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Brihat Samhita (Chidambaram Iyer)

Brihat Samhita (Chidambaram Iyer)

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A ~ E ~ I E S.








hER, B. A., F. 1'. S.



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B1U.RATA VU9lU. has long conbinned to be the centre of attraction not only in respect of its wealth and civilization but in that of its iutellectual acivancement. To it converged, as to a common focus the eyes of foreigners from the earliest period of the world's history. It was the one fountain of knowledge from which issued streams to water distant lands of ignorance at every point of the compass, now yielding abundance of intellectual harvest. Time was when Arva.n wisdom sbone resplendent, and, from its eminence, daziled the eyes of distant nations-distant geographically and distant chronologically, - illumined every corner of the intellectual horizon and served as a beacon, lighting the paths of erring travellers. History is puzzled in its attempt to reach the date of Aryan civilization. Autiquarians are at logger-heads in their conclusions touching the age of ArYllonlearning. Though at loggerheads most of the Christian antiquarians take care not to assign to any Indian event dates earlier than what js permissible under their Biblical Chronology.

Now it is well known that Aryan learning dates from the remotest antiquity. 'l'he Aryans have cultivated almost every department of knowledge. As the art of printing wail unknown a large proportion of .Aryan literature has been washed into oblivion by the mighty wave of time. Nota. few remain, " Like strauded wrecks the tide returning hoarse To sweep them from our sight" • unless rescued' from their fate. Our excellent Government are now laudably working ill this direction. But most of the Hindus, of the present day, can neither use the books them-

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ii selves nor will they allow foreigners to interfere with their sacred literature.* The public can therefore do much if their eyes could only be opened to the importance of the subject. M03t of the English knowing natives hardly know what these books treat of. I have many a time astonished young Collegians and graduates by quoting from Hindu aatronomers and mathematicians, and they were surprised to find that the Aryans knew what the Europeans know forgetting that these sciences were taken to the west from here. t Now it has come to my knowledge that in runy Hindu families whole libraries, for want of inspection, are now baing feasted on by moths 'and white ants and large quantities have already been emptied, nto the dustbins, the decay having gone too far I know th.at at this moment over 50 books are being exposed to sun and rain in a wellknown fa.mily here and 1 hear they have remained in that state for over four yea.rs. This meritorious act is no doubt due- to the circum. stance that the present owners of the books have begun to. taste the sweets of English education, while their ancestors appear to have been men of learning. My attempts to rescue them from further ruin proved a complete failure. The books appear to have, by a peculiar process, melted together and formed into one brittle mass. Similar injuries to Aryan lite. rature are more or less going on all Over India. English education, like Aaron's rod, appears to have devoured up every other education and it bas spread now throughout the land.
• And Dot withgut reaspn; it may not be out of place to quote here a little from Louis Jacolliot'a "Bible in Iudia ": " The Reverend Fathers, Jesuits, Franciscans, Stranger. missions and other corporations unite with touching harmony in India to acoomplish a 1I'0rk of Vandalism, which it il right to denounce as well to the learned world as to Orielltalists. EveI') manusoript, every 8anacrit work that falls into their hands. is immediately condemned and consigned to the flames. Needless to l8y that the choice of these gentlemen always falls from preference npon those of highest antiquity, and whose authenticity may appear Inconteetable," " Every Dew arrival receivea a formal order, so to dispose of all that may faU into bis hands. Happily the Brahmins do not open to them the llecrefi stores of their immense literary wealth, philosophic and religious", t It may be mentioned here, in pasaing, that these Sciences, 90 much neglected by the State, stand a fair chance of being revived as, at my snggeetion a Sanskrit Mathematical class baa recently been opened in the Maharajah's free Sanskrit College, Tiruvalii, Tanjore District, and placed under the management of Brahms. Srea Sunde1'll'lwara Srouthy, Bindu Astronomer and Almanac publishe!".
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iii In the humble hope that the progressing ruin might be in a measure retarded, it is proposed to tell the present Indian generation, in the language in which they will all and can all hear that, if they would exert 110 little, they might rescue from ruin a vast amoant of splendid Aryan literature: in other words, it is proposed to pnblish an English translation of Aryan Miscellany. As the prosperity of a nation depends on its literature, the public are requested to form into societies for the collection and preservation of Aryan works and for the printing of the more important of chem, They will also kindly communicate to me the names and particulars of Aryan works falling wilihin their notice.
The Samhita. series is taken up first as being' best calculated to awaken public interest BDd arrest public attention on account of the interesting variety of the subjects treated of. ht October 1884.

