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form 1 science notes

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FORM 1 SCIENCE NOTES

What is Science?
1. Science is a systematic study of nature and how it affects our lives and the environment.
2. Natural phenomena are events that happen around us.
3. Example of natural phenomena :
- Growth of a baby into an adult
- An object falling to the ground
- Melting of ice
- Volcano eruptions, earthquakes and tsunami
- Thunderstorm, snow and lightning
4. Science is important to us because it
- Enables us to understand ourselves and our surrounding environment
- Solves mysteries of science through the systematic investigation
- Contributes to new discoveries inventions and knowledge gained
- Improve our standard of living and quality of our environment
- Creates science-based job opportunities
Hazard Warning Symbols
1. Flammable substances
y May become hot and finally ignite in contact with air
y White phosphorus, yellow phosphorus, petrol, kerosene, ethanol, methylated spirit
2. Explosive substances
y May explode under the effect of a flame or if subjected to shocks or friction
y Sodium, potassium, mixture of hydrogen and air, hydrazoic acid, hydrazine, diazo
3. Corrosive substances
y May destroy or burn living tissues on contact with them
y Hydrogen peroxide, concentrated hydrochloric acid, concentrated sodium hydroxide
4. Poisonous or toxic substances
y May cause immediate or long term health risks and even death if inhaled, ingested
or absorbed into the skin
y Mercury, bromine, lead, sodium cyanide, chlorine, hydrogen sulphide, benzene
5. Irritating or harmful substances
y May cause discomfort or inflammation to the body
y Ammonia, chloroform, bromine vapour, chlorine
6. Radioactive substances
y May cause cell mutation
y X-ray, uranium, plutonium, thorium, radium

The steps in a scientific investigation

Identifying the problem
љ
Forming a hypothesis
љ
Planning the experiment
y Identifying variables
y Determining apparatus and materials
y Determining the procedure to carry out the experiment
y Determining method to collect and analyses data

љ
Controlling the variables
љ
Collecting data
љ
Analyzing and interpreting data
љ
Drawing a conclusion
љ
Writing a report


Physical quantities and their units
1. Five physical quantities which can be measured
- Length
- Mass
- Time
- Temperature
- Electric current
2. Physical quantities can be measured in systeme international d͛unites (SI) units.

Physical quantity SI Unit Symbol
Length Metre m
Mass Kilogram Kg
Time Second s
Temperature Kelvin K
Electric current Ampere A

Prefix Symbol Numerical value
Mega M 1000000
Kilo K 1000
Centi C 0.01
Milli M 0.001
Micro µ 0.000001

Weight and Mass
Mass
1. Mass is the amount of matter in an object.
2. The more the matter in an object, the bigger is its mass.
3. SI Unit ʹ kilogram (kg)
4. Mass can measured in gram (g) and milligram (mg).
5. Mass can be measured by beam balance and lever balance.

I kg = 1000 g
1g ʹ 1000 mg


Weight
1. Weight is the gravitational force acting on an object.
2. The greater the force pulling the object towards centres of Earth, the heavier the object.
3. Weight is measured in Newton (N).
4. Compression balance and spring balance is used to measure weight.


Cell as a unit of life
1. A cell is the basic unit of living things which can function on its own.
2. Cells are microscopic and cannot be seen with naked eye.
General structures and functions of animal cells and plant cells
Most cells consist of protoplasm which is surrounded by cell membrane.
Structures Characteristics Function
Nucleus - Is dense and spherical
structure.
- Is surrounded by a nuclear
membrane.
- Contain chromosomes which
carry genetic materials that
determine the characteristics
of organisms.
It is the control centre of the
cell because it controls all
chemical reactions in the cell.
Cytoplasm - Is a flexible, colorless, jelly-like
substance.
- Is surrounded by a cell
membrane.
- Contains water and chemical
substances such as proteins,
stored food and minerals.
Acts as the medium for
chemical reactions of the cell.
Cell membrane - Is a thin, elastic layer on the
outer surface or animal cells.
- Contains fats and proteins.
- Is partially permeable. This
means that it allows certain
substances to pass through.
Controls the movement of
substance in and out the cell.
Cell wall - Is a thick and rigid layer on the
outer surface of plant cells.
- Is mainly composed of tough
substance called cellulose.
It gives the cell a definite
shape.
Chloroplasts - Are tiny, oval structures found
inside the cytoplasm of most
They enable green plants to
manufacture their won food.
1 N = 0.1 kg
1 kg = 10 N
plant cells.
- Contain a green pigment called
chlorophyll.
- Absorbs light energy and uses
it to make food. This process is
called photosynthesis.
Vacuoles - Is a fluid-filled sac found in the
cytoplasm.
- Is surrounded by a membrane
and is filled with cell sap.
- Contains of a solution of
sugars, proteins, minerals.
The vacuole acts as a store of
various substances such as
water, food, pigments,
enzymes, and waste products.


Unicellular organisms
- Are simple organisms that are made up of only one cell
- In animal kingdom: Amoeba and Paramecium
- In plant kingdom: Pleurococcus, Euglena, Chlamydomonas and yeast.
Multicellular organisms
- Are organisms which have more than one cell
- In animal kingdom: mammals, amphibians, reptiles, birds, dish, and Hydra
- In plant kingdom: mosses, algae (Chondrus, Spirogyra), ferns.
Life processes of unicellular and multicellular organisms
1. Unicellular organism
- Can grow
- Sensitive to light, chemical substances, and sharp objects
- Main food is bacteria
- Its excretory organ is the vacuole
- Moves by extending pseudopodium
- Breathes through cell membrane
- Reproduces asexually
2. Multicellular organism
- Main food is zooplankton
- Excretes through its excretory pores
- Moves by means of its tail and fins
- Can grow
- Sensitive to light and vibrations in water
- Reproduces sexually
- Breathes through gills
Cell organization in the human body
1. Types of cells found in human body :
a.) Nerve cells ʹ conducts nerve impulses
b.) Red blood cells ʹ transport oxygen from lungs to all cells
c.) White blood cells
d.) Skeletal muscle cells ʹ controls movement of bones and organs of body
e.) Reproduction cells
f.) Epithelial cellsʹ controls exchange of substances
g.) Bone cells ʹ functions in the support system of the body

2. Types of tissue
a.) Epithelial tissue ʹ protects the tissues beneath it
b.) Connective tissue ʹ connects one tissue to another tissue , supports organs in the
body
c.) Muscle tissue ʹ enables the movement of body parts
d.) Nerve tissue ʹ enables body to respond to stimuli
e.) Carries nerve impulses from one part of the body to another

3. Types of systems
a.) Excretory system ʹ discards toxic waste products produced by the body cells
b.) Reproductive system ʹ produces offspring
c.) Respiratory system ʹ inhales oxygen and exhales carbon dioxide
d.) Lymphatic system ʹ defends the body against disease
e.) Skeletal system ʹ provides support and protection to soft internal organs
f.) Blood circulatory system ʹ transport food substances, oxygen, hormones, and
others to the entire body
g.) Endocrine system ʹ produces hormones that control the body͛s responses toward
stimuli
h.) Nervous system ʹ coordinates and controls all bodily activities related to impulses
and reactions
i.) Muscular system ʹ helps in movement of the body
j.) Digestive system ʹ breaks down complex food into simple substances for easy
absorption by body cells

