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A Publication of ATTRA—National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service • 1-800-346-9140 • www.attra.ncat.org By Steve Diver NCAT Agriculture Specialist Published 2006 Updated by Lee Rinehart, NCAT Agriculture Specialist © 2010 NCAT Aquaponics is a bio-integrated system that links recirculating aquaculture with hydroponic vegetable, flower, and/or herb production. Recent advances by researchers and growers alike have turned aquaponics into a working model of sustainable food production. This publication provides an introduction to aquaponics with brief profiles of working units around the country. An extensive list of resources points the reader to print and Web-based educational materials for further technical assistance.
Introduction ..................... 1 Aquaponics: Key Elements and Considerations ............... 2 Aquaponic Systems ...... 3 Organic Aquaculture .................. 11 Evaluating an Aquaponic Enterprise ........................ 12 References ...................... 13 Resources ....................... 13 Appendix I: Bibliography on Aquaponics ............. 20 Appendix II: Dissertations ................. 25
quaponics, also known as the integration of hydroponics with aquaculture, is gaining increased attention as a bio-integrated food production system. Aquaponics serves as a model of sustainable food production by fol low ing certain principles: • The waste products of one biological system serve as nutrients for a second biological system. • The integration of fish and plants results in a polyculture that increases diversity and yields multiple products. • Water is re-used through biological ﬁltration and recirculation. • Local food production provides access to healthy foods and enhances the local economy. In aquaponics, nutrient-rich eﬄuent from ﬁsh tanks is used to fertigate hydroponic production beds. Th is is good for the ﬁsh because plant roots and rhizobacteria remove nutrients from the water. These nutrients – generated from ﬁsh manure, algae, and decomposing ﬁsh feed – are contaminants that would otherwise build up to toxic levels in the ﬁsh tanks, but instead serve as liquid fertilizer to hydroponically grown plants. In turn, the hydroponic beds function as a bioﬁlter – stripping oﬀ ammonia, nitrates, nitrites, and phosphorus – so the freshly cleansed water can then be recirculated back
Aquaponic vegetable bed in Australia. Photo by Joel Malcolm, Backyard Aquaponics. www.backyardaquaponics.com
into the ﬁsh tanks. The nitrifying bacteria living in the gravel and in association with the plant roots play a critical role in nutrient cycling; without these microorganisms the whole system would stop functioning. Greenhouse growers and farmers are taking note of aquaponics for several reasons: • Hydroponic growers view fishmanured irrigation water as a source of organic fertilizer that enables plants to grow well. • Fish farmers view hydroponics as a bioﬁ ltration method to facilitate intensive recirculating aquaculture. • Greenhouse growers view aquaponics as a way to introduce organic hydroponic produce into the marketplace, since the only fertility input is ﬁsh feed and all of the nutrients pass through a biological process.
ATTRA—National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service (www.attra.ncat.org) is managed by the National Center for Appropriate Technology (NCAT) and is funded under a grant from the United States Department of Agriculture’s Rural BusinessCooperative Service. Visit the NCAT website (www.ncat.org/ sarc_current.php) for more information on our sustainable agriculture projects.
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• Food-producing greenhouses – yielding two products from one production unit – are naturally appealing for niche marketing and green labeling. • Aquaponics can enable the production of fresh vegetables and ﬁsh protein in arid regions and on waterlimited farms, since it is a water re-use system. • Aquaponics is a working model of sustainable food production wherein plant and animal agriculture are integrated and recycling of nutrients and water ﬁltration are linked. • In addition to commercial application, aquaponics has become a popular training aid on integrated bio-systems with vocational agriculture programs and high school biology classes. The technology associated with aquaponics is complex. It requires the ability to simultaneously manage the production and marketing of two diﬀerent agricultural products. Until the 1980s, most attempts at integrated hydroponics and aquaculture had limited success. However, innovations since the 1980s have transformed aquaponics technology into a viable system of food production. Modern aquaponic systems can be highly successful, but they require intensive management and they have special considerations. This publication provides an introduction to aquaponics, it proﬁ les successful aquaponic greenhouses, and it provides extensive resources. It does not attempt to describe production methods in comprehensive technical detail, but it does provide a summary of key elements and considerations.
all of the nutrients supplied to the crop are dissolved in water. Liquid hydroponic systems employ the nutrient film technique (NFT), f loating rafts, and noncirculating water culture. Aggregate hydroponic systems employ inert, organic, and mixed media contained in bag, trough, trench, pipe, or bench setups. Aggregate media used in these systems include perlite, vermiculite, gravel, sand, expanded clay, peat, and sawdust. Normally, hydroponic plants are fertigated (soluble fertilizers injected into irrigation water) on a periodical cycle to maintain moist roots and provide a constant supply of nutrients. These hydroponic nutrients are usually derived from synthetic commercial fertilizers, such as calcium nitrate, that are highly soluble in water. However, hydroorganics – based on soluble organic fertilizers such as ﬁsh hydrosylate – is an emerging practice. Hydroponic recipes are based on chemical formulations that deliver precise concentrations of mineral elements. The controlled delivery of nutrients, water, and environmental modiﬁcations under greenhouse conditions is a major reason why hydroponics is so successful. Nutrients in Aquaculture Eﬄuent: Greenhouse growers normally control the delivery of precise quantities of mineral elements to hydroponic plants. However, in aquaponics, nutrients are delivered via aquacultural eﬄuent. Fish eﬄuent contains suﬃcient levels of ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, phosphorus, potassium, and other secondary and micronutrients to produce hydroponic plants. Naturally, some plant species are better adapted to this system than others. The technical literature on aquaponics provides greater detail on hydroponic nutrient delivery; especially see papers cited in the Bibliography by James Rakocy, Ph.D. Plants Adapted to Aquaponics: The selection of plant species adapted to hydroponic culture in aquaponic greenhouses is related to stocking density of ﬁsh tanks and subsequent nutrient concentration of aquacultural eﬄuent. Lettuce, herbs, and specialty greens (spinach, chives, basil, and watercress) have low to medium nutritional requirements and are well adapted to aquaponic systems.
Aquaponics: Key Elements and Considerations
A successful aquaponics enterprise requires special training, skills, and management. The following items point to key elements and considerations to help prospective growers evaluate the integration of hydroponics with aquaculture. Hydroponics: Hydroponics is the production of plants in a soilless medium whereby
Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture
chlorine. Water quality testing kits from aquacultural supply companies are fundamental. dissolved solids. ammonia. ﬁsh density. However. when shallow bed systems only three inches in depth are employed for the production of specialty greens such as lettuce and basil. including tilapia. and waste byproducts.attra. Further. plant species. Fish Species: Several warm-water and coldwater ﬁsh species are adapted to recirculating aquaculture systems. and other characteristics. The gravel functions as a “ﬂuidized bed bioreactor. The North Carolina State University System Water consumption in an integrated aquavegeculture system amounts to 1 percent of that required in pond culture to produce equivalent tilapia yields. one greenhouse may contain a multiple number of ﬁsh tanks and associated growing beds. Component Ratio: Matching the volume of ﬁsh tank water to volume of hydroponic media is known as component ratio. the Speraneo system described below is designed for one cubic foot of water to two cubic feet of grow bed media (pea gravel).” removing dissolved solids and providing habitat for www. and related environmental ﬂuctuations can elicit rapid changes in water quality. nitrate. the square footage of grow space will increase four times. Arctic char. Some aquaponic systems are designed with intermediate ﬁlters and cartridges to collect suspended solids in ﬁsh eﬄuent. each arranged in a separate node. Early aquaponics systems were based on a ratio of 1:1. perch. temperature. and to facilitate conversion of ammonia and other waste products to forms more available to plants prior to delivery to hydroponic vegetable beds. Some operations oﬀer technical assistance through short courses. T Aquaponic Systems Proﬁles of several aquaponic greenhouses are highlighted below as models of commercially viable systems. design manuals. The variation in range depends on type of hydroponic system (gravel vs. pH. carbon dioxide. Thus. and the Bibliography. Please refer to articles in the Resources section. most commercial aquaponic systems in North America are based on tilapia. and dissolved solids. the component ratio can favor greater outputs of either hydroponic produce or ﬁsh protein. The stocking density of ﬁsh. high humidity conditions in greenhouses than ﬁeld varieties. Tilapia is a warm-water species that grows well in a recirculating tank culture. Critical water quality parameters include dissolved oxygen. feeding rate. In the 1980s Mark McMurtry (former graduate student) ATTRA Page 3 . Barramundi and Murray cod ﬁsh species are raised in recirculating aquaponic systems in Australia.ncat. raft). The literature on tilapia contains extensive technical documentation and cultural procedures. Bioﬁltration and Suspended Solids: Aquaculture eﬄuent contains nutrients. feeding rate and volume. growth rate of ﬁsh. nitrite. ilapia is a warm-water species that grows well in a recirculating tank culture. Most of these operations are featured in magazine articles and conference proceedings. trout. The design manuals and technical documentation available in the Resources section can help growers decide which system is most appropriate. oxygen. bell peppers. and cucumbers) have a higher nutritional demand and perform better in a heavily stocked. For example. but 1:2 is now common and tank: bed ratios as high as 1:4 are employed. well established aquaponic system. Tilapia produces a whiteﬂeshed meat suitable to local and wholesale markets. and on-site tours. constant and vigilant water quality monitoring is essential. and bass. for in-depth descriptions and technical details. Depending on the system design.org nitrifying bacteria involved in nutrient conversions. Furthermore. Water Quality Characteristics: Fish raised in recirculating tank culture require good water quality conditions. etc.Plants yielding fruit (tomatoes. Other systems deliver ﬁsh eﬄuent directly to gravel-cultured hydroponic vegetable beds. A “node” is a conﬁguration that links one ﬁsh tank to a certain number of hydroponic beds. Greenhouse varieties of tomatoes are better adapted to low light. tilapia is tolerant of ﬂuctuating water conditions such as pH. ﬁsh species.