N, C.

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VU.AlI.l MUUBA was a native of Avanti and the son of Adityadasa who was an astronomer and from whom he received his education as he himself tells us in hie Brihat Jataka (Chap. XXVI Verse 5). The da'e of his birth is involved in obscurity. It ill the practice of all the Hindu astronomers to give this information in their works on 8Rtronllmy; bot unfortu nately Varaha Mihira's work on astronomy, known as the Panchasidhantika, is now 10st*beyond all hope of recovery. The popular notion is that he was one of the 12 gems of the Court of Vikramarka. Now Vikrama Era, as we find from the . Hindu calendar, dates from 56 B. C. whereas Varaha Mihira is considered to have flourished in the sixth century after Christ. So the Vikramarka of the first century before Christ must be different. from the Vikramarka. of the 6th century after Christ, unless we go to the length of believing that Vikramarka reigned, according to the Hindu legend, for a thousand years. We are not without parallel instances in the Christian Bible in which F.nos is said to have lived 905 years, Oaiuan 910 years, Seth 912 years, Adam 930 years, Noah 950 years, Jared 962 years and Methusala 969 years; and yet 1"001' non-biblical Vikramarka is gruJged a comparatively small matter of 500 years. Now A. D. ~ is considered by some to be the date of VaraM. Mihira's birth and by others to be that of his Panohasidhantika, and A. D. 587 is thought to be the date of his d2-ath. It is also said that Varaha. Mihira has quoted fiom Aryabhatta; that Aryabhatta was born in 476 A. D. and that this circumstance goes to prove that the dates given above are proba.bly not incorrect. We shall now examine how far these dates are supported by evidence to be obtained from Varaha Mihira's own works-a circumstance ,!hich curiously enough, appears to have escaped the .atte~. tion of even such eminent scholars as Colebrook, DaVIS,Sir William Jones and others:



• Our subscn'berB, especially those of N. W. P. and Bengal, are requested to giTe the matter some attention and try if they can procure a copy of this eltcelleut work.
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In verse 2 of Chapter III of hie Brahat Samhita Varaha M ihira saY8:" A t present the Solsticial points coincide· with the beginning of Karkataka (Sign 'Jancer)and with the beginning of Makara. (Sign Capricornua)."