4. Cells, tissues, organs and systems can be interconnected by the following chart :

Cells ї Tissue ї Organ ї System ї Organism

5. The importance of organization of cells :
a.) Enables body to perform life processes simultaneously
b.) Ensure life processes function efficiently and smoothly
What is matter?
Everything that has mass and occupies space is called matter.
The states of matter
1. Matter is made up of tiny particles which are separate.
2. These particles can be composed of atoms or molecules
3. An atom is the smallest particle of matter and cannot be further divided.
4. A molecule is made up of two or more atoms
5. Proofs that matter is made up of tiny and discrete particles
- Dissolving copper (II) sulphate crystals in water
- Diffusion of gas
Arrangement of particles in matter
Matter exists as solids, liquids and gases.
1. Arrangement of particles in solids :
a.) Are arranged close together and in a regular pattern
b.) Are very small spaces between particles of a solid
c.) Cannot be compressed
d.) Volume of a solid is definite

2. Arrangement of particles in liquids :
a.) Are arranged closer but not in a regular pattern
b.) Spaces between the particles of a liquid are bigger
c.) Cannot be compressed
d.) Shape is not definite
e.) Known as fluids because of its flowing property

3. Arrangement of particles in a gas :
a.) The particles of a gas are far apart and are not arranged in a regular pattern
b.) Does not have define shape or volume
c.) Large spaces
d.) Volumes of a gas increases when the particles move apart
e.) Can be compressed
f.) Known as fluids because of their flowing property

4. Free motion or Brownian motion is the movement of particles in all directions at high
speeds.

The concept of density
Density and buoyancy
1. Density of a substance is the mass per unit volume
Formula:
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mass ሺgሻ
volume ሺcm



2. The SI Unit for density is kg/m³ or kg m-³.
3. The density of a substance depends on two factors :
a.) Mass
- The bigger its mass, the bigger is its density.
b.) Volume
- The bigger its volume, the smaller is its density.
4. Buoyancy of a matter refers to whether the matter floats on or sinks in another matter.
5. A solid that has a lower density than the density of a liquid will float on the surface of
the liquid
6. A solid that has a higher density than the density of a liquid will sink in the liquid
The variety of resources on earth
Water, air, soil, mineral, fossil fuels and living things are the most important things.
Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
Elements
1. An element is the simplest substance.
2. All elements made up of only one type of atom.
3. Examples of elements :
a.) Gold
b.) Zinc
c.) Iron
d.) Oxygen
e.) Carbon
f.) Nitrogen
g.) Hydrogen
h.) Aluminium
4. Elements can be grouped into metals and non-metals.

Metals
1. Examples of metals :
a.) Potassium
b.) Calcium
c.) Magnesium
d.) Mercury
e.) Lead
f.) Sodium
g.) Silver
h.) Copper
i.) Platinum
j.) Gold
2. The properties of metals :
Surface appearance ʹ metals have shiny surfaces and can be polished
Heat conductivity ʹ metals are good conductors
Electrical conductivity ʹ metals are good conductors of electricity
Density ʹ metals have high densities
Malleability ʹ metals are elastic
Melting point ʹ metal have high melting points
State of matter ʹ metal is solid at room temperature except mercury
Non-metals
1. Example of non-metals :
a.) Hydrogen
b.) Fluorine
c.) Carbon
d.) Bromine
e.) Nitrogen
f.) Oxygen
g.) Chlorine
h.) Phosphorus
i.) Iodine
j.) Sulphur
Condition at room temperature Examples of non-metals
Solid Carbon, sulphur, iodine, selenium, phosphorus
Liquid Bromine, mercury
Gas Hydrogen, helium, oxygen, fluorine, neon, chlorine, argon,
krypton, xenon, radon

2. The properties of non-metals :

Surface appearance ʹ non metals have dull surfaces
Heat conductivity ʹ non metals are poor heat conductors
Electrical conductivity ʹ non metals are poor electrical conductors
Density ʹ non metals have low densities
Malleability ʹ non metals cannot be beaten into other shapes and are brittle
Melting point ʹ non metals have low melting points
State of matter ʹ non metals can exist as solids, liquids or gases at room temperature
Compounds
1. A compound is formed when two or more types of elements combine chemically.
2. The smallest particle in a compound is the molecule.
3. Several types of compounds and their components:
a.) Carbon dioxide ʹ one carbon atom, two oxygen atoms
b.) Sodium chloride ʹ one sodium atom, one chlorine atom
c.) Benzene ʹ six carbon atoms, six hydrogen atoms
d.) Methane ʹ one carbon atom, four hydrogen atoms
e.) Ammonia ʹ one nitrogen atoms, three hydrogen atoms
f.) Water ʹ one oxygen atom, two hydrogen atoms
4. The components of a compound cannot be separated physically
5. The components of a compound can only be separated chemically.
Example by using high heat or using electrolysis.
Mixture
1. A mixture is made up of two or more substances combined physically for example, by
stirring.
2. Mixtures are divided into two types of homogeneous mixture and heterogeneous
mixture.
3. A homogeneous mixture is formed when its substances are mixed evenly and the
identity of each substance cannot be identified so easily. Example: common salt solution
and soft drinks.
4. A heterogeneous mixture is formed when its substances can be identified easily.
Example: air.


5. Substances in a mixture can be separated physically as follows:
a.) Mixture of sand and water ʹ Filtration
b.) Mixture of flour and sand ʹ Sifting
c.) Mixture of common salt and water ʹ Evaporation
d.) Mixture of alcohol and water ʹ Distillation
e.) Mixture of chlorophyll pigments ʹ Chromatography
f.) Mixture of water and oil ʹ Extraction
g.) Mixture of iron fillings and sulphur ʹ Using a magnet
h.) Mixture of soil and water ʹ Precipitation

6. A mixture can be converted to a compound by heating.
For example, iron filings and sulphur form a compound called iron (II) sulphide or ferrum
(II) sulphide when they are heated.


Iron + Sulphur їheatї Iron (II) sulphide

The composition of air
1. Air is a mixture of various substances that is odourless, colourless, or tasteless.
2. Water vapour in the air depends on the humidity in the air. The more humid the air, the
more the water vapour in the air.





