U.E.

Tl Irrigation Engineering

Indus Basin Irrigation System
1.History:
The Indus Valley has been the host to one of the most ancient civilization of human history, the Indus Valley Civilization. After the extinction of the Indus Civilization, new settlements especially in doabs grew slowly. New irrigation systems started to evolve. Inundation canals and small dams were constructed and population grew all around this area. In order to reduce the occurrence of low irrigation water supply the British authorities, towards the middle of the last century, started modernizing and expanding the irrigation system of the Indus Basin. The Almighty Allah has gifted Pakistan with abundant water resources with water flowing down the Himalayas and Karrakurram heights from the world's largest glaciers , a free and unique bounty of nature for this land of alluvial plains. As a result of this natural resource, today we have the worlds marvelous and the largest contiguous irrigation system that currently irrigates over 16 million hectares of land, out of 34 million hectares of cultivable lands available. This land lies within the plains formed by river Indus and its tributaries. Britishers started the barrage irrigation system during 1930s. However, before that the residents of Punjab, Sindh, and Frontier had constructed a number of inundation canals to irrigate their lands. In the Punjab, 38 such canals had been taken out of Sutlej, Indus, and Chenab rivers to irrigate areas around Bari Doab Multan, Muzaffargarh, and Dera Ghazi Khan. In Sindh, water level of the Indus during summer had always been higher than the surrounding lands, thus, 16 inundation canals in this area had conveniently carried out the irrigation water during past century. However, British Army Engineers undertook construction and improvement of several irrigation canals in the sub- continent. Subsequently, remodeling/construction work on Bari Doab Canal; Sidhnai Canal, Lower Sohag, Ramnagar Canal, Lower Jhelum Canal, Kabul Canal, and Lower Sawat were completed by the end of l9th century. However, at the time of independence country had 29 canals to provide regulated supply to an area of about 11 million hectares, beside an area of about 3.2 million hectares irrigated through inundation canals leading from Indus and its tributaries. These main inundation canals included Upper Sutlej, Lower Sutlej, Shahpur, and Chenab in Punjab; whereas, Rohri, Fuleli, Pinyari, and Kalri in Sindh. However, after the construction of barrages these canals are no more inundation canals but get regulated water supply and some of them have become perennial while few are nonperennial.

2.Water Ability of the IBIS
There are three main sources of water availability in the Indus Basin: 2.A .Surface Water. The average annual flow of Western Rivers of Indus Basin is approximately 142 million acre feet (MAF). About 105 MAF of this water is diverted for irrigation purposes and about 32 million acre feet outflows to the Arabian Sea.
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2. B. Rain Water: Another source of water is the rain fall. Irrigated areas of Indus Basin receive on average 40 million acres feet of water annually. 2.C. Ground Water: The third source of water is the ground water. It provides approximately 40 percent of crop water requirements of the country.

3.Schematic Diagram of IBIS:

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3.1 KEY FACTS AND FIGURES/ SALIENT FEATURES:
1. No. major reservoirs: 3 (Chashma, Mangla, and Tarbela) 2. No. of Barrages: 16 (Sulemanki, Islam, Balloki, Marala, Trimmu, Punjnad, Sukkur, Kotri, Taunsa, Guddu, Chashma,Jinnah , Sidhnai, Rasul, Qadirabad, and Marala) 3. No. of Headwork’s: 2 (Mangla & Khanki Headwork’s) 4. No. of Interlink Canal: 12 5. No. of Canal Irrigation System: 44 6. Water Diverted to Canals: 105 MAF 7. Water extracted from Ground: 42 MAF 8. Average escapage to sea: 32 MAF 9. No. of watercourses: 107,000 10. Length of Canals: 585000 Km 11. No. of Tube wells: >700000 12. Canal Irrigated Area: 36 million Acre

4.Barrages in Pakistan
An artificial bar or obstruction placed in a river or water course to increase the depth of water so that water can be diverted to canals is called barrage.