Th's a.mounts to saying that the Vernal equinox, which is midway between the Solstices (9(;0 from each), was at the commencement of Mesha (Sig n Aries) i. e. coincided with the Star'Revati where the fixed Hindu Zodiac commences. The precession of the equinoxes was known to the Hindus long before it was known to th« ~uropeans, although Hindu astronomers are not agreed as to the naturo of its courlile~ome asserting that it oscillates on both sides of the star Revati while others that it makes a con:plete revolution round the heavens, a point about which even European astronomers have not arrived at any conclusion. Now this point is at present about 20° to the west of the star Revati. Its 1I.n UIlI late of motion is known and the increment in the rate n is also known; so that by a process of simple calculation we can arive at the period when the point must h-ve coincided with the star Revati. Now unfortunately, the exact distance between the Vernal Equinox and. the star Revati is not known, and cannot be determined from observation as the star (which the Hindu astronomers say was on the ecliptic] appears Borne how to have disappeared. Mr. Kero Latchmana Chatrai M. A. of Poona has adopted a star, known as the Zeeta Piscium (which however is not on the ecliptic) as the Revati of the. Hindus, According to him the AY8pamsam, (the distance between the vernal Equinox and the star Revati), on the first January 18~3 W\\S 1&° 14' 20". According to the late Mr. C. Reghunathachariar of MadraA,( after him, Messrs. Vencate· swara Deekshitar and Sundereswara ISrouthy of Southern India) and Mr. Bspu Deva Sastry of Benares, the Ayanamsam on the 1st January 1883, was 2~0 2' 39" and 21· 58' 29" respectively. But as these lengths have been arbitrarily assumed they may be dismissed as deserving of no consideration in this place. J have discovered it to be 20° 2 i' 15" on the above date and my discovery rests on the Druva Nadi, a. work of Satyachariar, a great astronomer. For particula.rs of this disputed question the reader is referred to myartiole on the H1Ddu Zodiac published in the April (1883) issneof The Theosophist. Now we will calculate Varaba Mihira's time from the
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lengths ofth. Ayanamsam as adopted by Mr. K. L. Chatrai and 8S discovered by me. The question is one of Arithmetica.l progression. We will snppose, a= rate ot motion of Vemal Eqninox wl.en it coincided with the star Revati.
d= the annual increment in the rate. l%: the last term or rate


of mution on the first January


the sum of the terms or the length of the Ayanamsam.

n=number of terms or number of years required. We bave the following series. a, a+d, a+2d, a"'Sd, .'. Z=a+(n-l)d. • =(a+l);= {I-(n-l) ar(n-l)d • .'. a=l-(n-l)d . d+l }~.

= { 2l-(n.-l)d
.. •. •.


2s={2Z+d)n-dn dni - (2l+d)n+28=0. n= 2l+d.±. V(2l+d)2--4. 2d. d. 28~

wbere 1=50'''.34.

8=20· 24,' 15" or 18° 14,' 20". Substituting these values, we get n= 14,66 and 4,17,368 years, or 1810 and 4,17,523 years, before first Ja~uary 1883 where the bigger figures may be rejected 8.'3 they refer to the position of the vernal Equinox in its second revolution. So that Varaha Mibira.'s time is found to be either1882-1466= 416.A.. D. Or lS82-UJO=572 A. D., according to me or Mr. K. L. Chat1'8i respectively. Now it is true that 572 A. D. is in snpport of the supposed dates, above given, of Vara.ba Mi. hira's birth and death. But I cannot bring my:s~lf to believe that Zeeta piscium was the Rtvati of the Hindus, for this simple reasoD,that it is not on the ecliptic. Several st'lfS of compa-


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_ The whole book is one huge attempt to interpret the language of Nature and ascertain its bearing on the fortunes of men and nations.~ when. but would not wait for an answer". Where the lapidary discovers a diamond. at present ignores. 'I'hey have not tbe patience to try and see what amount of truth there is in the Hindu interpretation of Nature's language. I'his was found to be the case during the {amine of 1876-77. It is therefore unreasonable to suppose that Hindu astronomers could have blundered in describing the position of the star Revati. Mihira (who only quotes the opinion of writers tha. Mihira has quoted fr')m Arya Bbatta-which quotation must be in his Panchasidhantika now lost -it is not improbable that the quetation is from Vridharya bhateeam. with a view to ascer. It ma.t went before him) said that solar spots indicate faurine in the land. As regards the difficulty that" araha. and with the simplicity of a negro or a farmer can even afford to laugh at the supposed ignorance of the Hindus. in his work on Samhita. Varaha Mihira refers to the posuion of the planets in the several signs of the zodiac. the simple negro finds a piece of glass. where the botanist discovers a simple with valuable properties the farmer sees a thistle. he refers to the fixed zodiac of the Hindus commencing from the star Revati and not to the shifting zodiac of the western astronomers which always commences at the moving vernal Equinox.ain the future agricultural prospects of the land: the market price of food-grains is at once lowered or raised acooeding as the moon's course lies to the south of the four stars or more and more to the north of the southernmost star.\larch 10.y be remarked here tha. stated by the Hindu astromomers to be on the ecliptic ar" found to be so when examined with the aid of modern astronomical instruments. the modern scientific world. It Digitized by Goog Ie . "What is truth? asked jeating Pilate. Nature has been found to speak in a thousand ways at every moment of time and the Hindus from the earliest times have learut to hear and understand her language. Again it h generally known that all India observe anxi-ously the course of the moon with respect to the four stars of the 10th couatellation (M agha) when the sun is in the sign Aquarius i-e from about February 10 to .viii ratively less importance. We will take a few instances: over 15')0 years ago Varaho. Phis language.