Soil Science.and the late Doug Sanders (professor) at North Carolina State University developed an aqua-vegeculture system based on tilapia ﬁsh tanks sunk below the greenhouse ﬂoor. Some f i nd ing s a nd h ig h l ig ht s of McMurtry’s research: B ioﬁlters (sand beds with vegetables) that are alternately ﬂooded and drained with nutrient-laden ﬁsh tank water are called reciprocating bioﬁlters. • Dissolved and suspended organic materials accumulate rapidly in aquaculture systems and must be removed for eﬃcient ﬁsh production. The nutrients in the irrigation water fed tomato and cucumber crops. Removal of the solid wastes resulted in insuﬃcient residual nutrients for good plant growth. • Aqueous nitrate concentrations in recirculating aquaculture can be adequately regulated when ﬁsh and vegetable production are linked via reciprocating bioﬁlters. In 1950 Gosh and Burris (Utilization of Nitrogenous Compounds by Plants. intensive production of ﬁsh protein 3. • Previous integrated fish-vegetable systems removed suspended solids from the water by sedimentation in clariﬁers prior to plant application. 70: 187-203) found that tomatoes utilize alanine. See the Bibliography on Aquaponics in the appendix for a of list articles that resulted from the North Carolina research. conservation of water resources and plant nutrients 2. • Research to determine the optimum ratio of ﬁsh tank to bioﬁlter volume on ﬁsh growth rate and water quality found that stocking density of ﬁsh and plants can vary depending on desired goal. Aqua-vegeculture research at NCSU has been discontinued because the technology had evolved to the point where it is ready Page 4 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture . • Tomatoes may have also assimilated nitrogen in organic amino acid forms. and the sand beds and plant roots functioned as a bioﬁ lter. • Bioﬁlters (sand beds with vegetables) that are alternately ﬂooded and drained with nutrient-laden ﬁsh tank water are called reciprocating bioﬁlters. histidine. particularly during winter months in urban areas. pesticide-free produce and “fresh-daily” fish can bring premium prices. • Reciprocating biofilters provide uniform distribution of nutrientladen water within the filtration medium during the ﬂood cycle. • Beneﬁts of integrating aquaculture and vegetable production are: 1. • Water consumption in an integrated aqua-vegeculture system amounts to 1 percent of that required in pond culture to produce equivalent tilapia yields. • Such low-water-use symbiotic systems are applicable to the needs of arid or semi-arid regions where fish and fresh vegetables are in high demand. reduced operating costs relative to either system in isolation. Eﬄuent from the ﬁsh tanks was trickle-irrigated onto sand-cultured hydroponic vegetable beds located at ground level. the water recirculated back into the ﬁsh tanks. After draining from the beds. acceptable fruit yields had previously only been achieved with substantial supplementation of plant nutrients. Fish stocking density and feeding rates are adjusted to optimize water quality as inﬂuenced by plant growth rate. and improved aeration from atmospheric exchange during each dewatering with benefits to both nitrifying bacteria and plant roots. and leucine as eﬀectively as inorganic nitrogen sources. • Organic vine-ripened. Vol. glutamic acid. The only fertility input to the system was ﬁsh feed (32 percent protein). The component ratios of the system may be manipulated to favor ﬁsh or vegetable production according to local market trends or dietary needs.
Louis market. The Speraneo system is now in use worldwide. and ornamental bedding plants in the aquaponic greenhouse. Tom once calculated the farm produces 45 to 70 pounds of produce for every pound of tilapia. Tom started adding small amounts of Planters 2® rock dust on top of the gravel as a trace element supplement. The Speraneo system was practical. The following notes describe the Speraneo system and available resources. however. they expanded to a full-size commercial greenhouse. To handle requests for assistance.000 visitors to the small farm in Missouri. so they dropped the St. Tom Speraneo died in February 2004. an impressive yield. Paula explained this ﬁgure takes into account the cumulative yields of multiple vegetable crops raised during the 7. cucumbers. Tom was a true pioneer in aquaponics. Mexican imports of basil resulted in a market crash to $4 per pound. It contains six 1. The resource packet is available through: ATTRA Page 5 The Speraneo System In the early 1990s. S & S Aqua Farm now grows a diverse variety of vegetable and herbs. the Speraneos compiled a resource packet and design manual with technical speciﬁcations to establish an S & S Aqua Farm-style aquaponic system. tomatoes. Interest in the Speraneo system resulted in more than 10. Later. and wildly successful. Tom and Paula Speraneo – owners of S & S Aqua Farm near West Plains. The Speraneos employ hydroponic vegetable beds as “ﬂuidized bed reactors.for grower application. The commercial-scale solar greenhouse at S & S Aqua Farm is 50 feet by 80 feet. PVC piping. but the tanks are more conveniently located above ground and tilapia hybrids adapted to cooler water temperatures are grown. and an assortment of vegetable. Later. Paula Speraneo and her family continue to run the greenhouse and actively participate in aquaponics technology transfer. Sadly. The Department of Horticulture and the Cooperative Extension Service at NCSU provide technical assistance to aquaponic greenhouse growers in North Carolina. and he was unfailingly generous and helpful to others. Following passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). However. S & S Aqua Farm has grown fresh basil. researchers. with ﬁsh eﬄuent linked to gravel-cultured hydroponic vegetable beds inside an attached solar greenhouse. supplemented with tank-cultured algae. Tom referred to each tank-plus-hydroponic bed setup as a “node. Missouri. farmers. including school children. The component ratio favors vegetables over ﬁsh yields in the Speraneo system. and return-flow water pumping www. Louis.attra. Tom and Paula were raising and selling basil for $12 a pound to gourmet restaurants about four hours away in St. Tilapia are raised in ﬁsh tanks. oriented East-West to create a south-facing slope. Tilapia in the Speraneo system are raised for 7 to 12 months. mixed salad greens. Missouri – modiﬁed the North Carolina State method by raising tilapia in a 500-gallon tank.ncat. herb. In the early 1990s.” This way. then harvested at one to one-and-ahalf pounds in size. It became the model for dozens of commercial aquaponic greenhouses and high school biology programs. selling locally at a farmers market combined with direct sales out of their greenhouse. The reciprocating water cycle. Some aspects of the Speraneo system were modeled after the aquaponics research at North Carolina State University. For years. productive. each node can operate independently of one another. Each tank is linked to six one-foot-deep hydroponic beds ﬁlled with river gravel. and government oﬃcials. Response from growers to a practical design manual such as this was tremendous.to 12-month time period required to raise ﬁsh to harvest. The resource packet includes a 10-minute video and a list of supplies. while others are modified. methods were designed by Tom and Paula to match their system.” but they use pea-grade river gravel instead of sand. Purina® ﬁsh chow at 40 percent protein was the primary fertility input.org .200 gallon ﬁsh tanks.
NCAT. Missouri.Aquaponic greenhouse at S & S Aqua Farms. West Plains. Page 6 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture . Photos by Steve Diver.
and associates at The University of the Virgin Islands System James Rakocy. 2004). Like McMurtry. Tilapia are stocked at a rate of 77 ﬁsh per cubic meter for Nile tilapia. ﬂoating ﬁsh pellet at 32 percent protein. The production schedule is staggered so that one tank is harvested every six weeks. base addition tank. the aquaponic system yields $134. a recirculating aquaculture system. pipes and pumps. researcher Rakocy sees integrated water reuse systems as a viable solution to sustainable food production in developing countries and arid regions – such as the Caribbean Islands – where fresh water is scarce. UVI specializes in greenwater tank culture. Projected annual ﬁsh production is 4. com/magazine/back_issues/view_article. ﬁlter and degassing tanks. ft. the UVI research team oﬀers a week-long short course on aquaponics each year at the UVI agricultural experiment station. while yields of aquaponic okra were 18 times greater than ﬁeld-grown. The ﬁsh are fed three times daily with a complete. When ﬁsh sales are included. After harvest. Basil and okra were raised in raft hydroponics.org ATTRA Page 7 . with outstanding quality and yields. Rakocy has published extensive research reports and several Extension Service bulletins on recirculating aquaculture and aquaponics. December 1997.growingedge. sump.5 by alternately adding calcium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide to the base addition tank. Based on a market price in the U. 8820 West Plains.245 (Rakocy. To provide in-depth technical support. The UVI short course is the premier educational training program available to farmers in the world.0 to 7. Winter 1993-94. The pH is monitored daily and maintained at 7. Yields of aquaponic basil were three times greater than ﬁeld-grown.S & S A qua F arm [Contact: Paula Speraneo] 8386 County Rd. the University of the Virgin Islands (UVI) developed a commercial-scale aquaponic system that has run continuously for more than ﬁve years. lettuce.800 liters each. researchers calculated gross income potential. MO 65775 417-256-5124 Especially see: Maturing Marvel (PDF/282K) by Vern Modeland. May-June 1998. Th is compares to ﬁeld-produced basil at $172 per cubic meter per year or $36. Ph. Basil. J ames Rakocy.16 metric tons for Nile tilapia and 4. www. php3?AID=50240 Bioponics – Revolution in Food Growing: Missouri Aquafarmer Discovers Huge Beneﬁts in Trace Elements by David Yarrow Remineralize the Earth.210 per system per year. In addition to aquaponics. and associates at the University of the Virgin Islands (UVI) developed a commercial-scale aquaponic system that has run continuously for more than ﬁve years.php3?AID=90535> The Genius of Simplicity (PDF/30K) by John Wesley Smith. which buﬀers the aquatic system and supplements calcium and potassium ions at the same time. In one notable experiment the UVI researchers compared the yields of a leafy herb (basil) and a fruiting vegetable (okra) grown in aquaponic vs.D. clariﬁers. The system components include: Four ﬁsh rearing tanks at 7.ncat. or 154 ﬁsh per cubic meter for red tilapia and cultured for 24 weeks. The Growing Edge. and six 400-square foot hydroponic troughs totaling 2. ﬁeld production systems.400 sq. The only other supplemental nutrient required is iron.com/magazine/back_ issues/view_article.D. the ﬁsh tank is immediately restocked.growingedge. Ph. and the aquacultural eﬄuent is linked to ﬂoating raft hydroponics. Nile and red tilapia are raised in ﬁsh rearing tanks. air diﬀusers. which is added in a chelated form once every three weeks.. okra. et al. Virgin Islands of $22 per kg for fresh basil with stems.S. The aquaponic method would result in $515 per cubic meter per year or $110.808 per year for the same production area. www. www. and other crops have been raised successfully.78 metric tons for red tilapia. The Growing Edge..attra.
