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³Classification is the process of arranging data
into sequences and groups according to their
common characteristics or separating them into
different but related parts.´
- Secrist
³ The process of grouping large number of
individual facts and observations on the basis of
similarity among the items, is called
classification´.
- Stockton & Clark
ï   | 
 Classification is a process of arranging
things or data in groups or classes
according to their resemblances and
affinities and gives expressions to the
unity of attributes that may subsit among a
diversity of individuals.
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¢ Classification performs homogeneous
grouping of data
¢ t brings out points of similarity and
dissimilating
¢ The classification may be either real or
imaginary
¢ Classification is flexible to accommodate
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_ To simplify and condense the large data
_ To present the facts to easily in
understandable form
_ To allow comparisons
_ To help to draw valid inferences
_ To relate the variables among the data
_ To help further analysis
_ To eliminate unwanted data
_ To prepare tabulation
þ      
   i.e. on the basis of area
or region wise)
 |  n the basis of
Temporal / Historical, i.e. with respect to
time)
    on the basis of character /
attributes)
   , quantitative on the basis of
magnitude)
u 
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n geographical classification, the classification is based on the geographical regions.

## : Sales of the company  n Million Rupees) region ¢ wise

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èorth 285
South 300
East 185
west 235
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 f the statistical data are classified according to the time of its occurrence, the
type of classification is called chronological classification.

##  Sales reported by a departmental store

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åanuary 22
Feb 26
mar 32
apr 25
may 27
jun 29
jul 30
aug 30
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n qualitative classifications, the data are classified
according to the presence or absence of attributes in
given units. Thus, the classification is based on
some quality characteristics / attributes.
 : Sex, Literacy, Education, Class grade etc.
Further, it may be classified as
a) Simple classification b) Manifold classification
ë  
: f the classification is done into only
two classes then classification is known as simple
classification.
 a) Population in to Male / Female
b) Population into Educated / Uneducated
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:

##  n this classification, the classification is based on more than one

attribute at a time.

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n Quantitative classification, the classification is based on quantitative measurements of
some characteristics, such as age, marks, income, production, sales etc. The
quantitative phenomenon under study is known as variable and hence this classification
is also called as classification by variable.
For a 50 marks test, Marks obtained by students as classified as follows

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##  Tabulation may be defined as systematic

arrangement of data is column and rows. t is designed
to simplify presentation of data for the purpose of
analysis and statistical inferences.

ï Ä      
 To simplify the complex data
 To facilitate comparison
 To economise the space
 To draw valid inference / conclusions
 To help for further analysis
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##  First data are classified and presented in

tables; classification is the basis for tabulation.
 Tabulation is a mechanical function of
classification because is tabulation classified
data are placed in row and columns.
 Classification is a process of statistical
analysis while tabulation is a process of
presenting data is suitable structure.
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6Classification is done based on
 Coverage Simple and complex table)
 bjective / purpose eneral purpose /
Reference table / Special table or summary
table)
 èature of inquiry primary and divided table
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 diagram is a visual form for presentation
of statistical data. The diagram refers
various types of devices such as bars,
circles, maps, pictorials and cartograms
etc.
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 : Draw the line diagram for the following data
 w  200120022003200420052006  
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èo. of students passed in FCD

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10

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Year
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The annual expresses of maintaining the car of various
types are given below. Draw the vertical bar diagram. The
annual expenses of maintaining includes fuel +
maintenance + repair + assistance + insurance).    
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70000
ë : 2005 TèS TCS Study
65000 63270
59230
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: Vijaya Karnataka,
60000 dated: 03.08.2006
55000
50000 47533
45000
40000
35000
30000
aruthi Udyog Hyundai Tata otor
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orld biggest top 10 steel makers are data are given below. Draw horizontal bar diagram.

angs han 1
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h s s e n kr p p 1
I A 1
N O 1
te e l 0
BAO te e l

J 0
O O 1
Nip p o n

Ar e lo r itta l 110

0 0 0 0 0 100 1 0
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Ex: Draw the bar diagram for the following data. Resale value of the cars Rs. 000) are as follows.

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