if this bock were carefully studied and its truths practically examined. Now astronomers know very well that ordinarily the moon will never pass to the north of all the four stars. Now. In the course of this work the reader will find that the author refers to several phenomena which.to enter the circle. -a circumstance which shows that the story is simply intended to cover an astronomical truth. • Hindu astronomers say that if Saturn should enter the constElllation of Rohini (4tL) t!Je world would be at an end. It is a well-known fact that recently Saturn approached the circle to within a degree from it but did Dot enter it. C. We will cite Onemore instance. In justice to the wisdom of the ancient Hindus. for ages.is: is als~ stated that if the moon should pass to the north of all the four stars the world would be at au end. chose to cut it. that Saturn. pleased wit~ the prince's boldness. True wisdom consists in patient investigation s nd not in ha. promised never more· . within the limited experience of the modern scientific world might appear improbable. Digitized by GooS Ie . continued their observation and tabulation of the phenomena of nature. unable to untie the Gordian knot.nder the Great wao. astronomical calculatious shew tha. the publio will do well to give each matter a patient trial and see what amount of truth there is ia each and not follow the wisdom of Alexa. who. It is humbly hoped that.sty rejec tion.t ordinarily Saturn will never enter the said circle. The story is that the astronomers of Dasaratha's court announced to the prince the dreaded entry of Saturn into the said constellation that the prince at once Hewin the air and stood before Saturn in his orbit resolved to stop his course . the material prosperity ot the world would be vastly improved- N. I may also remark here that in the famine of 1876-77 the moon's course lay between the northern mos~ star and the one next to it.

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CONTENTS PART I. 4.l2 26. 12. On 'I'hunder-bolts 165 01' Ashaohi Yoga 17. S. On Iudra Dhwaja or Indra's Bauuer 172 44. 40 42 45 56 63 66 76 80 82 88 92 11. 7. On the Moon's conjunction with planets 106 ]9. CIf. 28. On the Lustration of 182 Arms 18G J. PAGE. 0 . 39. On Commodities 1GB 42. On tha price of Commodities 170 43.4 3t 0 u Hlllos iss 35.. 29. CII. 15.netary meetings III 21. 14. Digdaha 148 32. 10. On Sasyn .raka or 202 Motely Miscellany Digitized by Goog Ie . On Ulkas or M':Iteors 1. On Rain 121 24. On the rain-clouds 113 22. 6.qlJI\kes 149 33. On Purhelion l!a ~8. On Rohiai Yoga 123 25.aka or vegetable Horoscopy 16G 97 41. 13. On Swati Yoga 129 40. 1. On planetary conjunc- tions 18. On the wag-tail 189 46. Ou Portents 47. On Dbarana or rain sapport days 120 23. On Elrth.:. 3. 27. On Pla.Tat. On the Rain-bow 162 36. 16' Iutroduetory J youtisuakal! 011 the Sun On the Moon On RHhu On Mltrs On Mercury On Jupiter On Venns On Saturn eomets and the like 1 3 12 17 !. 2. On Planetary years 108 20. 5.) 0 n flowers and plants 138 30. On Dust-storms 19J. Mayora Chit. On Gandharva nagaras or cloud castles 163 37. =>. PAGF:. 00 twilight hours 143 31. 00 On On On On On Canopus the Ursa MRjl)r Karma Vibhaga the Nakshatras the Planets 131 011 the winds 1:13 On immediate rain 1:3. 9.