3. Examples of inert gases are:
a.) Dust
b.) Water vapour
c.) Microorganisms

Nitrogen 78%
Oxygen 21%
Carbon dioxide 0.03%
Inert gas and others 0.97%
The properties of oxygen and carbon dioxide
1. Air is made up of three main gases: oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen.
2. Each gas has its own chemical properties.
3. The properties of the gases can be observed by :
a.) Solubility in the water
b.) Reaction with sodium hydroxide
c.) Effects on
- Glowing wooden splinter
- Burning wooden splinter
- Litmus paper
- Lime water
- Hydrogen carbonate indicator
4. Nitrogen is a gas that does not react chemically.
Properties Observation and conclusion
Oxygen Carbon dioxide
Colour None None
Smell None None
Solubility in
water
The level of water in the test tube
rises slightly. Oxygen is slightly
soluble in water.
The level of water in the test tube rise
a lot. Carbon dioxide is soluble in
water.
Reaction with
sodium
hydroxide
The level of water does not rise.
Oxygen is not soluble in sodium
hydroxide.
The level of water in the test tube
rises a lot. Carbon dioxide is very
soluble sodium hydroxide.
The effect on
glowing wooden
splinter
The glowing wooden splinter bursts
into flame. Oxygen supports
combustion.
The glowing wooden splinter
extinguishes. Carbon dioxide does not
support combustion.
The effect on
burning wooden
splinter
The burning wooden splinter burns
even brighter. The gas is non-
flammable. Oxygen supports
combustion but is not self-
combustible.
The burning wooden splinter
extinguishes. The gas is non-
flammable. Carbon dioxide does not
support combustion and is not self
combustible.
The effect on
moist litmus
paper
The litmus papers do not change
colour. Oxygen is neutral.
The blue litmus paper turns red.
Carbon dioxide is slightly acidic.

The effect on
lime water
The lime water does not change
colour.
Carbon dioxide turns the lime water
cloudy.
The effect on
hydrogen
carbonate
indicator
The red indicator does not change
colour.
Oxygen is neutral.
The red indicator turns yellow.
Carbon dioxide is slightly acidic.

Oxygen is needed for respiration
1. Air that is breathed into the body is called inhaled air.
2. Air that is breathed out of the body is called exhaled air.
3. Oxygen is needed for respiration:
- Inhaled oxygen will be dissolved at the surface of the moist alveolus.
- Oxygen will be absorbed into the blood capillary through the thin alveolus wall.
- Oxygen is then transported by red blood cells to the other blood cells for the
process of respiration.
- At the same time, carbon dioxide and water from blood capillaries will be absorbed
alveolus.
- Carbon dioxide and water will be expelled body when air is exhaled.
Oxygen is needed for combustion
1. Combustion is a process that takes place when a substance unites with oxygen
chemically and this produces energy and light.
2. Without oxygen. Combustion cannot occur because chemical process does not take
place.
3. Carbon is a chemical compound that is made up of the carbon element only.
4. Combustion of carbon releases carbon dioxide, heat energy and light energy.
5. Examples of carbon are wood, cloth, charcoal, and paper.

Carbon + Oxygen ї Carbon dioxide + Heat energy + Light energy

6. Hydrocarbon is a chemical compound which is formed from only hydrogen and carbon.
7. Combustion of hydrocarbon produces carbon dioxide, water, heat energy and light
energy.
8. Water is formed when hydrogen from hydrocarbon combines with oxygen during
combustion.

Hydrocarbon + Carbon ї Carbon Dioxide + Water + Heat energy + Light energy

9. Combustion produces light energy and heat energy.
10. Carbon dioxide produced is absorbed by green plants to conduct photosynthesis.


Source of energy
1. Energy is defined as the ability to do work.
2. Energy is measured in joules (J).
3. Energy can be found in many forms:
a.) Kinetic energy
b.) Potential energy
c.) Light energy
d.) Electrical energy
e.) Sound energy
f.) Nuclear energy
g.) Heat energy
h.) Chemical energy
4. Kinetic energy
- Is the energy possessed by a moving object
- Depends on mass and velocity
- Will increase if
a.) The mass of the object increases
b.) The velocity of the object increases
5. Potential energy
- Is the energy stored in a body due to its position or its physical condition
- Depends on
a.) The mass of the object
b.) The distance of the object from the Earth͛s surface
c.) The power of the gravitational pull on the object
- Will increases
a.) The mass of the object increases
b.) The higher the object is raised from the ground
c.) The gravitational pull on the object increases.
- A falling object can gain kinetic energy but loses potential energy
- Elastic potential energy can only elastic substances such as a spring or a rubber.
6. Heat energy
- Is the energy that is stored in a hot object
- Depends on its temperature and volume
- Flows from a hot area to a cold area by conduction, convection and radiation.
7. Light energy
- Is the energy produced by an object that emits light
- Can be detected by the eye
- Can travel in a vacuum and in a straight line in the form of waves
- A luminous object is an object that gives out its own light energy. For example, sun
and stars.
- A non luminous object is an object that does not give out its own light energy but
can only reflect light. For example, mirror and metal.
8. Sound energy
- Is the energy produced by a vibrating object
- An object which vibrates produces a recurring movement.
- The vibrating air forms sound waves.
- Can be transferred through a medium but cannot travel in a vacuum.
9. Chemical energy
- Is the energy stored in a chemical substance
- Is found in fuels
10. Electrical energy
- Is the energy produced by the flow of electric charges.
11. Nuclear energy
- Is the energy stored in the nucleus of an atom.
- Known as atomic energy.
12. Mechanical energy
- Is produced when a machine or object changes its position.
- Known as energy of motion
- Is composed of kinetic energy and potential energy
13. Solar energy
- Is produced during the process of nuclear fusion in the sun͛s core
Source of energy
Types of energy sources on Earth
a.) Fossil fuels
b.) Biomass fuels
c.) Radioactive substances
d.) Mechanical sources
e.) Geothermal sources
f.) Solar energy
Energy sources Details
Fossil fuel y Formed from remains of plant and
animals buried in the ground and
which had decomposed million of
years ago
y Examples:
- Coals
- Petroleum
- Natural gas
Formation of petroleum and natural gas y Formed from remains of animals and
plants that had sank to the bottom of
the sea and was buried there for
millions of years. The decomposed
animals and plants combine with sand
and earth in the sea bed form shale
while the remains turn into petroleum
and natural gas. Normally petroleum is
found below the layer of natural gas
because petroleum is denser than
natural gas.
Biomass fuels y Are obtained from decomposed
organisms such as plants and animals.
Decomposed plants and animals
produce methane gas and alcohol
which then become fuel sources.
Radioactive substances y Uranium is a common energy source
used in nuclear power stations.
Uranium is split into two lighter
elements in the process of nuclear
fission.
Mechanical sources y Are natural sources of energy such as
wind, water, and wave.
y Are renewable energy source
Geothermal sources y Comes from heat in the inside of the
Earth
Sun (solar energy) y Is the primary source of energy on
Earth
y Can be harnessed and used to
generate electrical energy

Heat
1. Heat is a form of energy which flows from a region of high temperature to another
region of lower temperature.
2. Heat can travel through solids, liquids, gas, and even vacuum.
3. SI Unit for heat is joule (J)
4. Temperature is a physical quantity which refers to the degree of hotness or coldness of
a matter.
5. SI Unit for temperature is Kelvin (K)
6. The hotter a body, the higher is its temperature. The colder a body, the lower is its
temperature.
7. The more the energy contained in an object, the higher the temperature of the object.
8. Heat capacity is the quantity of heat energy contained in a matter. Is properties are:
- Dependent on the type of volume, mass of volume, and the temperature of matter
- At the same temperature, a larger matter has more heat content
- With the same volume, a hotter matter has higher heat content
Expansion and contraction of matter
1. Matter absorbs heat when heated and expels heat when cooled.
2. When heated:
a.) Particles of matter absorb heat energy and change it into kinetic energy. Kinetic
energy causes particles to vibrate faster
b.) This vibration causes the particles to move further apart. Therefore, the size and
volume of matter will increase.
3. When cooled:
a.) Particles of matter vibrate less and their speed also decreases
b.) Distance between the particles reduces. This means that the size and volume of
matter also decreases.
Heat flow and conduction
1. Heat is a form of energy possessed by a matter
2. Heat flow in three ways :
a.) Conduction
- Is the flow of heat through a solid due to a difference in temperature throughout
the solid
b.) Convection
- Is the process of flow of heat in a fluid
c.) Radiation
- Is known as radiant heat-
- Is a process of energy flow through infrared waves which move in straight line

