Digital Watermarking

Parag Agarwal {}

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Background Terminology Applications Techniques Research topics References

started with Steganography (art of hidden writing): The art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one apart from the intended recipient knows of the existence of the message.. Stego ± Hidden . The existence of information is secret.Information Hiding ‡ Information Hiding«. Graphy ± Writing µart of hidden writing¶ .

Steganography (dates back to 440 BC) ‡ Histaeus used his slaves (information tattooed on a slave¶s shaved head ) Initial Applications of information hiding Passing Secret messages .

Microchip .Application ‡ Germans used Microchips in World War II Initial Applications of information hiding Passing Secret messages .

$ Bill) Application for print media authenticity of print media . visible when paper is held up to the light (e.g.What is a watermark ? What is a watermark ? A distinguishing mark impressed on paper during manufacture.

such as images) Digital Watermarking can be ? .Perceptible (e. author information in images) Visibility is application dependent Invisible watermarks are preferred ? .g.Imperceptible (e. author information in .g.doc) .What is a watermark ? Digital Watermarking: Application of Information hiding (Hiding Watermarks in digital Media.

Cut paste of images Hidden Watermarks represent the copyright information .Applications Copyright Protecton:To prove the ownership of digital media Eg.

Eg.Applications Tamper proofing: To find out if data was tampered. Change meaning of images Hidden Watermarks track change in meaning Issues: Accuracy of detection .

Applications Quality Assessment: Degradation of Visual Quality Loss of Visual Quality Hidden Watermarks track change in visual quality .

Comparison ‡ Watermarking Vs Cryptography Watermark D Encrypt D Hide information in D Change form of D .

Watermark (W). Watermarked Data (Dw) Embed (D. W. Stego Key (K).g. K is secret (Use cryptography to make information hidden more secure) . find the linear correlation and compare it to a threshold) Q.Watermarking Process ‡ Data (D). K) = Dw Extract (Dw) = W¶ and compare with W (e. How do we make this system secure ? A.

Watermarking Process Example ± Embedding (Dw = D + W) ‡ Matrix representation (12 blocks ± 3 x 4 matrix) (Algorithm Used: Random number generator RNG). D = Matrix representation. Seed for RNG = K. W = Author¶s name 2 6 10 3 7 11 4 8 12 1 5 9 .

Watermarking Process Example ± Extraction ‡ The Watermark can be identified by generating the random numbers using the seed K 1 6 10 8 .

g. makes it robust against scaling .Data Domain Categorization ‡ Spatial Watermarking Direct usage of data to embed and extract Watermark e. e.g. voltage values for audio data ‡ Transform Based Watermarking Conversion of data to another format to embed and extract. Conversion to polar co-ordinate systems of 3D models.

W} Semi .Informed techniques are more robust to tampering . K.Extraction Categorization ‡ ‡ ‡ Informed (Private) Extract using {D.Blind (requires less information storage) .Blind (Semi-Private) Extract using {K. W} Blind (Public) Extract using {K} .

Robustness Categorization ‡ Fragile (for tamper proofing e. e.g. image compression) ‡ Robust (against adversary based attack. noise addition to images) This categorization is application dependent . losing watermark implies tampering) ‡ Semi-Fragile (robust against user level operations.g. e.g.

Blind Fragile DCT based Watermarks Eg3.Categorization of Watermark Eg1. Blind Semi-fragile Spatial Watermarks . Robust Private Spatial Watermarks Eg2.

Capacity .Robustness .Imperceptibility .Watermarking Example Application: Copyright Protection Design Requirements: .Security .

Imperceptibility Watermarking Stanford Bunny 3D Model Visible Watermarks in Bunny Model Distortion Watermarking Invisible Watermarks in Bunny Model Minimal Distortion Stanford Bunny 3D Model .

Attacks are generally data dependent e. . Compression that adds noise can be used as an attack to remove the watermark.Robustness Adversaries can attack the data set and remove the watermark. Different data types can have different compression schemes.g.

3D model being rotated in 3D space OR image being scaled If encoding of watermarks are data value dependent Watermark is lost Extraction process fails .g. lossy compression .Robustness ‡ Value Change Attacks .Uniform Affine Transformation e.g.Noise addition e.

Smoothing e.g. Change in Sample rates in audio data change in sampling rat results in loss of samples If watermarks are encoded in parts of data set which are lost Watermark is lost Extraction process fails . smoothing of audio signals e.g.Robustness ‡ Sample loss Attacks . Cropping in images .g.Cropping e.

g.Robustness ‡ Reorder Attack . reverse filter in audio signal reverses the order of data values in time 0 1 1 2 Samples in time 1 3 Attack 1 3 1 2 0 1 Samples in time If encoding is dependent on an order and the order is changed Watermark is lost Extraction process fails .Reversal of sequence of data values e.

‡ More capacity implies more robustness since watermarks can be replicated.Capacity ‡ Multiple Watermarks can be supported. Spatial Methods are have higher capacity than transform techniques ? .

‡ In case the watermark is public. it can be encoded and copyright information is lost. .Security ‡ In case the key used during watermark is lost anyone can read the watermark and remove it.

Watermarking Algorithm Design Requirements } As much information (watermarks) as possible Capacity } Only be accessible by authorized parties Security } Resistance against hostile/user dependent changes Robustness } Invisibility Imperceptibility .

Tamper proofing ‡ Robustness against user related operations ± compression. format conversion ‡ Accuracy of Detection ± Only changes in meaning should be detected .

References ‡ %20microchip.wikipedia.cypak.jpg THANK YOU ! .org/wiki/Steganography ‡ ark ‡ http://www.