Diamonds On PeArls 011 RubieR Oil Emerulds 011 L·. PAGE.he Divisions of the Zodiac 238 . On dnrable Cements 11. OIl ir'juries to Gar. . do the elephant 48.ling 7. Ou Perfume nrixturea ] 32 58. CR. 00 the Nakshatras 235 v" ments I 2. do the horse 47. ).nples 10. On the Titbies and Karanal!l 23. Couclusien 255 .5 55.. 0" Houllf'-bnil. 36. Cn Ang~vidya 5.. tile -. On the Marriage agna 23·1. do wild suimala 45. On Oharnnra 127 239 ~6. On Palta or crown plate 3 On the word 4.. 24.rnple ImageR 12. do the cow 46. On Marrigaes <J" 0 II. On t. 33. 00 Effective periods 226 115 51.. PAG~:. On the features of Wo[232 men 121 L 53. On Und... Supplementary to omens 3L 32. 1GO 164 }1)7 1 i2 li3 17·' 175 177 1B9 19(. 15. 00 omens conected with cawing of the crow 49. 39. On Pl1shya~nan" 2.mps Ou 'I'ootb-brnsh Omens-general rules 4·0.th e pra1se ()fW ornal 199 5{'. do the jackal 44..:>9.56.PART II. On Alltarachakra 41. On the Constellations 2::' . On Amiability 29..)4 I. '2. IA pll U h \ 1:3£1 _ . !l. On II e Nakrhatra. 52. 20. 17.ures of Cows Dl do 'of the Dflg 93 do of the Cock 94 do of the TOI·tle 91 do of the Goat 9.. 0" Spermatic drugR 3').... 257 Digitized by Coogle . au Ominons cries 42 00 omens connected with the dog 43. ]9. On Umbrellas 128 . • 28. 202 206 208 209 210 212 the 213 223 50. 34. 18. 35.54. On the fixinlr of 'hoeIrna14. Ou nt't~ motions oE the pIa. 011 T . 1 1] 12 16 2::1 2:> 43 fi9 74 '17 78 86 ges ill Temples 88 On the fcat. 011 Pimples 6. 37. ll:. 25. On Entry into th~f()rest 13.5 do of the Horse 96 do of the Elephant ~7 do of Man 99 On tbe Fi\'e Mallapnru sbas or Great men On Sexnnl union Ou Cols and Seats 0 .·!' currents 8. CR.. 3~. On Gm'dening 9 On:Tl'l..

has declared " Kshititanaya divasa varo nashubhakrit"* and man"Kuja dinamanishtam"* what is there to choose between the work of man and that of a Deva? 5. On it (floated) a gold colored egg. Glory be to the SUDwho is the author and the Soul of \ the Universe. There was darkness (obaos) in the begii. 1. I attempt to write a clear treatise neither too long nor too short. what is there to choose between.ast. Having examined the vast works than have proceeded from 'writers from Brahma downwards. CHAPTER. 6. What means the notion that the works of the Rishis are Bound and not so the works of men? In cases where the matter refers to no mantra. the (divine) seed consisting of the Earth and the Firmament from which there arose Brahms. Then came water (into existence).BRIHAT SAMHITA. Having correctly examined the substance of the volumi nous works of the ssg es of the ".ning. when the meaning is the same because the words are differentf 4. the ornament of the firmament and who is enveloped in a thousand rays of the color of molten gold. presseti in different word" • Both the phraaes mean that Tuesday ia an inauspicioUIIday though ex\ . If Brahms. I Introd1tctory. I 2. tho creative agent with the sun and moon for his eyes. Digitized by GooS Ie . I purpose to write a brief work embodying the substance of the same. The task is a pleasing one to me. 3.