Effect of heat on matter
Melting
1. Melting is a process by which a solid changes into a liquid
2. A solid melts into a liquid when heated
3. When a solid is heated, the particles absorb heat energy
4. At the melting point, particles vibrate most forcefully until they break away from their
fixed positions.
Freezing
1. Freezing is a process by which a liquid changes into a solid
2. At freezing point, the particles no longer move freely
Boiling
1. Boiling is a process of a liquid changes into a gas
2. At the boiling point, the liquid move speedily and freely.
Condensation
1. Condensation is the process of a gas changing into a liquid
2. As gas particles move slower and closer together, the liquid will be formed.
Evaporation
1. Evaporation is a process of changes of a liquid into gas at any temperature.
2. Factors which influence the rate of evaporation:
a.) Temperature of liquid :
- The higher the temperature of the liquid, the faster the liquid evaporates
b.) Air moisture in the surrounding of the liquid:
- The lower the humidity, the faster the liquid evaporates
c.) Exposed area of the liquid surface:
- The wider the liquid surface area, the faster the liquid evaporates
Sublimation
1. Sublimation is the conversion process of a solid directly to gas without melting.
2. In this process, the particles of a solid absorb heat energy. When enough energy is
absorbed, the particles separate to form gas.
Absorbing and giving out heat
1. The ability of an object to absorb or radiate heat depends on the surface nature and the
surrounding temperature of the object.
2. Objects with opaque (black) and rough surface are good heat absorbers and radiators.
3. Objects with burnished (shiny) and smooth surfaces are poor heat absorbers and
radiators.
4. Hotter objects are better heat radiators than cold objects.

The steps in a scientific investigation Identifying the problem Forming a hypothesis Planning the experiment y y y y Identifying variables Determining apparatus and materials Determining the procedure to carry out the experiment Determining method to collect and analyses data Controlling the variables Collecting data Analyzing and interpreting data Drawing a conclusion Writing a report .

the bigger is its mass.Length . Five physical quantities which can be measured .01 0. Mass can be measured by beam balance and lever balance.Temperature .Electric current 2. 3.Physical quantities and their units 1.Mass . The more the matter in an object. Physical quantity Length Mass Time Temperature Electric current SI Unit Metre Kilogram Second Kelvin Ampere Symbol m Kg s K A Prefix Mega Kilo Centi Milli Micro Symbol M K C M µ Numerical value 1000000 1000 0.001 0. 5.000001 Weight and Mass Mass 1.Time . I kg = 1000 g 1g 1000 mg . 2. Mass is the amount of matter in an object. SI Unit kilogram (kg) Mass can measured in gram (g) and milligram (mg). Physical quantities can be measured in systeme international d unites (SI) units. 4.

General structures and functions of animal cells and plant cells Most cells consist of protoplasm which is surrounded by cell membrane.Is dense and spherical structure. 2. . Is a thick and rigid layer on the outer surface of plant cells. oval structures found inside the cytoplasm of most Function It is the control centre of the cell because it controls all chemical reactions in the cell. the heavier the object. 2. . Contains water and chemical substances such as proteins. stored food and minerals.Contain chromosomes which carry genetic materials that determine the characteristics of organisms. .Is partially permeable. . Cell wall It gives the cell a definite shape. Weight is the gravitational force acting on an object. Compression balance and spring balance is used to measure weight. . Weight is measured in Newton (N). Is mainly composed of tough substance called cellulose. jelly-like substance. 3. Cells are microscopic and cannot be seen with naked eye.Is a thin. Cytoplasm Acts as the medium for chemical reactions of the cell.Is surrounded by a nuclear membrane. This means that it allows certain substances to pass through. Structures Nucleus Characteristics . The greater the force pulling the object towards centres of Earth.Weight 1. A cell is the basic unit of living things which can function on its own.Contains fats and proteins. elastic layer on the outer surface or animal cells. Chloroplasts They enable green plants to manufacture their won food. . Is a flexible. Is surrounded by a cell membrane. 1 N = 0.1 kg 1 kg = 10 N Cell as a unit of life 1. Cell membrane Controls the movement of substance in and out the cell. 4. Are tiny. colorless.

Moves by extending pseudopodium . and waste products.Reproduces asexually 2. Multicellular organisms Are organisms which have more than one cell In animal kingdom: mammals. Unicellular organisms Are simple organisms that are made up of only one cell In animal kingdom: Amoeba and Paramecium In plant kingdom: Pleurococcus. Is a fluid-filled sac found in the cytoplasm. reptiles.Main food is bacteria . proteins. amphibians. Spirogyra). Euglena. dish.Excretes through its excretory pores . birds. Life processes of unicellular and multicellular organisms 1. minerals.Sensitive to light. algae (Chondrus. and Hydra In plant kingdom: mosses. food. and sharp objects .Reproduces sexually . The vacuole acts as a store of various substances such as water.- Vacuoles - plant cells. Contains of a solution of sugars. Unicellular organism . chemical substances.Moves by means of its tail and fins . Absorbs light energy and uses it to make food. Chlamydomonas and yeast. This process is called photosynthesis.Main food is zooplankton . Contain a green pigment called chlorophyll. ferns. enzymes.Can grow . Is surrounded by a membrane and is filled with cell sap.Sensitive to light and vibrations in water .Breathes through cell membrane . pigments.Breathes through gills .Can grow . Multicellular organism .Its excretory organ is the vacuole .

) Digestive system breaks down complex food into simple substances for easy absorption by body cells 4. The importance of organization of cells : a.) Nerve tissue enables body to respond to stimuli e.) Bone cells functions in the support system of the body 2.) Nervous system coordinates and controls all bodily activities related to impulses and reactions i.) Respiratory system inhales oxygen and exhales carbon dioxide d. and others to the entire body g.) Enables body to perform life processes simultaneously b.) Lymphatic system defends the body against disease e.Cell organization in the human body 1. hormones.) Carries nerve impulses from one part of the body to another 3.) Skeletal system provides support and protection to soft internal organs f.) White blood cells d.) Excretory system discards toxic waste products produced by the body cells b.) Epithelial tissue protects the tissues beneath it b. Cells. Types of tissue a. organs and systems can be interconnected by the following chart : Cells Tissue Organ System Organism 5.) Muscle tissue enables the movement of body parts d.) Nerve cells conducts nerve impulses b.) Epithelial cells controls exchange of substances g. supports organs in the body c.) Reproduction cells f. Types of cells found in human body : a.) Ensure life processes function efficiently and smoothly .) Connective tissue connects one tissue to another tissue .) Skeletal muscle cells controls movement of bones and organs of body e.) Endocrine system produces hormones that control the body s responses toward stimuli h. Types of systems a. oxygen. tissues.) Blood circulatory system transport food substances.) Reproductive system produces offspring c.) Muscular system helps in movement of the body j.) Red blood cells transport oxygen from lungs to all cells c.

