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Using SPSS Windows for Research: An Exploratory Tutorial Raj Echambadi A.

SPSS Windows and Files You are likely to work with three kinds of windows -• • • The Data Editor Window -- to define and enter your data and to perform statistical procedures. File extension -- *. sav The results of the statistical tests appear in the Output Window. File extension -- *. spo The Syntax Window can be used to keep a record of the operations that you perform on your data. This window will automatically open when you click a Paste function. I have no clue on this syntax window; to find out how to do this, you can read through the Help commands. File extension -- *. Sps Friday, the 13th of October, 2000

Data Issues • • Open new SPSS data file Create new data • Data view • Variable view

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Value -. I prefer to drink Brand X when I am really thirsty. v7. I prefer Brand X because it comes in environment friendly packaging. I like the sweet taste of Brand X. I prefer Brand X because it has fewer calories than other drinks. The following statements were used to record their attitudes. 2 .Variable View Window Change Settings Type -. and we recommend that you always exercise the option of listing a more descriptive label.total number of characters Decimals -.allows you to determine the kind of scale for that particular variable Default Value numeric 8 2 none none none 8 right scale Variable description of data used in this tutorial 18 respondents were asked to reveal their attitudes about six types of soft drinks. Align -. Eight character variable names are difficult to remember. v1. Brand X has minerals and vitamins that help quench my deep down body thirst. Brand X has a refreshing taste.allows you to define the type of variable Width -.allows you to determine the alignment of your column Measure -.allows you to provide labels for the various levels of a variable Missing Values -. Brand X has a unique flavor of its own. v5.allows you to list a more extensive label for your variable. I prefer drinking Brand X after workouts and sports because it gives me energy.enables you to designate certain scores as missing. v3.number of characters beyond the decimal point Label -. Brand X quenches my thirst immediately. v6. v2. v8. v4. v9. Columns --allows you to change the maximum number of characters in a column. Brand X has the right mix of minerals and vitamins that are healthy for my body. v10.

0737 4.B.6526 Std.0842 4.00 Maximum 7.00 7.00 7.4341 1.00 1.3743 3 .00 1. Descriptive Statistics for Overall Sample Descriptive Statistics N refreshing taste fewer calories quench thirst Valid N (listwise) 95 95 95 95 Minimum 1.00 Mean 5. Deviation 1.5591 1.

1 4. Descriptive Statistics for different brands Step 1. Frequencies for the Sample Step 1: From the "Analyze" menu. This allows you to split the file according to a particular variable and conduct separate analyses for each level of the variable.7 34. Step 2.00 6.1 22.2 13.9286 5.2 18.0 Valid 1.C.00 6.00 7.5714 3.00 3.2 9.00 2. Illustrative output brand = Allsport a Descriptive Statistics N refreshing taste fewer calories quench thirst Valid N (listwise) a.1579 C2. First click on Data and then Split File.00 Mean 3.00 5." Illustrative output refreshing taste Frequency 1 3 9 20 21 23 18 95 Percent 1. click "Descriptive Statistics.8 81.1 3.0 Cumulative Percent 1.1 24.1579 . Select the desired variable(s) and Options. Step 3.00 3.9169 1. click on Analyze. and Descriptives.2 18. Now.9 100.00 7.2 9. click on OK.7 56.9 100.00 Total 4 .00 Maximum 5.5714 Std.5 21. Deviation 1.1 24.0 Valid Percent 1.1 100.00 4. brand = Allsport 14 14 14 14 Minimum 1.00 3. Descriptive Statistics. Next you should select Organize output by groups and move Brands from the variable list to the Groups Based on list.5 21.1 22. When you have done this.1 3. Descriptive Statistics for select cases D." then move to the sub menu and click on "Frequencies.

Brand X has a unique flavor of its own. and v8) and not for individual variables. Type the name of the variable that you wish to create (in this case. Brand X has a refreshing taste. we will name it "comptast") in the Target Variable field. v4. you need to type in the computation that you wish to have performed in the Numeric Expression field. Computing a New Variable using Transform / Compute Let's say a reviewer comes back and suggests that the analysis should be repeated by using a composite variable for taste (v1. This should produce the screen shown below. Once you have done this. 5 . v8. Now. I like the sweet taste of Brand X. Now you should click on the Type&Label field. Step 2. v4. Click on Transform and then Compute. Step 4.E. Step 1. Step 3. This will enable you to create a longer label for your variable and modify the type and width of the variable. Then press OK. and it is important to realize that operations within parentheses are performed first. v1. press Continue. You can use all the operations listed on the bottom of this screen. Continue with your analysis.