The subject I have now to treat of is the AngaTinischaya. historical narrations. A few: these ara the Pauranikas.mhita. akaa. (Horoacopy). air.. also called Kanatha. [CR. . or natural a.t 7.sists of three sections. In the present treatise. and I purpose to speak clearly only of the vital truths of the several subjects treated of. Kala [time] dik [diractioD].ntra. I have treated of the heI iacal rising a. t ~ Kanatha. The sages call the whole by the general name of Sa. GOwn .2 BRIHAT S!)(RITA. In my work on Astronomy.in Svabahava (nature). In my work on Horoscopy I have fuUy treated of nativity. and some§ in Karma.. Shastra(Astrenomy). 10.stro1ogy). 9. which term literally means the atom giver • . Kanathat m drivyat and the like. •• The Sloka IS evidently qnoted from Varaha Mihil'llo'swork on Astronomy. Raja and Tama. The third section is known as the Angavinischya Shastra (Samhits. Another section is the Hora Shastra. Digitized by Goog Ie . Kapila* says that the Universe had its origin in pradhana. the founder of the atomio theory. S. Jotis Shastra treats of many different subjects and con . $ Some: these are the Meemamaakas. a few1jJ'in kala. uuimportant planetary phenomena and all that is useless. 11. This **section which trea. (time). If this question were discussed. other . I have'rejected questions and re-questions. Enough of this (subject of Cosmogony)$ on account of its vastness. atma [the soul]. § Othel'll: these ara the Lokayatikaa.marriage. water. of yatm and of . (Samhita) section of Jotis Sbastre.... Drvya: these ara nine: earth. . ..nd setting of the planets as well as their retrograde and re-retrograde motions and the like. Pradhana iaa dne propol-iion of the tbrse gnDaa Satwa. the Poncha Sidhantika which appeara to have been lost. . it would swell very much in length. and manaa (the mind).ts of the motions of the planets is called the Ta. firs. • Kapila was the author of the aankhya Philosophy.

chin. feet. who is versed in SaIIlhita. Ahoroihra (a aolae day). must possess a knowledge of place and time. eye-brows and head.750th of a second) and part'l of a Truti and other • On. Ayana (6 solar months). of proportional limbs . be meek and without nervousnes must be difficult of conquest by his fellow students. rinadi(one sixtieth of a Nadi or 24 seoo!l. he must have a correct. sonorous voice. We shall now proceed to give a brief description of (tee qualifications of) a. eyes.CH. noble-minded.20. have no physical defects. of fine physique and of high. of Hygeine. must be able and devoid of vices. THE JYOUTISHAKA *. 'Ruthu (2 solar months). Muhurtha (one-thirtieth of a solar day). MasCI (a solar month). of Occult Magic and of ablutions. ~urya and Pitamaha. 3- CHAPTER II. able. Digitized by Goog Ie . knowledge oia ·Yuga (43. eloquent and of originality and imagination. teeth. Varusha (a slJl&1' year). truthful and without jealousy . Jyoutishaka. he must be learned in astronomy. He must be of noble birth and of agreeable appearance. must be of remarkable genius and capable of solving Bny difficulties save in matters of direct divine interference. meek. natural astrology (Samhita) and horoscopy. and finally. be of fine hands.Prana (4 seconds) Pruti(33. Paksha (15 solar days). must be a worshipper of the Devas and an observer of fast and penance. Yama (one-eighth of a solar day). Nadl(one-sixtIeth of a solar day or 24 minutes}. must be learned in matters of expiatory ceremonies. Generally speaking do not virtues body? THE VIRTuEs:-He must be of cleanly habits. nails. of joints well built and of good growth.2] BRlHAT SAllHlTA.000 Solar years).ds}. Vasishta. forehead. and vices follow the IN ASTRONOMY:-He must have studied the works of Pulisa Romaka. ears. Astronomy and Rorosoopy.