The institute helps Appalachian farmers set up two types of aquaculture systems: (a) an indoor.htm The Freshwater Institute System The Freshwater Institute in Shepherdstown. edu/azaqua/ista/ista6/ista6web/presentation/ p676.000 Kingshill. Tilapia is raised as a warm-water ﬁsh species.pdf Aquaponics: Integrated Technology for Fish and Vegetable Production in Recirculating Systems. Contact The Freshwater Institute for information on obtaining design manuals and other publications not available as Web downloads. www. Charlie Shultz and Eric S. Croix U. R. and other nutrients in aquaculture eﬄuent can be eﬀectively removed by plants grown in NFT hydroponics or constructed wetland systems.S. PowerPoint Presentation. Bailey. the institute has specialized in cold-water recirculating aquaculture systems raising trout and arctic char. low-tech recirculating tank method. Please note the institute no longer provides direct technical assistance to farmers on aquaponics. Box 10. the institute implemented an aquaponic demonstration program based on a Speraneo-style gravel-cultured system. details on greenhouse layout and aquaponic production. and other nutrients in aquaculture eﬄuent can be eﬀectively removed by plants grown in NFT hydroponics or constructed wetland systems. Treatment of aquaculture eﬄuent prior to its return to the natural stream ﬂow led to collaborative research with USDA-ARS scientists in Kearneysville. and further informational resources. phosphorus. 69 slides.arizona. University of the Virgin Islands USDA Ministerial Conference and Expo on Agricultural Science and Technology. West Virginia.edu/azaqua/ista/ista6/ ista6web/pdf/676.fas. West Virginia – a program of The Conservation Fund.47 MB) http://ag. T Aquaponics www. and wetland plants.gov/icd/stconf/session2/ session%202d/02-rakocy_j-2D%202nd_ﬁles/ frame.aspx?s=RE rials at the Freshwater Institute’s greenhouses showed that nitrogen. Rakocy. lettuce.D. Philippines.edu Aquaculture Program www.uvi. University of the Virgin Islands Agriculture Experiment Station RR 1. held September 12-16. Ph. an environmental non-proﬁt Page 8 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture .uvi. phosphorus. Page 676690. Donald S. Hydroponic crops include basil. To provide technical assistance to farmers and high school biology teachers. the institute published a series of publications on recirculating aquaculture and aquaponics. For years. In the mid-1990s.See the Bibliography in the appendix for citations to articles and papers by Rakocy.edu/sites/uvi/Pages/ AES-Aquaculture-Aquaponic_Systems. protection of spring water quality as it relates to aquaculture eﬄuent is viewed as a vital component of this technology. The Freshwater Institute Natural Gas Powered Aquaponic System – Design Manual is a 37page manual published by the institute in 1997. 2004 in Manila. However. Virgin Islands 00850-9781 340-692-4031 (340) 692-4035 FAX jrakocy@uvi. aspx?s=RE Especially see: Update on Tilapia and Vegetable Production in the UVI Aquaponic System James E. Instead. organization – specializes in aquaculture research and education. Included are diagrams and photos. Contact: James Rakocy. estimated operating expense. it has made some of their publications on recirculating aquaculture and aquaponics available online. Fresh spring water is an abundant resource in the Appalachian region. St.pdf. hightech recirculating tank method and (b) an outdoor. Thoman.usda.edu/sites/uvi/Pages/ AES-Aquaculture-Home. In: New Dimensions on Farmed Tilapia: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. on integrated hydroponic-ﬁsh culture systems. Proceedings paper: 15 pages (PDF/254 K) http://ag. parts list with suppliers and cost.arizona. James Rakocy. Trials at the institute’s greenhouses showed that nitrogen. PDF Presentation: 49 pages (PDF/1.
The foundation is dedicated to the preservation of rare breeds of farm animals. In warm climates. (b) water hyacinth – an aquatic plant ATTRA Page 9 . www.cabbagehillfarm. and aquaponic greenhouse production. www.org Selected Publications from The Freshwater Institute: • Suggested Management Guidelines for An Integrated Recycle Aquaculture – Hydroponic System • The Freshwater Institute Natural Gas Powered Aquaponic System – Design Manual • 880 Gallon Recycle Aquaculture System Installation Guide • Linking Hydroponics to a 880 Gallon Recycle Fish Rearing System • Operators Manua l for 880 – Recycle System The New Alchemy Institute The New Alchemy Institute in East Falmouth. Cabbage Hill Farm promotes education on aquaponics and hosts greenhouse interns.ncat.57 MB) by Ronald D. ﬁsh production can be located in outdoor tanks or adjacent buildings.org www. In addition to hydroponics. Cabbage Hill Farm designed and continues to operate a simple recirculating aquaponic system.freshwaterinstitute.thegreencenter. Tilapia ﬁsh and leaf lettuce are the main products of the Cabbage Hill Farm system. The eﬄuent simply needs to be delivered to hydroponic vegetable beds.thegreencenter.net Listed under the heading: New Alchemy Institute Publications Online n warm climates. May-June 1986. Zweig.Pomona implemented an outdoor integrated bio-system that links: (a) a pond containing treated sewage wastewater stocked with tilapia and carp.thegreencenter. Cabbage Hill Farm 115 Crow Hill Road Mount Kisco. New Alchemy publications on greenhouse production and aquaponics provide historical insight to the emerging bioshelter (ecosystem greenhouses) concept and are still a valuable resource for technical information. Contact: The Green Center 28 Common Way. water passes through a constructed reed bed outside the greenhouse for additional nutrient removal.attra. Massachusetts. As an example. I The Cabbage Hill Farm System Cabbage Hill Farm is a non-proﬁt organization located about 30 miles north of New York City. Tours are available. NY 10549 914-241-2658 914-241-8264 FAX www. A selection of past articles is available online.net Especially see: An Integrated Fish Culture Hydroponic Vegetable Production System (PDF/6. is again making these publications available for sale. hydroponic vegetable beds may be located outside. Although the institute closed in 1991. sustainable agriculture and local food systems. the Center for Regenerative Studies at California State Polytechnic University .The Freshwater Institute 1098 Turner Road Shepherdstown. Journal of The New Alchemists. conducted research on integrated aquaculture systems during the 1970s and 1980s.net Listed under the heading: New Alchemy Institute Publications Online Summary of Fish Culture Techniques in Solar Aquatic Ponds (PDF/815K) by John Wolfe and Ron Zweig. The website has a section featuring for-sale articles on aquaculture and bioshelters (integrated systems). hydroponic vegetable beds may be located outside. Hatchville. WV 25443-4228 Phone (304) 876-2815 www. The Green Center. formed by a group of former New Alchemists. MA 02536 www. Aquaculture Magazine. 1977.org Miscellaneous Systems Instead of locating the ﬁsh and vegetable components in separate containers inside a greenhouse. though basil and watercress are also grown in smaller quantities.
com Page 10 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture . Photos by Joel Malcolm. (with permission) www.Backyard Aquaponics in Western Australia. Backyard Aquaponics.backyard aquaponics.