) Does not have define shape or volume c.) Volume of a solid is definite 2. . Arrangement of particles in liquids : a.Diffusion of gas Arrangement of particles in matter Matter exists as solids. Arrangement of particles in a gas : a. Arrangement of particles in solids : a. Matter is made up of tiny particles which are separate.) Are arranged close together and in a regular pattern b. 5. These particles can be composed of atoms or molecules An atom is the smallest particle of matter and cannot be further divided.) Known as fluids because of its flowing property 3. liquids and gases.) Cannot be compressed d.Dissolving copper (II) sulphate crystals in water . The states of matter 1.) Spaces between the particles of a liquid are bigger c. A molecule is made up of two or more atoms Proofs that matter is made up of tiny and discrete particles .) Volumes of a gas increases when the particles move apart e. 4.) Can be compressed f.) Are very small spaces between particles of a solid c. Free motion or Brownian motion is the movement of particles in all directions at high speeds. 1. 3.) Are arranged closer but not in a regular pattern b. 2.) The particles of a gas are far apart and are not arranged in a regular pattern b.) Known as fluids because of their flowing property 4.) Cannot be compressed d.What is matter? Everything that has mass and occupies space is called matter.) Shape is not definite e.) Large spaces d.

The bigger its volume.) Carbon f. Buoyancy of a matter refers to whether the matter floats on or sinks in another matter. 2.) Aluminium 4. A solid that has a lower density than the density of a liquid will float on the surface of the liquid 6. fossil fuels and living things are the most important things. The density of a substance depends on two factors : a. air.The bigger its mass.) Potassium . Elements. A solid that has a higher density than the density of a liquid will sink in the liquid The variety of resources on earth Water. Compounds and Mixtures Elements 1.) Zinc c. mineral. 3. Examples of elements : a. The SI Unit for density is kg/m³ or kg m-³. Elements can be grouped into metals and non-metals.) Gold b. All elements made up of only one type of atom. the bigger is its density. 4.) Nitrogen g.The concept of density Density and buoyancy 1. An element is the simplest substance. 5. Metals 1.) Volume . Examples of metals : a. b.) Iron d.) Mass . Density of a substance is the mass per unit volume Formula: ƒ•• ‰  ˜‘Ž—‡ … 2. soil. 3. the smaller is its density.) Oxygen e.) Hydrogen h.

) Calcium c.) Bromine e. fluorine. krypton. The properties of metals : Surface appearance metals have shiny surfaces and can be polished Heat conductivity metals are good conductors Electrical conductivity metals are good conductors of electricity Density metals have high densities Malleability metals are elastic Melting point metal have high melting points State of matter metal is solid at room temperature except mercury Non-metals 1.) Carbon d. chlorine.) Sulphur Condition at room temperature Solid Liquid Gas Examples of non-metals Carbon. argon. oxygen. sulphur. neon.) Platinum j. selenium. iodine.) Fluorine c.) Chlorine h. radon .) Silver h.) Sodium g. phosphorus Bromine.) Iodine j.b. helium.) Mercury e.) Magnesium d.) Lead f. mercury Hydrogen.) Phosphorus i. Example of non-metals : a.) Nitrogen f.) Gold 2.) Oxygen g.) Copper i.) Hydrogen b. xenon.

Several types of compounds and their components: a. 4.) Mixture of alcohol and water Distillation . 2. 5. The components of a compound cannot be separated physically 5.) Benzene six carbon atoms.) Ammonia one nitrogen atoms. 2. by stirring. six hydrogen atoms d. two hydrogen atoms 4.) Mixture of sand and water Filtration b. Example by using high heat or using electrolysis. four hydrogen atoms e. 3. A mixture is made up of two or more substances combined physically for example.) Mixture of flour and sand Sifting c. A compound is formed when two or more types of elements combine chemically. two oxygen atoms b. A homogeneous mixture is formed when its substances are mixed evenly and the identity of each substance cannot be identified so easily.) Water one oxygen atom. Example: air.) Methane one carbon atom. The properties of non-metals : Surface appearance non metals have dull surfaces Heat conductivity non metals are poor heat conductors Electrical conductivity non metals are poor electrical conductors Density non metals have low densities Malleability non metals cannot be beaten into other shapes and are brittle Melting point non metals have low melting points State of matter non metals can exist as solids. liquids or gases at room temperature Compounds 1.) Carbon dioxide one carbon atom.2. A heterogeneous mixture is formed when its substances can be identified easily. Example: common salt solution and soft drinks. The components of a compound can only be separated chemically. Substances in a mixture can be separated physically as follows: a.) Mixture of common salt and water Evaporation d. Mixtures are divided into two types of homogeneous mixture and heterogeneous mixture. one chlorine atom c.) Sodium chloride one sodium atom. three hydrogen atoms f. Mixture 1. The smallest particle in a compound is the molecule. 3.

Nitrogen 78% Carbon dioxide 0. A mixture can be converted to a compound by heating. or tasteless.03% Inert gas and others 0.) Mixture of chlorophyll pigments Chromatography Mixture of water and oil Extraction Mixture of iron fillings and sulphur Using a magnet Mixture of soil and water Precipitation 6. Water vapour in the air depends on the humidity in the air.) f. Examples of inert gases are: a.) g.) Dust b. the more the water vapour in the air. iron filings and sulphur form a compound called iron (II) sulphide or ferrum (II) sulphide when they are heated. Iron + Sulphur heat Iron (II) sulphide The composition of air 1.97% Oxygen 21% 3.) h.) Water vapour c.e. The more humid the air. For example. colourless. 2. Air is a mixture of various substances that is odourless.) Microorganisms .

Carbon dioxide is very hydroxide.Hydrogen carbonate indicator 4. Nitrogen is a gas that does not react chemically. The properties of the gases can be observed by : a. soluble sodium hydroxide. The level of water does not rise. support combustion. Oxygen is slightly a lot. The red indicator turns yellow. The gas is nonextinguishes. Oxygen is neutral. The level of water in the test tube Oxygen is not soluble in sodium rises a lot. The burning wooden splinter burns The burning wooden splinter even brighter. Oxygen supports extinguishes. The litmus papers do not change The blue litmus paper turns red. 3. The red indicator does not change colour. The lime water does not change colour. combustible. 2. water. Carbon dioxide is slightly acidic.Lime water . carbon dioxide and nitrogen. colour.The properties of oxygen and carbon dioxide 1. Air is made up of three main gases: oxygen. The effect on moist litmus paper The effect on lime water The effect on hydrogen carbonate indicator .) Effects on .) Solubility in the water b. Carbon dioxide does not combustion but is not selfsupport combustion and is not self combustible. Carbon dioxide does not combustion. Carbon dioxide turns the lime water cloudy. The glowing wooden splinter bursts The glowing wooden splinter into flame. Each gas has its own chemical properties. Carbon dioxide is soluble in soluble in water. The gas is nonflammable. Carbon dioxide is slightly acidic.Litmus paper . Oxygen supports flammable. Oxygen is neutral.) Reaction with sodium hydroxide c.Burning wooden splinter .Glowing wooden splinter . Properties Colour Smell Solubility in water Reaction with sodium hydroxide The effect on glowing wooden splinter The effect on burning wooden splinter Observation and conclusion Oxygen Carbon dioxide None None None None The level of water in the test tube The level of water in the test tube rise rises slightly.