Saoana. ]f the methods of calculation given in the five Astronomical works mentioned above should produce different results he· must be able to calculate correctly the places of the sun and planets by actual observation (by means of shadow and water level and with the help of Astronomical instruments) of the termination of their ayana (northward and southward course. he must be able to calculate the times of the commencement and end of the eclipses. of Jupiter.) of their being due east to the observer after rising and of their altitude at any time. Be mu st know the reason for the correction required for the conversion of the heliocentric into geocentrio longitude and vice versa. their similarity and dissimilarity and must be capable of propoundi ng the fitness or unfitness of each for particular purposes: these divisions d time are. of Star (Siderial) of the Sun (solar). of Devas. of Pithris. Masa (a month). SideriaZ and Lunar months as well as of intercalary lunations and intercalary d4YS. Vide s)okas 23 and 2. the places of first and last contact. and of Brahma.y) and hor« (an hour) an d of their lords. a YU9'" to years). ChaptAlr VIIL Digitized by Goog Ie . the causes of the ayana of the sun and planets and of their slow and rapid movements at different times. * He mnsb have a knowledge of tho beginning and end of Shashtyabda (a cycle of 60 years). of Man. Varsha (a year). He must know the solar and other divisions of time. the magnitude and duration of *' t 30times the interval from son rise to slInrise. divisions of time and also of divisions of space.4 BRIHAT SAMHITA. In solar and lunar eclipses. Th4na (a da. He must have a clear knowledge of the Causes of Solar. of the Earth (terrestrial). of the Moon (lunar.

He must know the length. to calculate before hand the times of the Moon's conjunction with the planets as well as of planetary conjunctions.r CU. the rhara dala kala [the difference between 6 hours and half a day]. he must be able to calculate the time between middle eclipse and the beginning or end of total phase.. How can one. in every case. size and the like. and generally the length. He must know the Earth's revolution round the sun and its rotation round its axis. who is incapable of entrapping others with a hard question or of answering any that is put to himself or of expl aining his views to his students. the latitude of a place and its complement. in total eclipses. in yojana (5 miles). the nature of the hour circle. He must be able. its shape.rda). He must also know the color of the eclipsed lunar disc. of the daily motion of each planet in its orbit and of the orbit itself.] BXIBAT SUIUITA. the times of the rising of the Zodiacal signs. in yojana. who knows astronomy well. He must be able to meet objections and questions in clear and distinct language and must be capable of explaining the science in its purity in just the same way as separating the pure gold [irom all dross] and making it capable of retaining its value when submitted to the touch stone. to the fire and to the hammer. 2. The predictions of one. (this period being technically known as Vima. He must also be able to calculate time from shadow and shadow from time lind to convert longitude into right ascension and right ascension into longitude. expect to become an astronomer? The fool whose exposition is at variance with the text and whose illustration is opposed to such exposition is not unlike one who addressing Brahms as Parvatti (Goddess) begins his prai!le by recounting the vices of a prostitute. who is able to calculate the exact Lagna with such helps as the ahaDigitized by Goog Ie . 5 the eclipse.