but the products are not allowed to carry the USDA organic label.usda.org . Production inputs used in organic production – such as feed and fertilizers – must be of natural origin and free of synthetic materials. ATTRA Page 11 rganic certifying agencies can certify organic aquaculture operations. (c) nearby vegetable gardens irrigated with nutrient-laden pond water. and the solar-aquatic ponds.S. barramundi (Lates calcarifer) and Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii) ﬁsh species have been adapted to recirculating aquaculture and aquaponics systems.pdf ). but the products are not allowed to carry the USDA organic label. Organic Aquaculture. the plant biomass generated by water hyacinth is used as feedstock for compost heaps. solar-algae ponds (see literature by Zweig and Kleinholz). In fact. Organic trout.org/about_ifoam/standards/norms/ norm_documents_library/Norms_ENG_V4_ 20090113. To provide access to the large volume of documents. ﬁsh and plants can be placed in the same container to function as a polyculture. Meanwhile. accessible at www. Models include the Rakocy system. The stocking densities for these ﬁsh species is higher than tilapia.very eﬃcient at sucking up nutrients – covering 50 percent of the water surface area.ams. For example. made popular by John Todd at Ocean Arks International.html) an aquaponic greenhouse in Illinois. The NOP is an organic certiﬁcation and marketing program that ensures foods and food products labeled as “organic” meet universal standards and guidelines for organic production. Several references are provided on these ﬁsh species and aquaponic systems in the Resources and Bibliography sections. comprised of 80 aquaculture professionals and related stakeholders – formed to provide further guidance and clarification to the NOSB. A farm plan. organic aquaculture was not clearly deﬁned in the NOP and the lack of organic aquaculture guidelines has hampered the growth of a domestic organic aquaculture industry in the United States. AquaRanch markets its greenhouse-raised tilapia as “naturally grown.aquaranch. set a precedent for the aquaponics industry by obtaining organic certiﬁcation for its hydroponic produce through Indiana Certiﬁed Organic. The ATTRA publication Aquaculture Enterprises: Considerations and Strategies contains a section on organic aquaculture.0/getﬁle?dDocName=STELPRD C5062436&acct=nopgeninfo. In 2003. gov/AMSv1. the National Agricultural Library published an 80-page bibliography. and Israel using production standards developed by international organic certiﬁcation agencies www. documentation of inputs and production methods. ifoam. O Organic Aquaculture Organic production of crops and livestock in the United States is regulated by the Department of Agriculture’s National Organic Program.” To address the issue of organic aquaculture. salmon and other ﬁsh species are raised in Europe. In Australia. AquaRanch (www.attra. Version 2005 and updated in 2009 at www. tilapia. or NOP.ncat. the National Organic Standards Board (NOSB) established an Aquatic Animals Task Force in June 2000. through the Alternative Farming Systems Information Center. or Living Machines. com/index. Australia. The interim ﬁnal report published by NOAWG in January 2006 provides proposed recommendations on organic aquaculture to NOSB. (for more information see The IFOAM Norms for Organic Production and Processing. and farm inspection are required to obtain “certiﬁed organic” status. which in turn results in greater hydroponic surface under production. In addition to locating the ﬁsh and vegetable components in separate containers. It states that accredited organic certifying agencies can certify organic aquaculture operations. and organic production standards surrounding the issue of organic aquaculture. However. This process allows farm products to be labeled and sold as organic. plants sit on top of ﬂoating polystyrene panels with their roots hanging down into the water that fish swim around in. reports. Quality Certiﬁcation Services in Florida has certiﬁed three organic aquaculture operations in the U. and abroad under a private label. a second group – The National Organic Aquaculture Working Group (NOAWG).
prospective growers are advised to thoroughly investigate production methods and market potential.com/ infoCourses. National Agricultural Library. Read technical and popular literature on recirculating aquaculture and aquaponics to become familiar with production methods.nal. USDA. oﬀered by University of the Virgin Islands. has a list of training courses on their website accessible at www. www. Bag culture of greenhouse vegetables – raising plants in polyethylene grow bags ﬁ lled Page 12 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture . Take lots of pictures to document the system components and how they relate to one another. and quick delivery of perishable produce to established markets. Due to the highly technical nature of aquaponics and the expense associated with greenhouse production. obtain typical yields and market prices for hydroponic vegetables and ﬁsh. Consider lowercost and simpler alternatives. The Bibliography in the appendix provides access to in-depth research and technical data. 4. and Ann Young. and investigate local and regional markets and related point of sales. 5. Mary Gold.usda. No date) Aquaculture International (Aquaculture International. You may quickly ﬁnd that your biggest challenge is weekly marketing of fresh produce rather than successful production of vegetables. Aquaponic greenhouses yield two food products. Bill Thomas. 6. and market prices for fresh ﬁsh and hydroponic vegetables. Complementary ATTRA publications include Organic Greenhouse Vegetable Production and Integrated Pest Management for Greenhouse Crops. Building and equipping a commercial-sized aquaponic greenhouse can cost $10. with compost-based potting mixes – is a simple and productive way to get started in greenhouse vegetable production. post-harvest handling methods to maintain superior quality. No date) in Wisconsin. A sequence of considerations and learning opportunities geared to evaluating an aquaponic greenhouse enterprise are listed below. Keep in mind that aquaponic growers are busy people with a considerable investment in time and resources to establish their businesses. and Growing Power (Growing Power. depending on the system design and choice of components. Cornell University cohosts a recirculating aquaculture short course in association with The Freshwater Institute (Cornell University. the Desktop Aquaponics Booklet. and hydroponics is one method of greenhouse production.htm. but this will depend on your location. A quaponics is one method of hydroponics.Organic Aquaculture: AFSIC Notes #5 by Stephanie Boehmer. The Web Resources listed below provide quick access to reading material.gov/afsic/AFSIC_pubs/ afnotes5. To evaluate greenhouse proﬁtability. grading and packing with brand name labels. Obtain one or two aquaponic training manuals to acquire detailed technical speciﬁcations. prospective growers are advised to thoroughly investigate production methods and market potential. There are three prominent aquaponic short courses in North America. yields. 3. Visit an aquaponic greenhouse to gain ﬁrsthand observations. Retail sales directly out of your greenhouse or roadside stand might be an ideal situation. 2. (University of the Virgin Islands. see the ATTRA resource list Greenhouse and Hydroponic Vegetable Production Resources on the Internet. 1. In addition. No date). Aquaponics is one method of hydroponics. diagrams and images.htm Evaluating an Aquaponic Enterprise Due to the highly technical nature of aquaponics and the expense associated with greenhouse production.000 to $30. The book Aquaponic Food Production: raising ﬁsh and plants for food and proﬁt.aquaponics.000. This includes labor to harvest vegetables. Attend a short course. Stephanie Hauser. Nelson and Pade. and hydroponics is one method of greenhouse production. For general information and supplies associated with greenhouse vegetable production. Alternative Farming Systems Information Center. No date) in North Carolina. and related details. Inc.
Bailey. Update on tilapia and vegetable production in the UVI aquaponic system. Donald S.Aquaculture Aquaponic E-Mail List Paula Speraneo of S & S Aqua Farm in Missouri hosts the Aquaponics E-Mail list on the Internet.growingpower. aquaculture. To subscribe. Held September 12-16. James E.uvi. p. the design manuals from S&S Aqua Farm in Missouri and Joel Malcolm’s Backyard Aquaponics in Western Australia contain in-depth technical speciﬁcations. When you are ready to explore a commercial system. 2.Hydroponics . E-mail discussion lists have become the modern town square. and business people all share resources.i55mall. Philippines. supplies. go to: Aquaponics List – Before 2002 www. Inc.com To view Web e-mail archives.cornell. ﬁ sh species. edu/sites/uvi/Pages/AES-AquacultureInternational_Aquaponics. The Web Resources section lists additional training manuals and technical documentation.cfm 6.jaggartech.com Resources E-mail Discussion Lists for Aquaponics . The old saying. scientists.ncat. This is where practitioners. based on years of research and experience..backyardaquaponics. Joel Malcolm. and resources. and production methods. Charlie Shultz and Eric S. Hire an agricultural consultant to acquire expert advice and consultation.aquacultureinternational. Thoman. Aquaculture International – Short Course on Aquaponics www. Rakocy. 2004 in Manila. com/snsaqua 7. 676-690. The e-mail list is hosted by Paula Speraneo with S&S Aqua Farms. A few consultants with expertise in aquaponics are listed in the Agriculture Consultants section below. avoid the “inventor’s urge” to reinvent the wheel. 2004. www.org ATTRA Page 13 . Lastly. In: New Dimensions on Farmed Tilapia: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. References 1. Joel Malcolm – Backyard Aquaponics Design Manual Western Australia joel@backyardaquaponics. 7. Pick one of the existing models and duplicate it insofar as possible. are good starting points.attra. send an email request to: snsaquasys@townsqr. supplies. and parts lists (S&S Aqua Farm. 8. Participate on the Aquaponics E-mail Discussion Group. University of the Virgin Islands – International Aquaponics and Tilapia Aquaculture www. specialists. The e-mail archives are a key source of information. practical solutions. The archives are publicly accessible.com.edu/cals/bee/ outreach/aquaculture/short-course/index.” can be aptly applied to aquaponic start-up greenhouses. 9. R. Growing Power – Short Course on Aquaponics www. then adjust the carburetor. Cornell University – Short Course on Recirculating Aquaculture www.com/aquaponics www. and serve as a treasure trove of technical information and farmer-to-farmer exchange.aspx?s=RE 3.org 5. and to shorten the time and risk involved getting started. Th e Aquaponics List is a prominent source of technology transfer and resource sharing on all aspects of aquaponics: hydroponics.org 4. “Get the engine running ﬁrst.bee. S&S Aqua Farm – Design Manual www. no dates).and the Introduction to Aquaponics DVD from Nelson and Pade. illustrations. Successful aquaponic greenhouse operators have already ﬁgured out the system components and methods of production.