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Key Data/ Salient Features: 4.1JINNAH BARRAGE
Year of Completion Location & River on which its constructed Design Discharge Left No. off Taking Canals Right Length No. of bays No. of under Sluices Crest level 1946 Kalabagh, Indus river 950,000 cusecs 1 3781 ft 42 1 678.0 .P.D

4.2 GHAZI BARRAGE
Year of Completion Location & River on which its constructed Design Discharge Left No. off Taking Canals Right Length No. of bays No. of under Sluices Crest level 2002 Ghazi, Indus river 500,000 cusecs 1 20 1 332.2 m

4.3 CHASHMA BARRAGE
Year of Completion Location & River on which its constructed Design Discharge Left No. off Taking Canals Right Length No. of bays No. of under Sluices Crest level 1971 Chashma Mianwali, Indus river 1.1 million cusecs 1 1 3556 ft 52 2 622.0 .P.D
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4.4 TAUNSA BARRAGE
Year of Completion Location & River on which its constructed Design Discharge Left No. off Taking Canals Right Length No. of bays No. of under Sluices Crest level 1959 Near Taunsa Sharif, Indus river 750000 cusecs 2 2 4346 ft 53 2 428.0 .P.D

4.5 GUDDU BARRAGE
Year of Completion Location & River on which its constructed Design Discharge Left No. off Taking Canals Right Length No. of bays No. of under Sluices Crest level 1962 Kashmore, Indus river 1.2 million cusecs 2 3 4445 ft 64 2 236.0 .P.D

4.6 SUKKUR BARRAGE
Year of Completion Location & River on which its constructed Design Discharge Left No. off Taking Canals Right Length No. of bays No. of under Sluices Crest level 1932 Near Sukkur, Indus river 1.5 million cusecs 4 3 4725 ft 66 2 177.0 S.P.D

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4.7 KOTRI BARRAGE (GHULAM MUHAMMAD BARRAGE)
Year of Completion Location & River on which its constructed Design Discharge Left No. off Taking Canals Right Length No. of bays No. of under Sluices Crest level 1955 Near Hydraabad Indus river 875000 cusecs 3 1 2984 ft 44 2 48.0 .P.D

4.8 MARRALA BARRAGE
Year of Completion Location & River on which its constructed Design Discharge Left No. off Taking Canals Right Length No. of bays No. of under Sluices Crest level 1968 Sialkot, Chenab river 1.1 million cusecs 2 4472.33 ft 66 1 800.0 .P.D

4.9 QUADIRABAD BARRAGE
Year of Completion Location & River on which its constructed Design Discharge Left No. off Taking Canals Right Length No. of bays No. of under Sluices Crest level
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1967 Hafizabad, Chenab river 900,000 cusecs 1 3373 ft 50 1 684.50 .P.D
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4.10 TRIMMU BARRAGE
Year of Completion Location & River on which its constructed Design Discharge Left No. off Taking Canals Right Length No. of bays No. of under Sluices Crest level 1939 Near Jhang, Chenab river 645000 cusecs 2 1 3025 ft 37 2 477.50 .P.D

4.11 PUNJNAD BARRAGE
Year of Completion Location & River on which its constructed Design Discharge Left No. off Taking Canals Right Length No. of bays No. of under Sluices Crest level 1932 Muzafffargarh, Chenab River 700000 cusecs 2 3400 ft 47 1 325.0 .P.D

4.12 RASUL BARRAGE
Year of Completion Location & River on which its constructed Design Discharge Left No. off Taking Canals Right Length No. of bays No. of under Sluices Crest level
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1967 Jhelum river 850000 cusecs 2 3209 ft 42 1 703.0 .P.D
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4.13 SULAIMANKI BARRAGE
Year of Completion Location & River on which its constructed Design Discharge Left No. off Taking Canals Right Length No. of bays No. of under Sluices Crest level 1926 Sutlej river 325000 cusecs 2 1 2223 ft 24 2 560.0 .P.D

4.14 ISLAM BARRAGE
Year of Completion Location & River on which its constructed Design Discharge Left No. off Taking Canals Right Length No. of bays No. of under Sluices Crest level 1927 Hasilpur,Sutlej river 300000 cusecs 2 1621 ft 29 1 435.50 – 441.00 S.P.D

