'G arid that tho three linos of . If H be the point Fig. 10) which is nearest to the intersection of the pianos 3xy 32 + 32 = and 3x\2y I5z 8 = 0. 2fo. (D. 1960) 37. Show that tho shortest distance between any two opposite edges of the tetrahedron formed by the planes y+z^ 0. (3. n . 6. the length of the perpendicular from a given point P(XI. a. r~' ' x=y=z = [Ans.U. To to a given line I m n (a. y ^0 and any taiigont to the ellipse x 2 sin 2 a+^ 2 =a 2 ^ = is constant. y L zj find . . we have. But and provided I. 1926) line of shortest Find the length and equations of the distance between the lines zr'3 9. cef 2/==0. (6. Find the coordinates of tho point on the join of (3. 8. 17. 59 7. J m. Length of the perpendicular from a point to a line.ffQ = P r ec ti n of HP on the given line = /(ar!a)+(yiP)+n(zy). 9). 9 32^+ 34^+132 1080.=0. "" ~ T T"' .U.LENGTH OF tHE PERPENDICULAR FROX* A POINT 5. J2^+33z/+ 15z 81=0. 7) on the given line and Q the foot of the perpendicular from P on it. 10. 13) and (7. by Lagrange's identity. Find the shortest distance between the ' 2 3 4 3" ^T 4 5~ ' show also that the lines are coplanar. are the actual direction cosines. Sliow that the loiigth of tho shortest distance botweon the line z=^x tan a. [Ana.
e. V( 2109 / 110 ) Intersection of three planes. which are the required conditions. 3) to the line _4  5 . C 3 . C 3 . ca . ^3.. Comparing (i) and (ii). Find the locus of the point which moves so that its distance from tho is twice its distance from the plane #f yf z = l. To find . 2. [Ans. (suppose) three Eliminating A and k from these four equations. Find the length of tho porpondicular from the point P(5. 1) upon that z.r5_2/{2__26 . =0 . If these three planes have a common line of intersection. then must represent the same plane for as some value of A. i> b ly c l . 3> =0. = 0= 6 3 .60 ANALYTICAL SOLID Exercises Find the length of tho perpendicular from the point . [Ana. c l9 d 1 Let a2 62 . the line l(a 3*8. These four determinants will respectively be denoted by the letters A> Ai> A?. Only two of these four conditions are independent for. V(4  line #=2/=z 3. 1.3 2. $3 =0. (4. we get =*. the conditions planes a r x\b r y should have a c r z+df=0 (r=l. The following is the Algebraic proof of the fact that only two of the above four conditions are independent. the three = Jt/ = 1) 4. 5. 3 dj. they have the whole line in planes have two points common and this fact requires only two conditions. b 3 .. 3) common line of intersection. taking them by three. we obtain a2 . As Note. ei a3 . if the in common. if two of these four determinants vanish the other two must also vanish. [Ant. i. =0.
18. Def. are parallel.TRIANGULAR PRISM A. Three planes a. the three planes will form a triangular prism if the line of intersection of two of them be parallel to the third. The line of intersection of the first two planes is Fig. 3'81. Fig. Triangular prism. be obtained in 3*82 in a The same conditions different will also manner. a 23 or Thus we obtain 2 (a l 61 1 _ A<* ^3 ~k* dl a^ Similarly it can be proved that 2. three planes will form a triangular prism to the third plane but does not lie in the same. a rx+b r y+c r z + d r ^Q (r = l. taken in pairs. Clearly. d2 = 0. 19. said to form a triangular prism if the three lines of intersection of the three planes. 3) should form a prism or intersect in a line.re. To find the condition that the three . parallel The if this lines . planes 2. 3*82.
if Again. 2 = 0. (i) a:+y+ + 3 (ii) xzl = Q.. 3.ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY Then or line (i) will be parallel to the third plane. /orw a triangular prism.O r< * l : hai"$ie following sets of planes intersect in lines 2 : f 2. Show that the following sets of planes form triangular prisms = 0. A=0. tte ttrce planes will intersect in a line.r+32/+2 4 = 0. gives ^3(6^2 or ^2^1) i b^a^d^ a^ = 0. (Hi) They may intersect in a unique finite point which requires that Exercises . f~~ f> /.3a. x + 2c 5 = 0.. .7=Q. if b l9 3. i. 5x 4y+2z+2 = Q.e. . if 3 A=A t^i'M =0. __T~/. Examine the nature of the (i) 4x 22 z (ii) 2x+3y = 0. 2x+4y+7z. . if Three distinct nonparallel planes behave in relation to Note.'v^ 1. 3. This requires : the line (i) lies in the (1) this line is parallel to /f\\ the third plane which gives Unllt A .Ai> A2> As should vanish. the planes will intersect in a line plane a 3 x + b a y + c3 z + d^=0.+y23 + 2 = 0. and (2) the point it i /^IU'9 ( UnU/1 > IJbiUn _ > \ . ^ J ^ ies on ^ w ^ lcn . (Hi) line. : (ii) They may form a prism which requires that only A should vanish. . ' 6 3 . 2 ?/ intersection of the following sets of planes : (i) prism. c3 i. 0. (iv) prism. a?+2/~223 = 5ij > a?2y+3 = 0. . (ii) point. Show (ii) . each other in any of the following three ways in a line which requires that two of the (i) They may intersect four determinants /\. 2^+2?/+8zl = 0.
then. aybx=ab b)x f t and the three planes (ca)s(a&)y = 6+c. c. will intersect in cybz=l. a. then. (a (b (b c)z=c\a. pass through another line. (l ). is x 5. c. y=azi~cx. say angles to each other. z=bx\ay > pass through one line if and show that the line of intersection. azcx=m t t a line if al\ bm\cn~O and the direction 6. c)y(ca)x=a + b. Show that the lines / and /' are at right . ratios of the line.EXERCISES 44 63 Prove that the planes z. are. = y z Show that the planes bxayn. Prove that the three planes bzcy = b pass through one line (say /). 6. cxaz^ca.
y. consider the nature of the geometrical loci represented degree. which is the assemblage of all such points for different values of a. whose two dimensional be any point on it so that /(a. plane. point drawn parallel to the Zaxis. l.. p.. xy=c*... (3. Consider any point this The line through (a. y) = and hence the whole on its locus. Similarly the loci of the equations are cylinders with generators parallel to the ... a. it z has been shown that any equaand two such We now 4*2. a cylinder with generators parallel to Z axis.. Ex. Any line lies point z) on the line to OZ.CHAPTER IV INTERPRETATION OF EQUATIONS LOCI 4*1. = Q is a system of planes parallel to the YZ plane. a. y) (a.. z) Equations free from one represents a surface. by the equations of any Locus of a variable point with its is current coordinates x. on the curve and is. 4*22. 2) 0. a 2> a 3 . therefore. y=$ meets the locus in points whose zcoordinates are given by the roots of the equation /(a.. (n) *2/a f2/ /& (v) 2 2 2 (iv) x*la*y*lb* = \. Consider the curve on the XY (3) equation f(x. ....... satisfies the equation through this point. z connected by a single equation/ (x.. equation f(x) Locus of the Equations containing only one variable. Cylinders. 0) on the plane. viz. (in) y^=4ax. 9 In Chapters II and first degree in x y 9 III. the number of points of the locus on every such line is also finite. y. As this equation has a finite number of roots.. z) Equation to a surface. a cylindrical Thus the surface. therefore.Xaxis respectively. (B) 0. the equation is XY the equation f (x. = a surface. y) 0.. is y.. tion of the represents a plane equations together represent a straight line.. p. What surfaces are represented by the equations (t) and the Faxis je+y 2 =a.... its Locus of f (x. Thus 4*21... a n be the roots of the equation . variable. must be a surface and not a solid.. parallel to OZ drawn through the points.. Hence the locus. locus is the assemblage of lines. drawn parallel f (x. p Let (a.
.. x2 +y + z2+2sy+2yz{2xzC>x\2yl8z+4 2==Q==x2y+z. . The locus of these lines is a surface called a ruled surface. (za n )=0 and. is. 4*41. (Note Page 50) The condition of line is intersection of the line .. /(#> y. ZX XY 4*3.. y. 9 (. c) = the point : and Find the equations to the parabola 3. and f(z)=Q.. Exercises 1.. points. y. [Ans. . = represented by = (ii) y2^ax. z)W(*. u r =a r x+b ry+c r z + d r straight line v r ~a' r x\b' Ty}c' r z\d' r The intersects the first two lines for all values of A x A2 . y.r. y. <l>(x. are Find out the loci (') a*/a*+ 2/ 2/&2 1. t2 Surfaces generated by straight lines. z) Two equations = 0.r. lie on their curve of intersection.z=c. 2 (Hi) x +y2^2.. .s) = 0. whose focus is (1. z) = y. represents the planes which are parallel to the YZ plane. can take up an infinite number of positions.. are Similarly the loci of the equations /(?/)= and systems of planes respectively parallel to the planes. are identical.z*^c*. Hence the locus of a point whose current coordinates connected by two equations is a curve. whose coordinates satisfy these equations simultaneously. 2 0./(a. 2) = together represent a curve.. therefore. U2=Q = v 2 . s) = 0.(ii) a relation between A l9 A 2 say /(X 1 . A straight line subjected to three conditions only. 3.A 2 ) = 0. are common to the two surfaces separately represented by The them and.). Another method will then. directrix the line jc=y = z. (i) with the third given . obtained by eliminating be indicated in the examples below. Show that the two curves /(. To determine the ruled surface generated by a straight line intersecting three given lines u l ~Q=v 1 where . . Ruled Surfaces. 2. 4*4. 2. f(x.y. Equations to a Curve. z)*9(r. The required ruled surface A 2 between (i) and (ii}. y. ^3 = 0=^3..SURFACES GENERATED BY STRAIGHT LINES 65 then this equation is equivalent to (x ct^x <x 2) . therefore.. A1 .
i.. which the required locus. f n line. consistent.  (3.(if) (ii) y Eliminating x. or c 1 )aA 2 (ii). will also intersect 26 "c V . Second Method. c b . the coordinates of the points of intersection satisfy the four equations (two for the straight line and two for the curve) so that the four equations are simultaneously valid. y..e. y) is any point on the It will intersect the three given lines. If a straight line intersects a given curve.. z from (i) and . we obtain n /\ which n is the required condition. if first two of the given 2aA 2  lines. Find the condition that the line _ I m 9 n should intersect the curve 2 xy=^c z=0. The condition for consistency is obtained by eliminating x. we obtain z c } c= or fc(zfc) yb a x^a ) c(x+a)(yb)+a(zc)(yb)+b(x+a)(z+c) = ayz + bzx f cxy f ctbc is or 0. Let the equations of the variable be __ line intersecting the given lines y * / m . if n . . z from the four equations. Condition for the intersection of a straight line and a curve. y. The line which intersects the the third. \ 1 1 7 1 so that (a. First Method. Eliminating A l5 A 2 from (f) and .66 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY 4'42. Find the locus of the line which intersects the three lines 2. Examples 1..
) be ' x<x. if /A+m(jL+?iv=0. between (m) and (iv). . a4a a 1m a == (u). Let the variable line be . 71... m. to the ZX plane and meets the curves 2/ =4c2..... show which are perpendicular to the line with direction cosines proportional to I. and which meet the given lines generate that the lines the surface abz(lx+my + nz)=c(a mx{b ly+abcn). . m.. m. (Hi).(ii) and if will intersect the given lines . verify that the locus contains the curves. .T.(m) . The required 4. a(7c).uv) (Note Page 49) Eliminating /... x .. (iv). Two skew lines are given by the equations ax}by=z+c=Q ax by = z c = . ft. v from (ii). abz(lx + my + nz) . #=0 .. we have [z. Let the variable line 2 z (M. This will be perpendicular to the line with direction cosines proportional to /. 7) is any point on the variable line. m. Find the locus of the line 2 xy=c z=0 which moves parallel 2 . b(7c) 9 . ..(it.) aa6 I. and Eliminating A. or 3.(Hi) ^(r + c)+6pt(y+c)v(aa + 6p)=0. 6f p . ayz + bzx + cxy + a&c = 0. n._y~$_zy ~ ~ "A v (JL W . aA(yc)6^(yc)~v(aa~6p)=0.. r . locus. 2 ? or Z(a&ay 6 cp) 2 7w(a6py a is ca) + ?ia&(y 2 c 2 ) =0...EXAMPLES 67 cy and . therefore. we have the required locus As is (a. (3. 2 c(a mx f b z ly + abcn) .
through a fixed point (a. Putting # and y*=4:CZ and xy z =c separately equal to zero in this equation verification. ?/0. x*y*=2az. Find the locus of the intersect the line lines which are parallel to the plane and which 3. n from (m) and (it. p. we obtain 2 (c . being variables. m. . Prove that all linos which intersect the lines y mx. y~ lie mx.68 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY #a = I 2/ P m o =z n 7 This will intersect the two given curves if r m0. we get 2 and hence the Find the equation of the surface traced out by lines which pass 5. m.r?/) = 4c 2 3 the required locus. z~ c and are parallel to the plane 8* lx/(z{c)+myl(zc)+n~Q. z=c. (n). m. Exercises 1. J) and intersect the curve Any line through (a. 7) is *a_2/P I m Z. x~y=Q=z and the curve [Ana. . 2 ?/ 2 and The if line (i) will be parallel to the ZJf plane f . TI n / between (i) and (u). 7i.z = c.). we get or aa27 is which the required equation to the surface. x^^^az.(iv) Eliminating so that is Z. p.#=0. It will intersect the given curve if Eliminating Z. zc and are perpendicular 2. Find the surface generated by straight lines which intersect the lines 2/=0. to the Xaxis on the surface mxzcy.
Take the OG and OH parallel to Yaxis and angles. OZ so that the direction which is parallel to OG are . intersecting the three lines 5. To find equations of two skew straight lines in a simplified form. 4*5. ynix. a*c*}>i (cymxz)* + b2c (rncxyz)*=a bm*(c2z*)2.Of TWO SKEW LINES IN A SIMPLIFIED FORM by straight lines Show that the equation to the surface generated 4. z = c . 20 AB Through 0. circle and the two 7. meet them at L and M lines AB and Z Fig. OY. 2/=0 . the. draw and CD. Obtain the locus of the straight straight linos . #~0 . # = 1. Hons. 2 2 2 [Ans. Find the equation to the surface generated.U. Equations of two skew lines in a simplified form. the midpoint of LM. angle 9 bisectors of the angles between These three lines OG and OH as the and are mutually at right X angles 0. A x 2 /a 2 +2/2/&2=l. 2=0 to straight line drawn through a variable point on the meet two fixed linos is ellipse ymx. = l. 2. z=c. CD Let the shortest distance between the two given and be of length 2c. line t which intersects the a. A variable line intersects the three lines z is Show y that the locus 6. the line OG makes %n with the axes OX. If the LM as Zaxis. 1948) 8. cosines of $n6 AB between the given lines be 20. x*+y*~r* z0 x=Qz\a ?/=0~z [Ans. a. line a*[jc*(z Prove that the locus of a circle which meets the lines and the is (D.
lines at Find the surface generated by a the same angle. (0. 1959) . B respectively. since are therefore the direction cosines of OH with the axes... line of constant length has its extremities on two fixed straight 3. A A Find the locus of a point which moves so that the perpendiculars 4. intersected by the shortest distance between them at A. as the required locus.. Finally. the coordinates of L. is r nip. CD cos 0. sin Q. ?/= #t an 0> 2= c respectively. tan . 0. (T c) lie <**> c) and (p. Solutions to certain problems relating to two nonintersecting the straight lines are often simplified by taking tho equations of the lines simplified form obtained above. we obtain /7?co.. and t . straight line which meets two given skew Choosing the axes as tho equations of the two lines can be taken as T ^L^JL= Z C m 1 W . BQ.. points on the two lines Note 2. (r. c) M are c) and (0. . drawn from it to two given skew lines are at right angles. line intersects each of two fixed perpendicular non intersecting lines 2. we have From (tu) and (iv). 0. Also. 0. Two skew lines AP. . Hons. on these linos for all values of The line joinng these points xr  y j ' rp m(r+p) As or it __ mr  z _ c ' .70 ANALYTICAL SOLID GfiOMEtRV cos 0. c) are the general coordinates of r and p being the parameters. inclined to one another at an angle of 60. respectively. find the locus of its middle point. T'r mr 9 x ?/ z4c . r tan 0. in 45. lines . p tan 0. sin 0.. c) and (/?.e. A ymr^Q. 2 and . so that the length intercepted is constant show that the locus of the middle point of the intercept is a circle. for LM=2c. Thus the equations x cos 7 AB CD 9 are c A" sin r y z r~7r . 2c "* (tii} ' V (t) makes the same angle with both tho r lines arid (n). irc + 0.~?/2. =x .U. (D. JTT makes angles 0. (r. (i) and so that the points r and p. m Exercises 1.. 0. and t x cos = y sin 00* =7r z+c i. are 5. Note 7. we have xr  ==  z~c  2 so that eliminating r.
Find the locus of the line PP'.EXERCISES .) z\c and to make a constant is y mx= (I_ m 4)i z c and is y{ mx= angle with zaxis. BQp. is constant. ytmxQz~+c y mx~ lines 02 is the surface mxy f10. are two perpendicular skew lines and the shortest distance 8. AB. . of a tetrahedron is fixed in magnitude as well as position. ?H 2 1 <1 is 1. Show that the locus of the centroid of the tetrahedron is a straight line. Q aro points 011 them such that APr. Lines aro drawn to intersect the linos 13. If the planes y . is (dbc sin '.) . common perpendicular of two skew lines PQA.BQ=2AB*. . P' are variable points on and CD such that OP 2 JOP' 2 is constant. Planes are drawn through them at right angles to each other. (M. P'Q'A' . 12. ( 1 f m 2 )cz = . 7. points on the first lino and P'. C' are two sets of points on two skew lines. One edge Tho length of 11. P. between them meets the same at L aud O is tho midpoint of P and . AB and CD AB CD AB M . volume A. 71 P.T. Two skew lines AP BQ are mot by the shortest distance between them at A B and P. Show that tho locus of their mid points an ellipse whose eccentricity or ]> or (w4_l)i / m2 according as 14. Q being any two Keeoiid. are two fixed skew lines. Find the locus of their line of intersection. 6. Q' any two points on the Prove that the common perpendicular of A A' and tho lino joining the the AA midpoints of PP'. shortest distance between that that its two opposite edges of a tetrahedron are a. Q are points on the lines such that A Q is at right angles to BP prove that AP. oc)/3. b the them is 2c and the angle between them is a prove . QQ' bisects AA' . B. and the opposite edge is of given length and lies along a fixed straight line. APQ and BPQ are perpendiculars show that. Prove AB BC^A'B' : :B'C' t f the middle points of AA'. (M. BB' CC are collinear.T. if C and A' B'. Prove that the locus of the point which is equidistant from the c. pr. LM 9. Showthat the locus degenerates into two planes if is perpendicular to CD.
OZ. y+g. P X Fig. We shall now obtain the formulae connecting the coordinates of a point relative to two different frames of reference. Draw PL meeting them at perpendicular to the parallel planes L and L' so that YOZ and Y'O'Z' LP=x Now. Similarly y=y'+g> Hence. z+h to the respectively. g. from 0' to YOZ equal to the length of the perpendicular plane and is.'. Let the coordi9 9 nates of 0' referred to the original axes be (/. Let the coordinates of any point referred to the original P be x. OY. 21. g. if in the equation to any surface. . LP=LL'+L'P x=x'+f.CHAPTER V TRANSFORMATION OF COORDINATES relatively to The coordinates of a point in space are always determined any assigned system of axes. To change the without changing the directions of axes. the new axes respectively parallel to the original axes. be the original axes and 0'X' 0'Y' O'Z'. LL' the is and L'P=x'. 5*1. generally called the frame of reference and they change with the change in the frame of reference. z and x' 9 y' 9 z' and the new axes respectively. therefore =/. y. h). Change of origin. h) as origin. we obtain the equation to the same surface referred point (f. origin of coordinates Let OX. we change to x+f. 5*11. Also .
1. 2. OZ. when referred to 2. ^ . 2 By a method similar to the one adopted. we can show that x' I1 x+m 1 y4n 1 z . new axes through the same origin with direction cosines n 2 ' . To change the directions Let /!. 0. [Ans.. 4) Find the equations of the plane 2x+3y{z 7 referred to the point as origin . Let x. (1.. the projection of OP being equal to the sum of the projections of VC.. Hence show that the curve ax* 4. 1). m> n ' 2z. we have. } . x^x' +I 2 y' +I 3 z' \i . 5' 12. tHfc DIRECTIONS OJF AXES 3. (2. 22. 19 < ra 3 ..(B) The results (A) and (B) can : easily be written down with the help of the following table 1. n z be the respective direction referred to cosines of the new axes OX' OY' OZ' . Zt . proportional to (1. 2. y. Now.fy/ 2 2 hyperbola if (a+b)n*+am*+bl =Q. Exercises Find the equation of the surface with reference to axes through the same origin and with direction cosines [Ans. directions of the axes remaining the same. n2 . _[_ P Draw it PN  in N' and \j ij " also N 'L' ::zz X'OY' plane meeting _[_ OX' meeting it y \ in L' so that == x \ Jj iV iV L := z . (1. OY. 2*2432/24622^1. z referred to the and x y' z' be the coordinates of any point two systems of axes.r 432/44244=0. . m x. L'N'. 2. Change of the directions of axes. "2 = ~~^_ ~~ " __ nm 1 //72_L V( is 2\ ) .(A) znX +n y' +n z:::f1 2 3 3 ( Fig. lximy~\nz=Q a rectangular . the original axes OX. 1). Show that the equation lx\my+nz = Q becomes 2=0. N'P on OX'. 1). Similarly and y=m x'+m y'f m z'.6* Ex. OL'. of axes without changing the origin. . > . m . n1 .
cosines. expressions of the otherwise. n n 12 . z x.") . three 11. raj. 3. degree in it the degree cannot increase. Relations lines. G.. B. cannot decrease on retransforming must increase. Also.. . m w a. 12) m 2 n 2 l s ra 3 n3 be the direction cosines of // I l9 m 1? n mutually perpendicular straight lines. we have wi. C. There . OF. Since. > (A) 1 .(B) . for x. Wj. \ 1 2.ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY 5*13. Now.. between the direction cosines of three mutually perpendicular /2 I l9 mi. X *. ^ (Cor. . ?3 . of the original axes fore. . Zi. m 2. OZ referred to the new.J Page 17) Thus They can also be expressed these six relations in between nine direction another form as shown below.J and / 8 Z1 =Q + ^3W*i+w % = 3 3 . D can be algebraically deduced . z. The degree of a surface is unaltered "by any transformation first of axes.. m 2. . For. exist .(C) and The relations A. 5'2. if D be the given determinant. from the In fact the relations B and vice versa. relations A. we have the relations \ m /1 /2 Z3 2 +m 2 1 f n1 z = l 2 a 3 fw 2 2 f w 2 2 ~l f w 3 + n 3 a . OZ. it we always put for. ' 3> ^3> . cosines. y. OY. n L 2> n z ^3? nh> n s being the direction cosines of three mutually perpendicular lines OX. I l9 Z2 . without any geometrical considerations Cor. then . . . m. y. at all. we have the relations n l9 n 2t n 3 are clearly the direction 3 OX. D are not independent..
. through (X. Then if A be any constant number. ax 2 + by 2 + cz 2 f 2fyz + 2gzx f 2hxy becomes a'X 2 +b'Y 2 +c'Z*+2f'YZ+2g'ZX+2h'XY. = 1 1 o. __.(2) If now. Z) be the coordinates of the same relative to the two systems 9 . Oy Oz OX.. y z). for (1) any value of A. then. o. 1. Invariants. Let P be any point so that if (x.(1) a'X 2 +b'Y 2 +c'Z 2 +2f'YZ+2g'ZX+2h'XY+'\(X*+Y 2 +Z*) . ^. f of axes. as given. //. 07. Y..INVARIANTS 78 1. we have see that Thus we becomes Also.. OZ the same origin 0. the expression becomes a product of two linear factors.2gzx + 2hxy &y + cz g 2 2 + 2fyz + 2g'zx+2h'xy f then (ii) ab + bc}caf 2 h 2 = a'b'\b'c q t c'a' g' 2 f' g'* h' 2 . o. the expression /^ . the expression ax 2 becomes a'x 2 f + by + cz 2 2 f 2fyz j. the expression 2 ax*+by*+cz becomes + 2fyz+ 2gzx+2hxy+X(x 2 +y 2 +z>) . <> for the same value of A. o. Hence 5*3. a h b a h' h f = h' V f 9 g f f' c' Consider two sets of rectangular axes Ox. by any change of rectangular axes without change of origin.
are invariants. then a+b + c. without . Note 2.g^K* D' D=D'. b. h. B. It may bc be seen that 2 + ca+ab f g*h*=A+JB+C. Note 1. C are the cofactors of a. y. y+q. if in relation to + x. The result obtained above shows that any second degree homogeneous expression ax 2 + by 2 + cz 2 f 2fyz 2gzx + 2hxy. [In fact. 2*8. Ex. y. the values of A for which the expression (1) are the products of linear factors are respectively the roots of the cubic equations Now. g. are also invariants for change of origin. to by changing x+p. z+r c. Show x. are themselves separately invariants for a change of origin change in the direction of axes]. c in where A. we see that ' J__ a+b+c = a'+b'~+c' so that bc+ca + abf 2 g*}>^ ^D^ 2 b'c' + c'a' 4 a'&'/" . by (2) and As the equations 1 (3) and (4) have the same roots.ANALYTICAL $OLit> This (2) must also become a product of two linear factors. /. 37. respectively that a + 6f A+B+C. as may easily be seen. the co efficients a. follows from the fact that the degree of an expression does not change as a result of the change of axes so that the linear factors of (1) will become the two linear factors of (2). 6. z be subjected to any change of rectangular axes without change of origin. P. z. bc+ca+abf*g 2 h 2 D . directly the determinant Z). D c.
^3. and adding. Ex. if are I l9 lf new w axes referred to the old . If three rectangular axes be rotated about the line given by x\l=y\m^=z]n into new positions and the direction cosines of the n x . 00 and h> >i> are three mutually perpendicular lines through the origin. . its normal section. h> m 2 n2 5 'a> m a> n z = If OA OBOC=a.EXAMPLES Ex. we get the required result. Z2 . am^ cm x ). 1 o "  q '  a Making substitutions. w 8 . 2. 3) arc direction cosines of three mutually perpendicular straight lines and . (*') The coordinates of A are (a^. /3 respectively. their direction cosines are n>i . 1. we get (From I relations D. 3. a Similarly  and = p . . OB. and. Page 74) or jP = h+k+h * ^ ?. Find the area and the lengths of the edges of . in (i). The plane (^) passes through ^4. 77 OA..(u) Similarly. we have (//! + w&WxfwijJfjp Q. then /(w 8 wa ) = Examples 1. / r 7>? r r? r (r=l. prove that the equation to the plane ABC is Let the required equation be lx{ my }nz\pQ. . (iv) by Z x .. 2. n 3 . / 2 7?? 2 n 2 . (m). Therefore. O.. (iz'i) Multiplying (n). Prove that a/^3r^/w/3+c/W3=0 and a : 6 : c~ Z Z 2 ^3 Ex. Show that the planes /orm a triangular prism. we have .
) Therefore. Hence the planes form a prism. XY plane T4 1 coordinates of the projecare Let Az be the area of A A'B'C'. B. Normal sections of the prism are congruent triangles.. 4) perpen 5=0. thus. is the line through the point perpendicular to the line of intersection of the given plane with any horizontal plane.. the lengths of the edges ' ' AB. Therefore. Coordinates of the three vertices of the triangular section are obtained by solving simultaneously each of three pairs of the given equations with the equation (iv). drawn through t the point (3. . l 145 145 Let $ be the angle between A the plane 3 77V (iv) and XOY plane. drawn through a given point on the plane. 5 Therefore. i^i/idl 9 V14 3 7' 3= T on the the equations of the line of the greatest slope plane 3# 4yf5z 4.78 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY Symmetrical form of the equations of the two planes is x l y !__ z 1 i lines of intersection of the first ~H9 ^ o" ' o and. consider the normal section through the origin. 4> 15. COS =  Also Az=A cos 0. BC. "~l"45 1^4)5 C(l4) 1~45 14. to find the line through ^4(3. Line of greatest slope on a given plane. dicular to the line of intersection of the planes z We 4. on the The tions A'B'C' of A. C. this line is parallel to the third plane but does not wholly lie in it. as may be easily shown. Thus the A( vertices are 145 T4")> 14> B( Y4. 5=0 .(iv) x 2?/+3z=0. 4) f/ive?i fto ^e plane horizontal. ' CA are V 1512 V 101 36 V 3920 14 14 14 Let A be the area of A ABC. A^' A ~cosT = 2. have. of the plane of this section is We Equation '.
c) (a sin Equations of PQ' are 0. 6 sin P\Q' 6. It 4. b cos 0. Therefore.z=c Find direction as CP and CQ. #3 ~~ 7 of greatest slope "" 1 is 5 3. we obtain ~2c as the required locus. r= Thus.EXAMPLES Equations of this line in the 79 symmetrical form are z ' x ~ + 1 1 y+2 ^ =~ 2 1 W P on the line are so that the general coordinates of any point r1. if 4)+2(2r+2) + l(r+4) 0.. Shoio that the equations of the planes through the lines which bisect the angles between the lines x ~~ I y z x m~~ n z y V ~~m'~~ri . 2r2. C'Q' are conjugate diameters of the ellipse drawn in the same +y 2 ltf=l. may be shown that the locus of P'Q is the same surface. Let P be (a cos 0.. ^4P. The The cos 0) sin 6) ^(sin 9 a(cos locus will be obtained on eliminating equations (i) can be written as 2c from the equations ({) x a + =27 COS +2c sm0 z c . z c . are (a respectively. b sin 0. r. <7P. x*la . c). b cos 0. Q. i.z c'. The line AP l(r will be perpendicular to (i). c) xa cos + # 2/~ & si n z c .e. (7Q. = C'P'. ' Squaring and adding. sin 0. the coordinates of P are Hence the line. c). 2 the locus of the lines PQ' or P'Q. are conjugate diameters of the ellipse 2 x*/a*+y lb*^l. (a cos 0..
(P. Find the volume of the tetrahedron formed by the planes Ix + my \nz.e.4. Q. ^. ROP perpendicular. OP. passes through a bisector OQ and is perpendicular that it is one of the required planes. They will be v there exists a line through the origin perpendicular to each of them.] . v we have the given condition. m'r. (lr. my+nz 0. 05. U. 2.. nz+lxQ. mr.80 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY to the and perpendicular ' plane containing them> are (ll')x+(mm')y+(nri)z=0. (ZY. viz. A' are (Zr. ZXfmnf nv=0. B. Thus the lines OP. 1945} Take points A and B on the Take another point A' the midpoint of AA'. Show that the x ~~ straight lines z y p x ~~ y ^j3 ~ z x ~~ / y z ~~ a will lie in Y oa cy m n ' one p lane. Being perpendicular to the line OP. (i. its equation is to the plane The plane AOB so POR QOR is the other required Similarly to the line OQ. nr). Let OA. i(ra'~m)r. on the line OA produced such that is mr. P$ are all coplanar. OB be the given lines such that lines. aaX+6pixf CYV=O. Eliminating X. nr) respectively. ' Let P. \(ri n)r\. OQ arc The Let lines 0.. The coordinates of A. Revision Exercises I 1. The the lines OP. origin.. OQ are the bisectors of the angles between and A'B respectively so that OA and OB.. lines l(6c)/a+wz(co)/p+n(a6)/Y=0. are mutually perpendicular so that are also mutually QOR. We have Q=[J(7'Z)r.p. fce+w2/=0. (D. OR be normal to this plane. n'r). OA=OB=r. be the direction cosines of this line. (J. the (P. 1948} [Ans. be the midpoints of AB OP. If X. OQ and OR planes POQ the plane AOB).C7. if [The three coplanar. its equation is plane. Being perpendicular (lr)x+(mm')y+(nn')z=0. Hona. have a point in common.U. we have if Xa+[Jip+VY==0.
(3. c. Two edges.) . 0). Also show that the coordinates of the vertices of the triangle are . 1) which is parallel to the line joining ( cular distance between the line 1. find equations of the line of greatest 1. 0. of a triangle whose angles are A. (/. and an angle of 45 with the line = y z. 1. 1938) and also intersect the #axis perpendicularly. [Ana. 2a?+3y42l = 0. in which they meet thezaxis. 4) are (*2)=(y+5) = i(z4). middle points of its sides are 011 the coordinate axes. 0. Show that the equation a. p. 5. Y) lit mi. Find the points [Ans. Show that all these planes make an angle of 60 with the plane ^ = 0. if __ y z ' x c y z ' a = b or . . (2. is placed so that the 9. jB. cot C cot A. 14. / 2 ?^2> n 2 and the points where the three lines cut x Q is A where is a3 sin 2 G/6]/2( the angle between the lines.. that the distance between the mid points of and BC is equal to the distance between the midpoints of AC and BD. c). the squares of whoso cosines are cot B cot C. a) and (c. Find the equation of the plane through (0. P. Show that the equations of the line of greatest slope 011 the plane #f2^/f32~4 through the point (2.U. 2).U. 0. s^ = c^+a^b 8v =a 2 f & c2. 0) 011 the plane slope through the point P(2. Find also the perpendi. . cot A cot B. 1)./) where / ^+V(2a O 2 2M. to be vertical. 2^j(2i v'2) 2/+(2=F V 2 ) 2==2 or A plane meets a set of three mutually perpendicular planes in the sides 8. Find the equations of the planes of this family which are 3 units distant ~4 from the point (2.V. CD of a tetrahedron A BCD are perpendicular show 6. [Ans. Show that the first plane makes with the other three planes angles. If two opposite edges of a tetrahedron are equal in length and are at 5. 10. (3. C. (74/17.. a ~~1*~~ Y x __ y ~aa~~ P6 z ~~"^ triangle whose vertices have coordinates (a. 1) and (2. AB. y) perpendicular to each of two given straight lines which pass through (a.fcJEVISiON 3. 2. and the plane. b and c. i(o:2) [The required line is the line through P drawn perpendicular to the line of intersection of the given plane and the horizontal plane z=0. 0). Y). B. P. 4). straight line is drawn through (a. EXERCISES SI Show that the linos x are coplaiiar 4. show that the other two pairs of opposite edges have the same property. m in 2~~~ m2 7t i) (B. (B. Y ). right angles to the lino joining their middle points.1915) [4.] 12.'  7 to its plane is whore z 2 2 8a 2 =6 2 fc2 2. (. 13. that there are two lines which intersect the lines  ( A V. 6x+lQy+ ll=0 9/VI37. 1. AD Planes are drawn so as to make ari angle of 60 with the line x=yz 7. 6) is an equilateral triangle. [Ans. The plane 3ccf 4^/f5z=0 is horizontal. Y).. Find the coordinates of the vertices of the two regular totrahodra described on the above equilateral triangle Show that the aSbaSe ' (C. P. 6. a/a~ P/&~Y/ C bc or = a. (a. HI . Taking axis OZ. Show (oc. 11. 1926) A triangle the lengths of whose sides a. 1. y) and whose direction cosines are Show that the volume of the tetrahedron formed by (a./. (6.
m rt nr . z).82 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY l . 00 have direction cosines 15. B. OC'. i(*7) = i (2/2) = i(z4) i(ar7) = i(2/2) = i(z4). The plane a. 1959) .d is the plane 24. 2). 0.T.x\Sy + z=\ in the line in the plane ax f. OY and OZ mooting Z?C 6 ^L and ^4# respecShow that these planes are coaxial. the planes AOA' and BOB'. Show [Ana.1927) whose coordinates are (x. [Ana. From a point P ). is /. The line i(a?+6)=i(yflO) = t(z+ 14) is the hypotenuse of an isosceles rightangled triangle whose opposite vertex is (7. be drawn cutting the axes OX. OB. y' z'}. OB'. 23. 2) to intersect the straight line and i(x3)i(2/~l) = i(2~2). = 3(2+3) in the plane 19.cz }. line of the planes and the line joining the points (3. < parallel to the plane 4:X+y+5z=Q. y.) (3. aj=sy/2=2/3 that tho reflection of the plane the plane 3xy 262 + 7 = 0. OZ at A. 1). OY. AOB COC' pass through the line x y __ _ r. (B.by f. z PC may A point P moves so that three mutually perpendicular lines PA PJ5. and is produced to P' such the PM=P'M. JB C respectively arid planes arc drawn through Ojt. show that 21. 9 < (P. 2(aa'+bb'+<x')(ax+by+cz+d)^(a*+b*+c 2 )(a'x + b'y+c'z+d'). . perpendicular to both the above lines. Prove that P lies on the surface 16. Prove that the reflection of the plane is Show 2. Find the equations of the straight line through the point (M. is equally inclined to the (C./a + z//6Hs/c=l meets the axes at A. a perpendicular PM drawn to the straight lino through the origin whose direction cosines aro m.+ + 2 x 5=0 xy represents a pair of planes whose line of intersection axes. 2. . that the image of the line x b:=26 is the line = cos" 1 (10/1/418. 17. 9 Y Y . a/14= 9(# 2) y/ll = z.) 22. OA'. axis meets tho pi MIQ to tho coordinate planes. n. If the coordinates of P' are (#'.U. 3) . CO A. 25. 1. tively at right angles. bisect the angles BOO.U. through the feet of the perpendiculars is If the common ABO drawn from P in P and perpendiculars are show that the equation of the plario 5_4be 2/ _+JL= ~^b 2a ^ c &*c 2 ___ ca + c2a2f a 2 &2 20. 4). Prove that a  2/ 2 A.U. Find the eqations of the remaining sides. of the line through the origin which is Find also the equations (4. 2. If OA. [Ans. Find the angle between the common 1. (r=l. C and the volume of the tetrahedron OABC is constant and equal to a 3 /6. 1 18.
dicular from on this piano. each of which intersect the straight line i(*3)(2/3) = 2 and is inclined at an angle of 00 to it. ?/f2=0. Show x+y+za 32. RP are two lines through 2 1. Find the equations of tho two straight linos through the origin.U. (M. 36. Find the equation of the plane and parallel to the perpendicular to the plane PQR [Ans.U. Find the equations of the straight line which is the projection on the plane 3^f2?/{2=0. through the origin which line QP. 4x2y{zO ( y ^). 1. zf # 0. (6.yf 2=0 and its locus is the surface Y=(). x\y=^ Find the direction cosines of the projection of the line x= y=\z t [Ans. Y. (L. 7) and perpendicular 26. A AB AB OX 27.) Show that the surface generated by a straight line which intersects 35 the lines 2/==0.=JY 1+ y) b J a c \ for varying. 0. 1. 1920) z and the line JL + J. P 1). plane XY at the point 22 2=0 . xa' =y I 't)v b' =2 n c' n meets the a\l first lino are % 2 cosec 2 0(w' cos u) 9 b\m cosoc O(M' cos 6 u) where 6 is the angle between the given straight lines 2 c\n cosec 0(?t' cos w).U. (6. 3). find tho coordmatos of the foot of the perpen ^^ 31. generates the surface f JL_= J(i a c X\ b abz(x*+y*) = (a b*)cxy. that the shortest distance between any two opposite edges of the is 2a/\/6 tetrahedron formed by the planes x+y~Q. 4.fiXERCtSES 83 is drawn through a point (4. X. (L. line Prove that the coordinates of the points where the shortest distance between the lines x I ~ a ='y b ~ z m . 1.U. 0). y~x tan a. Prove that the shortest distance between the axis of (B. 29. upon the plane 2x+y 32=4. 1 a point P with direction cosines propor is respectively. 1/^6. straight line and the axis are to the plane 2z}3?/ 4? 8. Find tho points in winch intersected by their common normal. (B. 1929) line c 34. Prove that it is parallel to the plane x\.and c . 2 x=(cYZ cot ac2^)/(Z 2 c ).U. 1. u l(a a')\m(b b'}{n(cc') y and 33. 2=0. 1912) . 28. t If P is tho point ( 1. A straight line intersects the three lines 2=0. 2= can be drawn which and that it meets the surface xy=c%. [Ans. Z) one the lines y=x tan a. 2/y'6. 2 c #=0. arid that the three lines of shortest distance meet at the point x = y=z = a. cc?/jc 2 =0 is the . 2 (B. 30. of the line of intersection of the planes and 1. 1937) 2 . 1926) [Ans.U. 2= c and the hyperbola 2=0. tional to QP. u'=r(aa') + m'(bb'} + n'(cc'}. intersects Prove that through the point (X. y = (cXZ tan ac 2 F)/(Z 2 c 2 ).