com Austasia Aquaculture www. Inc. WI 53949.edu NOAA Aquaculture Program http://aquaculture.com Greenhouse Product News www. Suite 201 Arlington Heights. Past articles are an important source of technical information on aquaponics. PO Box 761 Montello.permacultureactivist.com www. and Journals Aquaponics Journal Nelson and Pade.com Scranton Gillette Communications.html Aquaculture articles.au Practical Hydroponics & Greenhouses is a bimonthly magazine dedicated to soilless culture and greenhouse production. news.noaa. bioponics. It also reports on new products.com. Level 2.com http://aquafeed.gov Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture ATTRA . and ecologically based pest management. Back issues are a valuable resource. Director WAS Home Oﬃce 143 J. Australia 701803 6245 0064 Aquanews Archives http://pdacrsp. Inc.O. The awardwinning magazine is now online as an exact digital copy of the print edition.edu/aquanews/archive. NSW 2101 Australia Phone: +61 (02) 9905 9933 Fax: +61 (02) 9905 9030 info@hydroponics. research and development. available in print or as e-ﬁles.com Aquaponics Journal is the quarterly journal from Nelson and Pade.com. MSN.hydroponics. and Topica. Bellerive Tasmania.au www.ballpublishing.growingedge.com. Oregon State University. 31 Cambridge Rd. Bellerive Quay.com.O.org/main/summaryasp?page=magazine Carol Mendoza.austasiaaquaculture. Grower Talks www.au Unit 2. Illinois 60005-5025 USA 847-391-1000 847-390-0408 World Aquaculture www. Practical Hydroponics & Greenhouses P.Hydroponics and Aquaculture E-Mail List A number of e-mail lists on hydroponics and aquaculture are scattered among the Internet hosting sites like YahooGroups. IL 60186 Tel: (630) 231-3675 Toll Free (888) 888-0013 Fax: (630) 231-5254 email: info@ballpublishing. It has become a prominent source for articles.aquaponicsjournal. using DjVu technology. Box 225 Narrabeen. Summer 2004. Aquaculture and Aquaponic Trade Magazines.net Aquaculture Collaborative Research Support Program. bioponics. M.was. Box 1027 Corvallis.O.greenhousegrower. reports. 541-757-8477 541-757-0028 Fax www. www. and supplies for the aquaponics industry.oregonstate. Box 1660 West Chicago. 3030 W. Inc.com. USA phone 608-297-8708 Toll-free Fax: 866-815-9734 info@aquaponics. OR 97339-1027 800-888-6785. and organic hydroponics. LA 70803 (USA) 1-225-578-3137 FAX: 1-225-578-3493 firstname.lastname@example.org Aquafeed.com. Permaculture Activist #52 (magazine).com editor@aquafeed. Organizations. Back issues are a valuable resource. Salt Creek Lane.com Greenhouse Grower www. and industry news.oregonstate. aquaponics. Parker Coliseum Louisiana State University Baton Rouge.com Page 14 Ball Publishing 622 Town Road P. http://pdacrsp. Articles proﬁle soilless culture and greenhouse enterprises from around the world. The Growing Edge Magazine New Moon Publishing P.com The Growing Edge is a bi-monthly trade magazine on high-tech gardening systems like hydroponics.
cages.ecotao. oﬀers booklets. MT 59715-4011 (406) 585-8000 email@example.com Hutchinson.com www. videos.ftai. Wisconsin 53949 USA 608-297-8708 866-815-9734 FAX firstname.lastname@example.org Ecotao’s Aquaculture Links www.net Nelson and Pade.com www. England: Permanent Publications.com/perlserv/?request=get-archive Scientiﬁc Journals on Aquaculture (Elsevier journal) www. publisher of Aquaponics Journal. [Contact: Bill Manci] 506 Wabash Street Fort Collins. Aberdeen. DVDs. Laurence.aquaponics.com Rebecca L.Aquaculture Network Information Center (AquaNIC) www.com/holism/agric/aqua. Wa 98295 USA Phone: (407) 421-9816 www.org .htm American Fisheries Society Online Journals http://afs. www.com/science/journal/01448609 Aquaculture International (Springer journal) www.sciencedirect.com www.com/bw/journal. Bozeman. MD 21001 443-243-8840 410-734-7473 FAX email@example.com/ Ecological-Aquaculture-Sustainable-LaurenceHutchinson/dp/1856230325 Van Gorder.wiley. PA: Alternative Aquaculture Association. recirculating systems.com/science/journal/00448486 Aquacultural Engineering (Elsevier journal) www. Breinigsville. LLC [Contact: Myles Harston] 404 D.. www.com S&S Aqua Farms [Contact: Paula Speraneo] ATTRA Page 15 Aquaponic Books and Videos Nelson and Pade. IL 61740 815-796-2978 (815)796-4485 FAX firstname.lastname@example.org. Small Scale Aquaculture: A hobbyist’s guide to growing ﬁsh in greenhouses.O. McMurtry PMB 267 1627 W. Contact: Nelson and Pade.altaqua.allenpress. PO Box 761 Montello. Nelson and John S.org/docrep/005/ y1187e/y1187e00.com Mark R. Inc. Pade.ncat.asp?ref=1355-557X The Aquaponics Guidebook http://accesstoaquaponics.aquaranch. 2000. East Lincoln St.attra. Wisconsin 53949 USA 608-297-8708 866-815-9734 FAX Pinfo@aquaponics.html Agricultural Consultants for Integrated Hydroponics and Aquaculture AquaRanch Industries.amazon. Aquaponic Food Production: raising ﬁsh and plants for food and proﬁt.fao.com Global Aquatics USA. www. Ecological Aquaculture: A Sustainable Solution. CO 80522-3245 970-225-0150 email@example.com. PO Box 761 Montello. and aquaculture.gordoncreaser.com/book. 505 Aldino Stepney Rd.htm Integrated agriculture-aquaculture: A primer. P.growﬁsh. hydroponics.com www.com www. and ﬂowing water. Inc.com Fisheries Technology Associates. Steven D.com Gordon Creaser 4886-115 Garﬁeld Street Sumas. FAO/ IIRR/WorldFish Center 2001. Main St. and educational curricula on aquaponics.com www.aquaponics. Inc. Inc.springerlink. 2008. www. Inc. 2005.com/ShopAFPBook.com/content/1573-143X/?p=d6dfe772b 59245f287cad843d6809276&pi=107 Aquaculture Research (Blackwell journal) www. See their Web page for details. Box 658 Flanagan. Inc. Hampshire.
php?tax_ level=1&info_center=2 Other Aquaculture Resources Aquaculture Network Information Center (AquaNIC) http://aquanic.edu/azaqua/ata. 454 (PDF/314K) http://srac. The NSGL maintains a bibliographical database containing over 36.407 Pennsylvania Ave West Plains. is an important new publication from AFSIC that addresses the potential of organic aquacultural products. 5).gso.org/publicat/usda_rac/fact.arizona. published in January 2005.edu/tmppdfs/504545-SRAC454.com AFSIC. provides extensive aquaculture resource listings. it also contains a section on recirculating aquaculture. organized by subject category.pdf?CFI D=504545&CFTOKEN=21206104&jsessionid=90308c 91b4fe7d1ee6e016a4c5e6e4a61c51 Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture Organic Aquaculture • Aquaculture-Related Internet Sites and Documents • Directory of Aquaculture Related Associations and Trade Organizations • Directory of State Aquaculture Coordinators and Contacts • Automated Searches on General Aquaculture Topics Page 16 ATTRA .org/publicat/govagen/nal/associat.usda.org/systems/recycle/documents/ recirculatingoklahoma.com www.usda. Aquaculture Directories and Resource Collections National Agricultural Library – Alternative Farming Systems Information Center The Alternative Farming Systems Information Center (AFSIC) at the National Agricultural Library.edu/aquadig. Aquaculture Resources http://afsic.usda.html The Alternative Aquaculture Association www. NAL.nal.html The National Sea Grant Library (NSGL) contains a complete collection of Sea Grant funded work.tamu. Aquaculture Network Information Center (AquaNIC) http://aquanic.gov/nal_display/index.htm Texas Aquaculture Association www.altaqua. MD 20705-2351 301-504-6559 301-504-6927 Fax afsic@nal. Room 132 Beltsville.000 records that can be searched by authorkeyword or browsed by topic.org Miami Aqua-culture. and the complete listing of publications from the Regional Aquaculture Centers.pdf Regional Aquaculture Center Publications – Index. Inc.nal. Recirculating Aquaculture Systems – Index. Organic Aquaculture (AFSIC Notes No.texasaquaculture. USDA-ARS 10301 Baltimore Ave..jaggartech. a program of USDA-ARS.aesweb. MO 65775 417-256-5124 snsaquasys@townsqr. Aquaculture Network Information Center (AquaNIC) http://aquanic.miami-aquaculture. Especially see the extensive resource listing on recirculating aquaculture systems.com Directory of Aquaculture Associations Aquaculture Network Information Center (AquaNIC) http://aquanic.php?info_ center=2&tax_level=2&tax_subject=295&level3_ id=0&level4_id=0&level5_id=0&topic_ id=1410&&placement_default=0 Aquaponic Resources on the Web Selected Publications from Southern Regional Aquaculture Center (SRAC) Recirculating Aquaculture Tank Production Systems: Integrating Fish and Plant Culture SRAC Publication No. The Environmentally Friendly Aquaculture Digital Library is a topic-oriented portal to NSGL.gov http://afsic.com/snsaqua Aquaculture Associations Aquacultural Engineering Society www. www.org AquaNIC is the gateway to the world’s electronic resources for aquaculture information.htm Environmentally Friendly Aquaculture Digital Library National Sea Grant Library http://nsgd.uri.gov/nal_display/index. Selected items include proceedings from recirculating aquaculture conferences and related documents.org American Tilapia Association http://ag.