5. Combustion cannot occur because chemical process does not take place. Combustion is a process that takes place when a substance unites with oxygen chemically and this produces energy and light. Combustion of hydrocarbon produces carbon dioxide. Combustion of carbon releases carbon dioxide. . Without oxygen. 10. Water is formed when hydrogen from hydrocarbon combines with oxygen during combustion.Oxygen is needed for respiration 1. Air that is breathed into the body is called inhaled air. Examples of carbon are wood. 8. 2. cloth. 3. and paper. 7. charcoal. . Combustion produces light energy and heat energy. .Inhaled oxygen will be dissolved at the surface of the moist alveolus. Oxygen is needed for respiration: . 2. 3. Hydrocarbon + Carbon Carbon Dioxide + Water + Heat energy + Light energy 9. Hydrocarbon is a chemical compound which is formed from only hydrogen and carbon. . heat energy and light energy. water. Oxygen is needed for combustion 1. heat energy and light energy. Carbon + Oxygen Carbon dioxide + Heat energy + Light energy 6.Oxygen will be absorbed into the blood capillary through the thin alveolus wall.Carbon dioxide and water will be expelled body when air is exhaled. Carbon dioxide produced is absorbed by green plants to conduct photosynthesis. Carbon is a chemical compound that is made up of the carbon element only.Oxygen is then transported by red blood cells to the other blood cells for the process of respiration. . carbon dioxide and water from blood capillaries will be absorbed alveolus.At the same time. 4. Air that is breathed out of the body is called exhaled air.

A falling object can gain kinetic energy but loses potential energy .Is the energy possessed by a moving object . Heat energy . For example.) The power of the gravitational pull on the object . convection and radiation.Depends on a.) The higher the object is raised from the ground c.) Heat energy h.) Potential energy c. sun and stars. Light energy . Energy is defined as the ability to do work. Energy can be found in many forms: a.) The mass of the object increases b.Is the energy produced by an object that emits light .Is the energy that is stored in a hot object .) Light energy d.) The gravitational pull on the object increases.Flows from a hot area to a cold area by conduction.) The mass of the object b.) Chemical energy 4. .Is the energy stored in a body due to its position or its physical condition .A luminous object is an object that gives out its own light energy.Will increases a.Can be detected by the eye .) The velocity of the object increases 5. 2.) The mass of the object increases b.Can travel in a vacuum and in a straight line in the form of waves . Kinetic energy . 7.Depends on mass and velocity .) Electrical energy e.) Sound energy f.Depends on its temperature and volume . Energy is measured in joules (J).Source of energy 1.) Kinetic energy b.) Nuclear energy g. Potential energy .Will increase if a. .Elastic potential energy can only elastic substances such as a spring or a rubber. 3. 6.) The distance of the object from the Earth s surface c.

Is the energy stored in a chemical substance .Is produced when a machine or object changes its position. Sound energy .Can be transferred through a medium but cannot travel in a vacuum.An object which vibrates produces a recurring movement. .The vibrating air forms sound waves. .Coals .Is the energy produced by a vibrating object .Known as atomic energy. A non luminous object is an object that does not give out its own light energy but can only reflect light.Known as energy of motion .) Fossil fuels Biomass fuels Radioactive substances Mechanical sources Geothermal sources Solar energy Details y Formed from remains of plant and animals buried in the ground and which had decomposed million of years ago y Examples: . Mechanical energy . . 11. 12.) c. Chemical energy .) e. 9.Is the energy produced by the flow of electric charges. mirror and metal.Is the energy stored in the nucleus of an atom.) b.Is produced during the process of nuclear fusion in the sun s core - Source of energy Types of energy sources on Earth a.Is composed of kinetic energy and potential energy Solar energy . Nuclear energy .Natural gas y Formed from remains of animals and plants that had sank to the bottom of Energy sources Fossil fuel Formation of petroleum and natural gas . 13.Is found in fuels Electrical energy . .8.) f.Petroleum . For example.) d. 10.

Uranium is split into two lighter elements in the process of nuclear fission. Are natural sources of energy such as wind. Are obtained from decomposed organisms such as plants and animals.Biomass fuels y Radioactive substances y Mechanical sources y y y y y Geothermal sources Sun (solar energy) the sea and was buried there for millions of years. Uranium is a common energy source used in nuclear power stations. Are renewable energy source Comes from heat in the inside of the Earth Is the primary source of energy on Earth Can be harnessed and used to generate electrical energy . Decomposed plants and animals produce methane gas and alcohol which then become fuel sources. Normally petroleum is found below the layer of natural gas because petroleum is denser than natural gas. and wave. water. The decomposed animals and plants combine with sand and earth in the sea bed form shale while the remains turn into petroleum and natural gas.

the higher is its temperature. 2. When heated: a.Is a process of energy flow through infrared waves which move in straight line . gas. Therefore. Is properties are: . Heat capacity is the quantity of heat energy contained in a matter. 5. Heat can travel through solids.) Radiation .) Distance between the particles reduces. Temperature is a physical quantity which refers to the degree of hotness or coldness of a matter. The more the energy contained in an object. Matter absorbs heat when heated and expels heat when cooled. Kinetic energy causes particles to vibrate faster b. a hotter matter has higher heat content Expansion and contraction of matter 1.Is the flow of heat through a solid due to a difference in temperature throughout the solid b. the size and volume of matter will increase. 3. and even vacuum. liquids.Dependent on the type of volume. 2. SI Unit for temperature is Kelvin (K) 6. a larger matter has more heat content .At the same temperature. 8.Is known as radiant heat. the lower is its temperature.Heat 1. SI Unit for heat is joule (J) 4. the higher the temperature of the object. mass of volume.) This vibration causes the particles to move further apart. The hotter a body. Heat flow and conduction 1. Heat is a form of energy which flows from a region of high temperature to another region of lower temperature.) Particles of matter vibrate less and their speed also decreases b. 3.) Particles of matter absorb heat energy and change it into kinetic energy. Heat is a form of energy possessed by a matter 2. This means that the size and volume of matter also decreases.With the same volume. When cooled: a. 7. The colder a body.) Conduction . Heat flow in three ways : a.) Convection . and the temperature of matter .Is the process of flow of heat in a fluid c.