given by X. 2). B C respectively. 2) and (10. ZOX. Take the given plane as given line as origin. the centroid of the triangle whose vertices are the points in which the coordinate axes meet a plane a. is xy =3. (4.. (3. zx sin q\y sin 0.ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY 37. find the area of its section. 1955) . XOY in the A. _ 1. (2.T. (D. OA^GB^QC OK a. y) and the line. [Hint. a> 1. The perpendicular from O to this plane meets the coordinate planes in A. Three straight lines locus of 45. If (^ Points P and Q are taken on two given skew lines so that PQ is always parallel to a given plane. 9/v/2. Hons. If a. 0. P is The triangle (5. x~y y^z sin Q{x sin <[>. points A straight line meets the coordinate planes YOZ. h in the determinant h. y denote the angles BOO. 3). prove that the locus of . > rz+s =0. c) on the axis of z. whiloy the third passes through a fixed point (0. 1950) [Ans. /> mutually at right angles meet in a point P and two of them intersect the axes of x and y respectively. Prove that the plane through the point (a. 1. 8\/G/3. [Ans. 3). where K is 43. in a given ratio. 1. . 1944} vertices have the rectangular coordinates 2 2 2 4. and if the equation Q t show that lx~imytnz /* cot 2 <x of the = plane joining the line to is = w4 cot2 p =.__ Fx=Gy=Hz. U. Show that the equation of the 44. line.U. 46. AOB y respectively. O is _. (4. C. Show that the pianos sin dfz sin 9.T. (3. g. (D. show that their line of intersection where F 9 (7. whose z +2/ +z =2cz.) y. H are the minors of/. Hons. 5. (M. Show that the planes X Y plane normal (3. 2). 0.ft is a straight line. CO A. (j ff. n (M. intersect in the line z a L___ # __ cos cos 9 cos if ' + 9f $ = ln. 2) respectively is projected orthogonally on to the plane whose equation is Find the coordmates of the vertices and the area of the new triangle. and its intersection with the form a prism and 41. from a given R divides PQ 39. the foot of the perpendicular from the origin O to the piano Assuming that the equation ax* + 67/2 + cz2 + 2fy Z + 2gzx + 2hxy = is represents two planes. B. Find the locus of a point whose distance from a fixed point is in a constant ratio to its distance measured parallel to a given plane. Prove that l cot 2 42. 38.] 40. 1.
z) on the sphere from its centre (a.CHAPTER VI THE SPHERE 6* 11. therefore. yz. ax*ay*+az* + 2ux + 2vy + 2wz+d=Q. c). the sphere is imaginary when and in this case 6*13. Let (a. y. 3. Equating the radius r to the distance of any point (x. when written in the form. . note the following characteristics of the equation (A) It is of the of the second degree in x y z } . therefore. The coefficients of x2 ?/ 2 z2 are all equal The product terms xy.. b. Conversely. .(A) which sphere 1. 6.. Def. The equation (B) can be rewritten as . General equation of a sphere. 2. we call it a virtual sphere. zx are absent. we shall now show that the general equation . The radius and. c) be the centre and r the radius of a given sphere. z) and the fixed point w / u v ~\ ' ~~ ' "~~ \ is a a a ) a and is.writing shows that the distance between the (x. a^O having the above three characteristics represents a sphere. A sphere is the locus of a point which remains at a constant distance from a fixed point. Equation of a sphere. . we have or x* is + y* + z'* 2ax2by2cz + (a 2 +b 2 +c* r2 )=0 . constant. y.. . The locus of the equation (B) is thus a sphere. 6*12. The constant distance is called the radius and the fixed point the centre of the sphere. (B) w and this variable point manner of re. We : the required equation of the given sphere. The equation (B).
x K / f z f 3(.86 or is ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY x*+y +z*\2u'x+2v'y+2w'z+d'=Q taken as the general equation of a sphere. 3. . . y=a y~~a z=a. c). Then the equations of the x=a If (/. v. (Hi) (J. respectively. while the others intersect the ccaxis and z/axis. 1. d. =0.J) 0. (*4> 2/4. therefore. Vi. =0. we can find a sphere through four noncoplanar points (*i. (ii) (1. 2. a*) Let x* + y*+z*+2ux+2vy+2wz+d=0. the six 3. h) be . . 7) 2 2 2 as diameter. 4. 3) Obtain the equation of the sphere described on the join of A(2. The sphere through four given points. w. a sphere can be uniquely determined so as to satisfy four conditions. [4ws. 5. any point of the locus. a constant) or so that the locus is which is a sphere.4). *i)> (*2> y> )> (*3> 2/3> 23). xa faces of the cube are . . . we have k2 (*.. is tho A plane passes through a fixed point (a. Show sphere that tho locus of drawn Through a point P throe mutually perpendicular straight lines are one passes through a fixed point C on the zaxis. the foot of the perpendicular to it from the origin 4. 1. We have then the equation and three more three points. 5) 7. ? Take the centre of the cube as the origin and the planes through the centre parallel to its faces as coordinate planes. similar equations corresponding to the remaining Eliminating u. A point moves so that the sum of the squares of its distances from. 2 hy a 1 (Hi) 2#2f 2?/242c2 2^f42/+2+3 . 2. [Ana. a sphere contains four effective constants and. z=~a. Find the centres and radii of the spheres (i) : 2 > (ii) +3 2 tet8y lOzf 2 2 2 ic +?/ +2 42^4?/6^+5 a. . show that its locus is a sphere. from the equation (i) and from the four .(i) be the equation of the sphere through the four given points. =0. In particular. Let each edge of the cube to be equal to 2a. 3. (i) (3. g. General equation of 6'2. Ex. 6. show that the locus of Pis a sphere of which C is the centre. JB(5.r2/f z) 56 = 0. faces of a cnbe is constant . each of which is such that it gives rise to one relation between the constants. 6..
8. (a. (D.U. Note. 2w). (2. 1). 0). which is the equation of the sphere through the four given points. c) its and determine radius. Find the equation of the sphere through the four points (4. [Ans. its radius as small as possible. Hons. 1). A A B t plane passes through a fixed point (a. 3). \/ 26. 6.EXERCISES equations (ii) 87 just obtained. (0. w. bo (D. 0). Obtain the equation of the sphere which passes through the points (1. we have x. v.0). Show ( 1. passing through the two points (0.. (0. 0. x*+y*+z24x+6y 22+5=0. 5.1. 7. The equation of the plane ABC is x ~^M^2v^^^~ _L y z 4. y. \/2c t origin and cuts the planes rr0. b. (0.0). 1958. 1.0. 0). 2). that the equation of the sphere passing through the three points 5.(1) so that u. centre on the lino 5?/f 2~ = 0^2. w are different for different spheres.. C where it (0. c) and is cuts the axes in y C. we may first find the values of w. 1. 1). 1947) 3. (2 2 1. 1 o. 2v. Show that the locus of the centre of the sphere OABC Let the sphere OABC a/a+6/7/+c/z = 2. 0. 2. Hons. 0. B.r 4). 0. v. 1). from the four conditions (ii) and then substitute them in the equation (i). cuts the three axes are (2z/. y = 0. 0.U. 1). 6. b. (. [Ans. . c). 0. (1. (3. z. d Exercises 1. In numerical questions. (a. 3?/ and 2. (2. Obtain the equation of the sphere circumscribing the tetrahedron whose faces are 4. respectively show that its equation is 2 A m . (0. a. 2. 4) and having its centre on the plane its Obtain the sphere having 6.. and has 5.+y2+s 6a?4y+ lOcf 120. Find the equation of the sphere through the four points (0. sphere whose centre lies in the positive octant passes through the circles of xadii \/2. 2 = 0. 2). 60) = Q. c). The points A. i .
c) we have . z~~w. From (2) and (3). in a If 10. centre and radius of a great the same as those of the sphere. foot of the perpendicular. : PB= (P. line with be the centre of a sphere of radius unity and A. Show that the locus of the centroid of the tetrahedron OABC is the sphere 6*31. 1941} A sphere of constant radius 2k passes through the origin and meets 11.. any point on the plane N being the Let ON be perpendicular to the given plane . Find the locus of the foot of the perpendicular from O to the (P. The circle through three through the same three points. we have Hence NP =OP ON*. axes in A. 13. centre is known The Cor. C.U. Let section. equi . C.& 2** _2t> c ___i * __ 2M>~" If x. y~~v. y. 1940 BJJ. the locus of points Plane section of a sphere. tion shows that NP is constant for all 2 2 this rela of ig 23 t P positions is P is a circle whose centre N. Hence the locus of centre of the sphere to the plane. be the centre of the sphere and P. we obtain JL+i+^2 x y z as the required locus. . the foot of the perpendicular from the by a plane through circle are its on the section.e. x=~ u. Now. i. [Ans. 6. ( x *+y*+zl)*(x*+y* + z*) = r*. such that B be two points OA.88 Since it ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY passes through (a. ____. sphere given points lies entirely on any is Thus the condition of a sphere containing a given circle valent to that of its passing through any three of its points. As ON is perpendicular to the plane which contains the line NP. A plane section of a sphere. z be the centre of the sphere (1).OB=l and if P be any variable point on the sphere. show that PA constant. A sphere of constant radius r passes through the origin and cuts the 9. The as a great section of a sphere circle. 1955) plane ABC. the axes in A. and N being fixed points. is a circle. J5. common to a sphere and a plane.U.
A circle can also be represented by the equations of any two spheres through it. PB are proportional to zZi and x x y ~y z z 2 PA. z) on the sphere described on AB as Since the section of the sphere by the plane through the three as diameter. being of the first degree. Note. therefore. [See 6*33. y.EQUATIONS OF A CIRCLE 89 The curve of intersection of 6*32. Therefore a circle can be represented by two equations. Sphere with a given diameter. therefore. Ex. Show that the condition for the sphere to cut the sphere in a great circle is where r^ is the radius of the latter sphere. Any circle is the intersection of its plane with some sphere through it. PA^PB. Equations of a circle. 2 .circle and. 2. 6*4. represents a plane. they lie on a circle. one being of a sphere and the other of the plane. Therefore they will be perpendicular. two spheres is a circle. P lies on a points P. The student may note that the equations also represent a circle which is the intersection of the cylinder f x*+y* + 2gx+2fy+c^Q with the plane 2 = 0. x^ y y\. P be any point (x. if which is the required equation of the sphere. Thus the two equations taken together represent a circle. . AB The direction cosines of x respectively. Let diameter. The coordinates of points common to any two spheres satisfy both these equations and. A. Intersection of two spheres. To find the equation of the sphere described on the line joining the points as diameter. they also satisfy the equation which. Thus the points of intersection of the two spheres are the same as those of any one of them and this plane and. therefore. 6'31]. B is a great circle having semi.
0). 0. 0. \b. Its intersection l" /1.1sl r \ with the plane 1 ^ given by a2 o ~ 62 i o c / ~r ^ ^ 2 Thus the centre is 2* Show that the centre of all sections of the sphere x* + y*+z*=r* by planes through a point (x f . u= \a. w= is \c. x*+y*+z*+2ux+2vy+2wz+d=Q be the sphere through these four points. Obtain also the coordinates of the centre of this circle. Find the equations of the (a. a +f+O =1.90 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY Examples 1.1. circle circumscribing the triangle formed by the three points (0. c). If necessary. The equation of the plane passing through these three points is The required circle is the curve of intersection of any sphere through the three points. (0. we take as origin. we obtain the foot of the perpendicular from the centre (\a. for the sake of convenience. y''. this plane with is To find the equation of this sphere. \c) of the sphere to the plane T" + x _i_ T+T =L J_ 1 y Z The equations of the perpendicular x\a_y\b z\c "I/a are ' ljb~ so that W b y c . v=\b. a fourth point which. 0). Hence the equations of the t circle are a?+y +*axbycz=0. we have These give d=0. Thus the equation of the sphere #2 +?/2 f 2 2 ax by cz= 0.a is T' ' T+ > i / I r ' ' . 6. C To find the centre of this circle. z') lie on the sphere . "2 c I is any point on the [ line.
3. Sreekanth M . g> h) is The plane which cuts the sphere in a circle with f(xf)+g(yg)+k(*h)=o.sphere determines the required section. 5) along a great circle of tho sphere. 2). g. (4. 2. 6*41. 8). N. of tho sphere *r 2 2 f?/ 2 Jz. if f(x'f)+g{y'g)+M*'h)=o. Obtain tho equations of the circle lying on the sphere (The plane through ( (. is [An*. (7. Find also the angle through which the sphere must be so rotated. 3. 0). 4c. 4. 2'). 0) of tho . (4c.T+4*/ 6zh3 and having 4. the equation represents a general sphere through the circle with equations fl=0. 2). 46. 0.) to the line joining this point to the centre (0. 3.r 1 . 4a).E44#6z+3=0=a?+5?/ the origin and A. (4. and accordingly the locus of (/. : (5. (4.: 7z45. [Ans. V7. are the points . Mr. ( 6. 6). : 1 ) drawn perpendicular 2 + 2 2/ +z 2 4). 2) to the point (5. where QonateJ 9 t>y S=*+f+z*+2**+2vy+2 m td U=lx \my\nz p. 3. tho centre. [7=0. 2.Sc. 0. Find the equation of that section of tho sphere z^} is of which a given internal point (x^ y^. 46). Show that the sphere faces of the tetrahedron 2 = 29 such that a rotation about it will transfer the point (4.U. B. 0. .U. where . (P.SPHERES THROUGH A GIVEN CIRCLE 91 centre (/.U * ' Also. 6). its centre at (2. Spheres through a given circle. circle + 2?/H2c=15. ^2+ ?y 2^ 2_2. x* + y 2 + z*~2y4z=ll. 6. h) is the sphere Exercises 1. (46. 4).) 3. Jt will pass through (#'. (tt) (8. (L. 2. 4c). (7. 5. 9. %x = y = passs through the ninepoint circles of the Find the equation of the diameter 5.(Maths) O. 2). 6. 3. The equation circle obviously represents a general sphere passing through the equations with =0. 1939 Suppl. Show (t) that tho following points are concyclic (2. '=(). Find the centre and the radius of the a. (1.) [Ar>s. C. (5. 6). cos~ 1 16/29). y'. ?/j. OABC.
2. The sphere passes through the given circle for It will pass through all values of A. 3(:r + r+2 )2a.(if) 2 x*+y +z +x3y + z5 + p. U. 2. the same sphere. Hons. therefore. (1. (Z>. {x=l. We notice that tho equation of the plane of the circle through the two given spheres is S S'=2(u From this tt')x+2(v v ')y + 2(ww')z + d~d'^Q. The required equation of the sphere.92 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY Here A is an arbitrary constant which may be so chosen that these equations fulfil one more condition.. Note 1. lie on the same sphere and find its equation. 3) if 5 + 15A0 or A=J. Find the equation of the sphere through the circle and the point (1.S' = Q can also be taken of the form Sffc(SS')=0.3y4222 Show that the two circles 2. any sphere through the circle we see that the equation of S=Q. \L The first two of these equations clearly satisfy the remaining give A=3. This form sometimes proves comparatively moro convenient. these values two equations These four equations . Note 2. can be chosen so as to satisfy the four equations The equations (i) and (ii) will represent if A.(2xy+zl)=Q. being any arbitrary constant. is where k is different for the different spheres. It is important to remember that the general equation of a sphere through the circle fc. is 2 2 = 0.. 3). Examples 1. and also. 1947) The equation of any sphere through the and that of any sphere through the second 2 first circle is circle is .
its equation. .U. Find tho equation of the sphere having tho intersection of S with . the plane = [Ana.. a.= 4 in a circle of radius 3. Show its centre on the plane 4x5yz=3 and passing through the circle with equations 8 0. 1945) x 2 +?/ 2 fz22a. f2/ Obtain the equation of the sphere which passes through the circle 5.2^f 2s ) 2 2 2 4 0. 2 +# 2 +. fz :=62 = 6. 0).Ofr A SPHfeRE AND A LiNE lie S3 viz. the two circles on the same sphere.] 4. (3.2_j_ and the centre of the sphere [Ana. 2. its equation. (D.2i/226 = 0. Exercises 1. . [Ans.+2t^+2tt.: 2 4xhr>?/Gzh2= . z Q and is cut by the plane j.2 + d=0 2 . x Prove that tho circles lie on the sphere and find 6*5. Hons. x*+y'A + z*4x+Gy5. in A. [The centre of tho required sphere lies on tho piano x{y{z = 3. lie on the same sphere and find 7. A diameter. [Ana. that the equation of tho sphere having . Find the equation of tho sphere through the iC 2_j_ 2/ circle 2+. Show that the two circles 72 17^=0. x*+y*+z* i... [Ans. a 2__^2 . . [Ans.(1) and be the equations of a sphere and a line respectively. (x being consistent.e.. Let zH y +*H 2wa. .. Intersection of a sphere and a line.. as a groat circle. Obtain tho equation of the sphere having the circle as tho great circle. 1. 3. 2) at opposite ends of a sphere S has points (0. 2x+y 3z+ 1=0 ..
2 + ?/+s2f2j:. rar+p. Find the coordinates of the points where the line iGM3) = J(y+4) = i(28) intersects the sphere a. nr \. 2 2 ==(^i+^2) ~4a: 1 a.10^ = 23.AQ is constant. (3.(A) and this latter being a quadratic r. let the equation of the given sphere be that the Show sum of the squares of the intercepts The so that if #axis. ri> r z of Then are the two points of intersection. [Ans. the sphere in points given by xlt x2 be the two points of intersection are (*i. is which Thus Example made by a given sphere on any three mutually perpendicular straight lines through a fixed point is constant. With this choice of axes. may be imaginary or coincident. 2). chords be drawn in any direction to intersect a given sphere in P and Q. m. 2. so that l*\m \n*=l. m. 0). 6'51. A are the actual direction 2 6'5. equation in r.&4 ANALYTICAL SOLID GE6MEf&Y The point (/r+a. . (y=Q=z) meets its roots. 0.3) . if r satisfies the equation () 9 . n. (1. Power of a point. 2 =4(^ Similarly (intercept on yaxis) 2 =4(t> 2 2 2 (intercept on zaxis) =4(w d) y d). Thus every straight line meets a sphere in two points which real.. (a. then AP. If /. Also we have . (5. 0). if from a fixed point A.*. This constant is called the power of the point A with respect to the sphere. P 7) from the points of independent of the direction cosines. intersection . then ?i. line (2) will also lie on the given sphere (1). /. (intercept on #axis) 2 = (xi #2 ) 2 d). 1. cosines of the given line (2) in r l9 r 2 are the distances of the point and Q. (*. Ex. 0.y) which lies on the given for all values of r. gives two values say. Take the fixed point O as the origin and any three mutually perpendicular lines through it as the coordinate axes...
the second requires . p. the sphere will be invariants. through Since. P. Equation of tangent plane. locus of the midpoints of a system of parallel chords a plane through its centre perpendicular to the given chords. however. we have a 2 + P 2 +y 2 + 2tta + 2^f2^ line The points of intersection of any through (a. p. tangent plane at any point lies (a. (3. result.t.r. Exercises 1. Find the locus of a point whose powers with respect to two given in. the expressions =u 2 +v + w d and for the square of the radius p^d. spheres are 2.tANGfcNT PLAN& The sum of the squares of the intercepts where the radius of the given sphere and p is the power of the given point with respect to the sphere. mr+p. v. y) on the sphere. To find the equation of the y) of the sphere As (a. r and p are both constants. with In order that the second point of intersection may also coincide value of r must also vanish and this (a. (3. r is Hence the Note. y) with the given sphere are (Zr+a. the sphere r 2 fixed 2 and the point 2 also fixed. w. Since the sphere and the point are both given. y). a constant ratio. one root of this quadratic equation so that one of the points of intersection coincides with (. r). nr+y) where the values of r are the roots of the equation By is zero virtue of the condition (i). Show that the is of a sphere 6'6. w and sphere lines will be different for different sets is d in the equation of the of mutually perpendicular is as axes. coefficients The u. for the power of the point.
v. n between (Hi) and the equations (ii) of the line and or this gives < =a +P +y 2 + 2wa+2i. The is perpendicular of the line joining the centre line joining the centre of a sphere to any point on it to the tangent plane thereat. v.3 + 2^y+^=0. touches Examples 1. y). y. Find the two tangent planes 2. n which satisfy the condition (Hi). p. thus. z in the equation of the tangent plane at (a. Show that the plane lx\my}nz=p will touch the sphere if 2 z 2 2 2 (ul+vm+wn+p) =(l {'m +n )(u 2 +v +w 2 d). Cor. y). then the length of the perpendicular from its centre to the plane or the line is equal to its radius. 2 2 from (i) which is a plane known as the tangent plane at (a. y). p. Equating the radius \/(u \v \~w*d) of the sphere to the length of the perpendicular from the centre ( u. 2. Any lino in the tagent piano through its point of contact the section of the sphere by any plane through that line. (a.So ANALYTICAL SOLID Thus the line x_ / a _. 1. m. m. for the direction cosines ( w. Hence is the equation of the tangent plane to the given sphere at Cor. obtained by eliminating I. If a plane or a line touch a sphere. The locus of the tangent lines at (a. y) on the sphere are proportional which are to also the coefficients of x. w) to the point (a. p. p. y) is. y) and so is a tangent line to it thereat for any set of values of /.y~_P_2^X_ ~~ m ~~ n meets the sphere in two coincident points at (a. p. to the sphere which are parallel to the plane . w) to the plane 2 2 we get the required condition. p. Note.
of the form 2 x+3yi2z3+k(x+5y6)=0. (1. at (1. and 2x+ 2yzS=Q. and radius is Since or it touches 2=0. . fX). 2 A. 3) of the sphere is equal to the radius 3 and this requires Thus A=10or Hence 3. 8. we have by Cor. The two corresponding 5(a. 1. This gives A=l 2 or J. if its distance from the centre 1. 1. the required tangent planes are 2x+2yz Find 1) 10=0.H2/ 5. This will be a tangent plane. planes to the Find the equations of the two tangent sphere x*+y*+z*=9. 2 r~*is z=Q. are + z2 )2tf4y. the equation of the sphere which touches the sphere the origin. x 2^=3. spheres. therefore. which passes through the line 6. 2.97 The is general equation of a plane parallel to the given plane (2. +y +z*)3x + y + 2 Find the equations of the sphere through the circle z2 +2/ 2 +z 2 = and touching the plane z0. therefore. The sphere passes through the given circle for all values of A. and passes through The tangent plane to the given sphere at 1) is The equation of the required sphere This will pass through the origin fc is.5z+l=0. Its centre is (A. x*ty* + z if Thus the required equation 2(x 4.
(1. 4z+9?/+ 142640.>. 2).0. 2*+2y22=0. 0) is 0. the tangent planes at which are parallel to the plane [Ana. 2. (3. 6. 4. J. [Ans. [Ana. Obtain the equations of the tangent planes to the sphere a. 2. 2).] Find the coordinates of the points on the sphere 5. 3). 2 2 2 fy f2 F6tf 22+1=0 which pass through the line 3(16z)=32=2?/+30. [Ana. 4). 2). at the point 2. planes. 5. 8. are The two corresponding Exercises 1. Find the equation of the tangent piano to the sphere (1.98 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY Any plane line will through the given if touch the given sphere or 2A 2 A1=. 6=0. (4. (0. [Ans. Show 2) at (1. [The point of contact of a tangent plane is the point where the line through the centre perpendicular to the plane meets the sphere. . 2. [Ans.4. Show that the plane 2x* 2?/+2+12=0 touches the sphere and find the point of contact. Find the value of a for which the plane touches the sphere z 2 +2/ 2 +z 2 2:c22/2. This gives A = l. Find the equations of the tangent line to the circle at the point 3. o. therefore.+22/ circle Obtain the equations of the sphere which pass through the and touch the plane 2x+4t/==14. [Ans. and passes through the point ( 7. that the equation of the sphere which touches the sphere 1. 0.
Show that the locus of the point of intersection of planes drawn parallel to the coordinate planes through A. 5. Find the centres of the two spheres which touch the plane at the point (8. 20/5. or . y = 0. P.] . 0) and touch the plane 2x + 2yz=ll. 7). 14.27/21. Let f (x . 4). 15. faces are a7242/24_.U. 13. (2.4). 2/ z=0. = 0. p.2. (ii) 9(*2+ 2 +z 2 )f 6(*2/f z)f 2=0. of the tangent planes Plane of Contact. 9 Find the equation of a sphere of radius r which touches the three coordinate axes. (t) z = 0. [Ans. 1944) [The distances of the centre from the coordinate planes are all equal to the radius so that we may suppose that X is the radius and (X.0). How many spheres can be so drawn.j2_6z+22/4z+5==0 16(a?*f ya+*) 102a?f 50y49* + 86=.OP CONTACf 9. 0. Find the equation of the sphere inscribed in the tetrahedron whose . [Ans. B. z') be any point on the sphere x*+y*+z* The tangent plane at this point will pass through if (a. Find the equation of the sphere which has which touches the line its 99 centre at the origin and [Ans. (i) 16. 12. 10. two spheres can be drawn through a given point to touch the coordinate pianos and find for what positions of the point the spheres are (a) real.9/6). 1934) 3.U. (6) coincident.0. ^X. Obtain the equations of spheres that pass through the points (4.ydb)r+r 1 = 0. C is the surface 32(x*+y*+z*)S(x+y+z) + l = 0. 2a? 6*61. y '. (P.(1. 1. [Ana. (P. lies in eight. (4. To find the locus of the points of contact which pass through a given point (a. coordinate axes at A> B. (12/5. 11. X) is the centre X being the parameter. 2(sHyH2 2 )42^2( : fca. in general. 20. 4) and which touch the sphere [Ana. Prove that the equation of the sphere which and touches the coordinate planes is of the form the octant OXYZ Show that. touch externally and find the point of the contact. y). Show that the spheres Z24:X4:Qy 182+225=0 [Ana. 2 2 Tangent plane at any point of the sphere # +y 2 + z* =r moots the 2/ (w) s = 0. C. (64/21.4).
. that the planes of contact of all points on the line */2 = (/a)/3 = (s+3a)/4 2 with respect to the sphere a. in the Q divide AR. y). we have Thus from which is (2). then Ex. z) through A. R divide this line internally and externally in the same ratio. Q AR internally and externally same ratio. 1. Since P. y' } z ) should lie on the x(*iu) It is f y(P + v)+z(y+w) f (ua+t# + u>y+d)=0. Q and point R is taken on this line such that the points A. Its roots Aj and A 2 are the divide ratios in which the points P. R divide PQ internally in the same ratio. of R. 2.. we have a2 =0. .100 ANALYTICAL is SOLlfc GfcOMfefRY r which plane the condition that the point (#'.. Thus the locus of points of contact is the circle in which the plane cuts the sphere. and externally AR be easily seen that if the points A.r. p. called the plane of contact for the point (a.(1) A be the point (Xj (a.e. then the points P. Ex. Show OP. 7). meeting a given sphere in P. Hence (3) is the locus of R.OQ~(radius)2. to the sphere. Thus we have seen here that the equation of the polar plane of . A The polar plane of It A w. then the locus of R is a plane called polar 6 62. y. may Consider the sphere x*+y*+z*=a\ and let . 2 2 f2/ + 22 c* pass through the line fixed point // a variable line is drawn through a plane. p. Show that the line joining any point P to the centre of a given sphere is perpendicular to the plane of contact of P and if OP meets it in Q.. Q also divide internally and externally in the same ratio.(3) z) the relation satisfied by the coordinates (x.. A 1 are The be the coordinates of the point coordinates of the point dividing R AR on any line in the ratio /Az+yN V~A+T This point will be on the sphere (1) for values of A which are roots of the quadratic equation . Clearly it is a plane. Let : y.
then TC. p. p. 2. Some results concerning poles and polars. ( On comparing 6'6) If TU be the polar plane of a point P. or a=a 2 //#). 101 7) with respect to the sphere It may similarly be respect to the sphere s shown that the polar plane of (a. we see that tangent plane the polar plane of a point lying on the sphere is the tangent plane at the point and that of a point. . y) be the required pole.POLES AND POLARS the point s (a. of a sphere to any point P meets OP. 7). m n ' p y=a?7i/p. is If (a. Thus is the required pole. 0._^!. P. 1. p. The of a sphere to any point P is perpendicular The direction ratios of the line joining the centre O (0. p. Pole of a plane. 0) to the point P(a.OQ = a\ where a is the We have. then identical with we see that the equation (i) so that. discussion. 7) with the equation of the polar plane with that of the and the plane of contact ( 6*61). the polar // the line joining the centre plane of P in Q. 7 and these are also the direction ratios of the normal to the polar plane a# + pi/f72=a 2 of P(a. lying outside it. 7) are a. then radius of the sphere. 6'64. is its plane of contact.. lx+my\nz=p with respect sphere 2 (i) 42/ 2 +z2 =a2 . P is called the pole of the plane 6*63. p. on comparing (i) and I (ii) y we obtain ~~~ ja ~~ p __ __ _Z. P=a 2 m/p. In the following we always take the equation of a sphere in the form line joining the centre to the polar plane of P. to the To find the pole of the plane .
passes through another point Q. r. whatever value. 2 lies on KI.102 y ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY Also. by symmetry. 4. is given by Hence the 3.mr+p.TP=?i I m is or which clearly passes through the line 2 <x. . 5. y2 ) is which is also_. nr ?L7J?=y. point. the condition that the polar plane of Q passes through P. (fr+oc. // the pole of a plane T: L lies on another plane 7T 2 . Conjugate points. The condition that the pole a\ ' a?mi ' a2 %\ of th'^ plane ^ Pi Pi Pi ) lies on the plane is which of 7r is also. the condition that the pole (a\/p 2 a*m2 /p 2 . Conjugate planes. Z. 0. Two planes the other are called conjugate planes. plane of a point then the polar plane of Q passes through P. 0) to the polar plane QLX+ (tyfyz^a of P. then the pole of 7T2 also lies on T^. a*n2 /p 2 ) . all the points on a pass through another line The polar plane of any on the line. or directly. The condition that the polar plane If the polar P of P(a 1} PJ. Hence the result. . such that the pole of either line I lies on The polar planes of I'. 7j) passes through #(a 2 p a . result. clearly. Two points such that the polar plane of either passes through the other are called conjugate points.x+$y+yz a =0. may have. OQ which is the length of the perpendicular from the centre 2 0(0.
P P it point of passes through every point of I i. on I and as. In this case To find Condition for the orthogonality of two spheres. P' be any two common points and (7. then I' is PA^OP QB~'OQ' sphere. QB be drawn perpandicular to the polars of Q and P respec3. there exist an unlimited number of tetrahedra such that each vertex is the pole of the opposite face with respect to the sphere. C the centres of the spheres. The spheres of two spheres 6*71. Thus we see that if V is the line such that the polar planes. Two lines such that the polar plane of every point on either passes through the other are called Polar Lines. The angle of intersection of two spheres at a common point is the angle between the tangent planes to them at that point and is. Polar Lines. If PA. Show that. for a given Angle of Intersection of two spheres. The angle of intersection at every common point of the spheres is the same. then the polar planes of all the points on V pass through /. Exercises 1. V passes through the point of therefore.CONDITION FOR ORTHOGONALITY OF TWO SPHERES 103 Let this line be V.. then. for if P. r and accordingly /_CPC'=/_CP'C'. We shall now prove that the polar plane of every point on /' passes through I. 2. the polar plane of every is arbitrary. . Now. Show that polar lino of ( with rospoct to the sphere is the line 7xf3_2 11 ly __ 5 z HT Show that if a lino I is coplanar with the polar line of a line I'. Def. of all the points on a line l y pass through it. as the polar plane of any arbitrary point P on I passes through every point of I'.e. the common point the radii being perpendicular to the respective tangent planes at the point. centre 0. (Such a tetrahedron is known as a self conjugate or selfpolar tetrahedron ) 4. coplanar with the polar line of I. therefore^ also equal to the angle between the radii of the spheres to 6*7. tively. the triangles GC'P and CC'P' are congruent . is are said to be orthogonal if the angle of intersection a right angle. the condition for the two spheres to be orthogonal. with rospoct to a sphere. it passes through /.
.) 5zf 12 I 4.1. a.7. 2 +2/ 2az+r =0..]0y Show that every sphere through the circle 2 2 = 0. Find the equation of the sphere that passes through the #2+ 2/ 2_j_ 2_2. are conjugate with respect to a sphere S show that points P.() we have . f>(o: +i/ 2 + . 4) and cuts orthogonally the two spheres [Ans. 2/=0. z = 0.104 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY The spheres will be orthogonal if the sguare of the distance between their centres is equal to the sum of the squares of their radii and this requires or Exercises 1.rf^kf+a*. 2. If two spheres Si and 2 are orthogonal.U. on Si with respect to S% passes through the other end of the diameter of Si 2 2 5. Since the spheres cut orthogonally.r . .0). z 2 +2 =r . (L. through P. the polar plane of any point 6. 1) and cuts orthogonally the sphere z 2 +2/ 2 +z 2 4.}. 3. Find the equation of the sphere which touches the plane (1. Prove that the Let the common circle be a let The general equation of the sphere through 2 2 2 x*+y +z +2kza =Q.2 2 )13. x*+y*+z*+2k 2z a =0.r+6?/ + 4 = 0. Example spheres of radii r and radius of the common circle is Two r2 cut orthogonally. 3^ 4y + 5z 15 = .3. the two given spheres through the circle be this circle being 2 x*+y*+z*+2kiza*=0. cuts orthogonally every sphere through the circle Ans.. (2. at the point 2. We have r^kS+at.+19?/ Find the equation of the sphere that passes through the two points (0. 6z+ll = 2 [Ans.rf 3z/4zf 60. #2+2/21321. Two . Q the sphere on PQ as diameter cuts S orthogonally.S circle and cuts the sphere a2+2/2 + 2__2a+4# orthogonally.
The four radical lines of four spheres 6'82. Thus the radical plane of the two spheres ^=0.RADICAL PLANE 105 From or (i) and (n). ( common 6'32). their radical planes Sifl^O. it represents a plane which is obviously perpendicular to the line joining the centres of the two spheres and is called the radical plane of the two spheres. taken two by two intersect in a line. locus of points whose a plane perpendicular to The powers of the point P(x.=0. y. Radical Centre. This line is called the radical line of the three spheres. we obtain which is the required locus. we have Hence the result. and being of the first degree in (x. Equating these. z) with respect to the spheres are and respectively. unity. powers with respect to two spheres are equal the line joining their centres. $1 fli = 0. z). clearly meet in the line = $2 = $ 3. The three radical planes of three spheres 6*81. If fli = 0. the plane of their In case the two spheres intersect. is S. in both of which the coefficients of the second degree terms are equal to S 1 AS 2 = 0. the is Radical plane. S 2 =0. circle is their radical plane. 5 8 = fl8 bo the three spheres. taken three by three intersect at a point. y. To show that 6*8. eliminating ij. &2 . S 2 S 3 = 0. Radical line. The point common to the three planes .
# 2 ^0. every members Coaxal System. A system of spheres such that any two thereof have the same radical plane is called a coaxal system of spheres. This point 6*83. 6'41. can similarly be proved that the system of spheres being a sphere and is is coaxal . Def. of the four spheres S1==0. taken three by three. // $i = 0. $=0 S+XE70 7=0 a plane . It 1.106 is ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY clearly common to the radical lines.(S1 S8 )=0. Theorem. then the equation A being the parameter. line. Cor. The common radical plane is is ^#2=0 This coaxal system also given by the equation 51 +t. S2 =0. The locus of the centres of spheres of a coaxal system is a For. we write them in the form &i ~TW l+\ + \&2 __ n 2 ^i +A $ 2 2 __ '~i+V two spheres is The radical plane of these s^\s or I+VL_ O ~U 1+A 2 ' S. if (x. =0. S 3 =0. two spheres. the common radical plane 7=0. Since . be called the radical centre of the four spheres. Thus the system of spheres is coaxal and we say that it is determined by the two spheres fl a #!=<). this equation is independent of A! and A 2 we see that two members of the system have the same radical plane. that any two Let ^1 +A 1 S 2 =0 and fli+Ma=0> be any two members of the system. Refer Note Note. is 4 =0. P. 92. Making the coefficients of second degree terms unity. represents a system of spheres such members of the si/stem have the same radical plane.Sa = 0. z) be the centre of the sphere . y.
The equation x* +y*+z* + 2kx + d==0 .e. different. i.oj. Def. Limiting points of a coaxal system of spheres are the point spheres of the system. The YZ plane is the common radical plane and Xaxis is the line of centres.. if is ) 2x(u l u 2 + (dj (say). YZ plane. when the spheres do not meet the radical plane in a real circle. we get spheres of the system with radius zero and thus the system includes the two point spheres (v'rf. also otherwise clear as the line joining the centres is perpendicular to their common radical plane. form of the equation of the two spheres. Thus* by taking the line joining the centres as Xaxis and the radical plane as the YZ plane. we take the ) we have d 1 = d2 ^=d radical plane as the x=Q. the equations of any two spheres can be put in the simplified form where u lt u 2 are Cor.e. (V<*. o.o. x z +y*+ The equation can be written as For k= V^. Find the limiting points of the coaxal system defined by the spheres . d2 ) = 0. their equations take the form simplified A Their radical plane Further. Limiting points. the line joining the centres of two given spheres as By taking Xaxis. we find that it lies on the line This result is of any two spheres 6*9. Examples 1. Cor. These two points are called the limiting points and are real only when d is positive.. i. d represents a coaxal system of spheres for different values of k being constant. 2.o).LIMITING POINTS 107 we have W A^ y __^  On eliminating A. 1.