pdf A 10-page reprint article. including a materials list with approximate cost of materials to set up a 350-gallon aquaponic unit. It describes a low cost (less than $600) recirculating aquaculturehydroponic system suitable for use in laboratory settings.rainbowﬁsh. 453 (PDF/378K) http://srac. First Quarter. 2002. Practical Hydroponics and Greenhouses http://hydroponics. The Freshwater Institute Publications Index.pdf Selected Aquaponic Training Materials and Design Manuals S&S Aqua Farm www.Recirculating Aquaculture Tank Production Systems: An Overview of Critical Considerations SRAC Publication No.attra.org/publications www.uark.pdf?CFID=5 04545&CFTOKEN=21206104&jsessionid=90308c91b 4fe7d1ee6e016a4c5e6e4a61c51 • Suggested Management Guidelines for An Integrated Recycle Aquaculture – Hydroponic System • The Freshwater Institute Natural Gas Powered Aquaponic System . Hughey www.pdf?CFID=5 04545&CFTOKEN=21206104&jsessionid=90308c91b 4fe7d1ee6e016a4c5e6e4a61c51 Tank Culture of Tilapia SRAC Publication No. links.com. 282 (PDF/49K) http://srac. Department of Agricultural and Extension Education AgriScience Project www.pdf?CFID=5 04545&CFTOKEN=21206104&jsessionid=90308c91b 4fe7d1ee6e016a4c5e6e4a61c51 Recirculating Aquaculture Tank Production Systems: Management of Recirculating Systems SRAC Publication No. Department of Agricultural and Extension Education. plants. Shepherdstown.htm ATTRA Page 17 .edu/tmppdfs/504545-451fs.20megsfree.com/snsaqua Design manual with speciﬁcations Backyard Aquaponics http://www.htm www.htm Enhancing Student Interests in the Agricultural Sciences through Aquaponics (PDF/725K) by G.com Design manual with speciﬁcations A Prototype Recirculating AquacultureHydroponic System (PDF/94K) By Donald Johnson and George Wardlow University of Arkansas. water.aces.com/Index. greenhouses. bioﬁlters. economics.tamu.edu/depts/aeedhp/agscience/aquart2.tamu. Aquaponics Journal. ﬁsh.freshwaterinstitute.php?f=3 Aquaponics Proves Proﬁtable in Australia.09MB) by Travis W.org General Aquaponic Resources on the Web The Essence of Aquaponics – Index to Aquaponics Mail Group Topics www. plant nutrition.pdf Free Articles on Hydroponics.com/articleaustralia.ncat. West Virginia www.W. Barrel-Ponic (aka Aquaponics in a Barrel) (PDF/3.pdf?CFID=5 04545&CFTOKEN=21206104&jsessionid=90308c91b 4fe7d1ee6e016a4c5e6e4a61c51 Recirculating Aquaculture Tank Production Systems: Component Options SRAC Publication No. 451 (PDF/142K) http://srac.tamu. www. Th e HTML version contains additional photos that illustrate system components and greenhouse production.edu/dept/ﬁsheries/education/documents/ barrel-ponics.Recycle System Aquaculture on Cat Beach www. 452 (PDF/115K) http://srac. maintenance. www.se/mailgroup/index. including a parts list.jaggartech. Johnson University of Arkansas.aquaponicsjournal. Aquaponics Library http://aquaponicslibrary.au/php/viewforum.doc A 10-page booklet with directions on establishing a small aquaponic system.edu/tmppdfs/504545-452fs.se/bilder/education_short.edu/depts/aeedhp/agscience/aquart. originally published in Journal of Agricultural Mechanization (1997).tamu.html The Essence of Aquaponics website of Pekka Nygard and Stefan Goës in Sweden provides an index to key topics (aquaponics. Wardlow and D.uark.rainbowﬁsh.edu/tmppdfs/504545-282fs.M. ﬁsh feed.backyardaquaponics.rainbowﬁsh.Design Manual • 880 Gallon Recycle Aquaculture System Installation Guide • Linking Hydroponics to an 880 Gallon Recycle Fish Rearing System • Operators Manual for 880 .se/english/f89. literature) posted on the Aquaponics Mail Group (see e-mail resources above).edu/tmppdfs/504545-453fs.
php Alberta Agriculture.noaa.aces.wvu. University of Arizona http://ag. Engineering Field Handbook.pdf download from their website.html NorthernAquaFarms.Teacher’s Resource Website.edu/AQUABUSINESS/budgets.com www.uaex.edu/~agexten/aquaculture Water Engineering Bocek. Springs Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture Aquaculture Budgets Aquaculture Enterprise Budget Spreadsheets.com West Virginia University Extension Service Aquaculture www.com/aquaculture University of Arkansas Aquaculture/Fisheries Center Publications www.arizona.ag. from pond and cage construction to species and disease to marketing and promotion.edu/ publications/factSheets.edu NRAC is a principal public forum for the advancement and dissemination of science and technology needed by Northeastern aquacultural producers and support industries. Spring Development.aces.php The Urban Aquaculture Manual by Jonathan Woods www.aces.umd. Aquaculture.edu/ﬁsh/international// waterharvestingpubs.agric.Part 650.webofcreation. Northeastern Regional Aquaculture Center (NRAC) www. Auburn University Marine Extension & Research Center. National Engineering Handbook .au/index.org/Presentations/ Masser%20Aquaponics.gov Florida Division of Aquaculture www. Technical Services Division.tamu. Chapter 12.umd.lsuagcenter. www.htm Aquaponics Combine Fish.aquaponics.edu/azaqua/extension/Classroom/ Aquaponics. The budgets include • Channel catﬁsh pond farm • Hybrid striped bass pond farm • Rainbow trout raceway farm • Water recirculating ﬁsh farm Aquaculture Budgets.texasaquaculture.php The Extension specialists at Auburn have developed four Excel spreadsheets and are available as a free Page 18 ATTRA .agecon. Tomatoes.extension. 1984.edu/smallfarm/pdf/oursare/ aquaponics.edu/dept/ﬁsheries/education/ recirculatingaquaculture. Publications are located here www. Auburn University: International Center for Aquaculture and Aquatic Environments. Water Harvesting and Aquaculture for Rural Development.com. Auburn University www.northernaquafarms. http://srac.org/readingrooms/aquaculture Aquaculture Resources on the Web Greenhouse Tilapia Production in Louisiana Louisiana State University www.edu The Southern Regional Aquaculture Center has an online library of very helpful publications on all aspects of aquaculture.ca/$Department/deptdocs.Integrated Systems of Agriculture and Aquaculture Aquaculture in the Classroom.htm Recirculating Aquaculture Systems -.org/BuildingGrounds/aqua/TOC. 2002. Recreational ﬁsheries and Natural resource conservation (ALEARN) www. and Ingenuity University of Illinois Extension http://web. Universities of Illinois and Indiana Sea Grant www. Agdex 716 (A15).edu/dept/ﬁsheries/aquaculture/budgets.com National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Aquaculture Program http://aquaculture.nsf/all/ agdex4595 USDA.nrac.gov.edu/aqﬁ/extension/publications/factsheet National Ag Law Center – Aquaculture http://nationalaglawcenter. http:// www1.html Aquaculture Publications Southern Regional Aquaculture Center Publications.nrac.edu/dept/ﬁsheries Mississippi State University Aquaculture Publications http://msucares. www.cfm.htm Aquaponics Pty Ltd www. Alex.ab.ﬂoridaaquaculture.com/en/communications/ publications/Publications+Catalog/Environment/ Aquaculture++Fisheries/Greenhouse+Tilapia+Production +in+Louisiana.purdue. ALabama Education in aquatic sciences.auburn.uiuc.pdf Hydroponics Integration with Aquaculture (powerpoint) www.
aspx?content=17550.adelaide. Bioshelters.uncg. http:// greenleaf. Four innovative projects are listed below: Port Clyde Fresh Catch CSF www.com Bioshelters is a recirculating aquaponics facility located in Amherst.html Information for ﬁshermen and consumers. Our entire system is contained in a large solar-heated greenhouse called a Bioshelter.html Catch a Piece of Maine.ucdavis. e.edu/DatabaseRoot/pdf/WRAC-103.nrac.org Southern Regional Aquaculture Center (SRAC) www. wood chips. The University of Adelaide www.e.egov. Backyard Aquafarms http://backyardaquafarms. along vermiculture lines.org Integrated Bio-Systems on the Web Integrated Biosystems.attra. Carteret County.edu.growseed.ncrac.edu North Central Regional Aquaculture Center (NCRAC) www.edu/carteretcatch/CommSuppFish1. Lobster Community Supported Fishery www. plant and human systems are linked.catchapieceofmaine. This soil in hundreds of potted plants on the simulated wetland tiers is key to the transformation of ﬁsh wastes into natural nitrate for plant growth and water ﬁltration.wba Aquaculture and Aquaponic Farms Sweet Water Organics. Because the ﬁsh. Sweet Water’s sustainable aquaculture system harvests urban waste streams.com Aquacultural and Maricultural Business Development Aquacopia www.uncg. http://directives. i.sc.and Wells.usda. yielding the richest possible soil.washington.com DukeFish.au/biogas/website/integratedbiosys. aquaponic.org/wfcms/HQ/Default.sciencedirect.edu/carteretcatch/Index3.aspx Ecological Engineering (Elsevier journal) www.org Carteret Catch. Solar structures create the least expensive and best natural environment for plants.PDF Regional Aquaculture Centers sponsored by the Extension Service Northeastern Regional Aquaculture Center (NRAC) www.com/blog Sweet Water Organics will be the ﬁrst major commercial upgrading of MacArthur genius Will Allen’s aquaculture methodologies.com Aquaculture Investment: Lowering the Risks.portclydefreshcatch.org/growingpower. ATTRA Page 19 .bioshelters. and brewers mash. www.com www. coﬀee grounds. http://sweetwater-organic.worldﬁshcenter.edu/wrac Center for Tropical and Subtropical Aquaculture www.ﬁsh. Duke University’s student chapter of the American Fishery Society www.html Photographic tour of a Growing Power aquaponic system.pdf World Fish Center www.msstate. Sweet Water will be the anchor project in the transformation of a massive industrial building in an “ industrial slum” into a showcase of the potential of living technologies and high-value added urban agriculture.walking-ﬁsh. cardboard. animals and people. bio-intensive ﬁsh-vegetable garden.umd.aquanic.gov/OpenNon WebContent. whereby customers receive a certain amount of product per week (a share) for a yearly share price. Project Green Leaf. Organic Aquaponics. NC http://greenleaf.ctsa.edu/dept/srac Western Regional Aquaculture Center (WRAC) www. veggie residues.ncat.org Aquaculture Network Information Center www. a three-tiered. Paul Harris.g. Western Regional Aquaculture Center http://aqua. community supported ﬁsheries are cooperatives of family ﬁshermen who market their catch directly to customers usually through a subscription mechanism. Massachusetts. www. To learn more about our greenhouse system please follow the link below. a Durham-based community-supported ﬁshery.org Community Supported Fisheries Much like community supported agriculture.aquacopia.com/science/journal/09258574 Ecological engineering has been deﬁned as the design of ecosystems for the mutual beneﬁt of humans and nature. no pesticides can be used on our produce. Eli Rogosa.