2.) Exposed area of the liquid surface: . the particles no longer move freely Boiling 1. As gas particles move slower and closer together.The higher the temperature of the liquid. Sublimation is the conversion process of a solid directly to gas without melting. Condensation 1. Condensation is the process of a gas changing into a liquid 2. 3. Objects with opaque (black) and rough surface are good heat absorbers and radiators. The ability of an object to absorb or radiate heat depends on the surface nature and the surrounding temperature of the object. Freezing 1. the faster the liquid evaporates Sublimation 1. Absorbing and giving out heat 1. the liquid move speedily and freely. Melting is a process by which a solid changes into a liquid A solid melts into a liquid when heated When a solid is heated. the faster the liquid evaporates b.The lower the humidity. In this process. the liquid will be formed. 2. particles vibrate most forcefully until they break away from their fixed positions. 2. . At freezing point.) Air moisture in the surrounding of the liquid: .) Temperature of liquid : . Boiling is a process of a liquid changes into a gas 2. the particles of a solid absorb heat energy. Evaporation 1. When enough energy is absorbed. At the boiling point. the faster the liquid evaporates c. the particles absorb heat energy At the melting point. Freezing is a process by which a liquid changes into a solid 2. 4.The wider the liquid surface area. Evaporation is a process of changes of a liquid into gas at any temperature.Effect of heat on matter Melting 1. Factors which influence the rate of evaporation: a. 2. the particles separate to form gas.

. Hotter objects are better heat radiators than cold objects. 4.3. Objects with burnished (shiny) and smooth surfaces are poor heat absorbers and radiators.

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 €¾f° f  9 n½f°    ¯ nf° n°  fn¯½°   f°–   f¯½ °€°–¾f° ¾½€¯fn¯½° nf °%%¾½ € ¯ %%¾½  ° f  f    °+½  f °%%¾½   @ n¯½¾°€f   ¾f¯ €f¾¾ ¾f°n ¾f¾  ¾¾ n ¾¾ f¾  ¾¾    Jf f½° f ½ ° ¾° ¯ ° f @ ¯ ¯  f   ¯  f f½° f   -– °        f¯½ ¾€° –f¾ ¾f  f % ¾ % Jf f½ n % . €°€°–¾f° ¾½ D¾°–f¯f–°   % .n–f°¾¯¾   .¯f–f½ € % . €f f°  fn° – % .

f °     ° –f¾f°  ¾   – °  .

@ ½½  ¾€– °f° nf °     ¾¯f ½€ ¯f°–f¾ ¾ – ° nf °  f° °– °    fn–f¾f¾¾°n ¯nf½½  ¾    @ ½½  ¾€ –f¾ ¾nf°  ¾     f %  ° f  %  fn°¾ ¯   n % €€ n¾°  °– °¾½°   °°– °¾½°   ¯¾½f½   ¯ f    – °nf °f ° nf   -– °¾f–f¾f  ¾° fnn ¯nf   ¾ f°f° n°n¾° – ° .

f °   .

 -°  -°  ¯  -°  -°   ° @   €f °  ¾  @   €f °  ¾ ¾  f  ¾ ¾¾– – °¾¾– f .

f °  ¾¾  ° ¾  °f   f    fn° @   €f   ¾°¾  @   €f °  ¾  ¾ ¯ – °¾°¾  °¾ ¯ ¾ ¾f .

f °  ¾        ¾  ¾ ¯   @  €€ n° @ –°– °¾½°  ¾¾ @ –°– °¾½°  –°– ° °€f¯ – °¾½½¾ °–¾ ¾ .

f °    ¾° ¾½°  n¯ ¾°  ¾½½n¯ ¾°  @  €€ n° @  °°– °¾½°  °¾ @  °°– °¾½°  °°– °  ° –  @ –f¾¾°° °–¾ ¾ @ –f¾¾°° ¾½°  €f¯¯f  – °¾½½¾ €f¯¯f  .

f °    ¾° n¯ ¾° ¾°¾ € ¾½½n¯ ¾°f° ¾°¾ € n¯ ¾   n¯ ¾   @  €€ n° @ ¯¾½f½ ¾ °nf°–  @   ¯¾½f½ °¾  ¯¾¯¾ n – °¾° f  .

f °  ¾¾–fn n  ½f½   @  €€ n° @ ¯ f   ¾°nf°–  .

f °  °¾ ¯ f  ¯ f  n  n   @  €€ n° @  ° nf  ¾°nf°–  @  ° nf°¾    – ° n  .

f °  ¾¾–fn n  nf °f  – °¾° f  ° nf   9½  ¾ .

– °¾° € ¾½f°   f¾  f °   ¾nf °f f    f¾  f €   ¾nf  f f    – °¾° € ¾½f°   °f – °  ¾¾ f ¾€fn € ¯¾f ¾   – ° f ¾ °   nf½f– °f ¾f   – °¾ °f°¾½     n ¾    n ¾€  ½n ¾¾€ ¾½f°    ¾f¯ ¯ nf °  f° f €¯  nf½f ¾ f ¾  f ¾   .

f °  f° f   ½     °f¾ f  – °¾° €n¯ ¾°   .

¯ ¾°¾f½n ¾¾ff ¾½fn  °f¾ ¾f°n ° ¾– ° n ¯nff° ¾½ n ¾ ° –f° –    J– ° .

¯ ¾°nf°°nn nf¾ n ¯nf½n ¾¾  ¾°f  ½fn    .

f °¾fn ¯nfn¯½° f¾¯f ½€ nf °  ¯ °°    .

¯ ¾°€nf °  f¾ ¾nf °   f ° –f° – ° –    f¯½ ¾€nf °f  n nfnf f° ½f½    .

f °+– ° .

f °  + f ° –+– ° –     nf °¾fn ¯nfn¯½° n¾€¯ €¯° – °f° nf °    .

¯ ¾°€ nf °½ n ¾nf °  f   f ° –f° – ° –    Jf ¾€¯  ° – °€¯ nf °n¯ ° ¾– ° °– n¯ ¾°    nf °+.

f ° .

f ° +Jf + f ° –+– ° –    .

¯ ¾°½ n ¾– ° –f°  f ° –   .

f °  ½ n ¾f ¾  – °½f°¾n° n½¾° ¾¾     .

n € ° –   ° –¾ €° f¾ f      ° –¾¯ f¾ °© ¾%%    ° –nf° €° °¯f°€¯¾  f % ° n ° – % 9 °f ° – n % – ° – %  nnf ° – % °  ° – € % -n f ° – – %  f ° –  % .

 ¯nf ° –   ° n ° –  ¾  ° –½¾¾ ¾¾  f¯°– © n   ½ ° ¾°¯f¾¾f°  n  J°n f¾ € f % @ ¯f¾¾€  © n°n f¾ ¾ % @  n€  © n°n f¾ ¾   9 °f ° –  ¾  ° –¾ °f    ¾½¾°¾½¾nfn° °   ½ ° ¾° f % @ ¯f¾¾€  © n % @  ¾f°n €  © n€¯ f#¾¾€fn  n % @ ½ € –ff°f½°  © n  J°n f¾ ¾ f % @ ¯f¾¾€  © n°n f¾ ¾ % @ –   © n¾f¾ €¯ –°  n % @ –ff°f½°  © n°n f¾ ¾   €f°– © nnf°–f°° n ° – ¾ ¾½ °f ° –  f¾n½ °f ° –nf°° f¾n¾ ¾f°n ¾¾nf¾f¾½°–f      f ° –  ¾  ° –f¾¾ °f © n   ½ ° ¾°¾ ¯½ f f° ¯   ¾€¯ff ffn f f n° n° n° n°f° f f°    – ° –  ¾  ° –½ n  f° © nf ¯¾–  .

f°   n       .

f°f °ffn¯f° °f¾f–° ° €¯€f ¾  ¯°¾ © n¾f° © nf– ¾¾°– ° –  f¯½ ¾° f° ¾f¾  .