. The limiting points. pass through the centre u 1 ) + (cd) Qy (fff ) .2. With proper choice of axes. c are different for different spheres. spheres is The centre of (1) is [~_ 3+A o > A3 9 "1 ~~ ' I * * and radius is Equating i.(v) (it) the condition sphere (tit) to cut the sphere along a great circle. to cut the sphere (i) along a great Similarly is 2w a (t*tt a )f(c(Z)=0.. j a* . 0.1) and (2.(i) . v. this radius to zero. are (1. Then the equation of the coaxal system determined by given 3z + 3t/+6z = 0.e. for the .. therefore. (c The plane of the circle of (i). A=l.) pass through two fixed points.e. w.(ft) The equation of any other sphere x* is . (iv) which is thus the condition for the sphere circle.. being dependent on u i9 u^ d only. 1944 Suppl. I).108 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY The equation of the plane of the spheres is circle through the two given i.. we get so that u. . if 2x(uu )2vy2wz common to (i) and (?it) will (j.1.. 0) 2u^u d) = 0.. c are constants. The spheres corresponding to these values of A become point spheres coinciding with their centres and are the limiting points of the given system of spheres. the equations of the given spheres take the form 2. Show that spheres + y *+z*+2u x+d=0.U. 2 x*+y*+z + 2u 2 x + d=Q.. we obtain 6A 6 = 0. x+y + 2z=0. Solving (iv) and (v) for u and c. all which cut two given spheres along great circles (P... + y*+z*+2ux+2vy+2wz + c=Q l (iff) where u..
Hence deduce that every sphere that passes through the limiting points of a coaxal system cuts every sphere of that system orthogonally. (0. 4). at the points fourth sphere passes c) and n*+fi*+r 3 *=a*+b*+c*. 3. Exercises 1. [An*. 0). w. C are its projections on of any given sphere pass through a . Show Find the limiting points of the coaxal system of spheres a 2__ 2/ 2__ 2 2_20x+30(/40s429fX(2^ 3i/f4z)= 0. in general. (a. r3 . have their centres A. C A (D. 6. 3.EXERCISES 169 The sphere (Hi) cuts JCaxis at points whose #. two spheres of a coaxal system which touch a given plane. C. 5. that the sphere which cuts two spheres orthogonally will cut every of the coaxal system determined by them orthogonally.coordinates are the roots of the equation The roots of this equation are constant.U. 4). 0. P is the axes. member 4. 6. 0). 9. B. whatever bo the values of v. v t w being 3. 0. (2. that there are. Show that the sphere OABC passes through a fixed circle. a variable point on a given line and A. Show that the locus of the point spheres of the system 2. is the common circle of the system u.) that the locus of a point drawn to the three spheres Show from which equal tangents may bo is */2 = (yl)/5=*/3. Show that the radical centre of the four spheres A. the straight line Show * which touch the plane [Ans. 8. Find the equations to the two spheres of the coaxal system 7. depending as they do upon the constants u and c only. Three spheres of radii t B through the origin and lies on the plane ax+by\. ri.cz=0. r. Show that the radical planes of the sphere of a coaxal system and line. (0. the parameters and d a constant. (2. Thus every sphere (MI) meets the Jfaxis at the same two points and hence the result. Show that the sphere passes through the limiting points of the coaxal system and cuts every member of the system orthogonally. B.
= 2/P = *7 m n in the point Id I (ii] I This line meets the plane 2 = n which will lie n on the given conic. 7) intersect the conic + Zhxy+by^ + ZgxiZfy+c^.. The degrae of the equation of a cone depends upon the nature of the gliding curve. Equation of a cone with a conic as guiding curve. Cones with second degree Note. 7*12. To find the equation of the cone whose vertex is at the point (.. if n ) + 2/(V^)+c = This is 0. and whose generators axt P. . 7*1. as is seen above. n between (ii) and (Hi).. . the equation of the cone shall be of the sejond degree. In case the guiding curve is a conic.e.  7) are . a straight line which more condition : for a given surface. A cone is a surface generated by through a fixed point and satisfies one passes instance. i. *.CHAPTER t VII THE CONE AND CYLINDER Def. p. to z=0. . (ii) to intersect the conic Eliminating m. it may intersect a given curve or touch The fixed point is called the vertex and guiding curve of the cone. . the given curve the Any individual straight line on the surface of a cone is called its generator. cones with second degree equations. we get or a(aizxy is which the required equation of the cone. the condition for the line I.. (t) The equations any line through (a.(m) (i). In this book we shall be concerned only with quadric cones.
Examine the in general. ^' . 1958} is (1.T. 0) and whose guiding curve 2 2/=0.rv\ 2 /z t 2 The section of a cone # 2 / 2 ft/2/& 2 =:l. 111 shall we almost be Exercises 1. In what follows.(m) (i). p. and find its equation. ^ ' m n The points of given by intersection of the line (ii) with the sphere (i) are (See 65) and the line will touch the cident. Enveloping cone of a sphere. To find the equation of the whose vertex is at the point (a. (0. (3. 7. +w +w )(a 2 (ii) 2 2 +r ~a 2 2 . (0.. if the two values of r are coin2 ). Show that tho normal to the piano at the origin describes.U. 2 is the origin and 6. [ 4. 3) and guiding curve is [Ans.. Show is whose base is that the equation of the cone whoso vertex the circle through the three points (a. 1956) 7" 13. exclusively concerned with quadnc cones only. 2 2 *H2/ +z =a*. 7) are . Find the equation of the cone whose vertex the circle (B. 2. whose generating lines pass through the conic 3i/2f 2 2_2:r 2/ f8i/. 4p to touch the sphere = 2 (i. cone.. p. y) and whose generators touch the sphere The equations to _. 1. (a.4 is = 0. and this requires (Zoc+m[3+n7) 2 sphere.(<) (3. Find the equation of the cone whose vertex is the point (1. Y) Find the equation of the cone whose^enerators pass through the point and have their direction cosines satisfying the relation [Ana. 0...ENVELOPING CONE OF A SPHERE equations are called Quadric cones. 0). case in which aa'+^'+cc'^O. a(:ris 2. x of the cone whose vertex Obtain the equation 3. Za(& +c%s = 0.0). any I line through (a. c) 6. the locus of P is z=0 by whose vertex is P and guiding curve the ellipse the plane x =0 is a rectangular hyperbola. and the point (a. The plane lx+my + nz = Q moves in such a way that its intersection with the planes are perpendicular. Show that 5. (M. . This is the condition for the line . 0. * + 2 2_ 4> 2 [Ans. y) 0. a cono of the second degree..
Show that the plane 2 = 11 which has its [Ans. 1. y. a 2 )(oc + its vertex.(1) of the second degree and show that if it represents a cono with its vertex at the origin. cuts the enveloping oono of the sphere vertex at (2. and conversely. . t on the line Since OP on is a generator of the cone (rx..e. (u) and (u'i). The cone formed by the tangent lines to a drawn from a given point is called the enveloping cone of the Exercises surface with given point as 1.112 Eliminating I. (ii) .. then u=v = wd 0. surface.writ ten as S l )*=(S2 ^ (^ + 2/+2 Def. l We take up the general equation ax *+by* + cz~ + 2fyz + 2gzx + 2hxy+2ux + 2vy+2wz+d=Q .. rz') r... n. Let P(x' equation joining (1). (i) . between. ry'. z') r be any point on the cone represented by the Now. P rx' ry'. To prove that the a cone ivith its vertex at the origin is homogeneous in x. ux'+vy' + wz' = Q.. Enveloping cone. y'. we get which is If we the required equation of the cone. rz are the general coordinates of a point to the origin 0. 2 2 1 i. z equation of 7'14. write the equation or (iv) can be (5P re. d=0.. the point should lie it for every value of Hence f r\ax t2 +by'* + cz'*+2fy'z' + 2gz'x' + 2hx y')+2r(ux' + vy'+wz^ identity.(Hi) From (m). must be an This gives ax' 2 +by'* tcz'*+2fy'z'+2gz'x' + 2hx'y' = 0. 1) in a rectangular hyperbola. z =Q Quadric cones with vertex at origin. ANALYTICAL SOLiD GEOMEfRY w.. 1). (1). . .. 4. Find the enveloping cono of the sphere vertex at (1. with its 2.
then every point on OP and. is necessarily v w = 0. n is a generator of the cone whose equation is (1). The condition for this has already been obtained in Chapter II. Thus the surface by definition.air of planes. . every homogeneous equation represents a cone with its vertex at the origin. 9 .EXAMPLE 113 From ordinates first see that if u.(1) therefore. 2 2 al + bm +cn*\2fmn+2gnl+2hlm^Q. If I. w. 2. y) is as can easily be verified by transferring the origin to the point (. m. therefore. Cor. from the nature of the equation that if the coordinates for all values of r. then so do also rx Hence if any point P lies on the surface.. of the Conversely.. P. y . z'. y'. m. vertex at the second degree see that the equation of a cone with its homogeneous. Note. 7). if the homogeneous expression can be factori/ed into linear factors. z''. ry' rz it. hence. be not all zero. the entire line OP lies on it. satisfy . P.. It is x. (ii). and Cor. it is (. clear f f y''. it is is generated by lines through the origin a cone with its vertex at 0. v. Hence u Thus we origin. n be the direction ratios of any generator of the 2 cone ax*+by*+cz +2fyz + 2gzx+2hxy=Q.. then any point (lr mr. We rewrite Ix {my \~nz=p as lx+my+nz ==l P is Thus the required equation or . then the coof any point on \hecone satisfy an equation of the degree so that the surface is a plane and we have a contradiction. 1. nr) on the generator lies on it and. we x''. The general equation of the cone with its vertex at Conversely.(2) obvious that if the result (2) be true then the line with direction ratios I. A homogeneous equation of the second degree will represent a . Example and the equation of the auadric cone whose vertex is at which passes through the curve given by the equations Find the origin The required equation is the homogeneous equation of the second degree satisfied by points satisfying the two given equations.
114 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY Exercises 1. (7. . is given by CE= Now C *J?= so that we see that the cone P EE u c v f. v=l. a cone can be determined so as to have any given five concurrent lines as generators provided no three of them * are coplanar. y. cp ) respectively.c = C meets S + again in points lying on the plane . general equation of a quadric cone with a given vertex contains five arbitrary constants. it follows that five conditions determine such a cone provided each condition gives rise to a single relation between the constants. 0.(i) = = 1. of three mutually perpendicular concurrent lines as generators. the plane passes through a fixed line. its direction cosines This gives a = 0. where q>=^ 2 +?y2f2:2 w an(j ^ aro homogeneous linear functions of x. (i) = (ii) (m) [Ans. the equations . (i) (Hi) 3. This shows that the plane l) passes through the line of intersection of tho fixed pianos Determination of Cones under given conditions. we see that u is constant while c varies.. Show that this cone meets S again in points lying on a plane and find the equation of [3 in terms of it. Find the equation of the cone whoso generators join the origin O to the points of intersection of S and a. v and c. satisfy (i). a.. remain fixed. origin is . Show that the general equation to a cone which passes through the three axes is The general equation of a cone with its vertex at the a&*+ by*+cz*+2fyz+2gzx+2hxy=Q. Since . Find the equations to the cones with vortex at the origin and which pass through the curves given by the equations 2. Siiifo the radius of 8 varies and its centre remains fixed. and the point O (M.) [The required cone. Also v is constant.. As the 7'15. prove that while its centro. (3 + z<+c=^0 If the radius of S (3 varies. A sphere and a plane a have. Similarly b c 0. Find the equation of the cone with vertex at the origin and direction cosines of its generators satisfying the relation [Ana.Jfaxis is a generator. For instance. Show that a cone can be found so as to contain any two given seta 2.T. Examples 1. z and c is a constant.
COORDINATES OF THE VERTEX
115
Take the three
Let the
lines
lines of
OP, OQ,
OR
'
one set as coordinate axes. of the second set be
x
li
=
m
^_== z
l
x
12
~y
m
z
z
x
'
__
y
z
nt
n2
/3
m
3
n3
'
respectively.
The general equation of a cone through the three axes
It will contain the lines
is
OP
and
OQ
as generators, if
!
= 0,
Q.
...(*)
...(ii)
The
lines of the set
being mutually perpendicular,
we have
.
Adding
condition
(?'),
h m l + Z 2 W 2 + h m3 0 J (n) and employing the relation
~
(A)
(A),
we deduce the
/m 3 7i 3 f 07i 3
so that the cone through
?
3
+ w = 0,
7iZ 3
3
OP
and
OQ
cono
passes through
OR
also.
Exercises
1.
Find the equation to
TV
the
z
which passes through the three
y
z
coorclmate axes as
ell
as the lines
y __=^_=_,
x
_ = _^__.
x
t
[Ans. 3yz+lGzx + 15xy=Q. Find the equation of the cone which contains the three coordinate axos and the lines through the origin with direction cosines (l^ w if nj).and
2.
Find the equation of the quadric cone which passes through the three 3. coordinate axes and the three mutually perpendicular lines
[Ans.
Condition that the general equation of the second degree should represent a cone. Coordinates of the vertex. We have seen that the equation of a cone with its vertex at the
7'2.
Thus any given is necessarily homogeneous and conversely. equation of the second degree will represent a cone if, and only if, there is a point such that on transferring the origin to the same the
origin
equation becomes homogeneous.
Let
...(1)
its vertex at (x represent a cone having Shift the origin to the vertex (x, y',
',
y', z').
z')
so that
z to
we change
x to x+x', y to y+y' and
z+z'.
116
ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY
The transformed equation is ax*+by*+cz*+2fyz+2gzx+2hxy\.(2) +f(x' y',z) = Q. a cone with its vertex at the origin (2) represents and must, therefore, be homogeneous. This gives
9
The equation
ax'
+ hy'\gz' \u~Q,
0,
...
...
..
(i)
hx'+by'+fz'+v^O,
(ii)
(Hi)
f
f
,
Also,
f(x',
y
z')=x\az
'
f
+fy' + cz' 4 w) + (ux + vy' f wz + d) Thus with the help of (i), (ii) and (Hi), we see that (iv) is
z (yx
.
equivalent to
ux'
+ vy'+ivz' + d=0.
(i),
gr,
..
(v)
Eliminating
x' 3
y
',
z'
between
a,
(ii),
(Hi),
and
(v),
we obtain
A,
7i,
6,
/,
v
=o,
,
d
equation
(1)
as
the required condition for the degree to represent a cone.
general
of the
second
f
coordinates (x 3 y , z') of the vertex are obtained by solving simultaneously the three linear equations (i), (ii) and (Hi).
Assuming
that the condition is satisfied, ihe
Cor.
If
F
(x, y,
z)=ax*+by*+cz* + 2fyz+2gzx
its
I 21
represents a cone, the coordinates of
vertex satisfy the equations
^=0,^=0,^=0,^=0,
where
'f
is
used
to
make F(x,
y, z)
homogeneous and
is
put equal
to
unity after differentiation.
Making F(x,
F(x, y,
z, t)
y, z)
homogeneous, we write
= ax*+by*4 cz*+2fyz + 2gzx+2hxy + 2uxt+2vyt+2wzt+dt*.
Then
F x =2(ax}hyigz+ut), Fv =2(hx+by+fz+vt),
Putting f = l, we see from y lt Zj) satisfies the equations
(i),
(ii),
(in),
(v)
that the vertex
(X L
,
^=0,
1^ = 0,
F
~Q,
^=0.
EXAMPLES
117
Note. The student should note that the coefficients of second degree terms in tho transformed equation (2) are the same as those in the original equation (1). Note. Tho equation #*(><% y, ~) represents a cone if, and only if, the four linear equations F x 0, f =.Q, F Z Q, JP ^ are consistent. In the case of
1
7
consistency the vortex
is
given by any three of these.
Example
Prove
that the equation
represents a cone whose vertex is
(
./,
2,
3).
Making the equation homogeneous,
F(x, y,
2
we obtain
x, y, z
2 ^ t)=x y +2z* + 2xy3yz+l2xtllyt+
Equating to zero the partial derivatives with respect to
and
t,
we obtain the
four linear equations
0, 0,
0,
...
(i)
...
(ii)
...(Hi)
...
I2x
ll?/
+ 6z + SZ = 0.
linear
(iv)
Replacing
tions
(i), (ii),
t
by unity and solving the resulting three
z,
equa
(Hi) for x, y,
we obtain
1,
x=
The values satisfy Thus the equation
is
y=
2,
2=
3.
(iv) also.
a cone with vertex
Exercises
(
1,
2,
3).
1.
Prove that tho equation
2, 3).
represents a cone \\ith vortex (1, Prove that the equation 2.
represents a cone whoso vertex
is
(
7/6, 1/3, 5/6).
Example
Find
the the equations to the lines
in which
plane
2x\yz0
cuts the cone
9
Let
I
m
4Z
2
n
lines in
be the equations of any one of the two meets the given cone so that we have
which the given piano
2Z+w
^=0,
fi
118
ANALYTICAL SOLID
These two equations have now to be solved we have
8Z
2
for
I,
m,
n.
Eliminat
ing n,
i.e.,
+6/m+m2 =0.
JL or _JL
m
Also
:VME^L_ 16
^
I
42
1
we have
m
.
m
we nave
r
when
so that
,
m
=
1
w
4
T,
m
2
*
=^> 2

1
4
= 7T
and when
so that
=
~, we have
I
=
_
n _ m ___.
]
Thus the two required
x
lines are
z
Hi
y 4
~
x
_
y
2"
z
If'
1
0~*
Exercises
Find the equations of the 1. and cones
:
lines of intersection of the
following pianos
<*')
(')
(m) a?+7y550,
2 that the equation of the quadric cone which contains the three 2. coordinate axes and the lines in which the plane
c"\ JH=jy=JLlm; 1 2 3
'
=j(J ~3~ 1
x
=
2
'
Show
cuts the cone
7x2+52/2322^0.
3.
yz+lQzx 1 Find the angle between the lines of intersection of x*5y*+z*=Q. ic32/+z=0 and (t)
(tt)
(Hi)
(iv)
10^+72/62=Oand 52=0 and
20^2 + 7^/2
_ 10822=0.
xy
Syz+3zx
62/+3i/z
5xy=Q.
(v)
[^ln*.
2^=0. ^i/z+^t/ 3^2 = 0. ic+y+^^O and 1 1 cosi(5/6), () cos (16/21), (m) cos (2ij2/3),
f2/+z = 0and
(iv) 7t/3,
(?;)
ic/O.
MUTUALLY PERPENDICULAR GENERATIONS o* A GONE
4.
119
Prove that the plane
cuts the cone
2/2f zx{xy0,
in
perpendicular linos
if
(D.U. Hons. 1955)
[Refer, also Ex.
1,
after tho next section 7'3J
7*3.
Mutually perpendicular generators of a cone.
the condition that the cone
To find
should have three mutually perpendicular generators.
Let x A
__
y
[L
z
V
f\
be any generator of the cone so that
Equation of the plane through the origin perpendicular to the
line (U) is
A#
ft
f jiyv3
= 0.
...(iv)
be the direction cosines of any one of the generators If/, m, in which the plane cuts the given cone, we have
and
Eliminating n between
(v)
and
(vi),
we obtain
(iv)
which, being a quadratic in I given cone in two generators.
:
ra,
we
n2
)
see that the plane
cuts
the
Hence if (Il9 m 1? %,), two generators, we have
(1 2 ,
w
2,
be the direction cosines of these
or
From symmetry, each
of these
nn
is
further
nn
=*, (say)
with the help of
If these
(Hi).
rt.
two generators be at
angles,
we have
its vertex.__r _L. 6c+ca + a6 = 0. we cular generators origin.. v. we see from (mi) that these two generators are at right angles. OR. . Also conversely.. 2 ?/ coefficients of a. Show that the two straight lines represented by the equations ax{. and z2 the normal to the plane through the vertex which cr/a=2//6 is tho = z/c is a generator of the cone. is any arbitrary generator anc! the condition obtained is independent of A. OR perpendicular generators. This requires 2. to Note.. 14a:y=0. any generator OP of the cone cuts the generators OQ.] Prove that the plane lx{.2 .e. OQ. In fact if this condition satisfied. the coefficients of the second degree Exercises 1. on shifting the origin to terms remain unaffected.by f cz ~ and yz+zx + try = 0. we see that if / . l/o+l/6 + l/c=0. then the plane through the vertex perpendicular to any generator of the cone cuts it in two other perpendicular generators. U. z x x y y ___?___ . then for.my \nz0 cuts the cone (bc)x*+(c (bc)l*+(c in perpendicular lines if If 3. z r A [Ant . Tf the general equation then the plane 'pcrpendicular same is in two perpendicular a set of three mutually represents a cone having sets of throe mutually perpendicular generators. pt. viz.. if (P. 1939) in the equation of the given see that the given plane will cut the given cone in perpendi !/+ l/6+l/c=0. if a+&+c=0. Thus if the cone has an infinite number of is sets of three mutually perpendicular r generators. Those two generators will themselves be perpendicular to the first generator so that the three generators will be perpendicular in pairs. x$y=z represents one of a set of three mutually perpendicular generators of the cone \\yz+zx find the equations of the other two. \vili bo perpendicular if [The sum of the cone being zero.120 ANALYTICAL soub GEOMETRY and hence a+b+c0. so that OP. i. Since c/A=y/fA= r 2/v.
Throe points P. JL = 5 y z 4= (D. represent one of a set of three mutually perpendicular generators of the cone Szx 3a7/=0. I960) x z = y = .(ft) The point (Zr + a. equation or z r*(al +bm* + en 2 + 2/ p. I? to tho origin arc mutually perpendicular.. Q.U. OF A LINE Wlttt A COtffi l2l If x y z s p== find the equations of the other two. Hons. distance d. that tho piano (P. Intersection of a line with a cone. Prove touches a fixed sphere. Cor.. 5. The equation (A) gives the distances of the points of intersection from the point (a. n are direction cosines. y). . H arc taken on tho ellipsoid so that tho lines joining P. we that there are two points of every line meets a quadric cone in two points. Find the locus of a point from which three mutually perpendicular lines can be drawn to intersect the central conic is 2 Show that the cone whose vertex 7. Show that [An*. t Exercises Show that the locus of midpoints of chords of the cone ax* drawn parallel to the line . Note. see . Hence P and Q 1.. three mutually perpendicular tangent lines can be diawn to tho sphere from any point on the sphere ' 8. A plane section of a quadric cone is a conic.. nr+7) which lies on the line (i) for all values of r will lie on the cone (ii) for values of r given by the 2 2 f(x.^y$^zy I m n ~' (l) with the cone z)~ax +bif + cz +2fyz42(jzx + 2hxy=Q. 7) = 0. Q. the points of intersection of the line To find xu. > j :LT the origin and which passes through 2 3c/ 2 and any plane at a the curve of intersection of the Miifaio * //2J2. y. p. 57/z i4 ns lAns. 1949} PQK 7*4. if l in. from the origin has three mutually perpendicular generators. as every line in the plane meets the curve of intersection in two points. mr+p.U.INTfiRSECflOtt 4.. r.(A) which being a quadratic in intersection. 6.
J sum 2.. Clearly the tangent plane at any point passes through the vertex. y).ANALYTICAL SOLtD x\ly\m=^z\n is the plane z(al+hm+gn)+y(hl+bm+fn [Hint. 7*41. satisfying the relation (Hi) is a tangent line at (a. p. p. y) be the middle point of any such chord a?a == y fi = z_3Y J w n the two roots of the equation (A) are equal and opposite and as such their is zero.. m. n. . Cor. see that the tangent plane. 7) if the second root of the same equation is also zero. the tangent lines through (a. p. 7*4 and so one of the two points of intersection coincides with The second point of intersection will also coincide with (a P y) (a. y). Thus we on a cone touches we say that the Examples 1. between (i) and (Hi). The tangent plane at any point (&oc.(m) corresponding to the set of values of l s m. If (a. The tangent plane at any point y) of the given cone is .. at any point at all points of the generator through that point and plane touches the cone along the generator. p. viz. is cut x(al+hm+gn) + y(hl + bm+fn)}z(gl+fin+cn)==(). ky) on the generator through the point (a. by the plane (a.> Let be any so that line *=yV=*7 m n through a point (a. ftp.. line all The Eliminating I. y) of the cone ax 2 + by 2 t cz 2 + 2fyz + 2gzx + 2hxy = . Find the locus of the chords of a cone which are bisected at a fixed point. p... (n) is Thus one of the values of r given by the equation (A) of Art. The tangent I lines and tangent plane at a point. n. p. y) to the cone (ii).(. Show that xll=ylm=z/n is the line of intersection of the tangent planes to the cone ax*+by*+cz along the lines in which it 2 +2fyz + 2gzx+2hxy=0. we obtain the locus of or x(a*+h?> i g*y)+y(hx+b$ f/y) 4 is a plane known as the tangent plane. y) is the same as the tangent plane which at it (a. This zero > requires Z(aa + 7ip+^y)+w(7ta + 6P+/y)+w(flra+/P + c7) = (?) . p.. p.
. x(al + Am + gw) ~\y(hl\. we get _ The generators being at right angle. (m) aX Eliminating If Xj. Let X.. Thus the point = 0. be the direction cosines of the two genera we have or Hence. va v 2 + ^ a +cv a =0... we obtain as the required locus.. . (^ y) lies on the plane 2... Vl v 2 ?) fc we have or Eliminating ? : m : n from (f) and (v). we have .12$ hx+b^+f7)+z(g^f^+c7)^Q.) from (Hi) and (Jti. to the Hence the result... l(a*+h$+&) + m(h*+bp+fr)+n{ff*+ft + cy)=0. aZA f om y< + cnv = Oj (iv). a(aZ+Aw+0rw) +p(W+6m+/w) +7(^+/m+cn)=0. by symmetry.e. tors. if i. It will contain the line x]l=zy]m=zln.(w) be the direction ratios of any one of the two generators so that we have v...bm \fn) \z(gl \frn + en) locus of the line of intersection of tangent planes (a.) Therefore. . v2 . . the equation of the plane containing the two generators is alxbmy\cnz=Q. (jt 2.(it. pi. $Aow JAa/ the cone axz + by* + cz 2 = is the which touch along perpendicular generators cone Let the tangent planes along two perpendicular generators of the cone meet in the line IL^lL^L. I m n . A2 .
we obtain h.. the cofactors of respectively in the determinant .(2) thereat should be the same as the plane (1).. gives 2 Al 2 + Bm + Cn + 2Fmn + 2Gnl + 2Hlm = 0. (i) . The determinant (A).. p. 7) lies on the plane (i). the tangent plane . F.. H=fgch. B. To find 2 the locus of lines through the . k between . (ii) m) (it. b. c... A. F=ghaf. To find the condition that the plane " lx+myinz=Q.. since (a.e.). should touch the cone . ..124 7'42.. I 7. . (say). G=hfbg. n m. A=bcJ 2 B=cag* C=abh* .(3) . h A.(2) be any tangent plane to the cone (1) so that we have Al 2 +Bm 2 +Cn 2 +2Fmn+2Gnl+2Hlm=0. . p. G... g. 7'53. we have .... where A.. ANALYtlCAL SOLID GEOMETRY Condition for tangency. Eliminating a.. .. g. a.(1) If (a. 2 on expansion.. /. Hence . .. P. aa~ Ap^r/y_Aa + &P+/y_<7a+/p + c% + I ~m ~~n * . Let ..(1) vertex of the cone ax perpendicular to its cz + 2fyz tangent planes. (H) I t (Hi). i. 9 . as usual.. ax*+by*+cz* + 2fyz } 2gzx+2hxy=Q. C. II arc. (it.(A) as the required condition. m =o. 7) be the point of contact.) Also. Reciprocal cones. (1).
C. (4). where it IIF~BG^gD 9 FGCH=hD is . if bc+ca+abf +g +h 2 2 2  Examples Show that the general equation of a cone which touches the three coordinate planes is is The reciprocal of a cone touching the three coordinate planes a cone with three coordinate axes as three of its generators. called reciprocal cones. B. II. to If we now find the locus of lines through the origin perpendicular the tangent planes to the cone (5X we have to substitute for A 3 B. has three mutually perpendicular generators and this will be so if A+B+C=0.(5) again a quadric cone with its vertex at the origin. i. G F C G. II in its equation the corresponding cofactors in the determinant A.2Hxy = as the required locus which get . The condition for the cone to possess three mutually perpendicular tangent planes is The cone (i) will tangent planes. we have. m. on this account. Now. therefore. *" (4\ v ' Eliminating Z. . . such that each is the locus of the normals drawn through the origin to the tangent planes to the other and they are.. Cor.e. F.. follows that the required locus for the cone (5) 2 cz* ax* by 2fyz . by actual multiplication. if its clearly possess reciprocal cone three mutually perpendicular Ax 2 + By 2 + Cz*+2Fyz + 2Gzx+2PIx?/^0. H. The two cones (1) and (5) are. F. Since..2gzx 21i xy + + + + = 0. GHAF=fD. 1. G.RECIPROCAL CONES 125 The (2) is line through the vertex perpendicular to the tangent plane X I V = _J_~^Z m n (3). which is the same as (1). n between is we Ax*+By* + Cz*+2Fyz+2Gzxi.
Combining these two facts. Also... ( or or or \/f* Vgy)*=hz. we see that the given question is equivalent to determining the locus of normals through the origin to the planes which cut the reciprocal cone along perpendicular generators.. 1. is the cone a(b+c)x Generators of the reciprocal cone corresponding to the perpendicular tangent planes of the original cone are themselves perpendicular. ^af &e Zoc2is o/ the line of intersection of perpendicular tangent planes to the cone 2. the line of intersection of the perpendicular tangent planes is perpendicular to the corresponding generators of the reciprocal cone. The condition . Exercises 1.. Equation of the reciprocal cone x* y* is T+T+T" or bcx 2 z2 ^ ' + cay* + abz* .(it. Find the plane which touches the cone 1..) ^ Eliminating Z.0. The equations of the normal to the plane (ii) are 2 . (t) Let the plane lx\my\nz=Q cut the cone (i) along perpendicular generators. . V/db Vgy= $Aow.. is 2 . n from (Hi) and (iv). 1. along the generator whose direction ratios are [An*. ?n.(ii) for a(b+c)l +b(c + a)m*+c(a+b)n =Q.126 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY is the general equation of a cone through the three axes Its reciprocal cone is or or or fx+gyhz=2 Vfgxy~ 9 fx+gy2Vfgxy==hz. as may be easily obtained. we obtain a(b + c) as the required locus.(Hi) x 7==: I y m =: z  / x n .. this..
U.T y 5z 2 0.INTERSECTION OF 2. then the corresponding equations obtained by putting the linear factors equal to zero represent a pair of the planes through common generators. that a quadric cone can be found to touch any two sets of three mutually perpendicular planes which moot in a point. 1957} that a quadric cone can be found to touch any five planes which meet at a point provided no three of them intersect in a line. In case two cones with generators. [Ans. 04a. Show a 7*5. flf'0. Find the equation of the quadric cono which touches the three co8. (x)+(6y) + (te)=0. / :0. 7/4. fl(' = If k be so chosen that S+kS'~Q becomes the product of two linear factors. Prove that tangent planes to the cone x2. Show [Ans. If same vertex have common flf=0. Therefore two cones with a Sections plane are two co planar common the vertex intersect. Intersection of two cones with a common of two cones. in general. 4. then is clearly the general equation of a cone whose vertex is at the origin and which passes through the four common generators of the cones fl=0. ordinate planes and the three mutually perpendicular pianos 7. Find the equation of the cone which touches the three coordinate planes and the planes are reciprocal. by any conies which. 2. . The four lines joining the common vertex to the four points of intersection of these two coplanar conies are the four common generators of the two cones. TWO CONES 127 Prove that perpendiculars drawn from the origin to the tangent planes to the cone lie on the cone 3. Prove that the cones and (D. intersect in four points. having a common vertex.2 = 0. Rons. in general. 2 49</2425^ 30^80^+48a.:+42 1 are perpendicular to the generators of the cone 7z 2 4 82/ 4* Prove that the cones are reciprocal. they coincide.r437/4z=0. 6.? vertex. in five four common generators. 5.2/ 2 + 2z2_3 2/ . be the equations of two cones with origin as the common vertex.
Exercises 1. A right circular cone is a surface generated by a line Def. cc = 0. h + kh'. ?y~ and with any vertex. generators. 3. . 1. The fixed point is called the vertex. Show that if their four common generators meet the plane in four concyclic points. the fixed line the axis fixed angle the semivertical angle of the cone. the vertex linos on the surface z= .ej/ 2ys+5z. . The three values of k give the three common generators. Find the conditions that the lines of section of 2 ?/ and the cones fyz+gzx \hxy~ 0. 27o.128 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY Such values of k are the roots of the fccubic equation a+ka f . 4. b+kb' 9 f}kf cfic' pairs of planes through the g+W. _ [6n2+ Jmn ^iTlS* cw 2_c2+orna__gm2 gnl hi 7*6. that the equation of the cone through the intersection of the 2 cones x*2iP + 3z*4vz+5zxQxtj^Q and 2^23// 2 + 4.25^ and the line with direction cosines proportional tD J. cones are described with guiding curves a'2=a 2 y 6 2 . in the same pair contains tho Also show that the plane 7^+2^ + 5^ 3x2yz=Q cuts the cones remaining two common 5. 1 is Show that tho plane 3*+2y4z=0 passes through a pair of 3. The right circular Cone. 2. Two 6. 2 =0 should the plane lx \rny \nzQ be coincident. Find the equation of the cone which passes through the common generators of the cones 2*2+47/2+22=0 and and the 2. generators of the cones 32: 2 0 and 2yz + zx 4xy = Q. and makes a constant angle with a fixed line through the fixed point. Show that the piano z 2 3yz 2zx+2xy=Q and 2lx ~4y*5z = Q of perpendicular lines. h+kh'. 2.i2_4. 7*61.3 = 0. The its name right circular cone is contained in to section of a right circular cone by any plane perpendicular axis is a circle. which passes through a fixed point.c = 0. 10^2^+5^=0 1. four /+*/'. / 2_ 2 + iO. ax 2 + 6 + cc. line with direction cosines proportional to Show [Ana.y 2 Also show that the plane containing the other two generators is common 0*+10H. and the The justification for the the result obtained below.8. 2 +20.
. The semivertical angle of a right circular cone having sets of three mutually perpendicular generators is tan~V 2 > for. meet it at N. and (j its s amivertical angle 0. n = l becomes .e. cos 2 0. a. 3. 2. 7=0. y p. 2. / 2 z 2 in the equation of such a cone must be zero and this means that . ft. the equation of the cone 2 i becomes (Ix+my+nz)*=(l +m*+n*)(x*+y*+z ) cos 0.. O y=y=tan PA^ONtana. Cor. 24 7*62. the sum of the coefficients of #*.EQUATION OF RIGHT CIRCULAR CONE 129 Let a plane perpendicular to the axis ON of the right circular cone with semi. is The required equation of the Cor. +ltan 2 0=0 0=tanV 2 ' [Refer (1). Direction cosines of tional to cos OP are. therefore. z y . 7).. If the vertex be at the origin. 25 6= cone. 1.. propor x a..'. Let P to the plane be any point of the section.(1) i. a circle with N as its Fig. Hence the centre. Cor. OA 9 the axis of the P(x. therefore. If the vertex be at the origin and axis be the then taking 2 zaxis. m=0.vertical angle..e. and. 1 i. Equation of right circular cone. its axis the line I m be the n vertex. Since ON which contains the line NP we have 9 is perpendicular PN or ON^NP /_NOP=^ta.] . z) on the cone is such that the line joining it to the vertex makes an angle with th axis 6A. y.n a. 2 x*+y*=z* tan 0. in the preceding Cor. is which constant for every position of the point section is P of the section. Let cone. Fig.?/Z) Any point P(x. To find the equation of the right circular cone with its vertex at (a. we f ) see that the equation of the cone 2=(a?+y+2 Cor. .
2). Oz. 3. a. its Exercises 1.^ 72^ + 362 e 0. Lines are drawn through the origin with direction cosines proportional 5. Cor. lines Find the equation of the right circular cone generated by straight drawn from the origin to cut the circle through the three points (1. 4z H02/ +19z2 48. also. scy~ yz{zx=. (3. 2) Find the equation of the circular cone which pusses through the pomt and has its vortex at the origin and axis the lino ar/2 y/4=s/3. for instance. 6). 1). 4.*.2. 3.=0. 7*7.2+7/2^z2 taii2 a> the equation of tho right circular cone with veitex (2. To find cylinder whose generators intersect the conic the equation to the and are parallel to the line . 2. show that If a is The Cylinder cylinder is a surface generated by a straight line which is to a fixed line and is subject to one more condition . to [Refer (1). Equation of a cylinder. 8a? 4y2422 + 5^fy2+52o. coordinate axes as generators. 4. Show that the axis of the right circular cone through them has direction cosines and that the semivertical angle of the cone Obtain the equation of the cone 6. is cos~ [Ans. the semi. axis 2. axis parallel to the line xy/'2=*z and one of its generators having direction cosines proportional to (1. yzz. [Ans.c. The semivertical angle of a right circular cone having sets of three mutually perpendicular tangent planes is 7*43.vertical angle of the right circular cone which passes 7. through the linos Oy. 1. 1.+ 36/f22z 19 = 0. Show that 3. (2. 1) is a 2 8?/ 2 4z 2 r12:r2/ I2yz + 6zx 46. x~y=z. f. The given curve is called the guiding curve. a [Ans. 12). this will be so if for by Cor. Find the equation of the right circular cone with along Zaxis and semivertical angle a. 2] ltan 2 0tan 2 0=0 tan 0=Vitf^tan" 1 or ^. 1.rxy=Q.130 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY Cor. 2) and (2. (2. \Ans. (1. it may intersect a given curve or touch a given surface.. 2 a = [Ans. 2.0. 2). A always parallel 771. to (1. Find the equations of the circular cones which contain the three 4. vertex at the origin. 1).
of Show that the equation of the tangent plane at any point (a.. 7) should lie on the surface or which is. nfocH&y*) H2to+2my2p=0. the equation of the cylinder becomes as is already known to the reader. . 4. Find the equation of the cylinder whoso generators are = Iy=j3 is parallel to and whose guiding curve the ellipse 0:2+27/2=1. p. [Ans. 2 2 ) = 3.EQUATION OF A CYLINDER Let (a. Exercises 1. z from the two equations.. lx~\my\nz p and are parallel to Zaxis. the required equation of the cylinder. Ix+my+nzp. therefore.4y33)f24 = 0. Find the equation of the quadric cylinder with generators parallel to Xaxis and passing through the curve a# 2 f&7/ 2 + cz 2 =l.) + G(a. Cor. y) be any point on the cylinder so that the of the generator through it are  131 equations xa =j y m  p =z / y v . if But this is the condition tliat the point (a. p.nd that it touches the cylinder at all points of the generator through the point. the curve axZ+by^ Zz. Find the equation of the quadric cylinder whose generators intersect 2. 2 (6Z fam 2 )2/2^_2wna?/^ + (cZ2fan 2 )2 2 2ap/^?/ 2aprcz+(ap 2 J 2 ) = 0. [Eliminate 3. [Ans.] [Ans. 3(x'22?/2f2 + 2(4?/2za. the line (Hi) will intersect the conic (i). If the generators be parallel to Zaxis so that / 0m and n = I. Y) the cylinder !..(w) 7 As in 7*12. p.
Ex. to the plane of the guiding circle through its centre called the axis of the cylinder. n (i) if The line (Hi) will touch the sphere But this is the condition that the point (a. z) be any point on the cylinder.. Find the enveloping cylinder of the sphere having its generators parallel to the line [Ans. whose generators touch the sphere To find the equation to x*+y*+z*=a*. 78. we get which is the required equation of the cylinder. Equation of a equation of the right circular cylinder Right Circular Cylinder. and are parallel to the line . the required equation of the cylinder and isknown as an enveloping cylinder of the sphere (i). . cylinder is 7*81. called the guiding a surface generated by a line circle. p. y) should lie on the surface which is. The length of the perpendicular from any point on a right circular cylinder to its axis is equal to its radius. (x. Equating the perpendicular distance of the point from the axis to the radius r. Enveloping Cylinder.. which 782. therefore. P.132 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY * the cylinder 7*72. y. Section of a right circular cylinder by any plane perpendicular to its axis is called a normal section.(%) Let (a. and is perpendi cular to plane. To find the whose axis is the line I m n ' and whose radius Let is r. The Right Circular Cylinder. is The normal Clearly all the normal sections are circles having the same radius is also called the radius of the cylinder. y) of the generator through fi7 be any point on the it "< cylinder so that the equations are I m . A right circular which intersects its a fixed circle.