4.15 BALLOKI BARRAGE
Year of Completion Location & River on which its constructed Design Discharge Left No. off Taking Canals Right Length No. of bays No. of under Sluices Crest level
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1965 Ravi river 225000 cusecs 2 1646.5 ft 35 1 624.50 .P.D
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4.16 SIDHNAI BARRAGE
Year of Completion Location & River on which its constructed Design Discharge Left No. off Taking Canals Right Length No. of bays No. of under Sluices Crest level 1965 Ravi river 150000 cusecs 2 712 ft 15 1 454.0 .P.D

4.17 MAILSI BARRAGE
Year of Completion Location & River on which its constructed Design Discharge Left No. off Taking Canals Right Length No. of bays No. of under Sluices Crest level 1964 Near Mailsi, Sutluj river 429000 cusecs 2 1601 ft 24 1 415.50 S.P.D

4.18 KHANKI HEAD WORKS
Year of Completion Location & River on which its constructed Design Discharge Left No. off Taking Canals Right Length No. of bays No. of under Sluices Crest level 1891 Near Mailsi, Sutluj river 800000 cusecs 1 4600 ft 6 1 726.5 – 727.0 S.P.D

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5.Salient Feature of off- taking canals from barrages
5.1BALLOKI SULMANKI LINK CANAL (BS LINK CANAL)
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Link Location of area 1951 18500 cusecs Left bank canal (Balloki Barrage) Ravi to Sutluj District pakpattan,Depalpur etc

5.2LOWER BARI DOAB CANAL (LBDC CANAL)
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off –taking Location Area to be irrigated Location of area 1859 7000 cusecs 804.6 CM Left bank canal (Balloki Barrage) 659000acres 0.27 mHa Sahiwal, Multan Distt

5.3SIDHNAI CANAL
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking Location Area to be irrigated Location of area 1886 4005 cusecs 36.4CM Left bank canal (sidhnai Barrage) 1017000acres 0.41 mHa Multan, Vehari Distt.

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5.4SIDHNAI MAILSI BAHAWAL LINK CANAL
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Link Location of area 1965 10100cusecs 60CM Left bank canal (sidhnai Barrage) Ravi to Sutluj District Bahawalpur,Lodharan

5.5 UPPER CHENAB CANAL (UCC)
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Area to be irrigated Location of area 1912 16500cusecs 42.8CM Left bank canal (Marala Barrage) 1441000acres 0.58 mHa Sialkot, Gujranwala, Sheikhupura Distt.

5.6MARALA RAVI LINK CANAL (MR LINK CANNAL)
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Link Location of area 1956 22000cusecs 189.9CM Left bank canal (Marala Barrage) Chenab to Ravi Sialkot,Narowall, Lahore etc

5.7LOWER CHENAB CANAL (LCC)
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Area to be irrigated Location of area 1892 11727 cusecs 155.9CM (canal mile) Left bank canal (Khanki headworks) 3054000 acres 1.24 mHa Gujranwala, Sheikhupura, Faisalabad Distt.

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5.8QUADIRABAD BALLOKI LINK CANAL (QB LINK CANAL)
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Link Location of area 1967 18600cusecs 104CM Left bank canal (Quadirabad Barrage) Chenab to Ravi Gujranwala, Sheikhupura, Faisalabad Distt.

5.9TRIMMU SIDHNAI LINK CANAL (TS LINK CANAL)
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Link Location of area 1965 11000 cusecs 44CM Left bank canal (Trimmu Barrage) Chenab to Ravi Muzaffargarh, Jhang, Multan Distt.

5.10 HAVALI CANAL
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Area to be irrigated Location of area 1939 5242cusecs 36.4CM Left bank canal (Trimmu Barrage) 1166000acres 0.47 mHa Muzaffargarh, Jhang, Multan Distt.