then click on Options and select the desired statistics. then Correlate." drag to the sub menu and select "Explore. From the "Analyze" menu choose "Descriptive Statistics. Click on Analyze. Visual examination of the distributional characteristics of continuous variables Step 1. Step 2." K.F. and the valid number of pairs of scores are listed in the bottom portion of the table. From the "Analyze" menu choose "Descriptive Statistics. Replacing missing data with Transform / Missing data H." drag to the sub menu and select "Cross Tabulations. Computing a new variable using Transform / Compute / If I. then Bivariate. Note: SPSS computes all possible correlations among the variables that you specified. Move the variables that you wish to have correlated into the Variables field." J. Then click on Continue and then OK. Computing a New Variable using Transform / Recode • Reverse coding G. Step 3. Computing correlations Step 1. If you wish to print the means and standard deviations. The correlations are listed in the first third of the table. Cross Tabulations Step 1. 6 . the significance levels of the correlations are listed in the second third of the table.

303** .208 .454** .000 . Creating a Scatterplot for Pairs of Variables Step 1.000 . (2-tailed) N Pearson Correlation Sig. 7 . Step 3.130 1. click on Graphs and then Scatter. click on Simple and then Define. To create a scatterplot of your data. When you have done this. .208 . Now move the variables into the appropriate axes.454** 1.01 level (2-tailed). In the Scatterplot menu.000 . click on OK a scatterplot of the relationship between your variables is produced. .Illustrative output Correlations refreshing taste fewer calories quench thirst 1. L.000 . (2-tailed) N Pearson Correlation Sig.000 95 95 95 -. 95 95 95 refreshing taste fewer calories quench thirst Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N **.130 -.003 .303** . Step 2.003 95 95 95 . Correlation is significant at the 0.

You can make the title fit by clicking on the title and then on Format and then on Text. Once you are in the SPSS Chart Editor. As you can see. you can basically do whatever you want.Illustrative output Stupid Chart 8 7 6 5 4 3 refreshing taste 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 fewer calories Step 4. With a little work. your graph can look like the one below. 8 . the SPSS default options for labeling this graph are not ideal. This will enable you to apply these options to future graphs. You can modify your graph by double clicking on it. You can save the template for your preferred options by selecting File and then Save Chart Template. and this accesses the SPSS Chart Editor. Stupid Chart Refreshing taste 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Fewer calories Step 5.

0 5 2 .1 .0 0 2 a ssum e d E q u a l v a r ia n c e s n ot assu m e d S ig .0 8 6 t .te s t fo r E q u a lity o f M e a n s 9 5 % C o n fid e n c e I n te r v a l o f th e D iffe r e n c e M e a n S td .1 9 2 8 .1 9 2 8 ." In d e p e n d e n t S a m p l e s T e s t L e v e n e 's T e s t fo r E q u a lit y o f V a r ia n c e s t. Comparing Means between two groups on "Packaging" Click on "Analyze.1 ..5 4 1 4 ." then point your mouse at "Compare Means" and then click on "Independent-Samples T Test." then "Scale " and then "Reliability Analysis" and click on "List Items" Reliability ****** Method 1 (space saver) will be used for this analysis ****** Reliability Coefficients N of Cases = 95. E r r o r S ig .0 N of Items = 3 Alpha = .ta ile dD) iffe r e n c eD iffe r e n c e L o w e r U p p e r 93 9 0 .5 4 0 6 -.1 7 5 1 . ( 2 .1 0 1 . Reliability Analysis Click on "Analyze.9460 9 .L.1 5 5 7 F p a c k a g in g q u a l v a r ia n c e s E 3 ..1 7 5 4 -.2 7 4 . .2 7 5 .0 9 9 df M.1 5 5 0 .

618 193.705 .005 . Variables = v2.N. quench thirst b. fewer calories. Error of the Estimate .000 .125 Sig.600 F 77. Error 1.169 .000 a a.068 . Dependent Variable: refreshing taste a Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) fewer calories quench thirst sweet taste Unstandardized Coefficients B Std.075 13. quench thirst b.717 Adjusted R Square .435 .003 . Multivariate analysis can also be done 10 . Predictors: (Constant).708 Std.326 df 3 91 94 Mean Square 46.847 a .034 Sig.340 2. .708 54.201 . sweet taste.167 a.7747 Durbin-W atson 2.184 -.767 t 4." then "Regression " and then "Linear" Dep. . fewer calories.054 Standardi zed Coefficien ts Beta .059 -.000 a.210 .887 -3. Dependent Variable: refreshing taste You can save predicted values to use later. N. sweet taste.886 . Regression Click on "Analyze.236 . v3. Variable = v1 Ind. Predictors: (Constant). v4 b Model Summary Model 1 R R Square . Dependent Variable: refreshing taste b ANOVA Model 1 Regression Residual Total Sum of Squares 138.

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