<7.Example Find passes (2.. 2. 1940) right circular cylinder " is ~2~ Let (/. 0. 1.\. its equation is Find the equation of the circular cylinder whose guiding circle is [Hint. 6). 1) as guiding circle. n be the direction cosines of any one of the two ul{vm{wn=0J aZ a 2 2 lines so we have + 6m + en = 0. [Ans. (0. 3) a right circular cylinder of radius 2 whose axis through and has direction 3. 0). g. circle through the three points (1. m.(HI) . (0. 2 +cu*)=Q. Find the angle between the lines in which the plane cuts the cone Let that I. is Find the equation of the right circular cylinder of radius 2 whose axis the line [Ans. (ii) Eliminating 2 I from 2 ) or + b u m + Zavwmn + (aw + cu + (aw +2avw ( (av*+bu*) ( (av 2 (i) 2 we obtain l ) n2 ~ .. Examples 1. h) r a~l.. The square of the distance of the point from the axis Equating (/ it 0> h) satisfies to the square of the radius 2 y the equation we see that the point so that the required equation is Exercises 1.. . lJ^S^S " 6 3 (/.] Show that the radius of the circle is y'G and the axis of the cylinder the Obtain the equation of the right circular cylinder described on 4. 0. is rr 2/ = 2. The axis of the a cosines proportional to (P. The axis is n!= y _^zl = ~2~ ~3~ ~T~' show that 3. (*") . of a right circular cylinder of radius 2 2. and (n). 0).^y2^z "2/7" 3 ' ^3/7 is 6/7 h) be any point of the cylinder. the equation of (/. x'2 }y z \z^xyyzzx^=. U.
wr x f7).4( 2. 2 ? + 8 = 0. (^ 2 +a > Thus . v = am (/r fa. PQ as diameter will pass through where Any if 2 point A=pnyZ. mr + p. wr+7) on the line 2 2 pi. n x . (ji^yZ . 4 ( _ From ^WjTig 2w\/ [ (?r6c t vca \~wa cacli of these expressions is equal to symmetr}^. SOLID GEOMfcTkY the direction cosines of the two lines mi. Thus r f cw 2 af' 1 f bu & 2 2avw __ "~ . ' If be the angle /^Lm. From (Hi). n^ be we get . the points Q are (foif a. r 2 be the roots of this quadratic. n \h~ n Ji ^2_ _ 6t(.134 ANAtVnGAL Let ?!. 2 1 cu 2 ^=+ __ 2 2v\/[(u 2 bc t ?rca4^ a6)] 2 tt. m^+p. ^^Vt^^cf^ca + we have between the two =+ ^)] l y. Q are iAe points of intersection of the line x*^y$^z~y n m I with the cone cs h&y Show that the sphere described on the vertex of the cone. (t) Let P. Therefore. P. lines._ tan t/ + V[ 2 (^]W 2 v/ ^h ' v/f" .an. if ew. Z2 > >i> separately. . will lie 2 on the cone 2 (al +bm? + cn r l9 )r + 2(alx  6mp + c^7)rf(aa r 2 +^ + cy )=0. /.
2= JA. each set of points where planes parallel to the plane cut the coordinate axes form a system of spheres which are cut orthogonally by the spheres a4j/*4z*42/je420y42/*3=0 if a/4. = (1. with the help of It will pass (i) 3 becomes 2 2 2(xa) I al +22l(xl through (0. &+y*=a*. a.fixE&cisfis il 135 The sphere on or PQ as diameter is which. Therefore.U. Revision Exercises II 1.(w) which clearly a rectangular hyperbola." 3. Show that the plane x\. .bg +ch=Q. x*z*=cf. Find the equation of the sphere which passes through the point and the feet of the perpendiculars from this point on the coordinate planes.. ) 2 2a(H +v 2 )=0. if ^ 2 (Z f ray) 2 ) or i. V).2?/ z 4 cuts the sphere in a circle of radius unity and find the circle as one of its great circles.2z 42 = 0. A sphere passes through the circle z^O.. the equations of its diameter parallel to . 0. 6) equation of the sphere which has this [Ana. 2a[(Z7 aw) + (am gZ) 2 2 ] +m +n 2 2 (aa + 2 fcp + c7 2 . 0. The equation of the general sphere through the given circle A being the parameter. zH/ 4z 2a. ^^{^f = .e. ct2fi/2 +2 2_2^ 2/4. Also find the equations of tangent planes to tho sphere which are parallel to the plane 2x}2y{z~ . .0. [Ana. 2 2 5 4^44i/42z~37 0. V) ..) is rectangular hyperbola y^O. we get 2 2 2 y ^0. Prove that is the the locus of the extremities of its diameter parallel to Xaxis (B. (. (i) and ().3y62=0 . (2.) . Its centre is (0. 0). 3.T. ~2 ==a is . JA). Show that all the spheres that can be drawn through the origin and 3. and the coordinates of their points of contact. *. 2. (M.0.Xaxis are Eliminating A between as the required locus y = 0.
. 1. 0. A meets the axes variable plane is parallel to a given plane x/a\ylb\. Find the equations of tho lines passing through the point 4. (3. lie x+2y+2z=9 2x2y+z=9. 4. spheres.. A' are points where the lines y nix. 3). circle. Prove that 13. 3). rr+3 y [Ans ^isrir Find the equation of the sphere inscribed 10. 1959 one position are c . B. on the positive sides of these planes and are cut orthogonally by the sphere 6=0. z~ c. 1). z1 _. (0. C. and touch the line x=*y. z z 2 and parallel to the plane tangent to the sphere x%{y \z [Ans. and parallel to the lino z. 0. [Ans. (5. P' are the points. Find the equations of tho tangent to the circle through the three points 2). 2 = 0. Show that the line (x a) /I (y 6)/w = (z c)/n is touched by two 8. C lies on the cone 14. x= 2y = [Ans. 0. z=0. points [Ans. 6. by the planes whose equations are [Ans. such that the sphere 011 sphere on A A' as diameter. 0. B. z=c y= mx. 0).) xa__y 6_z m n is is rotated about the axis of Z . one on each of r as diameter cuts orthogonally the these lines. 2) at the point (3. B.U. 7. 2/=0. 0. 6.z/c=0 and in A. (0. (0. Show further that the distance between the centres of the spheres is 9.2) ==s o //l 2( z 2_ c 2j (B. 2 tangent to the sphere x*\y 32x = y=z . (2a. 0). 1. Prove that the circle A.) 12. 26. 1). c) show that all these spheres pass . . Find the equations of the spheres which touch the planes #=0. a. 4. in the tetrahedron formed 2 r?/ 2 f2 2 ~2a(xf y+z) + a2=0. POP' is a variable diameter of the tho plane PP'ZZ' on and a circle is described as PP'O varies. 5. 2 2=0. 11. 0. Find the equations ( of 3) tho spheres that pass through the (3. (1 show that 2/ PP PP lies f on the surface > W 2)( 2_ m 2 a. 1. Obtain the equations of the planes passing through the point z* =9 (3. the circle generates the surface m z 2 hyperbola x /a PP' y z /b*=\. If A. (3 + v/6)a=:l.U.136 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY (1. 1). 2( 1) = 3(1 y)=s 1.U. 3. prove that the surface generated 15. 1).Hona. as diameter. meet the shortest distance betw een them and P. A straight line whose equations I in (D. origin through a fixed Find the equation of the system of spheres which touch 2/axis at the and pass through a fixed point (a.0). where . each of which passes through the points (0.
Show that the angle between the lines given by bzx+ cxy~0 t c = and i^ if a~ (D. 23.=a 2 . Find the locus of the centres of spheres which touch the two y = mx.Hons. A sphere of radius R passes through the origin extremities of the diameter parallel to the Xaxis lie one on each of the spheres 0. 2=0.+7/4z)f 2a =0.1 <v/(5/U).T. 20. [Ans. 1. 0). .kE VISION fexERClSES it 13^ lie in 16. (M. (0.) 25. four spheres z 2 +y 2 fz 2 +2aa. 1959) Find the equation of the cone generated by straight lines drawn from the origin to cut the circle through the three points (1. (M. 1907) 22. Hons. 2/=0. (ii) 2 tanl!?^!lL c ^r? Show that the plane ax + by+czft. ('') x2 17. cuts the cone in two lines inclined at an angle )}^ bc}ca)ab "I J (D. [Ans.U. 2 = c. lines 2 wa?i/fcz(l+m) =0.0.) ai+y2 +2 + CL _ x + y fixed sphere that the locus of the centre of a variable sphere which cuts a orthogonally and is cut by another sphere $'=0 along a great the sphere ' = 0. (L. ayz {..U. 1) and prove that acute angle between the two lines in which the plane x=2y cuts the cone is cos. &z 2 zx5 . circle is . (2. Find the equations of the two spheres whose centres octant and which touch the planes the positive x=0. and find their area. 1958) 24. 18. show that the 21.T. x+2y+2z = 8a. (i) Find the angles between the lines in which the plane ux+ vy+wz cuts the cone Q. [Ans. (i) 2 z2+2/2+ 2 2_2a(a.bzx f cxy = 0. 2. Find the equation of the sphere which cuts orthogonally each of the z 2 +2/ 2 +2 2 =a 2 f6 2 jc*. Show that the cone yz + zx+xy=Q cuts the sphere # 2 f y 2 +z%=a* in two equal circles. Prove that the locus of the centre of a variable sphere which cuts each of two given spheres in great circles is a plane perpendicular to their line of centres.U. = c2 [Ans. 0). [Ans. [Ans. Show =0 19.
P traces out the parabola . Show # 2 h?/ 2 +2 2 =a 2 t in 32. If the circle ho in tho plane 2 = 0. 1) as extremities of a diameter. (1. 2. A cone has for its guiding curve the circle and passes through a fixed point plane circle x=0 is If the section of the cone by the (0.C 4/762+10=0 intersect the sphere which has tho points (1. Show that. a). 2(^+y2z*)l4x3y+8z=Q. radius 5^/6. (P. Find tho equation of the right circular cylinder with the above circle as its base. with the vertex 3 4 5 as its axis. 3) and (5. OQ. 0.ANALYTICAL SOLID 26.) 31. A point O is at a constant distance 2a from the origin arid points P Q. (M. c). 33.2y* tan2 a. and if tho plane is . z = 0. show that locus two given skew lines such that the length intercepted is constant. 1948) 34. 0.160.XTaxis and Faxis include an angle a of their lines of intersection is the cone . Find its centre and radius. cosl( ) direction ratios / n is : . lx*ly* centre 25z* (4. and has a 0. (P. 1949} 29. 41z 2 +34^2f25^2f24^+40^30^64. 1948} [Ans.U.U. (0. U. 0. a rectangular hyperbola. 0) above two spheres. coaxal with the (P. prove that tho vertex lies on the fixed 27. Planes through .cf 1 52 //j. 1938} 30. Prove that tho plane PQR always touches a fixed sphere of radius a. show that if tho distance given radius a. Prove that the plane 3r 4y f5c = o6 cuts it in a circle. 72360. + tteij + WyzWzx + 22jc + ly+\Wz + 'l*=*() 6. Find 1). are parallel to the generators of a circular cone whose axis lies along the line of shortest distance between the given 28. lines which cut that the plane 2 a meets any enveloping cone of the sphere a conic which has a focus at the point (0. U. 2=0 Find the coordinates of the point P in which this line meets the plane and prove that as the line varies. fixed point m : drawn through the to touch the sphere Prove that m2f2n/=0. 4) . lines. 0. (P.T. OR are mutually perpendicular. in general.u cos 0jc sin between tho centres of the two spheres is constant arid equal to 2c. two spheres rnay be drawn to contain a gi\r en circle and to touch a given piano. At what angle does the sphere *2j?/2_j_ 2 2_2. 0. Prove that the straight )=jt. Find the equation to the sphere through the point (0. R are taken on the axes in such a way that OP. the equation of tho right circular cone semi vertical angle 00 and the line ' . 2. the locus of tho centre of the circle is the pair of linos ar = v^(*+ca cos2 0). a) A line with [Ans.
z'. z. are the homogeneous coordinates of the point whose ordinary coordinates are (x. n are xw' I wx _yw' wy __zw wz' m i > n are Also. w Z be the cartesian coordinates of any point be any four numbers such that P Then we say that #_. w. for. z. of a plane. of the point P. the ordinary cartesian equation.APPENDIX HOMOGENEOUS CARTESIAN COORDINATES ELEMENTS AT INFINITY A. (k^O) which arc proportional to x. w. being the current coordinates. y. y pfp 1 t/ 1. y. of a In AX+BY+CZ+D=Q. z. if x^ y. Let X. z. y. z). y'. we may easily see that the equations of the line through *z> w t) . Equation plane in Homogeneous coordinates. then its ordinary coordinates are (xjw. w') with direction ratios Z. y\w. the equations of the straight line through (x. zjw). in homogeneous cartesian coordinates. As above we can easily see that. we which is the general equation of a plane in homogenous cartesian coordinates a?. y. kw. Also. obtain if we change X. Z to xjw. kz. (x. z. iv are also the homogeneous coordinates of the same point. y. and let x. 11. w are the homogeneous coordinates of a point P then the four numbers kx. respectively. z. Equation of a line in Homogeneous coordinates. t. w). F. In particular. 12. A. y.z> 1). w are the homogeneous cartesian coordinates (or simply homogeneous coordinates for the purposes of this book). y. . } ^L = JL kw w ^. Y. A. ky. Conversely. if the homogeneous coordinates of a point are (x. z/w. y/w.
we have the equations A. when The aggregate of the points (x. 0) where x. z take up different sets of values. n. If x.. Line at infinity on a plane. y/w z/w f tends to find it convenient to express this idea by saying that infinity. ANALYTICAL SOLlb Show that any point on the line j oining ( x l> yi> z l> w l) and (*2> 2/2> 2 t being the parameter. and x. 2. Elements at infinity. we see that they both contain the same line at infinity. first degree. Thus.146 Ex. one at least of the three ordinary coordinates x/w. m. we say that the call it and m m x I n _ I n y __ z _^ Putting ^=0. (x.. w) which satisfy for both so that we see that both the lines t of the plane at infinity. The equation of the locus of points at infinity is t We wQ t0=0. It is useful to remember that (I. 22. y. for the line at infinity on the plane (iv). which being of the infinity in space is a plane A. y.(iv) Ax+By+Cz+Dw=0 of any arbitrary plane. m. n. ?i. 0) is the point at infinity on every line with direction ratios I. y. is a point at infinity. z. z are not all zero and w > then. viz. not all zero. is said to be the line at infinity. the equations of the two parallel planes Ax+By+Cz+Dw=0. w) be the homogeneous coordinates of any point. we obtain = m n meet at the point (i). y 9 z. on the plane (iv). . Consider parallel lines meet at a point at infinity. m. is the aggregate of the points at infinity. z are not all 0. 21. y. Let (x. Putting Two w=0 in parallel planes have a common line at infinity. z. w).. y. 0). A. 23. A. The aggregate of points the equation (x. and the equation . y z. Two the two parallel lines I locus of the points at the plane at infinity. (ii) at infinity (/.
1). 2. Find the condition for the lines to be coplanar. find the plane through the three points (1.2) and parallel to the line In the notation of homogeneous coordinates. the equation of the Find plane through the points (1. Illustrations. y 2zfav= y 2z 4x 6=0.2. (1. B. we see that the line is the join of the points the join of and the second is 0% The necessary and is 2/2. the last one being the point at infinity on the given line. The required equation where A. 141 of the notions of joints at infinity* and 'lines at the fact that in certain cases we can replace directions of lines and orientations of planes by points and lines lying on the plane at infinity.0). 2. 1). in the notation of ordinary coordinates. 1).. 2.0. 2. 7& 2 .. 3. . 1. (3.. (3. 2 2) ^ and 2> 0). sufficient condition for the two lines to be coplanar that these four points be coplanar for which we have the condition J9 m w l9 nl9 2.0.e. first In the notation of homogeneous coordinates. linear equations is 3 Ax+By+Cz+Dw=0 .3. C. 2 .(1) D are to be determined from the three simultaneous Solving these for A B C D : : : and substituting the values in (1).APPENDIX Note. we see that the required equation is 4x i. we are required to 1. infinity' lies The importance in A.
we consider the general second degree equation 2 ax*+by + cz*+2fyz + 2gzx f 2hxy + 2pxwt2qyw2rzw+dw*=0. we see 9 that . yjiv. . p. z to x[w.. Sphere in Homogeneous coordinates. 41. we can deduce Regarding a cylinder as a cone whose vertex is a point at the equation of the cylinder whose guiding curve is ax*+2hxy+by*+2gx+2fy + c=0. infinity. we deduce that every sphere meets the plane at The plane curve (2) which lies on every infinity in the same curve.. z\w respectively in the general equation of a sphere. pp. A. Section of a sphere by the plane at infinity. and only if. 4. and the direction (a. g. we obtain ax*+by*+cz*+2fyz+2gzx+2hxy=Q which will be identical with # 2 +2/ 2 +z 2 =0.(3) Putting w=0.. second degree which contains the circle at To prove this.. Putting we see that the section of (1) by the plane at infinity is the curve z2 +2/2 + z 2 =0. l9 n l9 ^2> ^2> or which 3. m.(2) the fact that the equations (2) do not involve the arbitrary constants /..142 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY 1 * 2' /1 o/2> 1 2> m o. 4445. 7). equation of a sphere in Homogeneous cartesian co2 z is the general ordinates. .. n> from the equation of the cone whose guiding curve is (1) and whose vertex is ratios A. w=Q. w=0 in (1).(1) of whose generators are I. sphere is known as "The absolute circle/' or the "Circle at infinity" From We shall now show that the infinity is Every surface of a sphere. is the same as obtained in 3'4. if. a=6 = c and/=0. d. ^=0. z = .(1) x*+y"+z +2fxw+2gyivt2hzw+dw =Q.. <7=0. Changing x y. h. ..
0) on these two infinity. if The lines at infinity ax\by\. Thus.APPENDIX A. 5. if i. will be conjugate for the circle at infinity. m'. (V.e. n. w. 7i. I. 0). if the two planes are perpendicular. ri. if lines will be conjugate with regard to the circle at ll'+mm'+nn'=0 the two lines are perpendicular. 143 The Relationship of perpendicularity in terms of conjugacy. . ri.. a'x\b'y{cz Q=w. m'. It may also be easily shown in a similar manner that a line is perpendicular to a plane if the point at infinity on the line is the pole of the line at infinity on the plane with regard to the circle at infinity. i. a'x}b'y+c'z{d'w~Q. be the direction ratios of two lines. we see.e. that two lines are perpendicular if the points at infinity on them are conjugate with regard to the circle at infinity.. and T. on the two planes ax+by\cz + dw0.cz 0=w . Thus we see that two planes are perpendicular " if the lines alinfinit on them are conjugate with respect to the circle at infinity. m. points at infinity Let (Z.
This property " Conicoid" as applied to such a surface.g. 12. real parallel planes. The locus of the general equation ax* + by2 + cz* + 2fyz + 2gzx + 2hxy + 2ux + 2vy+2wz+d=0. Elliptic paraboloid. is x. a.. Pair of intersecting planes. Hyperbolic paraboloid. along with it. . The equations representing cones and cylinders have already been considered and the reader is familiar with the nature of the surfaces represented by them. x2 la?+y 2 lb*=2z/c. I. (The name of the particular surface which is the locus of the equation is written . a conicoid can be determined to satisfy nine conditions each of which gives rise to one relation between the constants. z 2 /a* +y*lb*~z t lc*=\. Cone. Ellipsoid. by transformation of coordinate axes. . The general equation of the second degree can. x /a* + y 2 /b* z 3 /a2 y*jb z =Q. 4. Pair of Imaginary planes. 3. 8. y // = l. 13. 2 ^ =0. justifies the name of the second degree in It The general equation of second degree contains nine effectiveconstants and. 15. Hyperboloid of two sheets. Two coincident planes. a 2 y ==a Two 2 . 7. 16. x2 la?y*/b* = 0. easy to show that every straight line meets a surface whose equation is of the second degree in two points and consequently every plane section of such a surface is a conic. z is called a conicoid or a quadric. # 2 /a 2 y 2 /6 2 =2z/c. e. x*/a 2 + y*lb*\z z jc 2 = + 2 i/ /fc 2 + z*\<? = 1 . 2 2 2 8 /a 2 . 5.) z2 /a* 1. y*~ a Two imaginary planes. 1 Imaginary cylinder. y. z 2 /a2 +yV& t==1 Elliptic cylinder. 17. Imaginary ellipsoid. therefore. 10. 14. 11. 2. x^la ty^/b t 2 z 2 /a 2 +2/ 2 /& a z 2 /c =0.CHAPTER VIII THE CONICOID The general equation of the second degree 8*1. Hyperboloid of one sheet. 9. Hyperbolic cylinder. 6. #2 /a 2 y 2 /b 2 z*/c*=l. 2 zj +z t /c^=0 Imaginary cone. be reduced to any one of the following forms the actual reduction being given in Chapter XI. a conicoid can be determined so as to pass through nine given points no four of which are coplanar. Parabolic cylinder. 2 i/ =4aic.
y. on this account. z = c a closed surface. 3. But the line joining these then so does also the point . Similarly y and z be numerically greater than b and c respectively. z plane. (ii) If the point with coordinates x. . z lies on the surface. y^b. XOY These three planes are called Principal Planes in as much as they The three lines of interbisect all chords perpendicular to them. . cannot Hence the surface lies x=a. 26 The following fads enable us y to trace the locus of this equation. Hence the XOY points is bisected at right angles by the plane bisects every chord perpendicular to it and the surface is symmetrical with respect to this plane. 4.THE ELLIPSOID 145 In this chapter we propose to discuss the nature and some of the important geometrical properties of the surfaces represented by the equations 8*2. But these points are on a straight line through the origin and are equidistant from the origin. 7. Shapes of some surfaces. 2. 1.r.z. the surface is symmetrical with respect to the YOZ and the ZOX planes. section of the three principal planes taken in pairs are called Coordinate axes are the principal axes in the Principal axes. z. present case. Similarly. y. x= and so is a between the planes z=c. (i) If the coordinates x. 821. called the centre of the surface. of any point satisfy the equation. ?/. y=b . 8. y then so do also the coordinates x. Hence the origin bisects every chord which passes through it and is. The Ellipsoid Fig. (Hi) x cannot take a value which is numerically greater for otherwise y 2 or z 2 would be negative. than a.
and diminish (1) It may similarly be shown that the sections by planes parallel to the other coordinate planes are also ellipses and the ellipsoid may be supposed to be generated by them. These as =l ~ k2 c 2~' Z=fc.. respectively.146 (iv) ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY and the surface in the two points (a. k which are (v) The sections of the surface by the planes z parallel to the plane are similar ellipses having equations XOY x2 2 ?/ k lying between c tf+~b* and c. have their centres c. 822. as k varies from ellipsoid ellipses k varies from to therefore. The coordinate axes are its Principal axes. Note. (ii) The coordinate planes bisect all chords perpendicular to them and are. therefore.Xaxis. The hyperboloid of one sheet 1. 2c intercepted on the principal axes are called the lengths of the axes of the ellipsoid. . therefore. Similarly the lengths intercepted on 7 and Zaxes are 26 and 2c JTaxis meets ( The a. 0. ~ is imaginary. 0) Thus the surface intercepts a length 2a on .(1) The on Zaxis may. 0. The surface represented by the equation which is not satisfied by any real values of jc f y. Lengths 2a. be generated by the variable ellipse in size c to c. (i) 27 it The origin bisects all chords through and is. the centre of the surface. 2b. 0). Fig. . the planes of symmetry or the Principal Planes of the surface.
~C T = 1. (a. therefore.0) (ii) Xaxis meets the surface in the points (a. _ b* 9y ~* _i. 0). 0. coordinate planes are the principal Origin is the centre and coordinate axes the principal axes of the surface. The surface may. 0) and thus the surface intercepts length 2a on Xaxis. (I) planes . generated by the variable ellipse (1) where k varies from Again. 62 8*23. Thus there is no portion of the 2 the When surface included between the planes x~ a. z c 2 fc 2 7 i ' 2 a* which is imaginary for a<k<a. (iv) The sections by planes plane are the similar ellipses z~ k which k2 are parallel to the XOY xz ?/ 2 whose centres lie on Zaxis and which increase in size as k increases. There is no limit to the increase of k. be oo to +00. nt 1*2 i respectively. 0. 0. (Hi) The sections +v T2 i/ 2 c/A/ by the planes Z2  z JU k and?/ ~2 ~2 A  k are the hyperbolas .THE HYPERBOLOID OF TWO SHEETS 147 (Hi) Tho Xaxis meets the surface in points (a. Similarly the length intercepted on Faxis is 26.0) and ( whereas the Y and Zaxes meet the surface in imaginary points. sections by the planes x=k and y k are hyperbolas if ~*~~^~ respectively. F>a . The hyperboloid of two sheets X 2__J^__Z 2 a2 b2 . a. Ex. The plane xk cuts the surface * in the ellipse t I ' /y V 7 2 6 ^ _I_ . 2 section is a real ellipse which increases in size as k increases. whereas Zaxis does not meet the surface in real points. Trace tho su a* )X ~ ' "a* _ T C . 0. x=a.
m. included in the form The four equations considered rtor+fy/ + c. rarj y). b.(ii) Any on the or r point (fr + a. consists of Trace the surfaces two detached portions. Ex. (ii) Principal plane and (ii) Principal ff. Show that the surfai e represented by tho equation ai z +l>!/ 2 +cz* + 2f /z + gzv + 2hw = d 1 t origin being the centre. if all arc negative.(1) #2 ?/ 2 Z2 are all Central Conicoids. nr + 7) (ii). Then a.r].148 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY The Ex. n are the actual direction cosines of he line. . nr 2 + y) (fri p. therefore. Hence every line meets a central conicoid in two points. To find the points of intersection of the line ?i?=^rP == ?. is The surface an if c .2 ~2 TT+Jrii'2 () ~^^+. if line (i) shall also lie on the surface .s of a conicoid.(A) Let r l9 r 2 be the two roots of (A). The two values r^ and r 2 of r obtained from equation (A) are the measures of the distances of the points of intersection P and Q from he point (a. . are all positive.. therefore.y / / in n f) with the central conicoid 2 2 ax*+by +cz =l. virtual ellipsoid ellipsoid. Intersection of a line with a conicoid. a.n'. mr 2 +p. p.T= L above .. therefore. if two are positive and one negative and finally hyperboloid of two sheets if two are negative and one positive. Cone is also a central conicoid. is a central conicoid . surface. vertex being tho centre this fact clear from tho general equation of a cone with its vortex at the origin. is 8'3. T2 7 . (Zr 2 +a. we shall consider the equation (1) and the geometrical results dcduciblo from it will... also see that any plane section of central conicoid is a conic for every line in the plane meets the curve of intersection in two + + + We points only. hyperboloid of one sheet. In what follows. . W 8'24. the reader would do well to give piecise definitions of (i) Centre.. known as central conicoids. y) provided /. hold in the case of all the central conicoids. All these surfaces have a centre and three principal planes and are. Note. On the basis of the preceding discussion. wr + p. n^ are the two points of intersection.
. Prove that the sum of the squares of the reciprocals of any three mutually perpendicular semidiameters of a central conu oid is constant. . . follows.dV aie constants.(iv) which is thus the condition for the line at (a.C Cl^. A tangent line at any point is a lino which inetth the surface in t\\o coincident points and the tangent plane at a point is the locus of tangent lines at the point.. The values of (ii) at (a. (3. obtained by eliminating l m. is 0. y) to the conicoid Note..(m) One root of the equation ^4) 8*3 therefore. C (^.(J) be a?i?/ line through the point (a. [Ans. n . 8*31. (1.1 2 QiQJ . of the tangent lines to the surface. (2.(0 . 2  !.. p. prove that a . jP 2 > Q\y Q% 9 ^i ^2 respectively JV'2 ( . /^ 2 +cy 2 =l. 3). therefore. 2. = which is a plane.2. if line 7) if both the r a/a+fcwtprc/iy^O. (i) to be a tangent line to the surface (ii) 7). the tangent plane at (a. 3...TANGENT LINES AND TANGENT PLANE Note.4). aa(o. '1\*. given by the equation (A) The second value will also be zero. 149 be used in what The equation (A) of this article will frequently lino Ex.17i/2 + 72=7.r 'Q^ ^2 ( 'ft 'W'AV i 2 . 1.3.a) 4 &fty p. n between (i) and (ii). Hence the tangent which is. (3.< 'Aj CPi.< t (^. + cy(zy) or locus y The at (a. Tangent lines and tangent plane Let sa = yp = 27 / 'm" p_. 7). 11. 7) lie in the plane aax (&P2H cyz~l. Find the points of intersection of the J(*+5) = (2/4)=4(:H) with the conicoid 12x2. (3. is.. zero.CJtz at a point. 7) of the surface 2 aor+tyHcz so that a>. Any throe mutually orthogonal Imes drawn thiough a fixed point C meet the quudric in Pj. p. (i) will touch the conicoid 8'3 are zero. lines at (a.
8*33.. so that we obtain x 2 +y 2 +z 2 =l/a+l/b+l/c. the two equations (i) and (Hi).(fv) The coordinates of the point of intersection satisfy the three equations and its locus is. ANALYTICAL soLto Condition of Tangcncy. ap and since P= 7 . ri! 2 ra 2 n 2 This is easily done by squaring and adding the three equations and using the relations (iv). then.150 8' 32. m.(0 lx+my+nz^p. . as the required locus which sphere of the given quadric. . To find the locus of the point of interDirector Sphere. we get Comparing I m n a oc= .. (Hi) thereat should be the same as the plane (?'). Let be three mutually perpendicular tangent planes so that D/jmjSmjTii 2Z 1 a 2^?! = 0. To find the condition that the plane . . p. . should touch the conicoid a* a +fy 2 +cJ5 2 =l. obtained by the elimination of / 3 m 3j w a / 1 19 m. / I m bp n \ \ap cpJ Thus \ve deduce that the planes for all values of touch the conicoid (ii) /. 7= . the tangent plane 1 av.. therefore.. up cp we obtain the required condition V a m b 2 2 ji ~ ^ is 2 * c Also the point of contact. .. 2 =2m 2 1 =2% =1. . . section of three mutually perpendicular tangent planes. is a concentric sphere called the Director ... . . n... If (a.(if) 7) be the point of contact.x + bfiy + cjz = .
e. 1.. If 2r is the distance between two parallel tangent planes prove that the line through the origin and perpendicular the the 2)lanes lies on the cone x 2 (a 2 . This gives *=4. 2fc 2 + 9fc+'1:=~0.(1) which is twice the Thus we have or . 5 ) ) (D. The distance between these distance of either from the origin parallel planes is . through the given i.r 2 ) + y\b* .r + 2' (c 3 . / = 0. which is perpendicular to the plane (1).e. \ which are parallel plane Ix M0f nz~().r 2 = 0. to to ellipsoid. x/lylmz/n. i3 + + = 0. 151 Find the equations to the tangent planes to which pass through the line.60 2. a 7 +f = (3fc9) 21 i. } 1947.* i^ + V+2\2 ~ 0)a a ( =l.*. is ..U. S(o the locus of the line 2 r 2 )/ 2 = 0. Therefore the required pianos are 736043 21 73.EXAMPLES Examples 1. 1959) The tangent planes are parallel to the plane ^3 = 0..e. Hons.. touch the given surface 73 2 30 2 z 2 +2i=0 if if  * 17 + . Obtain the tangent planes x*la* to the to the ellipsoid + y*lb*t**lc*~I. plane 7360 line will r7cz = 3fc 8 9. Ilx=^YaV. 7s Any i..
2). (MI). touches [Ana. 23) ^4(24. M 3 P3 .A.2/3). The point AI is the intersection of the planes (iv) (n). result. (iv). A(T 2> to the ellipsoid #3. ?/ 2) z2 ) We may now easily show that the equation of the plane A A 2 PZ 1 Similarly the two planes ^4 1 . and ^2 is the intersection of the planes (i). 3. . 2 is the line of intersection (iv). Thus the and is line A^4. 2. not ^3 ^* on the A.1 3 P 3 and ^1 1 ^1 4 P4 are (*?' From the line these it X 1 ?all 1 ) follows that these three planes pass through Hence the 1. Exercises that the tangent planes at the extremities of any diameter of a central comcoid are parallel. P2 is . Show Show that 3x. Find the equations to the tangent planes to the surface . Also P2 of the planes (Hi) is (^.f 12// 6: 17 find the point of contact. 24) are respectively. (Hi). The tangent planes at points P\( x n 2/i> *i) *V#2 2/2. the and plane 3o.2.ANALYTICAL SOLID The tangent planes to an ellipsoid at the points P l5 a tetrahedron A^A^A^A^ where A l is the vertex which Prove that the planes tangent plane at P x 3.A 2 P 21 have a line in common.P. 2/4. A.2 62/ 2 492 2 417 = 0. the conicoid (1.
from its axes intercepts the sum of whose reciprocals is equal to a \Ans. y) a*JC*+b*t/*+c*z*=k*(*+y+z)*. 7) to the surface Def. at any point of a guadric is the line through the point perpendicular to the tangent plane thereat. Q'. If. (B. <9 are any two points on a central conicoid. \Ans.2 + c 2.. f P. .efl0. we have or which shows that aap.(. . is the length of the perpendicular from the aa origin to the tangent plane (if). (3. The normal atf+bif + cz^l.parallel to the piano Find their points of contact 4. p. 6(3.y ellipsoid given by [Ana. 834. The equation of the tangent plane at (a. line =F4. 6. SySz^Q 7. c?p are the actual direction cosines of the normal at (a. Show that the lines through (a.2. 7). is . 7). 4s+20i/21*13 = . Also show that if the planes through the centre parallel to the tangent planes at P. then PP'=QQ'. 1915) Find the locus of the perpendiculars from the origin to the tangent i. Normal. 7j?+6y+3230=O 14^+5^49260 = 0. point on the ellipsoid +2?/ f \z =\ such that the perpendicular from the origin on tho tangent piano at P is of unit length. tangent planes of the ellipsoid is Prove that the locus of the foot of the central perpendicular on varying the surface 7. and touch the Find the equations to the two planes which contain the 30=0. b$p. (1. drawn perpendicular to the tangent planes to a. which cut constant 8. Show that the plane through the centre and the line of intersection of the tangent planes at P. also. are 6p so that aa. 5.. Q cut the chord PQ in P'. off l/k. show that P lies oil 0110 or other of the planes 3^/ ^z. c7 are the direction ratios of the normal.*la* + which pass through it generate the cone 2 2 2 If P is the 9.') The equations to the normal at (a. p. planes to the surface (*a+y2 +2 S)2 !=B0 2 2 + &2i. =p3). p. therefore. Q will bisect PQ. U. p.
six normals Cubic curve through the feet of normals. p. y) lies on the conicoid (t). to a. r is The Again. Consider the curve whose parametric equations are where the parameter.e. as such. 8'36. g. points (x. \ve have the relation which. z) on this curve. Therefore there are sic points on a central quadric the normals at which pass through a given point. (vi) cuts any are the (/. We first prove that the lines drawn from (/. gives six values of r. h) 8'37.. 7) passes through point (/. h). can be drawn to a central quadric. being an equation of the sixth degree. 7). ANALYTICAL SOLID Number then. g. to each of which there corresponds a point (a. h). y. Since (a. i.154 8*35. in general. jV vn \ i . p. h) to intersect the cubic curve (vi) generate a quadric cone.z . Quadric cone through six concurrent normals. from a given point of the quadric with a The feet of the central quadric are the intersections certain cubic curve.h I m  n tt i /. a given (Hi) at a point (a. six normals. Hence the curve plane in three points and is. g. g. as obtained from (iv). If the normal of normals from a given point.. arising from those values of r which are the roots of the equation (v) are the six feet of the normals from the point (/. If any line x f==y9. The six normals drawn from any point to a central quadric are the generators of a quadric cone. Therefore. the six feet of the normals from intersections of the conicoid and the cubic curve (vi) . p. through a given point. the points of intersection of this curve with any plane are given by which determines three values of r. a cubic curve.
I. h) to intersect the cubic curve. m. </. The general equation of the conicoid through the six feet of the normals. a)zx The six feet of the o The equation satisfied by the six feet of the normals and contains three arbitrary constants fc 1 k 2 . y) of the foot of any of the six normals the relations ay^pgr^rA aa 6p cy lie Hence we cylinders see that the feet or or or of the normals on the three ax(yg)=by(xf) by(z. in particular. n between the equations of the line and this we get af(bc)_^bg(ca)^ch(a~b)^Q xf yff z h which represents a cone of the second degree generated by drawn from (/.The importance of this result lies in the fact that while five given . i. h) to the quadric on the cubic curve.TH& through (/. Eliminating condition. is . k 3 Therefore it represents the general equation of the conicoid through them. . h) satisfy (a. the normals are. The coordinates from (/. the generators of this cone of the second degree. we get which curve is the condition for the line (vii) to intersect the cubic (vi). g. . {/. 8*38. Note. COHlCOtfi 186 g h) intersects the cubic curve.h)=cz(yg) (bc)yzbhy+cgz=0 (c 9 cz(xf)=zax(zh) normals are the common points of the three and the conicoid cylinders cfz{ahx=Q.e the quadric cone through any of the five normals through a point alto contains the 6ix normals through the point. 9 we have f l\ar I f J ~~ g l+br g ~~ ~h 1f cr h m balm =r:: n chin  or afil~ == ~ * 1far l\br 1+cr whence eliminating r. the six normals through a point he ou a quadric cone. concurrent linos determine a unique quadric cone. lie lines As the six feet of the normals drawn from (/. (3.
156
ANALYTICAL SOtlD
Examples
1.
The normal
at
any point
P
;
principal planes at constant ratio.
GI,
G 2 Gz
,
of a show
central conicoid meets the three that 3 are in a 2y 1}
PG PG PG
,
The equations
of the normal at
(a, p,
7) are
aap
since aap, bftp, cjp, are the actual direction cosines each of these fractions represents the distance between the points
(a, p, 7) and (x, y, z). Tims the distance PG lt of the point P(a, p, 7) from the point where the normal meets the coordinate plane x=Q is
Now
G
l
I lap. PG 2 = Ijbp, PG^l/cp. Similarly PG PG PG 3 a' b~ l
1 l
:
2
:
:
:
:
:
c' 1
the
.
2.
Show
to
that
the
lines
drawn from
origin parallel
to the
normals
at its points of intersection with the
planes
lx\my \nz p,
generate the cone
b

c/Va
b
c
Let/,
g,
h be any point on the curve of intersection of ax 2 +by*{cz 2 =l, lx\my\nz=p.
to the quadric at
(/, g, h) is
...(1)
The normal
af
by
ch'
is
The
line
through the origin parallel to this normal x _ V __ z
'
Also
(/, g, h)
ch b(j af satisfies the two equations
(1)
so that
we have
...(3)
a/
2
2 +fy + (**=!, lf+mg+nh=p.
(2)
The required locus is obtained by eliminating and (3). The equations (3) give
/, g,
h
between
which is a second degree homogeneous expression obtain the required locus. (2) and (4), we can easily
3.
in /, g, h.
