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Lecture 1 - Fundamental Concepts of Thermodynamics and IS system of Units

Lecture 1 - Fundamental Concepts of Thermodynamics and IS system of Units

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Mechanical Theory I MET3405

1. Thermodynamics


Lecture 1

1.1 Fundamental Concepts of Thermodynamics


1.1.1 Introduction


Therme Heat

Dynamis Force


capacity of hot bodies to produce work


Thermodynamics It is a branch of engineering science that deals with the relationship between energy associated to heat and other forms of energy • mechanical electrical • • chemical …. • 5 .

Resources in nature Fossil Fuels Radioactive Substances 6 .

People’s needs for energy 7 .

People’s needs for energy Air conditioning Heating 8 .

Provision of energy is one of the main tasks of ME The branch of science that explains how much energy people may extract from various sources and predicts how efficiently people may use the extracted energy in a particular situation is called: 9 .

2 Basic Concepts 10 .1.1.

even under the action of small forces. 11 .Fluids Fluids are substances that: • flow. • and take the shape of their container.

Liquids Gases Incompressible Fluids Volume = const Compressible Fluids Volume ≠ const 12 .

13 . • or very complex assembly of many component and parts. It may include: • single simple body.Thermodynamic System System is the subject of analysis.

Schematic presentation of a System Surroundings System System Boundary 14 .

Closed System Closed Reservoir m = const m : mass of the substance The substance in the reservoir cannot leave. New substance cannot enter in the reservoir. 15 .

Cylinder .Piston Assembly Cylinder System: Working Fluid Piston Boundary m = const V ≠ const 16 .

V2 > V1 Expansion V1 State 1 V2 State 2 17 .

V1 > V2 Compression V1 State 1 V2 State 2 18 .

Piston Assembly This device has very important role in engineering practice and is commonly used in many gas power cycles such as internal combustion engines. 19 .Cylinder .

20 .Closed System ≡ Control Mass In some textbooks. the closed system is also called Control Mass because in a closed system the mass of the working substance is under consideration.

Open System Pipe Control Volume 21 .

pumps and compressors.Open System Examples of open system include pipes. heat exchangers. boilers. valves. nozzles and diffusers. turbines. 22 .

so their values can describe the condition of the system without knowing how the system came to that condition.Thermodynamic Property Properties are quantities that can be measured. 23 .

Examples of Properties • Mass of the working fluid employed in the process • Volume occupied by the working fluid • Temperature of the working fluid • Pressure of the working fluid 24 .

25 .State State is a term for a condition of the system as it is described by its properties.

Example for a State • Closed System Our lecture theatre • Working Fluid in the lecture theatre: Air • Temperature of Air: 20oC • Pressure of Air: 1 bar • The state of the system is given with: 20oC and 1 bar. 26 .

27 .Process Process is a transformation of the system from one state to another state.

1 bar Air-conditioning system switched off Process: Heating of the air (due to transfer of heat from outside and from students) • Final State: 30oC.Example for a Process Closed System: Our Lecture Theatre Initial State: 20oC. 1 bar • • • • 28 .

1.1.3 The SI System of Units in Thermodynamics 29 .

International System of Units: Basic Units Mass Symbol Unit Symbol for unit m (Note) kilogramme kg Length L metre m Time t second s 30 .

For Open System.Note (Very Important!) Quantity mass with unit kg is characteristic for Closed Systems. corresponding quantity is called Mass Flow Rate the symbol is & m 31 and the unit is kg/s .

Additional Basic Unit for Heat Interactions: Temperature Kelvin Scale Only positive values for temperature Temperature (T) expressed in Kelvin degrees: K Absolute Zero Temperature No negative values for temperature 32 .

Additional Basic Unit for Heat Interactions: Temperature Celsius Scale Positive values for temperature Zero Temperature Negative values for temperature Temperature (t) expressed in Celsius degrees: oC 33 .

273.15 t (oC) = T (K) .Relation between Kelvin and Celsius Scales 0 K = .t1 34 .15 ∆T (K) = ∆t (oC) ∆T = T2 .15 K T (K) = t (oC) + 273.15 oC 0 oC = 273.T1.273. ∆t = t2 .

SI System of Units: Derived Units 35 .

Examples • Area A=a2 a A=d2π/4 A=ab b a d Unit: m2 36 .

Examples Volume c V = abc Unit: m3 a b 37 .

Examples: Volume Liter (l) • 1 liter = 1 dm3 • 1 dm = 10 cm • 1 m = 10 dm • 1 m3 = 1000 dm3 = 1000 l 38 .

a: acceleration.Force F = ma F: force acting on the body. m: mass of the body. Unit for force: Newton (N) m Unit for force F = kg X 2 s 39 . kg. m/s2.

g: acceleration due to gravity.81 m/s2 40 . kg. m/s2. g = 9. N. m: mass of the body.Weight w = mg w: weight of the body.

kg/m3. m = ρV 41 . m: mass of the body. V: volume occupied by the mass. m3.Density ρ = m/V ρ: density. kg.

kg. V: volume. m: mass of the body. m = V/v 42 .Specific Volume v = 1/ρ = V/m ρ v: specific volume. m3/kg. m3.

ρwater = 1000 kg/m3.595 43 .Relative Density s = ρsubstance/ρwater ρ s: relative density. ⇒ s = 13595/1000 = 13. Example: ρmercury = 13595 kg/m3. no unit.

m2. A: area over which the force acts.Pressure p = F/A p: pressure F: normal component of the force acting over the body. N. Unit for pressure = N/m2 = Pascal = Pa 1 bar = 105 Pa 1 atmosphere pressure = 101325 Pa = 1.01325 bar 44 .

5 Suggested Tutorial Problems 1.1. J.1.Reference: Basic Thermodynamics by K.8 45 .1 . Iynkaran and D.1 . Tandy Suggested Additional Reading Chapter 1: Introduction to Thermodynamics Suggested Examples 1.

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