pdf McMurtry. Reviews in Fisheries Science. p. Modeland. The Ozarks Mountaineer.hydroponics. 6. R. 4. McMurtry. Haning. and can provide photocopies of articles for a small fee. p.html Aquaponics Journal www. Sand culture of vegetables using recirculating aquacultural eﬄuents. non-renewable resource conservation.com. Vern. 34.au The Speraneo System Durham. Small Farm Today.R. 420–428. Vern.R. Greenhouse Management and Production).G.growingedge. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society. Inter-Library Loan is a service available through most local libraries.D. and P. Thomas M. 1990. Doug. 407–409. p. habitat reconstruction. However. Watanabe. Nelson. M. ecosystem rehabilitation. 428–432.. For a complete list of articles and back issues available through these trade magazines. Collectively. sustainable agroecology.C. p. stream and river restoration.G. Ann Harbor. 1998. 35–38. D. Hodson. and R. M. American Vegetable Grower. Journal of Applied Aquaculture. see the publisher’s websites: The Growing Edge www. and they oﬀer on-site photocopying services to library visitors. M. 1998.htm Practical Hydroponics & Greenhouses www. M. synthetic ecology. The High Plains Journal.R. 1997. Vol. Vern. 78 p. North Carolina State University. p. Dissertation. 3. Mark Richard. Amand. Rich. No.Speciﬁc topics covered in the journal include: ecotechnology. wetland restoration and construction.Olericulture System as Inﬂuenced by Component Ratio. 4. 1–A. 5. BackHome. 33–51. PhD. McMurtry. high proﬁt. these articles provide an instant library on aquaponics.June).org/species/tilapia/documents/s6. 23–25. 7. Vol. 1993. June.com/magazine/compindex. Aquacultural Engineering) and trade magazines (Aquaculture.pdf Appendix I: Bibliography on Aquaponics The following bibliography contains selected literature citations on aquaponics and integrated hydroponicsaquaculture published in trade magazines and scientiﬁc journals. including farmer proﬁles. (Fall). Maturing marvel: S&S Aqua Farm. reclamation ecology. M. Summer. (July-September). Doug. 28. 115. August 24. 1997. Sanders. Journal of Plant Nutrition. They are provided here as an important time saver to those seeking technical and popular information on this topic. Vol.ch/pub/ﬁles/15. University libraries carry scientiﬁc journals (e. and Challenges. Wade O.. The Growing Edge. 1993. B. p.S. ecosystem conservation.C.. Hodson. 1992. Wastewater-fed Aquaculture in Temperate Climates Nutrient recycling with Daphnia and Fish (PDF/97K). 3. Losordo. et al. Eﬀects of bioﬁlter/culture tank volume ratios on productivity of a recirculating ﬁsh/vegetable co-culture system. p. Trends. June 1999. February. Deni. Sanders. http://aquanic. MI. 28–31. 280–284. bioengineering. D. Vol. Vol. and P. 32–33.C. No. restoration ecology. p. 42–44. Aas.g. Aquaculture International. and Practical Hydroponics & Greenhouses are the most relevant trade magazines for aquaponics. and Mark McMurtry. 16.aquaponicsjournal. 4. D..R. Fish increase greenhouse proﬁts. J. Sanders. No. No. Eﬃciency of water use of an integrated ﬁsh/vegetable co-culture system. The Ozarks’ S&S aqua farm. 1992.. Sanders. June-July. Vol.hortikultur. they are relatively new and less widely distributed in university libraries. Integrated Aquaculture.R.. 4th International Conference on Ecological Engineering for Wastewater Treatment.com/BackIssues. UMI. Cure. Applied Agricultural Research. p. hydroponics. and Fred Hanley. No. Mineral nutrient concentration and uptake by tomato irrigated with recirculating aquaculture water as inﬂuenced by quantity of ﬁsh waste products supplied. Page 20 ATTRA . Modeland.C. Vol. 1998. and related topics. Tilapia Production Systems in the Americas: Technological Advances.C. 5 (May.V. 10(3&4): 465–498. 9. recirculating aquaculture. McMurtry. Journal of Production Agriculture. 1988. Kevin Fitzsimmons. p. Modeland. McMurtry. et al. Closed system opens markets. Aquaponics Journal. p. Low-tech polycultural yields. 1993. Yield of tomato irrigated with recirculating aquacultural water. 2002. Please note The Growing Edge. No. No. Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture North Carolina State University McMurtry. Norway www. Aquafarming on a budget..
Rakocy. Missouri Conservationist.. p. D.S. Rakocy. and D. 1998. Eric. Rakocy. Charlie Shultz and Eric S. Croix.) Techniques for Modern Aquaculture. A food production revolution: Missouri aquafarmers discover huge beneﬁts in trace elements integrated with hydroponics. bacterial-based. Presented at the Auburn Fisheries and Aquaculture Symposium. p. Charlie Shultz. 2004. Wang (ed. Proceedings Aquacultural Engineering Conference.edu/azaqua/ista/ista6/ista6web/pdf/584. Tilapia production systems for the Lesser Antilles and other resource-limited.Smith. p. 648. Integrating ﬁsh culture and vegetable hydroponics: Problems and prospects. VA. Vegetable hydroponics and ﬁsh culture: A productive interface. 42-47. 2004. p. K.A.gso. Held July 16-19. Cole. In: Tilapia Aquaculture: Proceedings from the Fourth International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. A recirculating system for tilapia culture and vegetable hydroponics in the Caribbean. The Growing Edge.M.fao. 1999. 19-23. Evaluation of a commercial-scale aquaponic unit for the production of tilapia and lettuce.S. Vol.. Joseph. James E. Aquaponic production of tilapia and basil: comparing a batch and staggered cropping system.. Virgin Islands Perspectives. Rakocy. Aquaculture Magazine. 2004. 63–69. J. Bailey. 38–43. J.E. Hargreaves.uri. treatment process. Bailey. James E. Bailey. www. Integrating tilapia culture with vegetable hydroponics in recirculating systems. Aquaculture Magazine. The status of aquaponics. 454. 676–690. p.S. In: Report of the Subregional Workshop to Promote Sustainable Aquaculture Development in the Small Island Developing States of the Lesser Antilles. 1. World Aquaculture Society.edu/azaqua/ista/ista6/ista6web/pdf/676. Shultz and W. E. No.org/docrep/006/Y4921E/y4921e07. p. Rakocy. Rakocy. 163-184. Bailey. Vol. Hargreaves. p. In: J.. University of the Virgin Islands Agricultural Experiment Station. Nair.A. Vol. Yarrow.htm Rakocy. Part II. http://ag. Fish + plants = food. 6p. FAO Fisheries Report No. Shultz. Remineralize the Earth. The genius of simplicity. Alabama. In B. Donald S. Intensive tank culture of tilapia with a suspended. p. 704 www. Donald S. R.E. 2. p. The status of aquaponics. St. Southern Region Aquaculture Center.. (Winter/ Spring 1987). p. Economic analysis of a commercial-scale aquaponic ATTRA Page 21 The Rakocy System and Related Papers Rakocy. and Michael P..S. p. p. Integration of vegetable hydroponics with ﬁsh culture: A review. 1993.htm#bm7. D. 1997. LA. Part I. James E. Costa Pierce and J. American Society for Agricultural Engineers. 1. p. 1993. Baton Rouge. September-October. Thoman and R. Proceedings Aquacultural Engineering Conference.C. James E. 1984. J.) Techniques for Modern Aquaculture.K. Rakocy. D. (PDF/ 251K).ncat.S. S. St. 70. Shultz. SRAC Publication No. 83-88. Update on tilapia and vegetable production in the UVI aquaponic system.arizona. 1987.C. September 20-22. 1997. J. James. Nutrient accumulation in a recirculating aquaculture system integrated with hydroponic vegetable gardening. MI. 1998. J. Bailey. Manila. Joseph. (Fall). and J. Rakocy. 1. Philippines. 64-70. Cole and K. 40–44. 1997. Martin and R. Losordo.) Tilapia Aquaculture in the Americas. Masser.S.E. 1993. tropical areas. 1992. J. 112-136. U. 392-394. www. September.K. J.org/books/648/648_8.E. (PDF/368K). Thompson. 30 p.actahort. 2003. 148-158. and A.pdf Rakocy. Bailey. and Thoman. 258 p.html Rakocy.A.E.attra.. St. In: New Dimensions on Farmed Tilapia: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. p. MI. http://nsgd. 1999.A.M. Integrating hydroponic plant production with recirculating system aquaculture: Some factors to consider.3 Rakocy. 28.E. p. 5. No. James E. J. World Aquaculture. Shultz. Thoman. Spring-Fall. Rakocy. http://ag. Bailey. David. James E. In: New Dimensions on Farmed Tilapia: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. James. Thomas M.pdf Rakocy.edu/vsgcp/vsgcpc98001/ vsgcpc98001index. Auburn University. J. American Society for Agricultural Engineers. R. W.S.A. 1993.org . Rakocy. Nina.. J. Vol. Acta Horticulturae. John Wesley. No. Orlando. August. In: Proceedings of Second International Conference on Recirculating Aquaculture. D. 584–596. Wang (ed. Mississippi State University. FL. Recirculating Aquaculture Tank Production Systems: Integrating Fish and Plant Culture. 1989. Rakocy (eds. 357-372. 12-13.E. July-August. In: J. Roanoke. Virgin Islands.arizona.M..E.