From
Prove that two normals
to the ellipsoid
EXAMPLES
lie
157
in the plane
the line
and
joining their feet has direction cosines proportional
2
z
to
a(b*c )mn, W(c*a*)nl, c*(a*b )lm. Also obtain the coordinates of these points.
ket
point
is
(/>
(7)
A)
be any point on the
ellipsoid.
The normal
(M.T.) at the
?r^=^r?=^i: A 2
//a
glb*~
if
'
h/c*
This
lies in
the given plane,
These give
_//  = c
2
2
)
17/6
2
6w/(c
a
=
2
)
*/c
dm~(a*
~*  6 2
_
=
)
y
Therefore the required two points are
2 c a*mn(b*  "") "
.
b*nl(c*a?) "~
c
" /m(a
8
2
6 a n
J
d
where
d
direction cosines of the line joining these points are propor
The
tional to
a ? ??in(6 2
4.
c
A_,
2 ),
etc.
Prove
that for all values of
the
normals
i
'
to the
conicoid
which paw through a given point on the conic
2
(a, p,
7) mee^
2
the
plane
z
=
in points
(6
c 2
)
3o:
t
+ (c 2 a2 )a7/ +
r2
?/
(
6 2 )a;y=0, 2
= 0.
It can be
shown that the equation of the quadric cone containing
2
the normals to
o
a
+ ^ + + A 6HA c
7)
is
z2
2
=1
J
fA
drawn from the point
(a, p,
a:
a
Thus
it
meets the plane
a:
2
0,
where
a a
or
2
_
a(i/p)(c
or
(
158
ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY
Exercises
If a point G be token a 2 /a 2 ?/2/6 2 c2/c2=l such that
1.
OA. Lr
on the normal
I ~f>Cl "f"/ t/o I I
at
any point
P
of the ellipsoid
o
T>/"J
~f^d ss i Cf \
J3/^ * ^3
show that the locus of G
is
,
a 2* 2 a 2fc2_~ c 2)2 (2
2.
(2&
2
2^2 _ c 2_ a 2)2 (2c22_6
62^/2
C
^
j^
If a length
PQ
be taken on the normal at any point
P
of the ellipsoid
such that PQ k^lp where k is a constant and p is the length of the perpendicular from the origin to the tangent plane at P, the locus of Q is
"
C
2. 2
3.
Show
that, in general,
two normals
to the ellipsoid
Determine the coordinates of the IIB in a given plane. soid the normals at which he in tho plane
two points on tho
ellip
[Ana. (rkVia. l*>, Jc). that the locus of points on a central quadric, the normals at which intersect a given diameter is the curve of intersection with a cone having tho principal axes of the quadric as generators. Show that tho normals at the points (x^, y^ Zj), and (.r 2 y^ z z) ^ 5.
4.
Show
,
a2
intersect, if
^1^2
and that
if (/, g, h)
2/12/2
1
be their point of intersection,
2/2
Deduce that 'the points on the surface, normals at which intersect the normal at a given point, ho on a quadric cone having its vertex at tho given
point.
meet a
(
Prove that six normals drawn from any point to a central conicoid principal plane in six points which he on a rectangular hyperbola. The normals at six points on a,<2 /a 2 f y2lb z +z 2 lc 2 ~I meet in the point 7. show that the mean position of the six points is V* ^) ft
6.
J
7
~
(c
2
+q226 2 )6 2
A(q 2
8*4.
Plane of contact.
axx'
Tho tangent plane
+ byy' + czz'
2
2
1
2
,
at (x ',
if
T/',
2')
to the quadric
a# +fo/ fcz =l, passes through
(ot^p 5
This shows that the points on the quadric the tangent planes at which pass through the point (a, (3, y) lie on the plane
which
is
called the plane of contact for the point (a, p, 7).
POLAR PLANE
8*5.
159
a point. // any secant APQ through a meets a conicoid in P and Q and a point R be taken on this line such that points A and E divide the line PQ internally and externally in the same ratio, then the locus of R is a plane called the
The polar plane of
given point
A
polar plane of
It
A
.
if the points and divide internally and externally in the same ratio, then the points P,Q divide also internally and externally in the same ratio.
may
be easily seen that
A
R
PQ
AR
Let A, be a point
of R.
(a, p,
7) and let
(x, y, z)
be the coordinates
.47? in
The coordinates
A
:
of the
point
which divides
the ratio
1
are
/
VA + 1
This will
lie
'
A+l
'
A+l/
on the conicoid
for values of A
which are the roots of the equation
i.e.,
a
+ (a** + bp + c7*l) = 0.
same
ratio,
...(1)
The two roots A 1? A 2 of this equation are the ratios in which the Since P, Q divide AR internally and points P, Q divide the line AR.
externally in the
so that, from
we have
(1),
avx+bfy+cyzl^Q.
...(2)
(x, y, z)
Now
point R.
plane.
the relation between the coordinates Being of the first degree, the equation (2)
(2)
is
of the
represents a
Thus
conicoid
s
the
polar plane
of the point
(a, p,
7)
with respect to the
Any
point
is
called the pole of its polar plane.
Rote. Tho reader acquainted \vith cross ratios and, in particular, harmonic cross ratios, would know that tho fact that the points P, Q divide All internally and externally in the same ratio is also expressed by the statement
This
is
further equivalent to the relation,
2
1
1
Cor. The polar plane of a point on a conicoid coincides with the tangent plane thereat and that of a point outside it coincides with the plane of contact for that point.
ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY
Ex. 1. Show that the point of intersection of the tangent pianos at three points on a quadric is the plane of the plane formed by their points of contact. Ex. 2. Find the pole of the plane Ix+my+nzp with respect to Mie
2 z quadric ax }by {cz*\.
[Ana. Ijap, mjbp, njcp).
Conjugate points and conjugate planes. It is easy to show, that if the polar plane of a point P passes through another point Q, then the polar plane of Q passes through P.
8*51.
such points are called Conjugate points. Also, it can bo shown that if the pole of a plane a plane p, then the pole of p lies on a.
Two
lies
on another
Two
8*52.
such planes are called Conjugate planes.
Polar
lines.
Consider any line
x
/
a_?/
P__2
7
n
nr\y)
9
m
(Jr
The polar plane of any point
is
+ a, mr + P,
on
this lir
a(1r+.)x\b(mr+)y + c(nr+y)z = l
f
or
aaa;
b$y + cYz
1 f
r(alx \bmy
+ cnz)
0,
which
clearly passes through the line of intersection of the planes
and
alx
for all
+ bmy f cnz
all
values of
r.
Thus the polar planes of
another line
/'.
the points on a line
I
]pass
through
I
Now,
as the polar planes of
any arbitrary point
P
on
passes
through every point of /'_, therefore the polar planes of any point on V will pass through the point P on /and, as P is arbitrary, it passes through every point on /, i.e., passes through /. Hence if the polar plane of any point on a line I passes through the line Z', then the polar plane of any point on I' passes through I. Two such lines are said to be polar lines with respect to the
conicoid.
To find the polar line of any given line, we have only to find the line of intersection of the polar planes of any two points on it.
8*53.
.
Conjugate
lines.
..
,
liet I,
intersect
ra/be any two ^at a point P.
shall
lines
and
Z',
m' , their polar
lines.
Let m'
that the line V also intersects the line m. m' and also on I, its polar plane contains the polar As P lies on lines m and /' of m' and I respectively i.e., the lines m and I' are coplanar and hence they intersect. Hence if a line I intersects the polar of a line m, then the line m
intersects the polar of the line
/.
We
now show
Two
such lines
I
and
m are Conjugate lines,
is a straight line perpendicular to the given plane. (P. we have These give aA _ ly 6[^ _ = 0. we x<*. . 7) ax* + by*+cz*=l. Prove that the locus of the poles of the tangent planes of with respect to is the conicoid ^ + PV + a b t!^ JSBslc 2. cv n$my _ na ma  Because of perpendicularity. ~r   na) " w(m or or Eliminating locus is l> m c > n between (1) and (2).EXERCISES 161 Example the locus of straight lines drawn through at right angles to their polars with respect to Find a fixed point (a.\ b __ see that the required y c a zy\ a Exercises 1. Show that the locus of the poles of the plane with respect to the system of conicoids where X is the parameter.. . aaLX + b$y + cjz alx f bmy f. v be the direction ratios of this 0. 1937) Let I m  n "'' Now the polar line of (1) be any is line perpendicular to its polar line. line. = If A. the intersection of the planes 1.v a . (3. we have +rz. {/.cnz = 0.U.
whose polar lines with respect to the quadrics a*2&2/2f c^i and are coplanar. we obtain which the required equation of the enveloping cone. The locus of tangent 8*61. X J Show that any normal to the conicoid . (i) (ii) The enveloping cone. fixed point (/. i. n between (i) and (ii). Def. p.162 3... line Any m n if through (a. 7) will meet the surface in two coincident points equation (A) of 8*3 has equal roots. _ _ pa+q pb+q pc+q is _ perpendicular to its polar line with respect to the conicoid 6. h) [An. if Eliminating l the y m. g. 6 a c Find the conditions that the lines ^_+J' +__ = /v>2 7/2 92 l t I in n ' I' rti' n' should be (t) polar. 7). ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY Show that the polar line of (*l)/2=(2/2)/3=(z3)4 with respect to the quadric a: 2 Find the locus of straight lines drawn through a 4.. lines to To find with its the enveloping cone of the conicoid az vertex at (a.. If we write is we as see that the equation of the enveloping cone can briefly be written . p. a quadric through any point is called the enveloping cone. (ii) conjugate with respect to the coincoid [Ans. 5.e.
ENVELOPING CYLINDER
163
Note. Obviously the enveloping cone passes through the points common to the conicoid and the polar plane aoLX+bfiyt cz*f 1 of the vertex (a, p, y) Thus the enveloping con e may be regarded as a cone whose vertex is the given point and guiding curve is the section of the conicoid by its polar plane.
Exercises
1.
A
# 2 /a 2 f2/ 2 /> 2 f2 2 /c 2 =l with P lies on one of the conies
2
2/
point
P
moves
so that
P as
z2
the section of the enveloping cone of vertex by the plane z=0 is a circle show that
;
x2
22
2.
If the section of the enveloping cone of the ellipsoid
whose vertex locus of P is
is
P by the
plane
z0
j2
is
a rectangular hyperbola, show that the
z2
T3.
1

(Agra, 1938)
Find the locus of points from which three mutually perpendicular 2 tangent lines can be drawn to the conicoid a:r +&7/ 2 fcz 2 =l.
[Ans.
4.
A pair of perpendicular tangent
(0, 0, k).
a(64 c)z 2 +6(c+a)2/ 2 f c(aplanes to the ellipsoid
;passes
on the cone
through the fixed point
Show
that their line of intersection
lies
(D. U. ffons. 1949)
[The required locus is the locus of the line of intersection of perpendicular tangent planes to the enveloping cone of the given ellipsoid with vertex at
(0,0,
A).]
Enveloping Cylinder. quadric parallel to any given line
8'62.
Def.
is called
The locus of tangent
lines to
a
enveloping cylinder. To find the enveloping cylinder of the conicoid
its
with
generators parallel to the line
x
I
"~~
_
y
z
m
~~
n
(a, p, 7) be any point on the enveloping cylinder, so that the equations of the generator through it are
Let
m
As
in
8*61, the line
(i)
n
touch the conicoid,
7)
is
if,
will
Therefore the locus of
(a,
(3,
the surface
which
cone*
Note.
the required equation of the enveloping cylinder* Equation of Enveloping cylinder deduced from that of Enveloping Use of elements at infinity. Since all the lines parallel to the line
is
x\ly\m=*z\n
pass through the point (I, m, n, 0) which is, in fact, the point at infinity on each anember of this system of parallel lines, we see that the enveloping cylinder is sthe enveloping cone with vertex (I, m, n t 0) .
164
ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY
The homogeneous equation of the surface being ax *+by*+cz*t*=Q
9
the equation of the enveloping cylinder
is
so that in terms of ordinary cartesian coordinates, this equation
is
c. Clearly the generators of the enveloping cylinder touch the quadricat points where it is met by the plane aljc^bnnj \cvzQ which is known as the* plane of contact.
Exercises
1
.
8how that the enveloping cylinders
of the ellipsoid
with generators perpendicular to Zaxis meet the plane z=Q in parabolas. 2. Enveloping cylinders* of t lie quadnc r/.t 2 & 2 {c:: 1 meet the planetliow that the ctiitral perpendiculars to their 111 rectangular hyperbola planes of contact generate the cone
20
<
j/
;
3.
Prove that the enveloping cylinders of the
f>
.)
ellipsoid
O
4+^1+^1,
2
fc
2
c2
whose
generators are parallel to the lines,
c
meet the
j
lane
c=0
in circU
..
(P. U. 1937}
Locus of chords bisected at a given point. 8*71. given centre.
If
Section with
a
Let the given point be any chord
(a, p, 7).
m
of the quadric ax 2 \by 2jrcz 2 =l TI and 7*2 of the equation (A) of
r1 +r 2 =0, and therefore
is
n"
(a, p, 7),
the two and opposite so
roots.
bisected at
8*3 are equal
that.
aZoc+6mp+cny=0.
Therefore the required locus, obtained by eliminating
Z,
...(2)
m,
n,.
between
(1)
and
(2), is
which
is
a plane and can briefly be written as
IWflfj.
section of the quadric by this plane is a conic whose centre for this point bisects all chords of the conic through it. is (a, p, 7)
The
;
Cor.
The plane which
cuts
2
centre is (a, p, 7)
w
a#*r&y
+c2 2 =l,
in a conic whose

EXERCISES
165
Example
2?
to the ellipsoid 2 2 2 /& fz /c =l. Show that the locus of the centre of section of the surface by the plane through their points of contact is
2
Triads of tangent planes at right angles are drawn
2
/a
+
2
?/
Suppose that (a, P, 7) is the centre of section of the surface by a plane through the points of contact of a triad of mutually perpendicular tangent planes. of the director sphere
The
pole of this section
must thus be a point
The equation
of the section
is
Tj
$j
i.e.,
py,rz_a P,y_ ^ + "b* + J rf + j? c'
If
(f>
ff>
as
A)
be
its pole,
the equation
(i)
must be the same as
$+&+'
Comparing
(i)
and
,
J
(w),
we have
jc 2 2 2(a /a )'
2 / +
n=
f/
P
,
r
S(a /a
2
E(a /a
a
2 )'
4
)'
Since
we have
a2
+
x, y, z respectively,
Replacing
result.
a,
p,
y by
we have the required
Exercises
1.
Find the equation
is
to the plane
which cuts the surface
in a conic whose centre
2.
at the point
(5, 7, 6).
[Ana.
5jj
1
Find the centres of the conies
(i)
4,r+9.yf4s=
15,
2r23.?/2f 4s
2
^
I
;
(w)
3.
2*2y
5s+5=0, 3z 2 +2y2_i5 2 2 = 4
t
[,Jn,. () (2, 3,1) () (2,3,!). Prove that the plane through tho three extremities of the different axes of a central conicoid cuts it in a conic whose centre coincides with the centroid of the triangle formed by those extremities.
4.
Show
that the centre of the conic
is
the point
/ lp
mp
np
where
J 2 f ??i 2 fn 2
=l and Po
variable plane makes intercepts on the axes of a central conicoid whose sum is zero. Show that the locus of the centra of the section determined fcy it is a cone which has the axes of the conicoid as its generators.
5.
A
166
6.
ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY
Find the locus of the centres of sections which pass through a given*
point.
Show that the centres of sections of ax 2 +by 2 +cz*=l by planes which. 7. are at a constant distance, p, from the origin lie on the surface
8.
Find the locus of centres of sections of a# 2 f&2/ 2 {cz 2 =l, which touch1.
[Ans.
a 2 a
19
8*72. Locus of midpoints of a system of parallel chords. Let m, n be proportional to the direction cosines of a given system of parallel chords and let (a, p, 7) be the midpoint of any one of them. As the chord
I
m
(a,
(3,
n
7),
'
of the quadric
is
bisected at
we have,
as in
8*71,
Now
I,
m,
n.
the parallel chords
being fixed ^ the locus of the midpoints is the plane
alx
(a, P,
7)
of
+ bmy + cnz
0,
is
which clearly passes through the centre of the quadric and as the diametral plane conjugate to the direction I, m, n.
Conversely any plane
known>
is
A x+ By\Cz=Q
al
diametral plane conjugate to the direction
I,
through the centre m, n given by
the
bm
en
Thus every
direction.
parallel to
central plane is
a diametral plane conjugate
to
some
point on the conicoid, then the plane bisecting chords called the diametral plane of OP. know that the Note. Another method. Use of elements at infinity. is the harmonic conjugate of the point at infinity on midpoint of any line and B. Thus the locus of the midpoints of a system of parallel the line w.r. to
Note.
If
OP
P be any
A
is
We
AB
chords is the polar plane of the point at infinity common to the chords of the system. know that (I, m, n, 0) is the point at infinity lying on a line whose direction ratios are /, m, n. Its polar plane w.r. to the conicoid,
We
expressed in cartesian homogeneous coordinates,
alx 4 bmy
i.e.,
is
+ cnz
w.
= 0,
alx+bmy{cnz=().
Exercises
1.
P(l, 3, 2)
is
a point on the conicoid,
(2,
Find the locus of the midpoints of chords drawn parallel to OP. [Ans. x 62/4 6e=(X Find the equation of the chord of the quadric 4# 2 5y2+6z 2 7 through 2. 3, 4) which is bisected by the plane 2# 5y+3z=Q.
[Ans.
(a:2)J(y3)(4).
CONJUGATE DIAMETERS AND DIAMETRAL PLANES
8*8.
167
Conjugate diameters and diametral planes. In what follows, we shall confine our attention to the ellipsoid only.
Let P(xl9 yl9
Zj)
be any point on the ellipsoid
OP
The equation
is
of the diametral plane bisecting chords parallel
tcr
Let Q(x2 y^
>
^2)
be any point on the section of the
this plane so that
we have
ellipsoid
by
which is the condition that the diametral plane^ of OP should pass through Q and, by symmetry, it is also the condition that the diametral plane of
OQ
should pass through P. plane of
Thus
if the diametral
OP passes
through Q, then the dia
metral plane of
OQ
2/3,
also passes through P.
z3 )
Let R(x3
Since
,
intersection of the diametral planes of
R
is
be one of the two points where the line of OP and OQ meets the conicoid. on the diametral planes OP and OQ, the diametral plane
of
OS
passes through P and Q. Thus we obtain the following two
sets of relations
:
"^ +
6
T+
"c
r==1
'
semidiameters OP, OQ, OR, which are such that the plane containing any two is the diametral plane of the third are called conjugate semidiameters. The coordinates of the extremities of the conjugate semidiameters are connected by the relations A and B above.
The three diametral planes POQ, QOR, ROP which are such that each is the diametral plane of the line of intersection of the other two are
catted Conjugate planes. shall now obtain
We
two more
sets of relations C,
D, equivalent
to the relations A, B. By virtue of the relations (A),
we
see that
lines three straight lines are xl y b 7 a are also the direction straight lines. 1 . OR = 6 X volume of the tetrahedron OPQR ! 0. 0. Adding the which is we get constant. > ?/ 2 "~T~ ) ^3. The sum of Properties of Conjugate Semidiameters the squares of three conjugate semi diameters is relations (0). OQ. The results (B) give be ca ab ___ V f for is / v/ between two perpendicular z2 c 1 ana the sine of the angle direction cosines are lines whose x2 a y ~T~J b y2 x3 a > 7/3 zs c _ " ~*~> b " are a _ ' ' 6c~ 6 ca c ab Now the volume of the parallelepiped whose coterminous edges OP. 0. The volume of the parallelopiped formed by three conjugate 8*82. semidiameters as coterminous edges is constant. Hence as in 5*2.168 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY can be considered as the direction cosines of some three straight and the relations (B) show that these also mutually perpendicular. T b be > z1 3 z2 ' z  3 c c cosines of three mutually perpendicular Therefore. constant. we have 8*81.
we get ORP and OPQ on the coordinate 4a 2 "^ 46 2 . a. y^ on the YZ plane is a z 3 ) whose area is \ (2/2232/322) Also this is AJt. mi. OQR (0.CONJUGATE DIAMETERS 169 2/2. 2/3. : The same result can also be proved in the following manner 2/2> X 2/2. A2 A3 . Similarly projecting the areas planes. rule of multiplication of determinants) a ? 6 2 c 2 . 2 2 ). (By the 8'83. n t> (i=l> be the areas of the triangles OQR. 2/3. 3) to the planes respectively. (0. 2/3. triangle with vertices (0.^V 46 2 " 4c 2 ' . which is a constant. from (C) and (Z>). Let AI. be the direction cosines of the normals 2. . 0). OPQ. ORP. and let k. we have AS= l !.bcx 1 ! ~2^' 2c Squaring. The sum of the squares of the areas of the faces of the paral>lelopiped formed with any three conjugate semidiamehrs as coterminous edges is constant. 0. Now the projection of the triangle ?/ 2 . . Y = dba&c.
3. OQ.y(y l +y2 +y 3 ). a26 2) j a constant. Examples 1. n be the direction cosines of the normal to any Again. plane through the extremities 2. > we obtain Similarly and nc 2 = Hence the required equation. Let 1 9 m. let I. of the conjugate semidiameters of the ellipsoid s X(x l +x2 +x3 ). be the direction cosines of any given line so that the sum of the squares of the projections of OP OQ. The sum of the squares of the projections of three semiany line or plane is constant. conjugate diameters on y line is which is a constant. Show that the equation of the (#*> 2/*. OR on this plane is y m which is a constant. . Zfch^l. n. given plane so that the sum of the squares of the projection of OP. then Multiplying by x l9 # 2 x z> respectively.z(z l +z 2 +z 3 ) a2 If "*" 62 ^ c 2 any plane lx+my+nz=p passes through the three extremities.170 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY Adding we get ^ 1 2 + J 22 + ^ 3 2 == X( 62c2 +c2 at 4 which is . OB on this 8*84.
we obtain the required ^4. OQ. viz. and V + ! + ^ =1 or o2 c 2 From (2) and (3). given cone. = JL=A. be the coordinates of these points.. 4.^4.^. are the extremities of conjugate semidiameters^ be generators of the given cone. ..HV (1> *i' .?( !+^^) ^ 6 ^ c2 a2 2 e?+6*+c 2 ' 3. ys. radius is the same for all positions of its centre.EXAMPLES 2* 171 Find the locus of the equal conjugate diameters of the ellipsoid Let OP. OQ. yl9 zl from (1) and aj (4). OR be three equal conjugate semidiameters. . With any point on the surface of any ellipsoid as centre. a sphere is described such that the tangent planes can be drawn to it from the centre of the ellipsoid which are conjugate diametral planes of th& Show that its. J? Let OP. a^. $. results D of Adding these three 8*8. we and making use of the relations C and' obtain the given relation. we obtain the homogeneous relation b* ^+y+^JH^yjL^i a? a'JfeMc'" c 2 ' '" M w Eliminating locus. ellipsoid. we have fe. a) Since these points lie on the and two similar results. Let (*i 2/i> z i) (2 2/a 22). where P. We have Let P be the point (xl9 y l9 zj.. *i yi We require the locus of the line ^.(2) } where a^+yi'+si^KaHft'+c'). OR. Show its that if the cone has three of generators along conjugate diameters of the ellipsoid then .
Adding and making use of the liave relations 2 C and D of 8*8. conjugate diameter. ellipsoid 2 a. Hence the Show result. conjugate = 4>. If PI. &) from each of the three planes being equal to r. Obtain the equation of the third Ana.T ?/ z x y z afe three mutually conjugate diameters of the ellipsoid T" + "4~" ""9" f = 1 ' Find the equations of the diameter in the plane x+y+z^Q. #. ^. that the lines x ~~ y z .1 .172 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY Consider any point (/. 4z/ 2 f 5z 2 =l. If three conjugate diameters vary so that OP. the fixed planes lines. we r or i 1 y r a =(2a~ a ). h) on the 2 _i_ I ellipsoid S 2 x* or o +2/ "To 1 22 62 __i A c Let the three conjugate diametral planes "be tangent planes to a sphere with centre (/. . p%. 7r 2 . 2y=5z are conjugate. Exercises 1. the two diameters and #=0. to .with respect to the comcoid 3*c 2 +?/ 2 2z 2 =l. on any two given ^3. The distance of (/. x/lQ=y**> 2/2.T= J?/ == s== T'^IIcplf' 3. we have Sfa') l r ts?L. g. OQ lie respectively in 5. PQ Ttj. show that the locus of OR is the cone . "34' l2 "3"" Show {z that for the %x$y 4. What are the equations of the third conjugate diameter ? 2. 7&) and radius r. be the projections of three conjugate diameters then pi^iip^z^'P^^ * s constant.
HB. (D. If one of the three extremities P(x. Prove that the plane PQR touches the ellipsoid at the centroid of the triangle PQR. . 7. The enveloping cone from a point P to the ellipsoid 2# 2/a2 =l has. 10. OQ. Hons. OQ. perpendiculars H HA .V. (# 2 . is OR respectively . (2/1. 2/2 2 2) ( x& 2/3> z a) be the extremities of three conju gate diameters of the ellipsoid show that the equation of the plane through the three points (x l9 x 2 . Hons. that any two sets of conjugate diameters of the ellipsoid (Deduce from. OR are conjugate diameters of an ellipsoid At Q and R distances from 0. 1945} that the plane lx\my\nz=p will pass through the extremitiesof conjugate semidiameters if a 2 * 2 + 6 2 m 2 f c 2 ^ 2 = 3p 2 8. 2/ 3 ) (i 22 *s) and that it touches the sphere 14.EXERCISES [The required locus of OR is obtained from the fact that the lines of intersection of the diametral plane of OR with the given planes are conjugate lines. 2/2. 1958} lie Show quadric cone. HC conjugate diameters OP. three generating lines parallel to conjugate diameters of the ellipsoid . on a . Example 3. Show 9. If (a?!. Find the locus of the foot of the perpendicular from the centre of the ellipsoid to the plane PQR.U. OP.U. 1948) 11. angles to OP is p. [Ans. = 12. 2/1. Zj). a*x2 + b2y2+c*z2 3(x2+y2+z2)2. show that constant. page 171). Prove that tangent lines are drawn parallel to OP and p^ p% are The perpendicular from O to the tangent plane at 9 their right (D.] From a fixed point are drawn to the 6. 2/i Zj) of conjugate diameters kept fixed. show that the locus of the line joining the centre to the centroid be of the triangle PQR is the cone 13. V^4+ 62 + C2 ~ 2 X x ' (B. show that the locus of P is the ellipsoid ^2~ 15. Show that the locus of the centre of the section of the ellipsoid by the plane PQR is the ellipsoid # 2 /a 2 Prove that this locus coincides with the locus of the controid of the triangle PQR. a? 8 ).
y*fb* = 2z/c. (i) The Hyperbolic Paraboloid x*/a* . The Elliptic Paraboloids z2 /a2 +^ 2 /& 2 ==2z/c. Hence the surface is entirely on the z=0. (Hi) The sections by the planes plane. Principal planes. 29 (i) The coordinate planes x=0 cular to them and are. are similar ellipses z= k. parallel to the XT whose centres lie on Zaxis and which increase in size as k increases there being no limit to the increase of k. 891. surface on the negative side of the *c We no part of the have taken positive. . The Fig. . (c>0) 892.ZX planes are clearly parabolas. Ex. y = Q are the two Principal planes. is and (ii) z cannot be negative. The surface may thus be supposed to be generated by the variable ellipse (i). Trace the surface x*la2+y*lb*^ 2zjc. 29 shows the nature of the surface. (k>0).174 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY Paraboloids Having discussed the nature and geometrical properties of central conicoids. its and ?/=0 bisect chords perpenditwo planes of symmetry or hence there plane z = 0. and extends to infinity. (iv) The section of the surface by planes positive side of the plane parallel to the YZ and . therefore. this surface : We have the following particulars about Y Fig. 8*9. we now proceed to the consideration of paraboloids. The coordinate planes x = 0.
b *==() and a = f b .. mr+p. the real axis is parallel to Faxis. It follows from this that the plane sections of paraboloids are conies. The two equations considered in the last two articles are clearly both included in the form This equation represents an elliptic paraboloid if a and 6 are both positive and a hyperbolic paraboloid if one is positive and the other negative Hence for an elliptic paraboloid ab is positive but. '(ii) principal planes.LINE (ii) AND A PARABOLOID 175 The sections by the planes z2 v2 &_ a 2"~6 2 ~~c zk are the similar hyperbolas ' 2k ? 7* ' with their centres on Zaxis. . *=0. and if k be negative. planes are The section by the planes parallel to YZ and ZX parabolas. 30 shows the nature of the surface. The Intersection of a line with a paraboloid. The Note. The section by the plane 2=0 is the pair of lines a (Hi) = f. * Fig. or^ both negative. thus see that every line meets a paraboloid in two points. 8*93. The reader would do well to give precise definitions of (i) vertex. . ab is negative..(A) for the two values of r r2 (ai 2 which are the roots of the quadric equation +6m2 )+2r(aZa+6mpcn) + (aa 2 +6p 2 ~2c7) = We . for hyperbolic paraboloid. Note. Fig. the real axis of the hyperbola is parallel to Jaxis. nr+y) . The geometrical results deducible from the equation a# 2 f62/ 2 =2c2 will hold for both the types of paraboloids. 30. points of intersection of the line I m __ ~~~ n with the paraboloid are (Jr+oc. (Hi) axis of a paraboloid. If & be positive.
The polar plane of the point (a. z=0 the normal thereat. The is tangent plane to ax 2 +by* ^2cz at any point (a. 8*93 above. parallel tfie surface at the origin only. In particular. and is a plane at right angles to the 2axis . may touch the paraboloid ^ a b ax*+by*=2cz.. Such lines are called diameters of the paraboloid. Locus of the point of intersection 3. we deduce certain results similar to those obtained for central conicoids. 3) be three mutually perpendicular tangent planes. on 7 n / Thus the plane touches the surface (1) for all values of I. 4. m. 7) is . Condition of Tangency.176 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY Also. . 7) are c 5.. Equations of the normal at aoc 6f (a. the axis of the paraboloid. Zaxis meets 1. J3.1 2 2n r (l > x+m y + n z)+c(^+ r r JYI 2 \ ^)==0. the locus of their is obtained by eliminating Z r ra r nr . then. . one value of r is infinite and hence any lineto Zaxis meets the paraboloid in one point at an infinite distance from (a. y) and so meets it in one finite point only. (3. therefore.(1) + 2np c p > and the point of contact. (3. The proofs of some of them are left as an exercise to the student. is the tangent plane at the origin and 2axis is called the vertex of the The origin paraboloid and Zaxis. which ispoint of intersection done by adding the three equations and is. From the equation (A) 8'94. . The condition that the plane 2.. If . n. 7) on the surface is In particular.. (r=l 9 2. p. if /=w=0. is ~ lc an me ) \ / . the axis of the paraboloid. of the three mutually perpendicular tangent planes.
(ii) (8. 8. to be the diametral plane for the system of parallel chords with direction ratios Ax+By +D = Ala. p. is 9. which passes through the is line ttsa&efwylnz p=0. (IV w' / Za tit* + mm'r>p'n'p)+u'* f fr . is the plane alx bmy ~cn Q + which is parallel to Zaxis. by comparison. Bib. (D. direction ratios m. (a. 3. 7). 9. Hons. P. (ii) 6y 2=6 touches *l/2y*/3* . Exercises 1.e.2np \ J = 0. The locus of chords bisected at a point 7) is the plane This plane will meet the paraboloid in a conic whose centre at (a. cz c7 = the polar plane The equation of the enveloping J5L l cylinder having its generators parallel to the line = JL=JL m n . 177 (a. thus. Q parallel to the axis of the paraboloid Any plane is easily seen.U. The plane is called a diametral plane conjugate to the given direction. the paraboloid and find the coordinates of the points of contact. of midpoint of a system of parallel chords with n. . The focws I. Show (*) that 4t/ the plane 2# the plane 8x z3=0 touches the paraboloid 3:222/2=32 . is (ax*+by 2 z 2cz)(al +bmz )=(alxibmycn) 2 en Its plane of contact is the plane alx & ww/ + = 0.. Any plane parallel to the axis of a paraboloid is. j3. p. the axis of the paraboloid. 2. 5). 7). Show that the equation to the two tangent planes to the surface [Ana. Die. The equation of the is as its vertex SS l T 1z enveloping cone with the point y) y i. (a. a dia metral plane. Its plane of contact with the paraboloid is ao# + b$y of the vertex 7. 1958) 3). (i) (3.EXERCISES 6.
g. 4). Show that the centre of the conic 6. h). Therefore there are five points on a paraboloid the normals at a given point. h) . 7). bisected by the Number of normals from a given point. g.e. 195. this cone contains the five normals from as its generators. (a. in particular. g.c(6a) _/ pQ' y 9 ab ( z *) r is the Cor. 4) which 7. (/. 3. As in 8*36. through a given point five normals. i. 4# 3t/ z+5=0. (3. 5. 4. the axis of the paraboloid. to each of which there corresponds a point (a. gives five values of r. [Ans. 3. h) to intersect the eubio curve (Hi) generate the quadric cone g . in general. p. can be drawn to a paraboloid.178 3. */ ___ and. 8*95. then /a so that Since (a. the locus of the centres of a system of parallel plane sections of a paraboloid is a diameter. ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY Tangent planes at two points P and Q of a paraboloid meet in the line show that the plane through RS and the middle point of PQ is parallel to US . diametral plane \Qx24y=2l of the paraboloid 5x 2 >6yZ= Iz. Find the equation of the plane which cuts the paraboloid #2 i2/ 2 =z in a conic with its centre at the point (2. Cor. being an equation of the fifth degree in r. ( f t g. If the normal at 7) passes through a given point (/. 1. we have the relation which. p. 2. from (i). M~M (/p = fcy ^c = =r ' (say) = 7) lies on the paraboloid.. page. h) to the surface are the points of intersection of the surface with the cubic curve which pass through where parameter. it can be shown that the feet of the five normals from the point. Show that is the point \ an &2 ' bn 2 1 where = I 2 a b is Find the chord through the point (2. Lines drawn from (/.
179 Conjugate diametral planes* Consider any two diametral planes Q.are . then p is parallel to the chords bisected by a. Show that the diametral planes x conjugate for the paraboloid Two (i) and . such that the plane a is parallel to the chords bisected by the plane P. <ii) such planes are called Conjugate diametral planes..(.(i) Q. Ex.. ..*) The symmetry of the result shows that the plane (?) is also parallel to the chords bisected by the plane (ii).+ mm' ^=0. Thus if a and p be two diametral planes.(ii) The plane (i) bisects chords parallel to the line x y (ii) z Tfc^mlb^pTc which will be parallel to the plane IV 9 if . ... Equation (iv) is the condition for the diametral planes to be conjugate. .CONJUGATE DIAMETRAL PLANES 8*96..
now proceed to determine the nature. Nature of the plane section of a central conicoid.. We We We shall shall first consider the sections of central conicoids. is x 2 (an2 f cl~) f. we assume that the orthogonal projection of a parabola is another parabola.. The plane 2=0 which is perpendicular to the generating lines of the cylinder cuts it in the conic whose equations are 3 2 = 0. therefore. plane lx+my+nz=p.. conicoid.. r or bd*+cam*+abn* ^ <0. the lengths. To deter mine by the the nature of the section of the central conicoid. The equation to . the direction ratios of the axes of any plane section of a given. x (an + cl ) + 2clmxy+ y*(bn f cm 2 ) 2cplx 2cpmy+ (cp 2 .(2} 1 having its from (1) and (2).CHAPTER IX PLANE SECTIONS OF CONICOIDS have seen that all plane sections of a conicoid are9*1. also the given section ellipse according as is a parabola. and which is the projection of the given section on the plane 2 2 2 25 = 0.(cp n 2 ) = 0. While determining the nature of plane sections of conicoids. obtained by eliminating 2 ) 2cplx 2cpmy\. . The hyperbola or projection and. and then: of paraboloids.n 2 ) = 0. of a hyperbola another hyperbola and of an ellipse is another 9*2. and conies. ellipse or in some cases a circle.y z (bn 2 + cm2 the cylinder passing through the section and generators parallel to Zaxis. L> Thus we find that the section ") is a parabola a hyperbola f bcl 2 an ellipse ^according as j +cam 2jrabn 2 ^ [^ > .2clmxy j.
..AREAS OF PLANE SECTIONS 181 Axes of central plane section. by the central .(4) (ar l)x +(6r 2 2 l)2/ +(cr 2 2 2 ~l)z =0. Take a concentric sphere * 2 +</ 2 . To determine the lengths 9*21. is r2 2 which are the the If A 5 plane (2) v be the direction ratios of the axis of length touches the cone (4) along the line (JL. the plane touches the cone..(1) plane lx+my+nz=Q.(6) :and is. equally inclined to the axes of the section. V(bcl +cam2 +abn2 =: . 9V ) . 2 2 ! +_* cr 2 a _ 2 2 !' or 2 (bcl +cam*+abn*)r*[(b+c)l 2 +(c+a)m +(a+b)n 2 ]r* f(/ +m 2 +ra )0. therefore. 9 2 . The The is lines joining the origin to the points oone whose equation.(3) extremities of all the semidiameters of length r of the <. Now. (2) cuts this cone in two generators which determine the directions of two equal diameters of length 2r of the section and which are.. 2(JL V .(2) +zW 2 .. .. The plane In case 2r becomes the length of either axis of the section. the generators coincide and. obtained by making 2 (1) on this curve form a and (3) homogeneous.. identical with which {6) is the equation of the tangent plane at any point of the line so that we have I m n axis of length 2r . therefore... its area =7^1 ?*=& 1 * TTT^. the condition for the plane (2) to touch the cone (4) is * *L ar 2 !^ 4.. . r being Areas of plane sections. If the plane section be an ellipse. 2r.(5) which a quadric in r and has two roots r^ squares of the semiaxes of the section. therefore.omcoid lie on the curve of intersection of the conicoid and the sphere. <and direction cosines of the section of the central conicoid az 2 +fy2 +cz 2 =l.. which determine the direction ratios of the given by the equation (5). the generator of contact being one of the axes. 9*22.
p. and the condition for the same to contain the second line 2 1 is al 1 l 2 +bm m +cn also n 2 ==0. m2(c = n2( 6) . or 9*24. we have r .(2) The condition (2) is (2). 2 + (c+a)m +(a+b)n 2 2 =0. Condition for the section to be a rectangular hyperbola* and hence (b+c)! Ex. is The quadric lines in (1) will bisect chords of the section see that each of them must belong to the diametral plane conjugate to the other. n*(a 6)=Z 2 (6 c) . a hyperbola or a./(*. or w=0. jOL^JL^JL. the one sought. To find the w=0. be the length of the perpendicular from the origin to the tangent plane to the conicoid. ..182 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY If. 2 ) The conditions Z for a circle are a) = 0.. v(bcl 2 2 +cam f jabn f . we Now is aliX + bm y + cr^ z = 1 ] . Obtain the condition that the section of the conicoid Ix \rny \nzp by the plane circle should be a parabola. . pV(abc) For a rectangular hyperbola. m m Z a l Tij 12 2 n2 m to be the axes of the section by the plane through the same. lx}my+nz~^s we have z parallel to the given plane ._ ) I 1 area=  . lx+my+nz= which is ^ ( + T +). In addition to we have for the axes are necessarily perpendicular. condition for two lines ' OL^IL^JL. l*(bc)=m*(ca). an 9*21 ellipse. the diametral plane conjugate to As each of the two parallel to the other. from the equation 5 of (For a circle r 1 2 = r 2 [Ans.+!#+) V \a b c / so that the 9*23.
in which 2. z) where cosines. p. n between on the surface (2) and (3).EXAMPLES 183 Examples 1. i i .(3) Eliminating question. is a quadric cone. Consider any plane to the planes through lx+my+nz=Q (b . proportional to the area of the perpendicular central section the locus of their extremities is a quadric show that x a + ~. y=mAk. where fc'=? Hence the result. . Consider any central plane section The area of the quadric is conic (!) lx+my\nz=Q. Prove that the normals the origin lie on a quadric cone.= . n are actual direction (x.(2) is The normal to the plane (1) through the origin = _.. The condition for this plane to cut the given quadric in a rectangular hyperbola is + c)l 2 +(c+a)m?+(a+b}n2 =Q. I . m.(1) through the origin. ?.!. in which this plane cuts the given where. Lines are drawn from the centre of the quadric . k being the constant of proportionality..+ b tj a z c = constant. we see that the normals. the length of the perpendicular from the origin to the tangent plane parallel to the plane (1) is given by v( S T) Y  sa where we have supposed that I. lie 7. Planes are drawn through the origin so as to cut the quadric in rectangular hyperbolas. m n " . vTt i znAk I . xlAk. y... We require the locus of the point m.