°°¯°¾ © n¾f° © nf  ¾°– ¾°– ° –  nf°° € n–  f¯½ ¯f° ¯ f    °  ° –  ¾  ° –½ n  f f°– © n  ° © nn f ¾½ n ¾f n°–¯ ¯ °   @  f°–f€¯¾¾° f ¾   .

f° f°¾€  –f¯ ¯ nf°°f °ffn¯    .

 ¯nf ° –  ¾  ° –¾ °fn ¯nf¾ ¾f°n   ¾€° °€ ¾   nnf ° –  ¾  ° –½ n   €€  nnnf– ¾   -n f ° –  ¾  ° –¾ ° °n ¾€f°f¯   °°f¾f¯n ° –   . nf°nf ° –  ¾½ n  °f¯fn°  © nnf°– ¾¾½¾°   °°f¾ ° –€¯°  ¾n¯½¾ €° n ° –f° ½ °f ° –  f ° –  ¾½ n  °– ½n ¾¾€°n f€¾°° ¾°#¾n  n € ° – @½ ¾€ ° –¾n ¾°f f % ¾¾€ ¾ % ¯f¾¾€ ¾ n % f fn ¾ ¾f°n ¾ % . nf°nf¾n ¾ %   ¯f¾n ¾ € % f ° – ° –¾n ¾ ¾¾€   f¾ O ¯ €¯ ¯f°¾€½f°f°  f°¯f¾  ° –° f°  nf  n¯½¾ ¯°€  f¾f– O f¯½ ¾   .

f¾  9  ¯  -ff–f¾ O ¯ €¯ ¯f°¾€f°¯f¾f°  ½f°¾ff ¾f°  ¯€  ¯f°€½  ¯f° °ff–f¾ .

¯f¾¾€ ¾ O f fn ¾ ¾f°n ¾ O . nf°nf¾n ¾ O O O O O   ¯f¾n ¾ °%¾f ° –%  ¾ ff° f¾    € ¯°¾€ f¾ @  n¯½¾  f°¯f¾f° ½f°¾n¯ ° ¾f°  f°  f° ¾ f €¯¾f     ¯f°¾°°½  ¯ f° °ff–f¾ -¯f½  ¯¾ €°   f €°ff–f¾ nf¾ ½  ¯¾ °¾ f° °ff–f¾    f° €¯ n¯½¾  –f°¾¯¾¾nf¾½f°¾f° f°¯f¾   n¯½¾ ½f°¾f° f°¯f¾ ½ n ¯ f° –f¾f° fn n ° n¯ € ¾n ¾  Df°¯¾fn¯¯° ° –¾n  ¾ °°n f½ ¾f°¾  Df°¯¾¾½°–   ¯ °¾° ½n ¾¾€°n f €¾¾°   °ff¾n ¾€ ° –¾nf¾ ° f  f° f    ° f   ° –¾n  .

¯ ¾€¯ f° °¾ €  f ¾ ½¯f¾n € ° –° f .

f° f° ¾¾ f° ¾  – ° f   nnf ° –   .

 f    f¾f€¯€ ° –n€¾€¯f –°€– ¯½ f f°   –°€  ¯½ f     fnf°f –¾ ¾  ¾ –f¾ f°   °fn¯    D°€ f¾© %%   @ ¯½ f ¾f½¾nff°n € ¾  – €° ¾¾n ° ¾¾€ f¯f     D°€ ¯½ f ¾ °%%   @  f    – ¾¾ ¯½ f @ n f     ¾¾  ¯½ f    @ ¯   ° –n°f° °f° © n  –   ¯½ f €  © n     fnf½fn¾ f°€ f ° –n°f° °f¯f  ¾½½  ¾f    ½ ° °° ½ €¯ ¯f¾¾€¯ f°   ¯½ f €¯f    ¾f¯  ¯½ f ff– ¯f f¾¯  fn° °  J ¾f¯ ¯ f ¯f f¾–  fn° ° ½f°¾°f° n°fn°€¯f    .f f ¾ ¾ f ° f f°  ½ ¾ f °n    J ° f  f % 9fn ¾€¯f f ¾  f ° –f° nf°– °° n ° – ° n ° –nf¾ ¾½fn ¾ f €f¾  % @¾ f°nf¾ ¾ ½fn ¾¯ € f½f @  €  ¾ f°  ¯ €¯f °n f¾    J °n  f % 9fn ¾€¯f  f  ¾¾f°  ¾½ f¾ n f¾ ¾ % ¾f°n   ° ½fn ¾ n ¾ @¾¯ f°¾f ¾ f° ¯ € ¯f f¾ n f¾ ¾   f€f° n° n°    f¾f€¯€ ° –½¾¾ ¾¾  f¯f     f€° f¾  f % .

° n°  ¾ €€ f–f¾   f €€  °n ° ¯½ f –  ¾  % .

° n°  ¾ ½n ¾¾€€€ f°f€  n % f f°  ¾°°f¾f f° f   ¾f½n ¾¾€ ° –€–°€f f ¾n¯ °¾f–°    .

°–     .€€ n€ f°¯f  . °–¾f½n ¾¾ nf¾ nf°– ¾°f  ¾ ¯ ¾°f  ° f  J °f¾ ¾ f  ½fn ¾f ¾  f ° –  ¯ °–½° ½fn ¾ f ¯¾€n €°   fff€¯  € ½¾°¾   °–    °–¾f½n ¾¾ nf nf°– ¾°f¾    € °–½°  ½fn ¾°°– ¯ €  °–   °–¾f½n ¾¾€f nf°– ¾°f–f¾     °–½°   ¯ ¾½ f° €   .

° °¾f°   .

° °¾f°¾ ½n ¾¾€f–f¾nf°–°–°f    ¾–f¾½fn ¾¯ ¾ f° n¾ –      €¯  f½f°   f½f°¾f½n ¾¾€nf°– ¾€f °–f¾ff° ¯½ f    fn¾n°€ °n  f € f½f°  f % @ ¯½ f €    @ –   ¯½ f €   €f¾    f½f ¾ % ¯¾ ° ¾° °–€    @   ¯   €f¾    f½f ¾ n % ½¾ f f€  ¾€fn   @    ¾€fn f f  €f¾    f½f ¾  ¯f°    ¯f°¾ n° ¾°½n ¾¾€f¾   n–f¾¯ °–    °¾½n ¾¾  ½fn ¾€f¾ f ¾  f ° – J ° °– ° –¾ f ¾  ½fn ¾¾ ½ff €¯–f¾   ¾ °–f° –°– f   @ f €f° © nf ¾ f f  f ½ ° ¾° ¾€fn °f f°   ¾° °– ¯½ f €  © n     © n¾½f % fn%f° –¾€fn f –  ff ¾ ¾f° f f¾  .

   © n¾ °¾ %¾°%f° ¾¯¾€fn ¾f ½ ff ¾ ¾f°  f f¾      © n¾f    ff f¾f°n  © n¾  .

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