5.11 RANGPUR CANAL
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Area to be irrigated Location of area 1939 2710 cusecs 138.2CM Righ t bank canal (Trimmu Barrage) 345000acres 0.14 mHa Muzaffargarh, Jhang, Multan Distt

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5.12 PUNJNAD CANAL
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Area to be irrigated Location of area 1929 9567 cusecs 57.2 CM Left bank canal (Punjnad Barrage) 1355000acres 0.55mHa Bahawalnagar, Rahim Yar Khan Districts

5.13 ABBASIA CANAL
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Area to be irrigated Location of area 1929 1064cusecs 25.7 CM Left bank canal (Trimmu Barrage) 154000acres 62323 Ha Rahim yar khan,sadiqa abad

5.14 ESTERAN SIADIQIA CANAL
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Area to be irrigated Location of area 1926 4917 cusecs 49 CM Left bank canal (Sulmanki Barrage) 1052000acres 0.43 mHa Bahawalnager, Multan, Sahiwal Districts

5.15 FORDWAH CANAL
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Area to be irrigated Location of area 1927 3366 cusecs 9.2 CM Left bank canal (Sulmanki Barrage) 428000acres 0.17 mHa Bahawalpur, Multan, Sahiwal Districts

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5.16 PAKPATTAN CANAL
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Area to be irrigated Location of area 1927 6950 cusecs 183.1CM Right bank canal (Sulmanki Barrage) 1049000acres 0.42 mHa Bahawalpur, Multan, Sahiwal Districts

5.16 QAIM CANAL
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Area to be irrigated Location of area 1927 538 cusecs 33CM Left bank canal (Islam Barrage) 1036000acres 0.42 mHa Bahawalpur, Mailsi and Vehari Districts

5.17 BAHAWAL CANAL
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Area to be irrigated Location of area 1927 5400cusecs 17.9CM Left bank canal (Islam Barrage) 730000acres 0.30 mHa Mailsi and Vehari Districts

5.18 UPPER JEHLAM CANAL (UJC)
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Area to be irrigated Location of area 1915 7800cusecs 88CM Left bank canal (Mangla headworks) 544000 acres 0.22 mHa Gujrat, Jehlum Distt.

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5.19 RASUL QUADIRABAD LINK CANAL (RQ Link Canal)
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Link Location of area 1967 19000cusecs 30CM Left bank canal (Rasul Barrage) Jehlum to chenab Sargodha, Gujrat Distt

5.20 LOWER JEHLUM CANAL (LJC)
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Area to be irrigated Location of area 1901 6600cusecs 39.4CM Left bank canal (Rasul Barrage) 1518000acres 0.61 mHa Sargodha, Gujrat Distt

5.21 GHAZI BROTHA POWER CANAL
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Location of area 2002 75000cusecs 52km Left bank canal (Ghazi Barrage) Ghazi

5.22 THAL CANAL
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Area to be irrigated Location of area 1947 8500cusecs 31.5CM Left bank canal (Jinnah Barrage) 1912000acres 0.77 mHa Mianwali, Muzaffargarh, Khushab, Bhakkar, Leiah Distt.

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5.23 CHASHMA JEHLAM LINK CANAL (CJ LINK CANAL)
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Link Location of area 1970 21700cusecs 63CM Left bank canal (Chashma Barrage) Indus to Jehlam D. I. Khan, Provide water for Jehlum river.

5.24 CHASHMA RIGHT BANK CANAL
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Area to be irrigated Location of area 1990 5000 cusecs 90CM Right bank canal (Chashma Barrage) 0.23 mHa D. G. Khan .

5.25 KACHHI CANAL
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Area to be irrigated Location of area Under construction 6000 cusecs 313CM Right bank canal (Taunsa Barrage) 0.29mHa 713000acres Balochishtian

5.26 MUZAFFARGARH CANAL
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Area to be irrigated Location of area 1958 8301cusecs 74.2CM Left bank canal (Taunsa Barrage) 820000acres 0.33 mHa Muzaffargarh Distt

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5.27 TAUNSA PUNJNAD LINK CANAL (TP LINK CANAL)
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Link Location of area 1959 14000 cusecs 38CM Left bank canal (Taunsa Barrage) Indus to Chenab Muzaffargarh Distt

5.28 DERA GHAZI KHAN CANAL
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Area to be irrigated Location of area 1958 8790 cusecs 69CM Right bank canal (Taunsa Barrage) 906000acres 0.37 mHa Muzaffargarh Distt

5.29 PAT FEEDER/CANAL
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Area to be irrigated Location of area 1962 3176 cusecs 106CM Left bank canal (Guddu Barrage) 380827acres 0.15mHa Nasirabad and Jafarabad districts of Balochistan.