(vii) Now. 4.(a _~ Let m i ni .. cn 2 =0. ?2 m 2. Therefore m. y __ z line m n I The axes being perpendicular to each other. ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY Show that the axes of the sections of the surface a. eliminating locus as required. 1924) .u. (ii) and (in) are coplanar. mi. Zj/ 2 + Wjmg h n^s Also as in 9 '24. which pass through the line I = m y n' lie on the cone (b~6)( y). be the principal axes of any section through the given x _. (ca)(nxlz) .(fw) = 0. we have = 0. ^2 ^rom (**) an(^ (*'*'*")> we obtain the Owe aa. ..184 3.. or n Eliminating Zt.. we have bm 2 . ^ from (fv). Also the lines (?'). (v) and (vi) 9 lm^ 0.i of a central section of the conicoid lies in the plane Show that the other lies on the cone (bc)uyz+(ca)vzx+(ab)wxy=*Q (C. page 182. we have .
a> f7?/ 102 49=0. 3. Show that all plane sections of (a. n<i from (i)..(*) Also. that the curve 2 2 fAns. (c ar/Z 1 a) + wl/m (ab) = 0.. has a radius of constant length Show that the plane section touches the cone .j2f A 2 \A 3 is constant. A 2 A$ are the areas of three mutually perpendicular central ~2 ~2 an show ..7.. + w^ + n n = + 6m m + cn n = 0. . as in 9'24. 2 is . (ii) and (iii).. or umin L (b With the help of is c) + 071^.EXERCISES "Oet 185 be the two axes of a central section such that the second given plane for which we have the condition ul 2 lies in the +vm 1 2 }im 2 = 0. x/4= y/5=2. 4) and (17. sections of 4. alJz IJ 2 t 2 . which are rectangular hyperbolas and which pass through the point touch the cone   + 5. l this condition. (it") . Show Also obtain their equations. 42^/43^0 a hyperbola whose transverse axis is 6 and the direction cosines of whose axes are proportional to (6. 3.. that J. Show that the section of tho ellipsoid by the plane is an ellipse with semiaxes 1/2 and ^7(9/22). AI. 6. 2 l 2 (iii) Eliminating I 2t ra a . ellipsoid . cfa lies + af6 Any plane whose normal on the cone cuts the surface in a parabola. 9). ^=2/= J. 22. we have = 0. 2. 1 we see that the locus of the axis 1 =y/m =2/w the cone Exercises 1. The director circle of a plane central section of the ellipsoid r.
7) the centre of the section. the plane (2) is also represented by the equation so that we get =k oc . ^?2 are 8. then lll% mi??? 2 6 9. 1%. If a length PQ be taken on the normal at any point P of the ellipsoid equal in length to l^A/nabc where Zis a constant and A is the area of the section* of the ellipsoid by the diametral plane of OP. Show and by Axes of noncentral plane sections. that central plane sections of an ellipsoid of constant area touch a quadric cone. principal axes of any plane section of the quadric direction ratios of the osH 6y2 + cz 2 =l. w 2 . (say) . show that the locus of Q is C2 2 2 ( C 2H 2 ) 2 ^ ne Prove that if l^ 9 m^ n^ . __ Ik == j p == Q__& ~ j __nk / ==: C < CD Hence +cr 2 _ p or i . p. 10. If (a./ a \ 2 I 2 ' m 6 2 .ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY 7. n2 \ J > # c / If we write m we get Ip 2 n2 mp np . now. c~~ c a ~ r&iWg a b " Find the equation of the central plane section of the quadric ax*+by*+cz*=l which has one of its axes along the line [Ana. direction ratios of the section of the central conicoid plane the is Centre of the plane section. is not the origin. To determine the lengths 9*3.
lengths r lt r 2 and the direction ratios at the corresponding semi. points whose coordinates satisfy the equations^) also satisfy the equations (6). n ' which give the 9'31. 2 \ *lb+n*/cJ V/( \bcl*+cam*+abn* and that (8) if Comparing the equations (7)' with the equations (5) and (6) of the previous article. Now the conic ^(lx+my+nz) = l ~Xf.... we have ~~ its .. we get in the equa m* _P_ ~^br*~ ar* . """ n* cr* _n ' . conicoid referred to this point as origin is 1ST The equation of the or PQ PQ ...(5)' the same as the conic Q. b. Putting and replacing the a. I. central plane ....(7)' I m section. we see a. c by aid?. m. b[d*. _. c/d* respectively tions (5) and (6) of the previous article.72 V/( \b cl*+cam*+abn 2 b P 9*32.axes of the section. n respectively Area of the plane area If the section be an ellipse.(4) Also. fo+wt/+raz=0.(6) for.AREA OF THE PLANE SECTION as the coordinates of the centre of the section. is . the equation of the plane (2) becomes fa+my4nz=0. .. p be the lengths of the semiaxes of the section by theParallel plane sections.
188
ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY
then the semiaxes of the section by the parallel plane
are
or
da,
and
=p
dp,
...(10)
and the corresponding axes are parallel. Thus we see that parallel plane sections of a central conicoid are similar and similarly situated conies. Again, if A Q and A are the areas of the sections by the planes (9) and (10), we have
^
and
Thus
Note. pfojQ can easily bo seen to be the ratio of tlio lengths of the perpendiculars from the centre to the given plane and to the parallel tangent plane.
Examples
that the area of the section of an ellipsoid by a plane which passes through the extremities of three conjugate semidiameters is in a constant ratio to the area of the parallel central section.
1.
Show
Consider the ellipsoid
Let P(xly ylt zj, Q(x 2 y 2 z 2 ), E(x3) y3 z 3 ) be the coordinates of the extremities of three conjugate semidiameters of the ellipsoid. The equation of the plane PQR is
, , ,
The
central plane parallel to* (1)
is
Re writing these equations as
Ix+my+nz=l
9
see that the ratio of the areas of the
two sections
<
9 32)
'
Again
2
o
Oj
making use of relations Hence the result.
C,
D of
8*8.
CIRCULAR SECTIONS
2.
189>
Find
the angle between the asymptotes of the conic
ax2 +by z +cz 2 =l, Ix+my + nzp.
Let
be the required angle.
If f i 2 , r 2 2 be the squares of the semiaxes of the conic,
we have
Exercises
N*
Find the lengths and directions of the axes of the section of the ellipsoid 62/2{ 1432=3 by the plane z+y+z=*l. [Ans. A, (22)44, (4, 5, 1), (2, 1, 3).
1.
V
2.
Show
that the plane #+i/f2=l cuts the quadric
in a hyperbola
3.
and
find the direction ratios of its axes.
Show that the plane
x\Zy\3z~
[Ana. cuts the conicoid
3, 1,2
;
1,
5,4.
in a parabola, the direction cosines of
4.
The
ellipsoid
x 2 J2?/ 2 f32 2 =l
sections
whose axis are proportional to is cut by parallel planes
2.sH3?/+4z=3
;
1, 4,
3.
2x}3?/+ 42=2,
show that the areas of the
5.
planes are in the ratio 59 Find the locus of the centres of the sections of the ellipsoid
made by the
:
29.
^2
which are of constant area
7r/c
2
,
Ans
[
9*4.
.
Circular Sections.
To
determine the circular sections of the
ellipsoid
Writing the equation of the ellipsoid in the form
^
+y, +2,_ a
two planes
we
see that the
meet the
ellipsoid
where they meet the sphere
in
but as a plane necessarily cuts a sphere
planes
(2)
a
circle,
we
find that
the
cut the ellipsoid
(1) in circles.
190
Similarly, if
ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY
we
rewrite the equation (1) in the forms
,
...(4)
we
find that the planes
and
cut the ellipsoid in circles.
Thus there are
in
circles.
2
three pairs of central planes
which cut an
ellipsoid
If a >6 2 >c 2 > the second of these equations only gives real planes so that in this case the real pair of central planes of circular sections
is
*
a
2 2 V(a &
)
c
2 2 V(& c )=0.
..(5)
Since parallel sections are similar, the two systems of planes
and
''which
are parallel to those given by the equations (5) cuL the ellipsoid in
circles for all values
o/A and
[JL.
9*41.
lie
Any
two circular sections of an ellipsoid of opposite systems
on a
sphere.
Let
a
vV& +
2
)
c
2 2 V(6 c )=A
and
a
V(
f
6 1
)
c
V(&
2
 c2 =
)
I*,
be the equations of the planes of any two
.systems.
circular sections of opposite
The conicoid

z 2 V( & )
a 2 V(& c )n
=o,
...(i)
EXERCISES
191
which passes through the two
represent a sphere,
if
fc
circular sections for all values of k, will
can be chosen so that
~^~
+ ~~~tf
^
6
'
^T*
9
c*
Now,
>clearly satisfies these
k=l/b* two equations.
fc
Substituting this value of
in (1),
we
get
c
d
<which represents the sphere through the two circular sections. Hence the proposition is proved.
Exercises
1.
Show
that the real central circular sections of the hyperboloids
are given by the planes
A/(
2
+ c 2 )=0
and
^
Also show that any two circular sections of opposite systems in the case of either hyperboloid ho on a sphere.
2.
Find the
10o;2
real circular sections of the following conicoids
:
(ii)
2?/2+z2+2=0.
[A us.
[Ans.
(rii)
15a;2_ 2/ 2__iO2__4 == 0.
4^+32=X,
4^32 = ^.
Find the equation of the sphere which contains the two circular sections of the ellipsoid a; 2 3?/ 2 2^ 2 =4 through the point (1, 2, 3).
3.
[Ans.
4.
x
Find the radius of the
c
circle in
which the plane
cuts the ellipsoid
circle
Obtain the equation of the sphere which passes through the given circle of the opposite system and determine the radius of the circle in which the given plane cuts it.] Show that the circularsections of the ellipsoid 5.
[Hint.
and any
passing through one extremity of Xaxis are both of radius,
r,
where
Zi = ^z
62
6.
2
~o2C*"
ellipsoid at
Prove that the radius of a circular section of the
is
a distance
p from the centre
6\/(l
p 2 6 2 /a 2c 2 ).
192
ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY
Show that the locus of the centres of the spheres which pass through* 7. the origin and cut the ellipsoid
in a pair of real circles
is
the hyperbola
Pj,
e lengths of the perpendiculars from the extremities If PI, >2 #3 De of conjugate semidiameters on one of the planes of central circular sections of the ellipsoid,
8.
,
P2 P 3
^
then show that
Pi
9.
2
+P2 2 +P3 2 =aWlb*.
its
(B.U. 1931)
vertex at the centre of the ellipsoid If the is a circular section of the ellipsoid. cone contains three mutually perpendicular generators, prove that the distance of the section from the centre of the ellipsoid is
is
drawn with 2 2 2 2 2 2 cc /a +2/ /6 f2 /c =l and its base
cone
A
obc
942.
Umbilics.
on a quadric such that the planes parallel to the tangent plane at the point determine circular sections on the surface
Def.
is
A point
called
an umbilic.
Clearly, umbilic is a pointcircle which lies on a quadric. are the extremities of the diameters which passthe centres of the systems of circular sections. through
The umbilics
To determine
the real umbilics of the ellipsoid,
If/, g, h be an umbilic, the tangent plane
at the point
is
parallel to either of the central circular sections
2 5 V(a &
)
ct
c
Q == ^ anci
tf
~
,
.
ay(a
n a
rrr
6
2
"i"
)
But
Hence
f2
a2
^+fr
These are the coordinates of the four real umbilics.
Exercises
1.
Show
that the hyperboloid of one sheet has no real umbilics.
193 Find the real umbilics of tho hyperboloid a 2 y a z2 3. To determine the nature of the section of the paraboloid by the plane lx+my{nz=p. and ra^O then. 9*51. by projecting on the If Z plane_. that the four real nmbilics of an ellipsoid lie upon a circle. therefore. 0. Let also represented y) be the centre of the section so that the plane by the equation (2) is Comparison gives gg__ffi_ ~~ I ~c a ~~ m~~ n p . If n^O.P. Find the umbilics of the 2 ellipsoid 2z + 3# 2 +6z 2 =6. Prove that the perpendicular distance from the centre to the tangent 5. (K/.. Sections of paraboloids.SECTIONS OF PARABOLOIDS 2. or hyperbola according as a 2 ra 2 n a an an*(am*+bl 2 )<{ f< =0 or abn 2 ! 2 Thus for a parabola n=0.cl*)z + the section is 3 > = 0. Axes of plane sections of paraboloids. the section will be an ellipse or hyperbola according as ab is positive or negative that is according as the paraboloid is elliptic or hyperbolic. parabola. The projection and. (U. ellipse. Let 1 7^0 so that the plane As in 9*3. p. the equations of the projection of the section on the YZ plane are 2 2 i z 2apmy also 2(apn f.. Thus we have proved that all the sections of a paraboloid which Z=ra=0 an ellipse or are parallel elliptic of an to the axis of the surface are parabolas all other sections paraboloid are ellipses anil of an hyperbolic paraboloid are : hyperbolas. is not perpendicular to the YZ plane. To determine the lengths and the direction ratios of the section of the paraboloid aza +fy2 =2c2. If clearly then n cannot be equal to zero and the section is then hyperbola according as ab is positive or negative. by the .(1) plane (a. we get a = XZ similar result. 4. [Ana. Show 9*5. 1937) plane at an uinbilic of the ellipsoid is ac/6.
2 2c . ) ^ +&{\ r/ 2/ y fcc / mc\ a T. .N an) *C 7 2 .194 Therefore ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY a= an .=2c{\ Z + 0n* bnJ ft . the equation of the plane (2) now becomes Now lx+my+ nz=0. B= bn > If we write 7 Z 2 m Zc 2 *T+T+T' we find that the centre of the section / is Tip me 9 kc\ ' \ an bn w2 / referred to this point as the The equation of the paraboloid origin is a{ f \ o a.. are the generators of the cone a ^)~2V0 The plane will touch this cone if .(Ix+my+nz) Also. the conic V t'/ r y+w2=0 is J the same as the conic Let us write pQ *^c(kc+np)=c[^+ ~+2np The semi. ) or ax*+by* .diameters of length r of the conicoid 1 J..(4) or .
therefore. 2 +am 2 fbl 2 =0. 2 2 is a quadratic equation in r and has two roots r^ r 2 2 which are the squares of the semiaxes of the section. we deduce that the angle between the . 2. the plane (2) touches the cone (4) along the line is.AREA OF THE SECTION which . its area 9*54. identical with ( so that we have m which determine the direction . section. Exercises 1. 9*53. Thus we see that parallel plane sections of a paraboloid are similar. 195 . v be the direction ratios. AlsOj if A. 2. ratios of the axis of length 2r r being The section will be rectangular hyperbola. Area of the section. JA.given from the equation (5). rthen as in If 6 be the angle between the asymptotes of the Ex. n . page 189. of the axis of length 2r. if This requires (a+b)n Ex. Show that the section of the paraboloid ft>y a tangent plane to the cone 6 a a rectangular hyperbola. If the section be elliptic. Prove that the axis of the section of the conicoid az%+by2=s2z by the splane lx+my+nz=Q lie on the cone (is (a b)n__ . 9*52. 9*5 Obtain the conclusion of with the help of equation of this article.asymptotes of parallel plane sections is the same. (V+ r 2 2 2 ) which being independent of #.
one will be real if a and 6* a>6>0...(3) (a&)&2:=0 > determine circular sections through the origin. 2/22=X*. (2> . no real circular sections. the two pairs of planes 8 y(6a)cw and f a! o. Umbilics of a paraboloid. as before. Circular sections of paraboloids. 3 2 (a6)6z a =0. Hence hyperbolic paraboloids have pairs of planes (2) and sign. ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY If the area of the section of be constant and equal to nk 2 the locus of the centre . Show that any two lie circular sections of opposite systems of : an elliptic paraboloid 2. If a or 6 is negative and the other positive. To determine the circular tections of the paraboloid The equation (1) can be written in the forms Therefore. is 9*6. XT/iaty^bz If / Q> h ^ e an umbilic. real systems a?V(a b) Exercises 1. Of the two are of the same In case (3). To determine the umbilics of the parctboloid Circular sections are determined by the planes x\/(ab)+<\/'bz~'h. real circular sections of the paraboloid . 2x3y=l. neither of the equations (2) and (3) gives real planes. the tangent plane afx+bgyc(z+h)**Q thereat is parallel to ^either of the circular sections. 0. and the two \/bz (Jt. Find the [Ans. [Ans. 9*61. on a sphere. .196 3. gives real circular sections through the origin of circular sections are given by A.
~~ .O/^ (ii) A ( a b)c~\ J the two real umbilics of the paraboloid. Ex. 1. (i) (0. n IT ~~s~ir 2ab b Hence i . . t) . [Ans. Find the umbilics of the paraboloids (**) 4^2 + 5^2 = 40 2 2 2. 9/800). 0. Therefore. (n) (db3/100.UMBILICS OF A PARABOLOID 197 Also.
\ b / b On eliminating A from these. 2 7/ We rewrite the equation a2+ 4 y 2 z _ _1 a 62 v i ' m (1> of a hyperboloid of one sheet in the form l_fl _i_. the (2) the equal fractions respectively. Now it will be shown that every point of each of the lines (A) and ..(2) c V_ X a Z J?Li_?L "*" a c b c or =*z /ox (3) We consider.. member a _. c \ of the family (A). we obtain which relation shows that (SQ . 2/ . (B) lies on the hyperboloid (1).CHAPTER X GENERATING LINES OF CONICOIDS 10*1. This may again be written in either of the two forms x a 'b z i\y b . two families of lines obtained by putting and (3) equal to arbitrary constants A and \L To each value of the constant A corresponds a member of the family of lines (A) and to each value of the constant \L corresponds a member of the family of lines (B). If (xQ9 y Q z ) be any point of a we have obtained for some value A of . Generating lines of the hyperboloid of one sheet. now.. 3 ) is a point of the hyperboloid (1) ..
generator of 10*11. member Through every point of the hyperboloid there passes one each system. we obtain ( 1 or for A +=O or y =~ b > for Thus we see that these four equations are accordingly the two lines do not intersect. passes through the given point (z . No two generators of the same system Let fT'C'f )<'+ f be any two different generators of the A system. . A has a value +f)/^)Now. through the point (x ?/ z equal to each of the two fractions ) if. ZQ ). 10*12. zQ ) be any point of the hyperboloid so that we have Now the line a will pass __JL =A c (if). Let (xQ . from (ii) y=6. of. and (B) of each of which lies wholly on the hyperboloid.JLb J b \ . and only if. we obtain (AiA 2 ) Again. we get two families of lines (A) [i vary. yQ . intersect. Subtracting (Hi) from (i). We shall now proceed to discuss some properties of these systems of generating lines. Similarly it can be shown that the member of the system (B) corresponding to either of the equal values . [i.GENERATING LINES 199 A each Thus as X and similar proof holds for the family of lines (B). These two families of lines are called two systems of generating lines (or generators) of the hyperboloid. 1)=0 and (iv). are equal. these two fractions Thus the member of the system (A) corresponding to . yQ . either of the equal values (5) of A will pass through the given point (x y z ). inconsistent and . H. by virtue of the relation (4).
2. and 2 c (ii). The planes __y_) b J _ fc r L pass through the two lines respectively for all values of k and Now. 1. Now (i) and (Hi) give Substituting this value of ?/ in > (i) a. lAtj also. z satisfy (lv) Thus the two lines intersect and the point of intersection is A ^ Another method. Also obtained by putting IC^\L or &'=A is ' * A+fx Cor. a AHfA 6 Afpt c the plane (7) through two generators of the opposite systems is the tangent plane to the hyperboloid (1) at the point of intersection (6) of the two generators. Let be two generators. (ii) and (Hi).  . . one of each system. Firstly.200 10" 13. \L and fc'=A. y. Now. the plane through the two and as such they intersect. these values of x. ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY Any two generators belonging to different systems intersect. . obviously these equations become identical for lc k'. the section of the hyperboloid by any plane through a generator is a Now Cor. 2=0. through a generating line is the tangent plane Now like every plane section. we solve simultaneously the equations (i). Since also through every point of the hyperboloid there pass two generators. we see that the tangent plane at a point of hyperboloid meets the hyperboloid in the two generators through the point. on adding and subtracting. Any plane at some point of the generator. as may easily be seen. Thus the two lines are coplanar lines. ~ we 2 obtain x a z 2A(ji c ~Ajf>t a These give. one of each system.
5. [i being the two parameters. 2. 9 M. 1  The co x=a 14. Ex.U. 2). A=2. .writing the given equation the form we see that the equations of the two systems of generating lines of ~the hyperboloid are JL_ 2 f * The generators for (i) and (ii) pass through the points (10.GENERATING LINES 201 conic of which the given generator is a part. 1948) Re. At the point of intersection of the lines constituting this degenerate plane section. (D. . (m) (v) ~+z =ly . 3. . of u.. (x= and A=f fz=l respectively.are pairs of generators through the two points. 2) . These coordinates satisfy the equation of the hyperboloid for all values of the parameters A and (JL. Parametric ordinates (6) show that Equations . Example Find four the lengths of the side of the generators of the hyperboloid skew quadrilateral formed by the which pass through the two points (10. (w) .. Cor. . the hyperboloid.. the plane will touch the hyperboloid. 1) (14. 1) and (14. 2. in 5. A A+ 2/= y ALL  JJL' are the parametric equations of the hyperboloid A.. therefore. Prove this result analytically also.A.Apt. Thus the conic is degenerate and the residue must also be a line. The two .
The lengths of the sides are now easily seen to be V(98)/16. cc 4x3y+ 22+4 = 0. the equations of the two generating lines through any point (a cos b sin 0. 2 == 9. 10*2. (V. m sin 6 r i a b These give 1 __ m b cos _ a sin .. n be any generator through the point (a cos 0.202 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY Solving in pairs (m). z=3. b sin Let x a cos 6 I m b sin 0. Exercises Write down the equations of the two systems of generating lines of the following hyperboloid and determine the pair of lines of the systems which pass through the given point. \/(7970)/16. 3?/ . m sin in r must be an identity. 4Xa?+ 3X2/~62 = 12 4x3y~6\iz=12[L 9 ^+3t/4^2=3 . The point (Ir+a cos 6. i. This will be so and I cos 6 . V2/3. nr) all on the generator Thus the equation is a point of the hyperboloid for 8)* _ . 4z3?/+6X2=12X. of the principal elliptic section of the hyperboloid by the plane z=0. 2=2. (i) #f3tJi2/2=3X. (v)> we see that the two other vertices of the skew quadrilateral formed by the four generators are (14. tt). V(308)/3. l x (n) 3[A2/ 2=3^. (_i 4/3> 2 ). (Ir+a cos ________ a 2 f (mr+b  r sin 0) a __7i2_ cos if values of r~ 2 ^t 2 " . ? [Ans. H.). a. To find 6. 0). 0). ( ^ 1/3) _ 1}< (t) *2+9?/2_ 2 a/9y2/16+z2/4 = l. mr+b sin 0. (n) 1. (vi) and (iv).
jx = cot (in 40).y b sin 6 cos 0^3 c . a sin or a. . ?/  sin b . Show that (A) and (B) are equivalent to (C) for (ire projections of the generators of a hyperboloid on any principal plane are tangents to the section of the hyperboloid by the principal plane. v= . the X=tan To show that 0). 2=0. 2/=0 sec a tan c = 1. r =1. is often found more useful than the forms (A) and (B) obtained in Ex. which is clearly the tangent to the section of the hyperboloid by the principal plane y~0 at the point (a sec 0. 0. as the two required generators. Note. c tan 0).GENERATING LINES 203* Thus we obtain xa cos a sin 0___. which clearly a tangent line to the section of the hyperboloid by the principal plane z=Q at the point (a cos 0. we see that the two systems of lines" to 2n are the two systems of generators varies from obtained from (C) as of the hyperboloid. Since every generator of either system meets the plane z=0 at a point of the principal elliptic section. . Consider any generator x a cos a sin y b sin 6 cos __ z ' c The equation x a cos a sin y b sin b cos represents the plane through the generator perpendicular to the XOY~ plane is plane so that the projection of the generator on the XOY x a cosj?_yfr sin ' __ ~~" ~ a sin or 6 cos # x cos a is + . The form (C) of the equations of two systems of generators 10* 1. 10'3. Again x a cos 0__ a sin is z c the plane through the generator perpendicular to the XOZ plane so* that the projection of the generator on the XOZ plane is z x a cos . b sin 0. 0).
and (iv) RQS=W . . /?. Let R (xi. the volume of the tetrahedron PSQR is constant and equal to iabc.*204 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY Similarly we may show that the projections of the generators on the principal plane x touch the corresponding section. zj be either of the two points of intersection of the generators. (a cos <.sin \(0 + <l>} ' sin (0< The question can.?yi_??i 62 c 2 == i "a* at R meets the plane 2 of the principal elliptic section in the line which is the line joining the points P. be solved by solving simultaneously the equations of the generators obtained in 10'2. 0) of the principal elliptic section of the liyperloloid a?la* are + y*lb*z*lc* = l . PSQR taken in order. is con 2 (Hi) cot afoot2p = (a 2 + 62)/ c 2 where /_RPS=2(X. show that 1. Example that points of intersection systems drawn through the points Show E S 9 of the generators of opposite (a cos 6. The tangent plane r ^j. of course. b sin 6. Exercises are the points of intersection of generators of opposite systems drawn at the extremities F. Q of semi conjugate diameters of the principal elliptic section . iS (i) the locus of the points R S are the ellipses 9 (ii) the perimeter of the skew quadrilateral stant and equal to 2 (a 2 +6 2 f 2c 2 ) . but we shall give another method which is perhaps simpler. Q whose equation is known to be Comparing these equations. 0). 2/1. we obtain Also we have we obtain Substituting these values of x l and y l in this relation. b sin ^.
show that of the principal elliptic section in points Show that the shortest distance between generators of the same system at one end of each of the major and minor axes of the principal ellipticsection of the hyperboloid 6. boloid with the cone 3.EXERCISES 2. show that the angle between the tangent plane at P and Q is . drawn 7. A variable generator of the hyperboloid P a diameter intersects generators of the same system through the extremities of and P' . prove that P lies on the curve of intersection of the hyperboloid with the cylinder Show that the generators through any one of the ends of an equi4. of the hyperboloid are parallel to the XO Y plane and lie on the surfaces Show that the lines through the origin drawn parallel to the line of* 8. shortest distance between generators of the same system through the ends of semiconjugate diameters of the principal elliptic section of the hyperboloid. Find also the [An*. variable generator meets two generators of the system through the extremities B and B' of the minor axis of the principal elliptic section of the hyperboloid 9.2) any point 22 2 P of the principal circular _ 2c 2 f such that PQ=r tanl ( r j c ) t .2 f 2. condition for the generators to be perpendicular to each other. If the generators through a point P on the hyperboloid meet the one is principal elliptic section in two points such that the eccentric angle of three times that of the other. conjugate diameter of the principal elliptic section of the hyperboloid are inclined to each other at an angle of 60 if a 2 j6 2 =6c 2 . Q is a point on a generator at section of the hyperboloid C 2(a. A in P and P'. generate the cone 2 2c 2 z 2 =0. 205 the hyperboloid The generators through a point P on meet the principal elliptic section in points whose eccentric angles differ by a* constant 2oc show that the locus of P is the curve* of intersection of the hyper. prove that 10. 5. Show that the shortest distance between generators of the same* system drawn at the extremities of the diameters of the principal elliptic section.
(5). B and the volume of the tetrahedron formed by the meet the plane generators through A and B is constant and equal to abc/4 show that the locus of P is either of the ellipses zQ To find the locus of the points of intersection 10'4.at the help of (2). The generators a2 62 c2 * W .. 9 we have. as the guiding curve.'206 11. rators. ~" nzi a* (2) and ' (3).= n 0(5). we obtain . since they lie on the planes fci my. the point meets the surface. represented by the equation (3). n* Eliminating n from (4) and we obtain If Zj.(1) *V+2/2 /& 2 2 2 /c2 ==l. . with the help of (4). ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY The generators through a point P on the hyperboloid . in A.. y l9 Zj) be any point the generators through which are are the lines in which the tangent plane . 1 m.ox . + 6* c 2 /fa. Let (#!. If. the cone with its vertex at the origin and with the curve of intersection of (1) and (2). this gives . 2/ 6a fxxi ~"^~U2+ 22 __ 2/2/1 z 62 c The curve of intersection of (1) and (2) being a pair of lines. reduces to c2 2" ^ 62 ~F+T2 a2 . Now. mi. n be the direction ratios of either of the two generators. cular generators of the hyperboloid of perpendi.reduces to a pair of planes. HI. 72 m2 . On making we obtain the equation x* " (1) homogeneous with 2 a8 + .2/2/1 __ 23 ^1 "*" 'perpendicular. Z2 > m 2> nz ^ e ^ ne direction ratios of the two gene m or Since * l y +m m +n w 2 l 2 1 8 =0.
taken in pairs.at The plane CPA through the generator PA is the tangent plane some point of PA and the plane CPE through the generator PB is the tangent plane at some point of PB. 59) at P(x l9 y l9 zj is The tangent plane 0=p(r*a*b z P P xxj yyl 2*1 ~^r+p ^T 1 . M.A. Let PA. is the perpendicular from the centre to the tangent plane at and.U. p.. n. are also mutually perpendicular. The lines PA. 1947. of the generators through this point are given by the equations n . Also the plane APE is the tangent plane at P. m. (D. this Thus we see that the point of intersection of perpendicular generators lies on the curve of intersection of the hyperboloid and the director sphere Another method. APE and BPC are the mutually perpendicular tangent planes and as such their point of intersection P lies on the director sphere. PB be two perpendicular generators through P and PC be the normal at P so that it is perpendicular to the tangent plane determined by PA and PB.(1) As in two 10*4.. BPC determined by them. Thus the three planes CPA.. r. PB. it can be shown that the direction ratios I. APB. Thus the locus of P is the curve of intersection of the hyperboloid with its director sphere. is the distance of from the centre.EXAMPLE or 6Va: 1 2 (c a or (6 207 We re. lies on the hyperboloid. Example Show that the angle 6 between the generators through cot any point P on a hyperboloid is given by +c*)/2abc. PC are mutually perpendicular and as such the three planes CPA. .write it as Since now the point reduces to (a?lf yx zj . where.
striction. Parameter of Distri position generator. 3.208 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY Proceeding as in example 1.1 p*= . The locus of central points of generators is called line of The parameter of distribution of a generator. 65. is the shortest distance and. the limit beincf taken when tends to coincide with the generator I. Z. on page 169. is where. m m . Def. angle 6 between the lines is given by . I. n ^"^ +* A V /2 ?L. the limit being taken when. we can show that ^ tan = VL j 4 2 \a* + bf+ ^JValb^^c^ + ^a^)j a 1 2 2" 1 a a Now. of the same system . m. 10*5. the angle between I lim($sl<\>) and another generator of the same system. 1. The central point of any given of its sacrifice of precision. With some Def. m. is the limiting point of intersection with the line of shortest distance between it and another generator. 8^. one may say that the central of a given generator is the point of intersection of the generator point and the shortest distance between it and a consecutive generatoi of the system. bution of a generator. & a a 4 Also the denominator of the expression for tan } tan _VL?(: 0.2 Line of Striction. the length of the perpendicular (1) at (x^ y it zj is given by 1 from the centre to the 1 . the generator Def. tends to coincide wilh I. \JJi . Central point. tangent plane p. 2.
209 We To determine the central point of a generator. 1 H 1 11.. 6(sin9 r cos?). a Z. (3) be the central point tangent plane at C on the generator r ' The equation of the C is a b Z . cr] (1). We have Since line CD PQ at . xa xa a of this system be cos? y 6 sin9 b 0089 z c . Thus we obtain sin? Let [a(r sin9 + cos9). al _ cos9 siii9' bm sin9 _ en ' sin (9' 9) or al __ sin $(9'+^) cos i(""' co&9 1 bm _ en Let 9'9. now. lies on this r cos) a or in 2 9 a ' 62 r + ~w~ + cd = f L"^^^" J . n be the direction ratios of the shortest distance PQ and Z n be those of its limit. cos 2 9 . Since the line CD with direction ratios tangent plane. is a chord of the hyperboloid. at 81119 bm cos? fen=0. Let the shortest distance between these generators meet them in P and Q respectively so that we have to find the limiting position of the point P on the generator I when 9'Kp.GENERATING LINES 10*51. we have * m . m. Let Z. m. Let C be the limit of P. w r . m ...(2) 81119' ~~b cogq/ of the same system.(i) sincp We. consider any other generator. sl sln9 cos? . its limit will be a tangent the point C. coscp' y b sin?' z c .. . consider generators of the system x a cos0 a sin0 ~~ yb sin0 b cos# z ~~ c Let any generator.
. between the two generators.cay cosJ(9'+9)+a&z cosj(9' 9) . Find the central point for a generator of the second system and that the line of striction is the same for either system. y. from above.. 10*52. is the distance of the point f . (a 0089'. show the To determine the parameter of distribution of If 6^ be the angle between the generators (1) and (2) of 10*51. tan ci od= T . I. we obtain bcx sinj(9 +9)4. generator. z) are given by 2 _q*(fr +c2 )cos9 _ 6 8 (c 2 +a 2 ) sin9 c 3 (q a ~6 2 ) sin9 0089 where Jt=a2 52 +q2 c2 cos2 9f6 2c2 sin2 9 Eliminating 9. Substituting this value of r in (3)* we see that the coordinates of the central point C(x. b sin9 0) . b 0039' z c a sin9. Then. b cos9. the equation of the plane through (i) parallel to (2) is xa a COS9. / sinj(9 which .9. 65. we have j. we see that the line of striction intersection of the hyperboloid with the cone is the curve of Ex.D. sin9'. 6. obtain Again we Now shall now find the S. c eo that on cancelling a common factor sin (9' 9). smcp 0039 0039 We we write 9'= so that 69^0 as 9'>9. yb sin9. +abc The S.210 or ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY r= so that cV(a 6 2 COS? cos 2 9+6 2c 2 sin 2 9) ' 2 +aV 2 we have obtained r.D..
Thus we see that a hyperbolic paraboloid also admits of two systems of generating lines. member 10*1 it can be shown that as A as in of each of the system of lines and [i Vary. The tangent plane at any point meets the paraboloid in two ^generators through the point. 1. 3. No two members of the same system intersect.JL b Now. Through every point of a hyperbolic paraboloid there passes one member of each system. 4. As in the case of hyperbole id of one sheet. we abc obtain ds 2 2 2 dsjdy __ a&c(a sin 9+6 10*6. 2.GENERATING LINES 211 from this plane is given by Again putting rf$ 9' =9 +6 9. . each lies wholly on the hyperbolic paraboloid (1)... We rewrite the equation z2 /a 2 2/ 2 /6 2 ==2z/c in the . Hyperbolic paraboloid. it can be shown that the following results hold good for the two systems of generating lines of a hyperbolic paraboloid also.(1) of a hyperbolic paraboloid form * 6 6 which may again be rewritten jx in either of the two forms a x__ y_ b a 2 T+ X L. Any two generators belonging to different plane through them is the and the systems intersect tangent plane at their point of inter section.
xlay/b=0. ~b Since the generator > ^__ y^te 2 ~ oxf* 4J a c ~\a + 6 lies in the plane O+i} which is parallel to the plane whatever value A may have. Example Show thai the polar lines with respect to the sphere x 2 +y*+z*=a* of the generators of the quadric x2 all lie 2 y =2az. point of intersection ofperpendicular generatorsof intersection of the paraboloid with the plane is the curve An important Note. 2 on the quadric x2 y =2az. 2 (xy)(x+y)=2az we see that the two systems of generators of this quadric are x = Symmetric form of the A generator 1 is x'ha__y\'ha_ z 1 ~2?T The polar plane of any point (r+Aa. Re. r Xa.t.212 5. It may similarly be seen that the generators of the second'system * are also parallel to a plane.writ ing the equation x2 as y ~2az. ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY The locus of the. the sphere .r. 2rA). on the A generator is w. viz.. we deduce that all the generators belonging to one system of the hyperbolic paraboloid are parallel to the plane xja+y/b=0.
a. 6. n be the direction ratios of the line of S..e.. a. 2c/p m. [Ans. bution. Central point. (JL We may similarly treat the generators.CENTRAL POINT i. x2+y*+2z*(a z +b z )xylab = Q. y) and show that the cosmos of the angle between them is on any Show that the projections of the generators of a hyperbolic paraboloid principal plane are tangents to the section by the plane. Find the direction cosines of the generators through (a. 1 of this system be x x pz y " y We.D. . Being independent of p and p' 9 we see that the line of S. between and (2). m.(2) c The If ly direction ratios of these generators are . as the direction ratios of the line of S. Find the locud of the perpendiculars from the vertex of the paraboloid 3. Exercises Obtain equations for the two systems of generating 1. consider any other generator. of the same system a . (1) a. Line of the striction. hyperbolic paraboloid lines on the and hence express the coordinates of a point on the surface as functions of two parameters. To determine  central point of any generator of the system of generators _. we see that these polar the quadric lines lie a2 y = 2az. These give I/a. 2c/p'. now. 10*71.D. a 6 9 ' " c a b Let any generator.D. we have albm+2cnlp =0. 2. 9 213 r(x+y + Z\z)+a(faG hy so that the polar line of the A generator is a) =Q on Eliminating A between these. Parameter of Distri 10*7. 6. 1/6. 0.2/a 2 z/ /62=2z/c 2 to the generators of one system. is parallel to a fixed line.
b p . and (2).214 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY Let (a?i. Wp'*p.*. 0) is a point on (2). lies on (1).D. we see that (alp' b/p'. To determine the parameter of distribution. yl9 zj be the central point of (1). between We have tan tan&J. + y. .=L. . Thus we have Also since (xt y t zj . Find the central point of a generator of the second system and showthat the corresponding line of striction is the curve of intersection of the surface with the plane 10*72. we obtain x 3 __20 _ "" 2fe 3 _2c(0 ~ is 2 ~62 ) the curve of Eliminating ^?. the limiting position of the line of S. we have Solving (3) and __ (4). is a line contained in the tangent plane at (xv yl9 zj. As in 10*51. (1) Let 8^ and 65 be the angle and the S. Let p'=p\Sp so that 6p>0 as dp Now the plane through the generator (1) and parallel to (2) is JL a Also taking 2=0. we see that the line of striction intersection of the surface with the plane Ex. V/(U . 1 "" 2 4"^ as before ds 2ab which is the parameter of distribution.D.