. Gordon. 1993. Gordon. M.W. 15–34. 15–18.T. Adler. 35–40.T. 1985. Watkins. 17. Evaluation of the eﬀect of a conveyor Page 22 Inslee’s Fish Farm Nelson. Spencer. Wade.M. 1. 4. (October-November). W. James E. 1999. Demonstrating aquaponics. P. 373-384. 3. Agricultural Research. A natural gas-powered small-scale: aquaponic demonstration project. 2000. R. 44.. Robert. Shultz and D. Farmer to Farmer: Better Farming in the Ozarks. p. P. No.org/books/439/439_113. p. p. No. 11. Practical Hydroponics & Greenhouses.. and S. 5–6. The Growing Edge. No. 65. p.R. 10. 1993. E. 2000. 223-254. F. Paul R. p. 5.. Summerfelt. Robert H. Vol. In: Randy Day and Thomas L. Takeda. 35. p. 4. Aquaponics Journal. No. p. Water quality characteristics of a closed recirculating system for tilapia culture and tomato hydroponics. 1998. p. 17–21. Kara. No. The Growing Edge. July-August. and S. Rakocy. Takeda. and F. J. Inslee’s aquaponics.. 348. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Warm Water Aquaculture – Fin-ﬁsh. 1998. Summerfelt. 4. p. 6. S. D. 993–999. Inslee ﬁsh farm: A family run aquaponic operation produces chives and ﬁsh.R. January-February. Brigham Young University Hawaii Campus. F. Bailey. FL. Vol. Small Farm Today. Vol. Harper. Summerfelt. 9. Michael Glenn and Fumiomi Takeda. Stanley. P. Harper. 1990. International Journal of Recirculating Aquaculture.T. and S. Vol.system for the production of tilapia and lettuce. Ayyappan. February 5-8. Vol.S. R.M..E. Acta Horticulturae. outdoor tanks. Watkins. 1982. P. 3. Summerfelt. 8. Vol. Adler. Gordon. 439. The Growing Edge. Rakocy. P. p. Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture ATTRA . Vol. 4. 130. In: Tilapia Aquaculture: Proceedings from the Fourth International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. 5.L. and S. 1. Jenkins. p. Vol. 1997.. p..htm Williams. Gordon Watkins’ System Watkins. Adler. 1996. Aquaculture springs up in West Virginia. 40-42.A. (Winter 1992–1993). Adler. 1985. 4–8. Mechanistic approach to phytoremediation of water. 1997. No. No. 57–61. No. 10. 5. M. Vol.K.T. Economic evaluation of hydroponics and other treatment options for phosphorus removal in aquaculture eﬄuent. Journal of the New Alchemists. Richards (ed). No. Bioshelters. Economic analysis of an aquaponic system for the integrated production of rainbow trout and plants. and D. No. and Pat Williams (ed. March. www. Cole. 264–267. Doris. Vol. Integrating aquaculture and hydroponics on the small farm. Glenn. Summerfelt. Brown. (Spring). Aqua-vegeculture: more food from our water. Eﬀects of solids removal on tilapia production and water quality in continuously aerated.R.) 1992. R. Summerfelt. 1993.T.M. Orlando. Adler.R. 2003. 1993. Growing greenhouse strawberries with aquaculture eﬄuent. No. 131–136. P. 5.actahort. and John A. Scientists seek better ways of utilizing eﬄuent from ﬁsh. Wade. Vols. HortScience. Dinda. Acta Horticulturae. J. 673–678. Glenn. p. Takeda. 2000. 45–46. Investing in an ecosystem. (May-June) p.K. Feedstuﬀs. Aquaponics Journal. FL. Adler. (May-June). 1–3. 12. J. Fishpond eﬄuent + iron=good crop nutrition. No. No. 4. Vol. Orlando. p. 22. P. New Alchemy Anon. Strawberry production linked to aquaculture wastewater treatment. Hargreaves. p. Greg. 603-612. Phytoremediation of aquaculture eﬄuents. F.M.R. D. p. In: Tilapia Aquaculture: Proceedings from the Fourth International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture.. Vol. 48–51. p. September-October. Takeda. Ecological Engineering.M. 9. 3. p. and D. 251–264. Inc. F. Takeda. Glenn. Hydroponics & aquaculture working together: A case study. production strategy on lettuce and basil productivity and phosphorus removal from aquaculture wastewater. May 31. 2001. Adler. 1997. 10. HortIdeas. The Freshwater Institute/USDA-ARS Adler. In Business. p. K. 23. (July-Aug). Environmental Research Forum. 10–15. p. Vol. p. AgVentures. 56-59. Jenkins. Vol. p. Vol. 1999. 1999.R. 20. Jr. Steven T. Nair. E. Overview of economic evaluation of phosphorus removal by plants. Hydroponics in the Ark.
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Ceratoides lanata. MI 48106-1346 734-761-4700 800-521-0600 http://proquest. PhD Dissertation. 1995. MI. Integrated AquacultureOlericulture System as Inﬂuenced by Component Ratio. Ann Harbor. Oregon State University. Ann Harbor. 218 p. Eisenhower Parkway P. and Cercocarpus montanus). PhD Dissertation. 2002. 1997. Singh. including parts and pumping equipment. Evaluation of a Closed Recirculating System for Tilapia Culture. Utilization of Aquaculture Eﬄuent to Supplement Water and Nutrient Use of Turfgrasses and Native Plants (Ephedra viridis. 1980. Ann Harbor.attra. PhD. Daltech-Dalhousie University. UMI. University of Mexico. Carla Dawn. Ann Harbor. Ann Harbor. MI. UMI. 69 p. Ann Harbor. tank culture. 127 p. PhD Dissertation. 87 p. recirculating aquaculture. UMI. The thesis by Carla MacQuarrie contains a detailed description of an aquaponics facility.shtml Faucette. There are numerous other titles in hydroponics. Head. www. 2005. MI. William. Dissertation. MI. Ann Harbor. The UMI ProQuest Digital Dissertations database (see below) provides public Web access to titles and abstracts. the Speraneos in Missouri and Gordon Watkins in Arkansas used Mark McMurtry’s dissertation from North Carolina State University as a guide in the design of their systems. Jr. MS Thesis. A Computer Simulation Model for Wastewater Management in an Integrated (Fish Production-Hydroponics) System. UMI. aquaculture. McMurtry. UMI. Integrated Aquaculture-Hydroponic Systems: Nutrient Dynamics and Designer Diet Development. Rakocy. Auburn University. UMI. PhD Dissertation. MacQuarrie. North Carolina State University. 274 p. 127 p. Khan. Chad Eric. Evaluation of a Recirculating Aquaculture-Hydroponics System. Raymond Frank. For example. UMI. The University of Arizona. MI. Damon Eurgene. PhD Dissertation. Masud A. Sahdev.com/en-US/default.Appendix II: Dissertations Dissertations (PhD) and theses (Masters degree) on integrated aquaculture-hydroponic systems can provide critical access to research data and literature reviews.org ATTRA Page 25 . 1996. MI. Atriplex canescens. Seawright. 1996. MI. and wastewater eﬄuent for those who wish to explore further. New Mexico State University. PhD Dissertation. 150 p.Hydroponic System. Chrysothamnus nauseosus.O. 129 p. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. tilapia. Mark Richard.ncat. King. James Edward. An Assessment of a Closed Greenhouse Aquaculture and Hydroponic System (Tilapia Diets). Integrated Agriculture and Aquaculture for Sustainable Food Production. for example. Oklahoma State University. Selected titles on aquaponic systems are listed below. 1986. Print copies are available for sale. UMI. Box 1346 Ann Arbor. Artemesia tridentata. MI. Contact: UMI ProQuest Digital Dissertations 789 E. Ann Harbor. 78 p. Land-grant university libraries – through fee-based subscription– provide full-text access to recent documents via the ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. UMI. Ann Harbor. Computational Model of an Integrated Aquaculture. via keyword and author search. MI. 1992. PhD Dissertation.
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html or www.ncat.Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture By Steve Diver.attra. Production This publication is available on the Web at: www. NCAT Agriculture Specialist Published 2006 Updated by Lee Rinehart.org/attra-pub/PDF/aquaponic. NCAT Agriculture Specialist © 2010 NCAT Holly Michels. Editor Amy Smith.attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/aquaponic.pdf IP163 Slot 54 Version 033010 Page 28 ATTRA .