5.30 DESERT FEEDER/CANAL
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Area to be irrigated Location of area 1962 12945 cusecs Right bank canal (Guddu Barrage) Sukkar, Mirpur, Rohri, Kalat Distt.

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5.31 BEGARI SINDH FEEDER
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Area to be irrigated Location of area 1962 15494 cusecs Right bank canal (Guddu Barrage) 958857acres 0.39mHa Sukkar, Mirpur, Rohri, Kalat Distt.

5.32 GHOTKI FEEDER/CANAL
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Area to be irrigated Location of area 1962 8490 cusecs Left bank canal (Guddu Barrage) 855231acres 0.35mHa Sukkar, Mirpur, Rohri, Kalat Distt.

5.33 EAST NARA CANAL
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Area to be irrigated Location of area 1932 13649cusecs 226CM Left bank canal (Sukkur Barrage) 2240186acres 0.91mHa Hyderabad, Sanghar Distt.

5.34 EAST KHAIRPUR CANAL
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Area to be irrigated Location of area 1932 2096cusecs 10CM Left bank canal (Sukkur Barrage) 369596acres 0.15mHa Hyderabad, Sanghar Distt.

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5.35 ROHRI CANAL
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Area to be irrigated Location of area 1932 10883cusecs Left bank canal (Sukkur Barrage) 26001213acres 1.1mHa Hyderabad, Sanghar Distt.

5.36 DADU CANAL
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Area to be irrigated Location of area 1932 3150cusecs 131.1CM Right bank canal (Sukkur Barrage) 550963acres 0.22mHa Hyderabad, Sanghar Distt.

5.37 RICE CANAL
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Area to be irrigated Location of area 1932 10658cusecs 81CM Right bank canal (Sukkur Barrage) 519660acres 0.21mHa Hyderabad, Sanghar Distt.

5.38 WEST KHAIRPUR CANAL
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Area to be irrigated Location of area 1932 1940cusecs 24CM Left bank canal (Sukkur Barrage) 322000acres 0.13mHa Hyderabad, Sanghar Distt.

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5.39 NORTH WEST CANAL
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Area to be irrigated Location of area 1932 5152cusecs 36CM Right bank canal (Sukkur Barrage) 940014acres 0.38mHa Hyderabad, Sanghar Distt.

5.40 KALRI BAGHAR CANAL (FEEDER)
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Area to be irrigated Location of area 1955 9075 cusecs 5761m Right bank canal (Kotri Barrage) 603741acres 0.24mHa Hyderabad, Sanghar, Nawabshah, Badin, Mirpur Distt.

5.41 PHUELLELI CANAL (FEEDER)
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Area to be irrigated Location of area 1955 14350cusecs Left bank canal (Kotri Barrage) 929358acres 0.38mHa Hyderabad, Sanghar, Nawabshah, Badin, Mirpur Distt.

5.42 PINYARI CANAL (FEEDER)
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Area to be irrigated Location of area
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1955 13000 cusecs Left bank canal (Kotri Barrage) 786353acres 0.32mHa Hyderabad, Sanghar, Nawabshah, Badin, Mirpur Distt.
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5.43 AKRAM WAH CANAL (FEEDER)
Year of Completion Design Discharge Length Off-taking location Area to be irrigated Location of area 1955 4100cusecs Left bank canal (Kotri Barrage) 487347acres 0.20mHa Hyderabad, Sanghar, Nawabshah, Badin, Mirpur Distt.

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References:
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. Barrages & Dams in Pakistan By DR. Izharul Haq (Secretary Pak. Engg. Congress) www.southasianmedia.net www.scribd.com/doc/25280380/Irrigation-Engineering-Part-3 www.pakistaniat.com/2006/10/30/punjab-link-canal-irrigation/ www.magazine.com.pk/travel/pakistan.php?ss=&page=irrigation www.sida.org.pk/areawaterboard/default.asp www.rohri.net/sukkur-barrage.htm

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