U... b x a a& ~rb y = 9\ f 6A. will We quadric in Condition for a line to be a generator* A straight line 10*81. hyperbolic passes one generator. cones and cylinders are ruled surfaces inasmuch as they can be generated by straight lines. The quadric equation in r obtained 2 identity if the coefficients of r separately zero.. (4) simply means that the point (a. p. We have seen that hyperboloid of one sheet and hyperbolic paraboloid each admit two systems of generators such that through each point of the surface there passes one member of each system and that two members of opposite systems intersect but no two members of the same system intersect.GENERAL CONSIDERATION Ex.. be a generator of a quadric if three points of the line lie on the quadric. Let the quadric be ax*+by +cz*+2fyz+2gzx+2hxy+2ux+2vy+2wz+d=0.(4) The condition the quadric.. M. the equation obtained on substituting these coordinates for x. given by 215 For the generator of the paraboloid *2/ a 2__ 2.. i. i.(3) () . if three points of the line line lies lie on the on the quadric on the quadric.y>z in (1) is an As this equation is a quadric in r. Cor.. if it is satisfied for three values of r. This gives and r above will be an and the constant term are .. 1.(2) .A.(1) a^yfi m = g "" y n the point will be a generator of the quadric. now proceed to examine the case of the general relation to the existence of generators. General Consideration. y) lies on . Also we know that through each point of a cone or a cylinder there Thus hyperboloids of one sheet. on the planes (D. (fr+oc. The line x I 2 . a prove that the parameter of distribution is and the central point is 268X Prove that the central points of the systems of generators *la* lie i ylb*=Q. if mr+p. paraboloids..e. it will be an identity identity.2/62=23 z x j_ r y X {=.) 10*8.e. nr+7) for all values of r.
the paraboloid must be hyperbolic. m.. m. . P. will contain the three lines as generators. 2 l. Let be any central quadric. A Quadrics with real and distinct pairs of generating lines. nary this will Now 10*92. of the quadric through the point 7) are given by the equations Eliminating n from these.. for the quadric determined by nine points. In the case of the paraboloid the direction ratios. be the case if a. n. these two equations will determine two sets of values of/. Cor. b.e. 10*91. . we must have a and b with opposite signs. The direction ratios /. Thus we deduce that through every point on a quadric there pass two lines. Of all real central quadrics. will 4a6c7 (aa Since aa 2 +&p distinct. and in the latter it is a hyperboloid of one sheet. The equation (1) shows that for real values of / and m. 7) of the surface are given by *=0. coincident or imaginary lying wholly on the quadric.(1) .216 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY Since (2) is a homogeneous quadric equation and (3) is a homogeneous linear equation in I. skew 2.. n of the generating lines through a point (a. Its roots will be real we obtain if. we abc see that the roots be real and and only is negative. and 4a2 fc 2 <x 2 p 2 i.. if 2 2 + b$* + c7 > 0. c are all negative or one negaIn the former case the quadric itself is imagitive and two positive. quadric can be drawn so as to contain three mutually lines as generators.. 10*9. n of any generator / m (or. m.e. real. three on each line. if distinct if. hyperbolic paraboloid only possesses two real and distinct generators through a point. m. 8 ) +c7 if. n. /.. and only 4a& (aa 2 + c7 2 ) (&p 2 + cj 2 ) 2 > 0.(2) =0. Of the two paraboloids. i. hyperboloid of one sheet only possesses two real and distinct generators through a point. n p.
y~ 6fX(zf c) = 0.+2y z. 6. Show (See Ex. ax\by y+l)=2a.)=0. Find the equations of the hyperboloid through the three lines z=0. c. p. 2 g. its two systems of generators. 2. (See Ex. Exercises Find the equation of the quadric containing the three lines y=b.EXERCISES 10*10. page 65). In fact the quadric through three given mutually skew lines can be determined as the locus of lines which intersect the three given lines. and c. 4. 2. y z=\ x=Q z #=1. vb(x+a) + (y6) =0. through the three given mutually skew lines a. is 4*41 on page 65 Thus the locus determined in equation of the quadric through the three lines really the u r =Q = v r . to the plane Ix \rny }nzQ and the lines = Qz\c axby~Q=z . [Ana. Show that the equation of the paraboloid abz(lx \my\nz} is 2 z c(a mx\b ly)abcn). j/=0 . 6(a?fo) X(as+ca. Also obtain the equations of its two systems of generators. xy=\ t Also obtain the equations of [Ana. 3. X(a: The generators of one system of a hyperbolic paraboloid are parallel 3. From a fixed point rr A(f. /3 . x*+y2{z22xy2yz2zx=l xy l=Xc. rzj are the general coordinates of any point on this . ' prove that the plane passing through the feet of the perpendiculars goes through the fixed point Let P(x l9 ylt i?!). R(x 3 . are Equations of OP 6O that (rxl9 ryi. [L(az+cx)~ (z+c] =0. the three lines will be generators of one system and all the other generators of the other system will intersect a. . 65) that two straight lines can bo drawn intersecting four given lines. #= a x=a. 217 van be drawn meeting Lines intersecting three lines. An infinite number of lines For the quadric three given mutually skew lines. l(x xyl=\(2x+2yz). . c are two members of the same system. z= c z=c. . . r=l. mutually skew Examples 1. 3. h) perpendiculars are ?2 let fall on three conjugate diameters of the ellipsoid r_4_ 2 a 77 2 i 2/_ 6 2 _f___i 2 c . Q(x 29 y^ z 2 ). 2. y+ !)=. zj be the extremities of their conjugate semi. b.y = 6. 1. ayz+bzx+cxy+abc = 9 .diameters.
the foot of the perpendicular L from (/._ S Aa. OB are . Therefore.. if. and f**. 1 2 ZO^ or =0. (Zfx.e. Similarly.218 line. g. ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY The if line joining (/. y> a2/. i. g. the feet M N of the perpendiculars to OQ. The plane LMN is =0. h) to OP i S/*. 0. 2fo Zfx.. this becomes x. h) and (rxlt ryl} rzj will be perpendicular to OP. . the relation in Adding third and fourth rows to the second and making use of 8*8.
0. Consider the central circular section ~2 T* 4 ..write as + plane If. This form of the equation of the plane clearly shows that passes through the point it> 2..2 ^///2_^2\ aa ' b* ' ca a c direction ratios of the normal to the ellipsoid at (/> 9> h) of the section are flat. =1 Find at all points of a central circular section are parallel to 'a fixed plane. The any point Also we have the relation which we re. c2 ) . C This relation shows that the normals are parallel to the fixed* be the angle between this plane and the plane of the section. we have cos 0= a 5 c' ac .EXAMPLES 219* or =0.2 i to the ellipsoid ~2 i y~. the angle which this plane makes with the plane of the section. _. 0.  . Show that the normals _ /y>2 4 .
.(5) Eliminating/.meet principal plane z of the triangle through the PAB on x*la*+y*lb*z*/c*=l = Q in points A and B such that the median P is parallel to the fixed plane show that P lies the curve of intersection of the hyperboloid with the surface The equations of the line AB I* where the tangent plane 2*1 c 8 x^. to have . Let (/. 0) be the midpoint of AB. g.. meets the plane are at P x0 it does the genera = +f = l. ' (x l9 y l% Zi) of the hyperboloid. containing as tors through P. . g from (3). we have These give l + zfl** Also the median of the __ _ y\ A P4J5 through P being parallel 0. . g... 0) as its middle point is The equations of the z = 0. >with (/. ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY The generators through a point P on the hyperboloid .. chord of the principal elliptical section x*fa*+y*lb*=l.M/i 2 + <* _. Z =0. $+> Comparing (1)  and (2). (4) and (5) we obtain Thus we have the result as required.220 3.
(Zy na)&2/ (ma /3)cz=0^ . Show that the length of the normal chord at any point (x.411^1 2 2 2 a "*" ' 6 C vhere )2 j4 6^ C^ 6. z) of the 5.2 I A2 I x.2 V (BJJ. . 1 normals can be drawn from any point P to a central quadric surface and that those six normals are generators of a quadric cone with vertex at P. 2.P2 ^3* the ellipsoid an(^ n i 7T 2' ^3 ^ e ^ ne >2' ^3* ^ conjugate semidiameters  perpendiculars from the extremities on the two central circular sections ofT then 7. Prove that the conic in which the cone meets any one of the principal planes of the quadric surface remains fixed when P moves along a straight line (Birmingham) perpendicular to that plane.4^. x y> z ) Prove that if is the angle between the central radius to the on the ellipsoid point? and normal at P. Prove that the common tangents of the three ellipsoids touch a sphere of radius I /. ellipsoid ^. y. Show that the locus of points on the quadric ax*\~ 6?/ 2 +c2 line ft 21 ^t normals at which intersect the straight #a^_'V Z ?/i _g n T is the curve of intersection with the quadric. PI.n. Show that if cular. three central radii of an ellipsoid be mutually perpendithrough their extremities will envelope a sphere. If PI. 1956) and that the points of contact of the planes lie on a sphere of radius 3. the plane passing Prove that six 4.Revision Exercises III 1.
the first member of each pair passing through the line ymx. r a . P.+ ^W /62c2 If 15. planes are drawn through the six feet of the normals drawn to the 2 2 2 2 = 1 from a given point (/. (Bm. each plane containing three . z=k and the second member of each prove that the 2 pair passing through tho line ymx. r 6 .t222 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY If rj. 2 /a 2 +2/ 2 /6 2 fz 2 /c 2 =l at a point P meets the plane z=0 at Q and GO is drawn perpendicular to this plane and equal to line of intersection of the 2 2 OP. (L. g. U. p$ 9 #> 6 . y). Show that the locus of Q c is the surface c2 _____. r3 . are the lengths of the normals drawn from any 8. the other plane cuts tho coordinate planes in triangle whose centroid lies on a coaxal ellipsoid. (3'. $ tie constant. zk . /point to a central conicoid and pi p% t p$.. p^. y) planes are drawn parallel to three 2 2 2 2 2 2 conjugate diametral planes of tho ellipsoid a. C2 ' < the foot of the perpendicular from P to the principal plane on which O lies and the normal at Q to its locus meets this plane at K. /o 2/ /^ +2 /c =l. Show that the sum of the ratios of the areas of the sections by these planes to the areas of the parallel central planes is 2 2 a2 y is N 6 _p_ a* 14.U. y') be the poles of these planes with respect to the ellipsoid then. are the lengths of the perpendiculars from its centre to the tangent planes at their feet. 1926) 12. r4 . h) lines be drawn each of which is an isuch lines describe the cone . 9. 1929) 11. (a'. (B.a 2_ 262_ show also that if. show that if 4 y 4f l 4 0 one of the planes contains the extremities of three conjugate semidiameters. 7*3. The normal to the ellipsoid a. then O is the midpoint of KN. 3ie If three of the feet of the normals from a point to the ellipsoid on the plane is show that the equation of the plane through the other three an^bim^&n^ p Also. 1914) 13.U. Through a given point (a. show that l 2 a + d*. (3. axis of some through a given point plane section of (/. r 6 . two members of any pair lie on the surface (6 a w ) ( z *k*) + (y*mW) ( c 2 +fc 2 )=0. 62 ~~^ 2 ~' If Ai A% 9 9 A& are tho areas of tho sections of the ellipsoid by the diametral planes of three mutually perpendicular semidiameters of lengths rj. Pairs of planes are drawn which are conjugate with respect to the 2 2 2 2 2 2 ellipsoid # /a fy /6 }z /c =l. g t h) . ellipsoid 2 2 /a f2/ /& f z /c Two and 10. prove that if (a. r 2 .
of the hyperboloid x z /a 2 {y 2 lb 2 z 2 Jc^= 1. prove that for points along the gene(P>U.U. 2/ = . b sin Z sec 9. Prove that tangent planes to # 2 /a 2 ?/ 2 /& 2 z 2 /c 2 =l which are parallel to the tangent planes to _ C2 meet the surface 20. Show that the most general quadric surface which has the lines 23. If (a cos sec 9.A. The generators of opposite systems drawn through the extremities 19.T. If a plane lx\.) a point on the generating line X 4+ X I x ^ 1 i 4+ y 6 \ .) the are constants. which rela tion X 2 +H. 1938) which intersect Show that the points on the quadric at which the generators are perpendicular lie on the cylinder (c a)z2+(c b)y*+cd(a+b)lab=Q. prove that the direction cosines of its axis are proportional to l/a. .my\nz=p cuts the surface a# 4&2/ 2 Hcz 2 =l in a parabolic section.U. 18. c tan 9) is (M.the triangle PAB lies on the cone A. z2 on X O Y plane are at right angles. 2/=0.) plane 2 = at the ends of a pair of conjugate diameters. g. h are arbitrary constants.=0. in perpendicular generators. Find also the coordinates of the point in X and this line meets the plane z=0.T. 24. z=c . z= c as generators is where/.REVISION EXERCISES III 223 2 16. m/b t njc and the coordinates of the vertex of the parabola satisfy the equation b 17. _ c r m\  c a r n\a b (A. B of semi con jugate diameters of the principal elliptic section of the hypershow that the median through P of Iboloid x z la^+^/b^z^lc 2 = l meet in P .#=0. \j.A.T. t M. 22. o. 1943) 9 is constant. Find equations in symmetrical form for the two planes whose equations are where (JL line of intersection of (M. 2 2 generators of the surface # {2/ (P. ..1920) Prove that the generating lines through any point P on the section 2 2 2 z=c of the hyperboloid z /a f 7/ /&2 z2/ c 2=l meet the principal section by the (M . X rator. Show that the =l M.2 = If now X 1> and are taken to be variable parameters connected by the show that line traces out a right circular cone. 21.
. r. The (3. m. partial derivative of F w. p. n). y z)=Z. r^(al 2 +2fmn) + 2r[l(aoi + h^+g7+u)+m{ +n(0a+/P+esy + i0)]+F(a. 7) and any line through the same with. in r. z)~ax^ + by 2 +c which we may rewrite as splitting the set of all terms into three homogeneous subsets.(a for values of r satisfying the equation y i. p.CHAPTER XI GENERAL EQUATION OF THE SECOND DEGREE Reduction to canonical forms and Classification of Quadrics A quadric has been defined as the locus of a point satisll'l.e. Thus a quadric is the locus* of a point satisfying an equation of the type F(x. Firstly shall loci associated we with Consider any point (a. line with the quadric are can be written as may be noted that the equation (2) where 9J^/9a to #. 3*Y3P. line at a distance r from (a.. y). 3^/3r denote the values of the (a. Thus if r l9 the two points of intersection of the Note. fying an equation of the second degree. have considered so far special forms of the equations of the second degree in order to discuss geometrical properties of the various We types of quadrics.. z respectively at the point . 2/. which will play a very important role in connection with the determination of the equations of these loci.(2). coordinates of the point on this7) are This point will lie on the quadric F(x. proceed to determine the equations of various a quadric given by a general second degree equation. which is a quadric. direction cosines (/. It be the roots of this quadric. In this connection we shall start obtaining a quadric in r. y. In this chapter we shall see how the general equation of a second degree can be reduced to simpler forms and also thus classify the types of quadrics.. 7)=0 . r2 P.
The condition .(5) The locus of the line n through (a. Enveloping cone from a point. x( Adding + V$ \wy~\d to both sides. (a. y) . i. I..(7) . XCL z y y p _ is the normal at 11* 13.. viz.e. y). are equal. through (4) is. between y) touching the quadric. for this is l [XKL+*P+jr+u)] [S(rf+2/mn)] ^(a.. y).. y) Then any line through is any point necessarily on the quadric. p.e..e. n will be a y) if if This will be so fl the second value of r. w. UOL P. m. y). p. y)=0. p. if the two roots of the quadric equation in r.. y). coincides with (2). y) with direction lines (I.. obtained on eliminating m. p. y) . ( 225 Tangent plane at (a. The vanishing of one value of r is also a simple consequence of the fact that one of the two points of intersection of the quadric with every line through a point of the quadric coincides with the point in question. obtained on eliminating (5) and (6) is a. (a. y). p... line through (a. 7) lies on the quadric so that F(<t. /. we get 2x(w+h$+gy+u) + (ux+v$+wy+d)==F(<x.ENVELOPING CONE FROM A POINT 11*11. as given by the coefficient of r is also zero. The locus of the tangent lines I. p. P. a > P.. Thus the locus of the tangent which is lines at (a.. p. Suppose now that (a. n between (3) and . p. A tangent (a. meet the same in two coincident points. p. y) with direction cosines line if the second point of intersection also i. p. p. Suppose that the point y)=0 (2) is and accordingly one root of the quadric equation zero. is also zero. p. n) will touch the quadric i. y). (a. w. perpendicular to the tangent plane thereat. /(aa+^p+ r7+w)+m(^a + 6p+/y+v) + w(graf/p+cr+^) = which is . 1112. y) is a plane called the tangent plane at (a. m. Normal at (a. p.(3) thus the condition for the line to be a tangent line at (a. p. 6.e. The line through (a. y).
which $=0 given and (Z. B(a+Ap+0y + iO=0. Consider any line through A (a. Enveloping Cylinder. z).(8) through (a. i.written as ^ is the equation of the enveloping cone of the quadric with the point (a. p. 11*14. T=S l} meets the quadric in a conic with its centre Polar plane of a point. obtained on eliminating from (8) and (9) is I. Suppose now that (a. z). which. 7) 11*13 above. z). easily (x. we write S=F(x. meet the quadric in Q. 7) be any point on any such tangent line... so that the locus of the chord . 7) and bisected thereat. Thus the required locus is [2l(ax+hy+gz+u)] =2(al*+2fmn) F(x. 7). 2 y.e. we may rewrite as. internally and externally in the same ratio. 11*15. m. It is seen that if A and P divide QR internally and externally in the same ratio then the points Q and R also divide AP internally and externally in the same ratio. 7) 11*16. 7) and let The point dividing AP in the ratio A 1 is : P be the point /Aa+a Ay+p ' \\+I * A+l. p. Clearly the plane at (a. Then any chord with direction cosines I. E and a point P is taken on the line such that the points A and P divide QR. y. 7) a given point. p. p. Suppose now that (I. 7) will be bisected thereat if the sum of the two roots of the rquadratic (2) is zero. n 2(a:a)(aa+p + i77+tt) = 0. p. Then . p. Az+7\ A+l / . p. Section with a given centre. p. p. If any line through A(v.e. then the locus of P for different lines through A is a y plane called the polar plane of A with 'respect to the quadric. n) are require the locus of tangent lines with direction cosines If (a. 7) as its vertex. (7) can be re. T^. y. 7). known is as Enveloping Cylinder. we have the condition as obtained in [2l(a*+hp+gy+u)]*=[X(al*+2fmn)]F(*. SiSFfa. we m t n). my n through (a.226 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY this To put equation in a convenient form.. p.. m.
should be zero. (3. . AB H* =cD GHAF=fD. Thus (10) is the required equation of the polar plane. The two values of X give the two ratios in which the points Q and R divide AP. B C. conjugate planes. i. FQCH=hD. It can be easily verified that BCF* =aD.. conjugate is 9 lines and polar lines can be introduced as in the preceding chapters. F. // Z>=0. . Also we have . 6. H=fgch.(10) which the required locus of the point P(x y*z). 9 f r *G+6Jf +/C =0. aH+hB+gF=0 oG+W+flfC 11*22. 11*21..e. In points which will prove useful in the problem of reduction and classification. this section in the case of particular forms of equations Some preliminaries we shall state some to reduction and classification.. gG+fF+cC=D. HFBG=gD. G 9 so that h respectively in 9 H will denote the we have 2 A=bcf B=cag*. then we have =M). 0. . 9 D cofactors of a. the determinant a h g h g rto b f c f be denoted by D will play an important part. In order that Q and R may divide AP internally and externally in the same ratio. "These follow from the relation (1) in 11*21 above.PRELIMINARIES TO REDUCTION AND CLASSIFICATION 227 It will lie on the quadric (a. the sum of the two values of A . y)0. The notions of conjugate points. c. before. A. We may As verify that / 9 g. G=hfbg. CAG* =bD. C=abh* F=ghaf. Note. In the following discussions.
i.. =0. H must all be zero but C may IfD=Q and A + B+C=Q. #=0. will intersect in nor same^. H As Z)=0. are all zero. 1123. =0. and tf=0 then either Also prove that if Z>= A=Q. or may not be zero. B. F. = 0. C. prove that #=0.e. C are all of the we deduce that same sign. The two planes will be (i) same Pi if =0. (ii) same to if Pi **i =0. (7=0. If ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY D=0 and . B. then F> O. ^4 Further prove that if D=0. G. Also then =0. #=0. Since. Three homogeneous linear equations .4=0. a straight line Pi to or Pz to to 11*25. (2 = or #=0. Pz (Hi) neither parallel if to = 0.^=0. #=0. F*=BC=Q so that ^=0. also 4=0. we have so that A. 0=0. then A.228 Ex. Similarly 11*24. P* parallel but not = 0.
n. be the direction cosines of any chord and (x. y. al+hm+gn. n be supposed given. y z) of parallel chords with direction cosines This locus is a plane called the 1. z in the all zero. z possess a nonzero solution. n is given by (1) above. n is said to be principal. then we have I 7 h ^ . m. ?/.e. n a number A such that Z. t al + hm + gn = ZA. gl 4/mf en of the normal to the corresponding conjugate diametral plane are proportional to i. n as . + en = gl \frn . Diametral plane conjugate to a given direction. m. m. Note. a solution wherefor Ci are not and only if. Thus. A direction I. does not necesdirection. =0. m.write the 'diametral plane conjugate to the direction I. this a h f7 can of course happen only h g b if f c =0. n if these are such that the coefficient of x. 11*3.e. 223] that if 1 9 m.. all zero. m.. / Principal Directions and Principal Planes.PRINCIPAL DIRECTIONS AND PRINCIPAL PLANES "will 229 x. In this connection we should remember that there sarily correspond a diametral piano conjugate to every given we see from above that there is no diametral plane conjugate 2. y equation (1) of the diametral plane conjugate to Z. ra. n.. Thus to the direction equation (2) are As I. y. We can re. then the equation of the locus of the midpoints (x. z) the midpoint of the same. if i. m. We know {Refer equation (2) p. m. I. if it is perpendicular to the diametral plane conjugate to the same. (I) Thus if I. Also then the corresponding conjugate diametral plane is called a principal plane.. n will be a principal direction if and only if the direction ratios 11*4. in nA A =0.(2) x(al \hrn + gn)+y(hl+bmfn)+z(gl+fm}cn)}(ul{vm{wn)==Q. there exists m. hl + bm+fn. n are not all zero.
gl+fm+cn=ri\. The roots of the discriminating cubic are all 19 Suppose that A is any root of the discriminating cubic (4) and m. n respectively. (2). m. w. Thus the complex conjugates of /. is known and each root of The equation (4) has three roots which may not all be distinct. w will possess* A 6A <7 / =0.(nl f. Note /. we shall prove three important results concerning the nature of the root of the discriminating cubic and the corresponding principal directions.(4) A 3 ~A 2 (a+6 + c)+A(^+J5+(7)Z)=0. Also to each root of (4) corresponds at least one principal direction /. we shall find it useful to say that I. n be a principal direction corresponding to any root X of the discriminating cubic. (3). n will denote expressed by putting a bar over the same. we see that A must be a root of . I. n any nonzero set of values of I. Now we have . m. In spite of this. On expanding the cubic this determinant. m. n if and only if. Theorem I. n is & principal direction corresponding to X=0. (2). m.my f. This cubic the same is as the Discriminating cubic called a characteristic root. ra. hi f bm +/w = mA. m. n obtained on solving any two of the equations (1). (3) corresponding to a root X of the discriminating cubic (4) will be called a principal direction. In the following. This every direction l y m. then we may easily see that the equation ofthes corresponding principal plane.. for it is A should be remembered that we cannot regard not yet proved to be real. If I. 11*41. takes the form X Ix f. ( This equation shows that we can have no principal plane corresponding to X=0 if X=0 is a root of the discriminating cubic. n satisfying the correspond(1).zero solution in /.. real. n satisfying the equations (1). n a& In the following.nz ) . ing equations Here real. .230 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY We rewrite these as These three linear homogeneous equations in a non. Note 2. the complex conjugate of any number will bem. however.vm + wri) = 0. (2) and (3). a Z. m.
We have to consider the following three cases : (A) When the roots of the discriminating cubic are all distinct. being is Also. the ratio of two real numbers from necessarily a real number. /. m m. Thus A.+cw l s=sA 1 w 1 (6).. we obtain ^al 2 l l +I. fifZi+/w.. (8) Multiplying obtain by ra 2 . set for AjA^O. to Theorem II. Theorem For every quadric. Hence ZZA=0. directions are perpendicular. g. mn +m n is real. Similarly n 1+n are real. any two distinct roots of Suppose that The. n respectively and adding. . We (7) (8) then have (6) aZ1 +Am 1 +gr%=A l 1Z1 . m. (10) (11) 12 .. there exists at least one of three mutually perpendicular principal directions.(12) SaljIt+Z/lm^+mjnJXxH^ Also multiplying (9). (9) W +6m 1 +/n 1 A1 m 1 . (AiA 2 )2V 2 =0. III. n2 respectively and adding we . are real. n n being the products of pairs of conjugate complex numbers. A2 are two distinct roots. (10).(13) From so that (12) and (13).(5) 2irf7+S/(ww+ww)=A22 T h are all real. therefore. and J 2 ^2> ll> >1. AI. b 9 c... (7).PRINCIPAL DIRECTIONS AND PRINCIPAL PLANES Multiplying these by 19 231 m. Hence the roots of the discriminating cubic are all real. lt I m+l m _ 2 I I Finally is a nonzero real number. we obtain . n corresponding to each A are real. (11) by I l3 l9 adding. Further we notice that m n is the conjugate complex of m n so that Now a. ^l 7*2 are the two corresponding principal directions. I. 11*42.. we obtain AiBA^sU. (5). . Thus the two 11*43. . Hence the theorem.J(m l n 2 \m 2 n l )=='h 2 J2l l 2 m % respectively and . Also 1 1. two principal directions corresponding the discriminating cubic are perpendicular.
*)g=hf. F 9 G. A. third is different from the three roots are will These three cases be considered one by one. (3)] repeated root. as may be easily seen. 9 . page 228] I.. may be selected further so as to satisfy some addi . C. ( a A)(6A)^2 fl (c*)h=fg. G. n t tional suitable condition.. corresponding to A are all equivalent. H. The three principal directions are unique in this case. (A) The roots being distinct. . these three directions will be mutually perpendicular. c a. p.232 (B) these. n is* any direction satisfying (16). W\*(a+b+c)+\(A+B+C)D=0 it also satisfies . C. I l9 mi. 227 that if D=Q. (3) on page 230 for the determination of Z.. Since.r.. m. [Refer 11 24. any equivalent relation (2).. n satisfying (1). H  9 we have here aA) = 2 <7 . n satisfying the single relation. 6. J These relations show that the equations (1). n. (2). B. B. m. there will correspond a principal direction 1 9 m. then every direction . r& 2 are determined from pendicular to l lt m^ n v Thus Z 2 . Suppose now that Z.t. A+B+C=Q. (2). on page 230 viz. Thus we see that if A is a twice m. m (a *If desired. Further we determine a direction 1 2 m 2 n 2 satisfying (16) and per2 . the relations can be obtained on replacing A A. (3) on page 230 to each of these and by theorem II. (B) Let A be a root of the discriminating cubic repeated twice so that besides satisfying (4). 6 (4) and (14) above respectively in the relations we see that corresponding to the vanishing of A.(14) which is We obtained on differentiating the cubic can rewrite (14) as It has been shown in 11'23. F.. are all zero.(16) (aA)J+ftm + 0w=0 [or is a principal direction corresponding to A. . (C) ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY When two When roots are equal all and the equal. c by a A. then A.(4) 3A a 2A(a+&+c)4 (A+B+C)=0 w..
. is a sphere in this last Examples Find a Jor 1. b A. .(14) . so that every a principal direction. . We re. n. (17) as (a (6 _A) (c _A) =/2 } so that a A.write Also by (15). 0=0. Also then it follows that/=0. The reader may observe that the quadric case. eA=0 so that A=a=&=c. page 228. 3. set of three mutually perpendicular principal directions : the following conicoids 3aa +5y2 f3z2 2yz+2zx2xy+2z=Q. . they are true for every vaJue of Z. ra2 n 2 Thus the theorem is true in this case. Z2 i9 n\ Also let ? 3 w 3 n 3 be the principal direction corresponding to the third root A 3 By Theorem II. In this case A the three equations . Thus as 11 '23.. 3A2 2A(a+6+c) + 04++C')=0. is case the equations for til+(b A)m+/n=0...(17) (4) page 232 as deduced from and (14) are true. i. we deduce that aA=0. In fact. this case also a quadric has a set of three mutually ^perpendicular principal directions. c A in must all have the same sign. 6~A=0. .e. 3A(a + &+c)=0 In this case also the relation (15). this direction 7 8 . m. .. 2. glfm+(c A)r&=0 the determination of the principal direction are identically satisfied.(4) W. .W(a+b+c)+*(A+B+C)D=Q.. . We now see that in this (atyl+hm+gn^Q. . ra 3 n 3 will be to each of the two perpendicular principal directions perpendicular l la m l9 n 1 2 .EXAMPLES 233 li> Thus we have obtained two perpendicular principal directions m2> n2 corresponding to the twice repeated root A. Note. . (C) Suppose now that satisfies all the three roots are equal to A. . m '> . any set of three mutually perpendicular directions is a set of three mutually perpendicular direction Thus in principal directions in this case. It is important to notice that in the case every direction perpendicular to the principal direction corresponding to the nonrepeated root X 3 is a principal direction for the twicerepeated root X. /&=()..
234 1.2zl=0. is wherefrom we may see that this principal direction The principal plane corresponding to A being see that the three principal planes are we may 2o. A3 +HA 2 36A+36=0.. so that I :m n = l : : 1 : 1. 3A 1 i. 1 1 5A 1 =0. I Z m m n=0. principal direction corresponding to A=2 is given by mf7i=0. 3x43^+32+1=0. and we have the principal direction 1 1 L Finally the principal direction corresponding to A=6 is given. Therefore the discriminating cubic is A= 1. The I 3. c=3. Z These give I : m : n==l : : 1. 6=5. 6. ./=l. Thus the principal direction corresponding to A =2 is given by Again the principal direction corresponding to A =3 Of is given by m +tt=0. ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY We have a=3.. Its roots are A=2.e. g=l. 3tt=0.
n corresponding to 8Z6ra 42710. A=0 is given by 62 + 7771471=0. 3. 47i=0. 0=2. is so that the corresponding principal direction a _.& i 3> '8 8. 4 i. i.EXAMPLES 2. Thus 0. given by i f. A=0 is given by given Again the principal direction corresponding to 51 A=3 is by 6w+2ri=0.e. Thus the principal direction corresponding to *. 15 are three distinct characteristic roots.. 235* We have a=8. 8m which give I : m n=2 : : 2 : 1. given by The reader may The verify that the three directions are mutually perpendicular. m. i. fe=Therefore the discriminating cubic is 8A 6 2 6 2 7A 4 3A =0. 15. 67. c=3. Finally the principal direction corresponding to A= 15 is given by 7Z6m+ 6Z 2w=0. A=0. is so that the corresponding principal direction I. A 3 +18A 2 45A=0. we see that I : m : TI=! : 2 : 2. These give I : m n=2 : : 1 : 2./=4. The principal direction /. principal plane corresponding to A being . Solving these. 3.
satisfying (1) say . m. It . 2. 63./=l. We have a=6. 3.1. i. ra. n.. m 2l n2 satisfying (1) and perpendicular to . n are in easily seen that these three equations for the determination of all equivalent. 2 2  3A rf. c=3. % Thus every I.. m5rc = 0. The principal direction corresponding to this is given by 2Z5w2Z 2 = 0. : : These give I : m n^2 1 : 1 .. <l. This fact had been generally established Theorem III for principal directions corresponding to twice repeated characteristic roots.e.236 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY we may see that the two principal planes corresponding to the nonzero values 3.0=2.(1) Consider any set of values of 1.e. n satisfying the single equation 2lm\n=Q determines a principal direction./. h=2. Firstly we consider the nonrepeated root 8. m+ n=0. 8.and 15(2z22/+2)+10=0. We write Then we determine 12 . A3 +12A 2 36A + 32=0. 15 of X are . whose roots are 2.SO that the principal direction corresponding to 2 A=8 is given by Again the principal direction corresponding to A=2 is given by 21+ 21 m 7i=0. The discriminating cubic is 6A 2 3~A =0. is m.. 1. Thus two roots are equal.
=0. 3. 2/fzfl = 0. : right angle toa?=2/2J . n of a quadric then we have < This shows that if (x. (x> y. Principal planes .2/ . . 1=0. y Z. . a. _. 2=1. t/ 2 2 = any . 2(a? Any plane at 2y+)l. . #=1. 2(^2) + 1=0. . Centre. x=2. plane through the line. 2. . _4 a 3x*y 2 z*t6yz6x+6y2z2=Q.] Exercises Examine the planes. ~ .~l. ^J and and every direction perpendicular Principal planes 2/ 4_ z _j. following quadrics for principal directions and principal* x*+2yz4x+6y+2z=Q.CENTRE 237 Thus 2/ 2 Za m +n 2 w : =0. 0. Principal planes. Note. 0._ . Thus we have obtained a principal directions given by _2_ set of three mutually perpendicular __i_ j_ . . . Answers 1. 1. 3. O JL \/2' JL \/2' V6' V3 The V3 choice of principal directions is not unique in the present case as two characteristic roots are equal. 0. Principal directions Principal planes : : 1. Principal directions to it.  Principal directions i j 1111211^1 _. 0. We know that if a point the midpoints of a chord with direction cosines m. 2/ 4. It may be verified that every direction perpendicular to the> principal direction corresponding to the nonrepeated root 8 is a principal) direction for the twice repeated root 2. : fO. . Principal directions 0. 2^f22/ 42/24 2/z ^4 za.4=0. . . 0.^i 1 ^i V3' _L. . y. zf3=0. 2. z) is 11*5. [Befer note at the end of 1 T43 B> page 231. _ _. 2 +tt a 2 : These give I2 :m 2 %=0 1 : 1. . ^ . z) is such that . . 4..
of these three planes to be called Central planes. we may easily centre verify that the (x } y. (3). Gu+Fv+Cw not zero.238 then the condition i. Then. B. F. we have. we shall consider the different cases regarding the possible solutions of these equations. z) known as a Centre of the quadric. if. F and G. (3). G.e. H. It should be remembered that a quadric may or may not have a line of centres centre . y.. 11*51.. we obtain from these z= Substituting these in same are satisfied. Thus if IMG. n may have. we obtain H'21. we may similarly see that the quadric will not have a centre if Hu+Bv+Fw^Q or if Gu+Fv + Cw^Q. [Refer This shows that the three equations cannot have a solution. Thus we see that the quadric will not have a centre if D~0 and my one Is of Au+Hv+Gw. 9 . the quadric has a unique have the values given above. p. we consider the three planes represented by these equations.e. z) (2). Hu+Bv+Fw.. z as variables. (x 9 y.. page 227] (3). (4) Multiplying the equations (Refer (2). 1121. where =Au+Hv+Gw.(4) 0.write these as 0. Case of Unique Centre. B. ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY (1) is satisfied. on multiplying (2).(2) . (4) (Gu+Fv+Cw)!D. . We bisected thereat.. (4). Such a point can re.. also it may have more than one centre or a plane of centres.(3) . and adding separately we obtain by H. 226]. C Dz+(Gu+Fv+Cw)=Q. & In the following. by A.. A(ax+hy+gz+u)+H(hx+by+fz+v)+G(gx+fy+cz+w) 11*52. z) Now suppose that DQ. if any. H. is every chord through (x. (3).. (4) Dx+(Au +Hv+Gw)=Q Again. G. respectively and adding. regarding x. depending upon the nature of the solutions of the three equations (2). and by G. i. We have thus to examine the nature of the points of intersection. C as sets of multipliers instead A. F. whatever values is Z. F. This discussion will be facilitated a good deal. the quadric will not have a centre if common of Considering H. y. m.
Also if A ^0. Hu+Bv+Fw=Q D=0.Au+Hv+Gw&Q. gx+fy+cz+w=Q. that For example consider . we may not have Hu+Bv+Fw=Q or Gu+Fv+Cw~Q. we deduce that the plane ax+hy+gz+u=Q through the case line of intersection of the two intersecting planes hx+by+fz+v=Q.the three central Au+Hv+Gw=Q A^Q. v and w. We may similarly see that if or if #=0. 228] From passes (i) and (ii). (i) Thus if A^Q we have 9 ft O (hx+by+fz+v) ax+hy+gz+u=j (ii) j(gx+fy+cz+w). Qu+Fv+Cw=Q.CENTRE 11*53. p. Thus if Ay6Q we have 9 Cw= A. (7=0. 3 planes all pass through one line so that we have a line of the quadric will have a line of centres 9 centres. It may be remembered that if 4=0 then also H=0. the equalities holding for all values of u. In this case when 4=0. then In fact we have A(Hu+Bv+Fw)=sH(Au+Hv+Gw) and A(Gu+Fv+Cw)s*G(Au+Hv+Cw). This is f [Refer 11'24. T=0. so . 7. . The result stated now follows. 239 We now suppose that D=0 as well as Au+Hv + Gw=Q. Note We we must also simultaneously can show that if D=0and have Ay&Q and Au+Hv+ Gw~0. Then we have A(ax+hy+gz+u)+H(hx+by+fz+v)+G(gx+fy+cz+w)s*0. the two planes hx+by+fz+v=Q =are neither ^because same nor parallel so that they intersect hi a line. #=0. Thus in i>=0.
w=l.e. 0. For instance. suppose it that/=0. B. Suppose now that fugv=Q i. // A. has a line of centres. /. then the quadric cannot have a centre. (7= 1. F. g. G H are t t also all zero. These show that if fugv^Q 11*55. in this case. because. G. 11'54. none 0//. F 9 G. g y h are not zero. H are all zero. we have. G*=CA. F. H. C are all zero. then . The cases treated above in 11*52 and 11*53 cover the cases when D=0 and one at least of A. Thus the case treated here g> can. B. H*=AB. If we suppose that A. /. so that every point of the plane is also a point of the other two central planes. (1) fu=gv=hw. as much In the next subsection we consider the case when A. #0. 9 follows that either g or h be stated as follows : 0=*F=ghaf must also be zero. t>=J. Similarly we may show that if we have a plane fu=gv~hw and some two of centres. B C is not zero. then the quadric has a plane of Note./ 9 0. G only are known to be zero. #=0. We (1) have. then it follows that F. then one more of /. Thus we have Au+ Hv+Qw*Q but Gu+Fv+Cw?4Q. h must also be zero. g. Then. and fuhw~Q. the quadric are all zero. G. Note 2.240 Here ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY a=l 6=2. Then if g^Q. for F*=BC. B. or fuhw^Q. F. we have Z>=0 also. C. so that 4=0. F=Q. h^O. are all' The vanishing of D then follows from the vanishing of these cofactors inas H we have so that DQ even if A. >=(). H h is zero andfugvhw. c=0. /t=l. B. from g above in 11*54 that (ax+hy tgz+u). w=l. B> C. In this case Suppose now that A.. Thus of centres in this case. =0. G. Hare zero and one of to be zero. h is known It can be easily seen that if A. C. H=0. zero.
the quadric has no centre and the quadric has a plane of centres. . 241 is h are zero treated here 11'56. G.write these as all zero. ax+hy+gz+u^Q gx+fy + the coefficients of the third central plane being g are both zero. b. if fw cv^0. No centre. No centre. { Unique centre. fE>=0. [/)=0. B. c must be zero. Line (7^0. of the various cases D^O. Let and 11'54_. Z>=0. Gu+Fv+Cw=Q. Line of centres. ^ D=0. Line B^O. G. we can re. No centre. The vanishing of u also follows from the fact that fu = gv~ hw and 7 0. (1) In this case we see from above. L/)=0. = f> 0. therefore. Au+Hv+Fw=Q. C. H Now suppose that two off. u = 0. We or can obtain similar conditions when when 11*57. being all zero and fu=gv~htv. case where one and. Hu+Bv+Gw=Q. A^Q. Hu+Bv+Fw=Q. h are zero in addition to A. 7^ Consider now the two central planes = 0. if Thus v^O or w^O if Summary 1. g0~h so that a h=0. g. B. 240 that g. /  v c w =>( and if Thus. As h and Here b i f C i 2 =:6C/ =:^ = 0. Gu+Fv+Cw^O.SUMMARY OF VARIOUS CASES The below. g. of centres. Au\Hv+Gw^Q. the quadric has a plane of centres. F. the quadric has no centre fw ci?=0.Then the first of the three central planes is Now = and the other two are Qx+Qy+Qz+w^Q. h are all zero in addition to the vanishing of A. PL In this case two of a. Suppose that 6=c and tty^O. / 0=(/. 3. suppose that/. two of /. 0^0. 2. p. of centres. C 9 F.
A. and a plane of centres if t. 6. p. z\l=Q.4n5. (7=0. The equation of the quadric w. 4. centre.^0.l=0. 2+7 respectively. Unique centre (1. [Ans. 2z2 2yz 2zx+2xy+3xy 2z+l=0. or We have Note. 8. B. 1). . 9 6. C. Consider now a new system of coordinate axes parallel to the given system and with its origin at (a.F.h=Q. 3. 7). 2 2__2x2/2^zh22a. H all zero. g0. No centre. We may have results similar to (6) and (7) when/=0. Unique centre 2. F. ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY A.g.G.h all zero. A. is . 2. Before we take up the 11*6. 2a.4^2/14a.142/fl6zf6=0. /^O. No centre. Hall zero. 1. Line of centres .2/~a. C. 4x 2 ~i/ 2 42z 2 42x2/ 3?/z+12x [Ans. Il2/+6zf4=0. x =3 7. No centre. F. the new system. must be zero and one nonezero. 4a. No 7.U zero fu*=gv=hw 0=0. H all zero &ndfu^gv or gv^hw.2+9i/2t. 5. [. g^O. =\. Plane of centres 4^2_22/2_2z245i/zf2zich2a. 18^2f22/242022_12zx}12yz+2a:~222/6zf. [^4n^. as origin. h=0. C. C. similar results results given The when b=Q or above need not be committed to memory. y. r. c a^O. B. t. [Ans. G. We suppose that the given quadric has a centre. G. Plane fu=gv=hw. of centres. Let (a. Plane of centres. Then two of a. fu=gv=Jiw. The form of the equation of a quadric referred to centre 11*61. h^O. 2x2y+ 2z+l=0. g=Q. obtained on replacing x9 y. [Ans. z by . = \. 2 +2?/2+5 s 2_22/z~2za.4a. F G.G Ha.422f 12x2/+ \2yz+8zx [^!ns. (1. Line of centres  .42z/42z~lx=0. B. (3. C F.242 4. 3) : Transformation of Coordinates. A. Then we have no centre if 9 . No a 2 f2/24. 5./=0. A. 7) be the centre of the quadric with equation. = ^5 & centre. 9 9 8. problem of the actual reduction and classification. H all zero f. B. Exercises centre : Examine the following quadrics for [Ans. 9 6.2/+z = 0. B. we shall consider two important cases of transformation of coordinates. Ji^O or when A=0.
..are the direction cosines of three mutually perpendicular principal directions corresponding to the three roots \> t)f ^2> ^3 the discriminating cubic. geneous parts We is shall now prove a 2(ax*+2fyz) and 21>ux.e. Here one or two of these roots may be zero. F(*> P... 2(ax*+2fyz) viz.+bp+f'y+v) +22(0a+/p+cyf w)+F(* p. 243 $(ax*+2fyz)+2x(a*+hp+g'y+u) + 2y(!i<x. Thus we may separately consider the transforms of the homoy. t. 9 As (a. r. y) may denote any one of the centres. mv nl9 . In case the quadric has more than one centre. w g. The coordinates w.TRANSFORMATION OF COORDINATES I. y)= 2(az h 2fyz) + (uot. referred to the The equation new system of axes is obtained on by l respectively.. a. z (1) above.(1) .. 13 . we have Further. p. y) is a centre. As homogeneous linear expressions are to be substituted for we may note that a homogeneous expression of any degree will be transformed to a homogeneous expression of the same degree. m 2.. Note 2. We take now a new coordinate system through the same origin such that the axes of the new system are parallel to the directions given by Teplacing #> y. then (a. Note 1. + v$ +w7 +d) = 0. The form of the equation of a quadric. 2.(1) . as may be easily seen. 7)=0. very important result. when the coordinate axes are parallel to a set of three mutually perpendicular principal directions. aline of centres or a plane of centres. y. x. that the transform . Suppose that /!. so that the second degree homogeneous part has 2 Thus the required new equation is remained unchanged. 12 . (3. The discussion above is applicable whether the quadric has one oentre. z. 11*62. n2 . n3 . the old as well as now systems of axes has both been denoted by the same symbols.
(1) is we may 2 see that the coefficient of x in the transform of + 2/m^ + 2gn l + 2hl m i(^i + m ll l 1 fr ^ [by Similarly the coefficients 11% P. centre and no unique 11*71. Thus the transform of is Finally we see that the transform of Z(ax 11*7. We shall now consider the several cases one by one. When D^O. Reduction to canonical forms and classification. 242) S(oof 2/z) (ta+vp+tiO' + d!)=0. . Case I. we see that the equation becomes + Now which is the required canonical form. ( rotating the axes so that the axes of the new system are parallel to the set of three mutually perpendicular principal directions. case has a Shifting the origin to the centre (a. In this root of the discriminating Hie quadric cubic is zero.229} of # 2 and e 2 in the transform can be shown to be A 2 and A 3 respectively. Again the coefficient of 2yz in the transform of (1) Similarly the coefficients of zx and xy in the transform can be seen to be zero.244 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY On direct substitution. the equation takes the form 11'61 p. y). p. Below we shall find an elegant form We have for the constant term.
Hyperboloid of two sheets.e. Hyperboloid of two sheets. Hyperboloid of one sheet.. new axes are parallel to the principal directions. roots all>0 or A0 <0 Two roots>0 and one<0 Two roots<0 and ono>0 Roots all>0 Roots all <0 A/I0 A/D>0 A/D>0 A/D<0  ! Two Two roots >0 roots <0 all all and one<0 and ono>0 A/D<0 1172.REDUCTION AND CLASSIFICATION Also we write Eliminating a. Imaginary ellipsoid. . (2). 2 \ A 2 7/ 2 +A 3 z 2 +   =0. n s corresponding to A3 =0. In this case the Case II. the equation assumes the form \x ^characteristic roots. (3) k b g and u (4) we obtain h g / f V u t. X We rotate the coordinate axes through 2. possible. Real ellipsoid.(2) . Here we notice that if Let. Real ollipsoid. therefore. We denote the nonzero roots by Aj.(1) 3. the s shown in This equation represents various typos of surfaces refers to It may be remembered that the word 'rootb' following table. Hyperboloid of one sheet. quadric has no centre and the discriminating cubic has one zero root and two nonzeroroots. w (dk) a h h b g c k A f where we have represented the fourth order determinant on the *>y left AFinally. The third root A 3 =0. Real cone. When'D=Q. ! i >0 <0 Two roots >0 and ono<0 Two loots <0 and on e>0 Roots Roots Imaginary cone. Imaginary ellipsoid. The new equation takes the form the same origin so that set of three mutually perpendicular . Real cone. 1 7 from a (1). (3.
It is known that zaxis is the axis and (0. (4). : line of intersection of the principal planes corresponding to the nonzero characteristic roots is the axis and the point where it meets the The Also the axis is parallel paraboloid is the vertex. z by p.write (1) +d=Q where r^O.. direction corresponding to the characteristic root zero. r. 0) is the vertex of the paraboloid Also the 'principal directions of the paraboloid are those of the coordinate axes the principal direction corresponding to the characteristic root zero being that of zaxis and the principal direction corresponding to the nonzero roots A 1? A a being those of rraxis and Further it can be easily seen that the principal yaxis respectively. E. q. This equation represents an elliptic or hyperbolic paraboloid according as \. A^O.e.? A 2A Aj 2 2 2 we see that the equation takes the form where This is the required canonical form in the present case. so that shifting the origin to the point fL V V r= I P  ? _1/ J?. w 3j UQ are not all zero. discriminating if it In this. we re. planes corresponding to the nonzero characteristic roots are the planes #=0. then we would would be contradicted* .246 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY also We have As Z3 . for zero and the condition were A^O so. Thus we have the following important and useful result . to the principal Au+Hv+Gw=Q. 1173. cubic haa We may have A. we have from (2). Denoting the coefficients of x 3 y. u v b w =0. Au + Hv + Gw=0 is t which contradictory to the given condition. f i. (3). C all ses that A+B\C^=Q. A 2 are f tne same or opposite signs. Case llI. Axis and vertex of a paraboloid.J*When Z>=0. 0. case the quadric has a line of centres and the one zero and two nonzero roots. y=0 whose intersection zaxis is the axis of the paraboloid.
the discriminating cubic would have only one zero root. we see that the equation becomes which in is We the required canonical form. y. (3. ensures the nonsameness of these two planes. may. obtain an expression for the constant term all a form free from a. (3. Now (a. p. y) and rotating the axes so that the new axes are parallel to the set of mutually perpendicular principal directions. Taking a=0. In this case the central planes *We select the two lines pass through one line. D=0 Let (a. y) be any centre. so that b few v f v w d is Thus the required canonical form The equation table : represents various types of surfaces as shown in the follow *These are so selected that they are not the same. as follows. Shifting the origin to (a.REDUCTION AND CLASSIFICATION 247 Since and A+B+C^Q. y) is any point satisfying these two equations. P. The condition . we have =0.
ra 2 are so chosen that these satisfy (1) 0. so as to satisfy (1) and r. of the cylinder The zaxis is known to be the axis As in the case of a paraboloid. The axis is also the line of centres. n 3 are chosen .. G.. It Cor. Case IV. 1. Axis of a cylinder. 2.(2) ulz+vm 2 +wn 2 Then Z3 . are all zero and fu^gv. Denoting the coefficients of x and z by p.. When A. Also it is parallel to the principal direction corresponding to the characteristic root zero.B. 1174. 3. F. we have the following result regarding the axis of a cylinder.C. The axis of a cylinder is the line of intersection of the principal planes corresponding to the nonzero characteristic roots.. we rewrite the . Planes bisecting angles between two planes* seen that planes bisecting angles between the two planes are may be Thus we have that The two principal planes corresponding characteristic roots are the two bisecting planes. The new equation ?2> m As the two roots A 2 \ are equal.. The equation will represent a pair of planes if D Q. ra3 . H We rotate the axes so that the principal new axes are parallel to the three perpendicular takes the form mutually directions. 2 m 2 . .(3) Again we re write (3) as a . the coefficient by y being zero by (2)..(4) . We and suppose that 1 . both being s an y direction satisfying 2> W 2> > 0. we know that . equation as * 1 x't + 2px+2rz+d=Q.248 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY Cor. In this case the quadric has no centre and two roots of the discriminating cubic are zero and one nonzero..(1) * al+hm+gn=0. to the two nonzero Cor.
Shifting the origin to (a.write remains unchanged as the curve revolves about a?axis so that P describes a circle with as its centre. Firstly we shall prove a lemma concerning surfaces of revolution obtained on revolving a plane curve . ing a plane curve about xaxis The equation of a surface of revolution obtained on is of the form revolv about Consider any surface of revolution obtained on revolving a curve craxis. Let (a. B. and the discriminat and no one off. h is zero. In this case the quadric has a plane of centres ing cubic has iwo zero and one nonzero root. H are all zero.(1) and M the foot P on If P be any point on the curve of the perpendicular from o:axis. Lemma. h are zero can be easily considered and it can bo shown that we shall have a parabolic cylinder in case the quadric does not have a centre and a pair of parallel planes if the quadric has a plane of centres. represents a parabolic cylinder in this case. Case V. Let the equations of the section of this surface by the 3=0 be plane =/(*).about an axis of coordinates. 7) be any centre. re.(2) so that we can Now yf(x) MP=f(OM). The case when some two or all of /. this relation M . (3. Quadrics of revolution.. 7) and rotating the axes so that the axes of the new system are parallel to a set of three mutually perpendicular principal directions.. C. fu=gv=hw. p. 2 = 0. Note. we rewrite (4) for otherwise the quadric will have a as Shifting the origin to we see that the equation becomes which is The equation the required canonical form.QUADRIGS OF REVOLUTION Also centre. 11*8. g. . </. we have as .. F. we see that the equation becomes The equation represents a pair of parallel or same planes. G.. H'75. When A. 249 we may see that r^ Again.
volution we must have surfaces of revolution. To see the truth of this result. see that for the surface (1) to be that of revolution we must have two of A o A a A 3 equal and for the surfaces (2) and (3) to be of re. equal A quadric is a surface of revolution. (2) W+t?)^ Cor.. (y). 232 that if the discriminating cubic has two roots each equal p. . 232 so that (4) and (14) of will these conditions are sufficient also. We have been in 11*43 (B).(!> .I ^(aA)/. The quadrics (4) and (5) cannot be Clearly the equation (1) will represent a sphere roots A 1? A 2 . Aj=A 2 . that in this case the set of conditions I is deducible from II so that I is not an independent set of conditions and can.. z) position. result. /<7=(cA) .. as such. (aA)(&A)=fc h.(4) we On comparison with the equations of the surfaces of revolution... .. A^+2^0.. 2 . (6A)(cA)=/2. we have of the point P in any MP= so that we can now rewrite (2) as Hence the vV+* result. A 1 cc 2 +A 22/ 2 +2r2:0. then we 11*43 (B) p.. to A. Conditions for the general equation of the second degree to represent a quadric of revolution.. Now and since ^=(a hf=(b . be ignored. +*3)=</.II can deduce the relations these conditions are satisfied. Firstly suppose that none off. we examine the various canonical forms which we have obtained. g. h is zero. We can show 11*82. These are as follows : Case I A^+A^ + V'+A/^O. The required conditions be obtained on eliminating A. A 3 are all equal. 2 2 ) =/(*) on revolving plane curves about Similarly the equations of the surfaces of revolution obtained ?/axis and z. shown that if hf=(b*)g.axis are of the form V(2 respectively. y.260 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY In terms of the coordinates (x..(2) Case II Caselll Case IV CaseV A^+A^+fcO. if and only if it has nonzero characteristic roots. Let us assume the set II. if the characteristic Hence the 11*81.. then..(3) . It can be ( c _A)(aA)=<7 2 .
Then since we see that when/=0. Cor. being the locus of the centres of the circular sections. is the line through the centre of the sphere perpendicular to the plane (1). is zero.(1) U ' cuts the surface in a circle. The axis of revolution. we have so that . 6. we obtain deduce other conditions of the set I from II We may similarly Now from II. obtain the equations of the axis of revolution.QUADRIGS OF REVOLUTION 251 we get on multiplication fgh*(a Dividing by/gr^O. we shall now Replacing a. Thus the v axis of revolution is u w I// 1/0 ~ I/A 1183. gs h is zero. g} Suppose thatfQ. . Assuming the conditions to be satisfied.a^ft^c^ h U> ~ 7 / '9 C 7 is the required set of conditions for the general equation of the second degree to represent a surface of revolution in case none of These conditions can clearly be re.written as /. We shall now consider the case when some one off. c A 47"' A4 y* we y get +^ This form of the equation shows that any plane parallel to the plane ^+A4_L =0 + +h U / g . we must have either </=0 or A=0.u .
cz 2 Axis of revolution. (3). of the sphere perpendicular to c(x*+y*+ z*)\2ux+2vy+2wz + d=Q Thus the axis of revolution is (4).. (7. X=6 Starting with (7=0. G. + 2fyz h 2gzx .. . c) we obtain = h2 and taking f0=h.c. are all zero. g 9 . G. b c both of the same sign. B.. we have three alternative sets of conditions (1). C F. . Reduction of equations with numerical coefficients... B. 9 II are all zero.(2) we shall obtain the alternative sets of g=0=h. It will be seen that when A. conditions (1) and . (c6)(afc)=sf*. F. x+ulc / / . We shall now discuss the procedure to be followed when we have to reduce any given equation with numerical coefficients to canonical form.(4) <mt the surface in circular sections. .(3) h are not all nonzero. alternatives be similarly discussed. Suppose that they are both positive.~i = "T may y+v/c / / f" ~ x y z + w c^Q. We have ax" f by* f.. the line through the centie ( Hence the w/c) axis of revolution is w/c. F G.2hxy Thus where the sign is Thus planes f or according as h is positive or negative. When A. (ba)(ca)=f~.. v/c. we obtain (c b)(ab)=g\ sets of conditions.252 Putting ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY /~0~0 c~A.. then the second degree homogeneous part must be a perfect square. are all zero. .C. (2) and Suppose that the conditions (1) are satisfied. in I (a and c)(b II. A=a. Thus if/. then we need not follow the method given in 11*74 and instead obtain the required reduction by the method given below. y The other 11*9. parallel to V(ac)a v (&c)y = . (1) . We shall first show that 9 H H when A. (acK&c)=A 3 A=c /=0 = A. . Since (a c)(b c)~h* we must have a . 6 = A. Thus we have the alternative /=0=0.
\/&> V/c is We re./ = ch h are either all positive or two negative. b.e. v w so that y \/a.write \/b^u v or \/b y/a the given equation as : : : \/c^v : w. g. Jif= If]. __ we rewrite (2) as . because we see that/. see that a. c are all positive.REDUCTION OF NUMERICAL EQUATIONS Since 253 we have bc=f 2 . Without any loss of generality. one positive. ca=g 2 9 ab=h 2 . and choose A such that the two planes are perpendicular to each other. be of the same sign. \ic=wk. Let the given equation be Case I. Then the given equation can be rewritten as so that the given equation represents a pair of parallel planes whose separate equations can be obtained on solving (1) as a quadric for ux vy + wz. . This requires or a+o+c Having chosen A.. Now suppose that the set of numbers not proportional to the set u. = Thus we have so that the second degree terms form a perfect square. gh a/. for other1 and have the same wise we could throughout multiply with rendered positive. i. /. Suppose first that : : so that there exists a \/b \'c~u v number k such that i/a : : w \/a uk. 6. c we must all Again. \/b vk. we may suppose that a. + Case II.
m. Find any point (a. Then case line of centres we have a find the centre giving equations.254 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY where a+b+c Taking we see that the given equation takes the form Y*=zkX. the line of centres is also the axis. . y) is the centre and Aj. A 3 are the characteristic roots. so that the surface is a parabolic cylinder. roots. one pair of intersecting planes. 1. then the line of intersection of the two principal planes corresponding to the two nonzero roots is the axis. The following procedure is suggested for the reduction of numerical equations when the second degree terms do not form a perfect square. If one characteristic root is zero and two nonzero. In this is the required reduced equation. 2. if the quadric is a paraboloid or an elliptic or hyperbolic cylinder and the line of intersection of the planes if the quadric is a pair of intersecting planes. If ul+vm+wn=Q. A 2 . and only two of the three centre giving equations will be independent. If no characteristic root is zero. In the case of ellipti3 and hyperbolic cylinder. Find the discriminating cubic and solve. Note. X) satisfying two of the three equations. find the principal direction 3. If this is not zero.the three equations gl+fm+cnQ. then put down the centre giving equations and solve. A 2 being the nonzero characteristic 4. the reduced equation A!. p. Then is find ul+vm+um. If (a. then the reduced equation is A1 zl +A2 2/2 +A 3 z2 + (wx+vp +wy + d) =0. n corresponding to the zero characteristic root by solving two of . p. ly If one characteristic root is zero.
3.. ra. 3=0.. t). is UK+vp + wy+d^ Thus the canonical form of the equation x*+2y*4z*=l. which shows that the given quadric is  .(1) a hyperboloid of one sheet. 3. . n of the These give I : m n=2 : : 2 : 1. . I.Z>=0. 255 Reduce the equation to a canonical form. P 7).e.EXAMPLES Examples 1. we have 3. Thus . The discriminating cubic This shows that cubic are is A3 + 3A*90A+216=0. D= 216^0. (1) is an equation referred to principal 2. Solving these we by see that the centre (I. The roots of the discriminating 3. The ing to A=0 direction cosines are given by I. Again the centre giving equations are 2z+3=0. Reduce to canonical form the equation of the quadric x*y*+4yz+4:xz The discriminating cubic is A3_9X=:0 so that the characteristic roots are 0.12..axes as coordinate axes. The equation (1) represents the given quadric when the origin of coordinates is its centre and the coordinate axes are parallel to the principal directions i. is Denoting this (a. principal direction correspond Thus. 6.so that in this case we have we proceed to find the centre giving equations.
. 2.. (3.(2) +2w=0. Clearly ol) tain (1) and (2) are the same. . direction cosines direction corresponding to A0 are given by principal 4ra 2w=0. 0. also therefore. 0. 0) is is free from a centre of the given quadric. Solving (2) and (3).256 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY These are on it. 4Z This shows that D=0. 1949} be shown that the roots of the discriminating cubic are 0. planes. n of the . (0. Discuss the nature of the surface whose equation the coordinates of its vertex is and find It and equations to its axis... wo n=r2 V Thus the reduced equation is 4.(!> . Clearly Denoting this by (a. A).U. represents a pair of intersecting first The fact that the given equation shows that 3. degree terms Show that ^represents a paraboloid. Obtain is its reduced Aquation. These three planes meet in a line. 1951} The discriminating cubic Its roots are A V 5+V2~f 2 5V21" 2 I. (D. 0) is a point Thus the canonical form of the equation The given equation. Note. is (0. may (Lucknow. The m. we have MX + t>p+wy + d= 3. 4.
.(1) to A =4 are given by Again the direction cosines of the principal direction corresponding OZ OZ+m 5n=0. 2m+ 27i=0..e... m. direction cosines Z. ra is so that the corresponding principal plane i. t/z+3=0. i).. of the 2 are given by to ponding A= principal direction 6Z+OwtOn=0. r3. m. . These give Z=0. The vertex is the point where the axis meets the paraboloid. axis We now proceed to find the The and the vertex.EXAMPLES 257 principal direction corres The ponding to the root. corres direction cosines Z.. is x=l. Thus is . on the surface for on the axis r=f. m=l/V2. n. These give I :m: n=l 4z4=:0 : : so that the corresponding principal plane i. Rewriting the equations of the axis in the form z ~0 we see that T~~T' any point will lie (1. n of the 0. n= 2 Then Thus the quadric is a paraboloid. These give Z=0. r).(2) the required axis of the paraboloid. i . so that the vertex is the point (i.e.. are given by 8Z=0.
Sx + Sy+I6z=0. x+y f 2z . Putting 2=0 in i(l) and (2).. to proceed to put down centre giving equations..(3) Clearly (3) can be obtained on adding (1) and (2) so that as expected..(1) . that the equa The line of centres tions of the axis are the axis of the cylinder so = 0. 0) is a centre. are given by I m.+10i/+8z12=0.. 0. y=l. These are 10z~22/+82+12 == 0. n of the principal direction correspon 5m 4n=0 so that Thus We have.. .. 6. z=0. 1.(2) . The ding to A=0 direction cosine I.. Thus ua+fl(Hwy+d= 66+6= Hence the reduced equation . 1. . therefore. is The crosssection is 2z 2 +r=i.0.258 5. Find also the equations of the axis of the cylinder. these three equations are equivalent to only two. Its eccentricity is now is easily seen to be l/\/2. 2=0. 6. 2o. = 12H6=0 (Calcutta.e. we obtain = so that ( 1. is The discriminating cubic so that the values of A are A3 18A2 +72A=0 12. ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY Prove that represents a cylinder whose cross section is an . 1953) ellipse of eccentricity l\\/2.
2/*=0 . of its (D.writing the equation as 2 we see that the given i.e.e... 7. Further re. These give I : m n=l : : 1 : 1. n . a so that the characteristic roots are 1. (1A)(A ~1)=0.(1) is we see that the planes parallel to line cut the quadric in circles. (Ml)(Al) =0. the given quadric is a surface of revolution. Thus the axis of revolution which through the centre of the sphere the perpendicular to the line (1) is xQ_y ~~<r i. (x +y*+z*I)(yz)*=Q. r 0_3 ' i #=0.. equation represents a quadric of revolution. Prove that represents a paraboloid of revolution and find the coordinates focus.U.. > 2) 2' Two The values of X being equal. n of the principal direction corresA=0 are given by any two of the three equations I \m ft=0. 1. 1954) The discriminating cubic is so that the characteristic roots are n U 3.EXAMPLES 6.. ponding to direction cosines I. represents a quadric of revolution and find is 2 The discriminating cubic i. I Two of the characteristic roots being equal. y=z. 259 Shaw that the equation the axis of revolution. m.e.
(0.e. V3 ' i. 1. is which the axis of the paraboloid. i. is the point where this axis meets the paraboloid. We rewrite the given equations in the form or Thus the the sphere axis of revolution. being the line through the centre of and perpendicular to the plane x+y+z=Q. Q l JL 2 l ' V3 V'c 9 Thus the quadric equation is is a paraboloid of revolution and the reduced 3 2 ~~ '/*_ 2 * Z i*0 3 2 /ya _ I . It can be shown that any point is The vertex (r+1. Thus paraboloid. i. r+3) on the axis will be on the paraboloid if r=l.260 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY Now we have  JL 2 ' JV3 .. generating parabola This form of the equation shows that the latus rectum of the is 4\/3. With are ratios of the axis of the paraboloid respect to the given system of coordinate axes. the direction which is also the axis of revolution i. 2) is the vertex of the . r+2.
Suppose that (x. this bisecting plane. o that (x. prove that the 'between them are planes bisecting the angles ax+hy+gz x hx+by+fz y gx+fy+cz =0. y. represents a pair of planes. 2. As the given equation represents a pair of planes. if we regard the line of intersec Now we know that the two bisecting planes are the principal planes corresponding to the two nonzero characteristic roots. // ax*+ by*+cz 2 + 2fyz+2gzx+ 2hxy=Q. n be the direction cosines of this line we have These give I m n ~G^~F^~C' As FG=CH we see on replacing C . m. we must have D=0. The line of intersection of the two planes is parallel to the that root zero so principal direction corresponding to the characteristic if I. 2) is on the axis at a distance \/3 (1.. bisect chords with The direction cosines 1 19 n^ and perpendicular to the plane.EXAMPLES 261 \/3 The required focus from (0. . 3) is the required focus. its equation is also ][ with direction cosines (2) 1 a.(1) we see that on the bisecting plane line satisfies this equation. 1. by FG/H. z) satisfies (2) also. n are 1 proportional to jp G" 1 H~ l . Let m^ equation of the plane being l1 (ax+hy+gz)+m1 (hx+by+fz) + n1 (gx+fy+cz)=Q any point (x. z) 9 . 1. that I. ra. (1. MI. 3). Thus 8. 2. . z) is any point on either bisecting plane. This result can also be obtained tion as the line of centres.. ^i> m Further the plane being normal to the i. y. as a principal plane. 2). y.+m 1 2/4"Wi2==0. is the point on the axis (1) at a distance Rewriting the equations of the axis in the form x~Q we see that the point ~l 22 from (0.
or (I) The condition i.(3) Assuming the form which is to be satisfied. n of the principal direction corresponding to the zero root are given by so that I acb As _ m _ 2 be a2 n abc2 * a+6+c=0. one root is is zero. l9 corresponding to a nonzero characteristic root being perpendicular to that corresponding to the zero characteristic root. result. ra. The direction cosines I.(3) From (1).. Hence the 9.. (2) . (1) is satisfied Suppose now that the condition only of the discriminating cubic so that one root zero. 1952^ The discriminating cubic of the given quadric so that under one of the given conditions. (D. We have so that either a +b+c=0. 1 +%^" =0. Prove that if a3 +fr3 +c3 =3a6c and ax2 +by*+cz 2 +2ayz'+2bzx+2cxy+2ux+2vy+2wz+d=Q represents either a parabolic cylinder or a hyperbolic paraboloid.. we have 1 1 1 m % ^. . 2 we see that the given equation takes a(x+y+z) +2(ux+vy+wz)+d=Q a parabolic cylinder ^ if u^kv or is v^w.+m (3). (2) is equivalent to a=b=c..262 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY Finally. the principal direction Zi. . U. we may ac see that 6 2 =6c a2 =a& c2 . (2) and we have ax+hy+gz hx+by+fz y gx+fy+cz =o.e..
(Lucknow. Show that represents a paraboloid. Find the reduced equation and the coordinates of the vertex. . equally inclined to the three Show that the equation 2yz+2zx+2xy~\ Is this represents a hyperboloid of revolution. (vii) 3*2+6i/22/2__. represents two planes whose line of intersection coordinate axes. Exercises 1. yz+zx\xy'lx6y~5z25Q. (x cos a (Lucknow 1947) (MtC7< 194 f) y sin a) 2 f (y cos afz sina) 2 f 2t/=l. 6. Show further that this is circular cone with its axis of revolution parallel to the line 8. = 1 is a hyperboloid of revolution. This paraboloid hyperbolic for the two nonzero characteristic roots given by are of opposite signs. 22/2 2yz+2zx 2xy x and state the nature of the surface represented 3. Hons. 1949) 4. 1952) Find the nature of the surface represented by the equation (P.6z+62/2z2=0. 2=~1 . an hyperboloid of one or two Show that the quadric its is a cone and obtain reduced equation. (i) (ii) Find the reduced equation of x*+2yz4x+6y+2z~Q. Show that the equation (* x)(x y}+b(xy}(y z)+c(y is z)(z x)=0. 2=1. a right Show that the quadric with generators ysrl. 4x 2 +y*+z*4xy2yz+4zx 12x+6y 6z+8=0.EXERCISES 263 is Thus the principal given by direction 1 corresponding to the zero root 1 ' 1 ' V3 Also V3 V3' is Thus in this case the quadric is a paraboloid. 2y+3z 2=0 by the equation. x*y*+2yz2xzxy+z=Q. (Hi) (iv) 4y^4yz+4zx4 xy2x\2y^l==0. (Lucknow 1952) Reduce to its principal axes : 2. (viii) (ix) 5. 2 2_. sheets ? 7. x 2 +y*+z z 2xy2yz+2zx+x4y+z+l=Q.U. : (v) (vi) 2x*+2y2+z*+2yz2zx4xy+x+y=0.
(B. w are all zero. Show that the condition for the quadric to be a cone is C2JX 15.2.U. ellipsoid "^2" T*" c2 . X 3 are the roots of the equation a X h g h g k 6X 1 / =0 . Obtain the reduced equation of the quadric corresponding to m=l. Hfgch. 3) where Xj. Prove that every quadric of the linear system determined by the two* 2/2 equations 2#f:c=0. > . 1953) Also show that the cone which touches the coordinate planes conicoid is principal planes of the above ^((gHhG)x]+</[(hFfH)y]+y(fGgF)z]=0. = m = cz . cx and the of. g t h u9 t v. Discuss the nature of the quadrics represented by the equation < as m varies from to f . #2f 2/2f2#2=:0 is a cone. X 2 . 16. G*=hfbg. Show that there is only one paraboloid in the system of quadrics In particular. ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY Find the reduced equation of the quadric with generators 10.264: 9. show that paraboloid is if/. Prove that the principal axes of the conicoid are given by the equations s(/Xr f F)*=y(g\+G)z(h\r +H). 11. prove that represents a right 14. the equation of \ this* (72 ~+ m + T 2 is n2 Further prove that its axis I ) parallel to the line by ax 13. (r=l. n If the general equation circular cylinder. If the feet of the six normals from P to the . 12.
a 7. 1953) a 2 (62_c2)2 + 52( c 2_ a 2) 2/ 2 + c 2( a 2_52) z 2 == Prove that the equation a right circular cone whose vorticle angle is 0. Hyperboloid of two sheets. prove that the locus of P .U.U. ^2+2/222=10.22/ 2 2 =102. the cone x*y* and that the axes of symmetry of th e conicoids 17. show that the cone whose vertex is one of the foci of the is ellipse z=0.. we have we have also and that if it represents a right circular cylinder. 1948) revolution. . represents a paraboloid of revolution. 2. 3rc232/2 2 (ft) = 2. sin a cos 2 2 2 a)?/ +2 sin2a/^(l sin 2 x cos 2 a)=0. ' (D  u  1950 ' 2x*. (ix) '6.. 19. 2x2+3^2422^4. will represent provided that 6) afghjbghf^chfg "" ~" / 18. T>T)Hyperboloid of the two sheets. 3x2+62/2922+1=0. #2 s + pr = 1 ty2 a nd whose base any plane section of the ellipsoid a surface of (D. g h (a+6+c)(l + cos (1+3 cos b) ' Given the ellipsoid of revolution a2 (a 2 62 ~' is >6 2 ). 3x 2 y =^. 2 (w) (1+sina cos a)x +(l if sin a ^0.EXERCISES lie 265 is upon a concentric conicoid of revolution. ^2+^2 = 2 (vii) if sin a = Oand?/ +2 =2 if cos a = 0. lie on the cone (B. cos a^0. (Hi) 2a.. y. 2 (i. Prove that if F(x. Hyperbolic cylinder. (t) 4.y *+v2*=o. 32/2=^/6x. z)=2(ax 2 +2/?/z)+22wx+d==0. T + T + T =0 Answers i. 3.
hyporboloicl of one sheet For m 1.266 11. elliptic cylinder For l<m<^2. ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY For w>2. ellipsoid For m< 2. cone 9 ' The redxiced equation for the last case is . hyperboloitl of two sheets For 2<m<l. ellipsoid For 77i=2 pair of imaginary planes For rn= 2.
we may easily obtain the following formulae 9 Fig. being the foot of theperpendicular to the XY~ plane. Let We N be the foot of the perpendicular from P on the . 33 giving relations between x y y} z and r. surfaces represented by (ii) (Hi) = constant 2 = constant. x~r Ex. : Cylindrical Polar.o) If x. We write Draw I PN N Then point P. (i) cos 0. yr sin 6. of problems which arise in Geometry and in various Cartesian system which is one of these has applications of the same. viz. r.APPENDIX Spherical Polar and Cylindrical Coordinates. Various systems of coordinates have been devised to meet. write . 2.XTplane. Let P be any given point. 0. perpendicular. are the usual polar coordinates of the in the XY. z z. 0. 1. What are the r= constant . already been introduced and this is the one system with which we have been concerned all along.0. Cylindrical Polar Coordinates.. OY OZ as the three axes. z are called the cylindrical polar coordinates of the It will be seen that r. Spherical Polar which are often found useful in various applications. VI N N(r.plane of the projection point P referred to O as the pole and OX as the initial line. Spherical Polar Coordinates. It is now proposed to introduce two different types more systems. . y^ z be the cartesian coordinates of P referred to OX. z.
. *. Draw NA_iOX have /_OPN=0. we have We tri z=NP=OP cos =r =r cos 6. It may be easily verified that if a point r. 6. sin 6 cos <. <j> . 6. 6. tO tOTU. 8 ON=OP sin /_OPN sin N OAN. z=r cos 0. vertex * 0== constant represents a semiplane through OZ. we have cos cos cj)=r sin Again. x=r . <f> are known as the spherical polar coordinates can also be described as the angle POZ Then of P. We now obtain the for mulae of transformation between x.x=OA = ON ^ <f> y=NA=ON sin </>=r sin ' sin Thus we have the following formulae of transformation. from the right angled triangle . and XOZ. y=r sin sin <f>. The reader may (i) easily verify that represents a sphere with its centre at the origin^ its (ii) at the origin (Hi) OZ represents a right circular cone with as its axis. (Hi) (/)= constant. and r.268 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY <f> It may be easily seen that between the planes r. From the rightangled angle OPN. Surfaces represented by (i) r= constant (ii) = constant r= constant 0= constant and . z. varies in the interior of a sphere whose centre is at the origin and the radius is to a to 2n varies from a then r varies from 6 varies from (f> : . y.
of lines. 187 181. Conjugate. Great. Equations of. two spheres. of ellipsoid. Curve. Central point. 110 216* . Enveloping. Reciprocal. triangle. lines. with generators parallel . . 64. 176 106 107 112 Limiting points of. with given vertex and base. 167. for Circle. Cylinder. normals to a . 102. between two points (shortest) lines. 225 169 plane section. Joint equation of two planes. 186. 112. Cone. refer to pages) 7 two planes. Equations of. 189 31 181. for a hyperboloid. Bight circular. of planes. through quadric from a point. 193 Area of. Transformation of. Invariants. a cone to have triads of mutually 69 107 198 211 203 99' perpendicular generators. paraboloid. Enveloping. 160 102. 119 Generators. through the intersection two cones with a vertex. 162 177 61 103 115 orthogonality of two spheres. . of a line. 132 132 7 10 v Condition for parallelism of lines. 160 179 65 159 1 139 72 115 to an axis. 213 140> 49 Co axial system nature of plane sections. Image of a point. Limiting points. Conditions for perpendicularity. a cone. Direction cosines. 89 189 190 196 14 21 diametral planes. 43 14 21 of the join of two points. Director sphere. 160 Axes of plane section. three planes to form a prism or to intersect in a line. on a generator. 59 28 4 140< 111 44 Elements at infinity Enveloping cone of. 180 tangency. asymptotes of plane 124 128 section. two spheres. Cartesian Cartesian homogeneous. of a hyperboloid. Conditions for coplanarity of two lines. 124. of a paraboloid. of planes. of hyperboloid. lines of intersection of a cone and a plane. Distance. sphere. intersecting three lines. Circular Sections. of a line and a plane. . points. 150. 127" 42 103 133 common . proportion of. with vertex at origin. central quadric. between two planes. Bisectors of angles. between two linos. Cubic Coordinates. Line of striction. .INDEX (Numbers Angle between. 21 of . 130* Right circular. of vertex of cone. 16 29 a paraboloid. 75 30 107 208. planes. intersecting two lines. Lines. 150 3 63 between two of a point from a line. . of a point from a plane Division of join of points. Line at infinity on a plane. of paraboloid . Equations of two skew lines. 208 213 89 142 at infinity. a line arid a plane. two lines.
Plane of contact. Prism. <Quadric. ^Projection on. Orthogonality of two spheres. Power of a point. 'Parameter of Distribution.270 ANALYTICAL SOLID GEOMETRY Locus of midpoints of parallel chords. Polar piano. Plane at infinity. a straight line. Triangular. a plane. intersection of mutually perpendicular tangent planes. Normals. . cone.
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