t Mercury and Jupiter have dik bala when situated in one of the there signs. technically known as the eastern signs. Satnrn has it in one of the three signs. K9nya [Virgo]. when in conjunction with the MOC::D. ern Signs. 0 ).la jn his year.the other planets during the day. Tula (Ii.. Digitized by . [CH. [Caneer] Vrischika [Scorpio] ant Meena (Pisces) known as the northren signa. ing to persons not conversant with the subject. the mineral division • Here follcw anumber of technical terms which might appear forbid. dvadasam~aka. (SO 20' or one ninth ofa sign). sa. Mesha CAries). Goog Ie . The Sun and Mars have it if in one of the three signs. the malefic planets in the waning moon and the benefic ones in the waring moon. conjunctions and the like]. Ch"shta~ [motions. in a friendly 'sign. (2 30' or one twelfth of a sign).ys((Hying with the speed of the wind. Mercury"has it at all timeR.in oneofthe three signs. /(ala. A planet has also Kalaba. Venna and the Moon have it if. In conjunctions the northera or planetl hue it. .6 BRIIU. . navam saka. trimsamsaka(lO or oue thirtieth of a sign).bra) K'Umbha (AquoIIri'U8) known as the western signs. seanat (place). and their strength or weakness considered horosoopically .~Tauru8]. Mithl£na [Gamini]. Vishnugupta. readh the opposite shore of the vast ocean of jotishsastra" And in horns copy the Jyoubisbeka must know such divisions of space as rasi (a sign of Zodiac or a space of 30 hora (15 or half a sign). Vrishabll.§ [time]. The sun and moon ha.'MHITA..e cheBhta baia when in one of the six signs frOD! Makara· the other planets baTe it when retrorrade.l. one might and it possible to crOS3to the ocean's opposite shore. even mentally.T SA. § The moon.. he must know the horoscopic strength of the planets with respect to their dikt (direction). ~-~. Katak<. * 0 0 0 He must know the temperament of the planets and the parts of the body lorded over by each. drekkana (10 or one third of a sign). in his ncha sign or in his own fl4l1amSa or drekkana. day and hour.Simha (Leo)and Dhanus (Sagittarius). water and astronomical instruments ad in horoscopy will never fail. Malmracapricornus known as the South.2 and who is well ver- dow. when in their greatest brillisncy. month. :I: A planet has Stana bala if he is in his own sign. but a nou-Rishi can never. . Mars and Saturn have Kalabala at night.

and to calculate the period of one's existence. aud Nabhatta yagas affect the fortunes of men.horses while mounting the same. the astro1orer &. He must be able to calculate the cause of one's death and discover his future life..2] BKIIAT SAlmITA. . Cx. Ohandra. He must be able to interpret natnral gestures and dreams. child will die in infancy. the priest to sleep in the Temple and then to interpret their c1reaa . KaTana. In yat1'a t he must know the fitness or unfitness of a t'itha' [lunar day]. He must also know how the fortunes of men are affected by the position and look of planets. § he must be able to state when a prince ought to start for battle to secure succees in war j he must be learned in rules relating to ablutions and sacred fire ceremonies in honor of the planets and offerings to evil spints.ts. vara [week day]. sex and a. the caste. he must be able to state. particulars connected with these occasions so as to insure belief. and l'Agna [a sign of zodiac] and yoga for particular purposes. Dvigraha. § To ascertain thll King'sfortunes in war. He must be able to interpret tbe lang~ge and gestures of • The objeot is todiscover from the poeiticna of the planets in one's nativety how the planets affeot one's fortnnes as they pass through the levera! zodiacal lip. Natchat'fa. Digitized by Goog Ie . Muhoorta.uthority of each and the like. 7 of each. He must be able to discover auspicious periods for marriages and the like. he must be able to interpret phenomena connected with such sacred fires and with elephants and . from the time of conception or birth of a person. the practice was to direct the minister.:. t These are particular positions of the plan. he must be able to say in what cases a. He mustknow bow t the severel Raja. he must be able to divide one's life into planetary divisions and subdivious j be must be able to use the aahtakavrtrgn* Tables to a given horoscope. royal marches and forms a t This literally means journey-evidently lection of hol'Ol!copy.

Sandhi or reoonoiliation with the enemy. of their conjunction with the stars and of their places among the stars and the like. works of learned men exist. A8T'!fa or submission. l The following is by no means an exhaustive list of the subjects treated of. he must have a knowledge of favourable halting places for the King's 1trmy. Allana or stopping in the oapital 5 Voallidham or of two enemies to join one with a.l rising of oanopus.ed the Science of Samhita. color. t These are four 1. 2. he must know when to employ the minister. of the forma tion and interpretation of various figures presented • Theile are .nce. [CR. I ~ Heliaoal rising of the Bear.men and the like.BRlHAT S. of the stellar divisions of every substance. he must be able to give directions touching the capture of the euemy's fortress. Batrla or reasoning with. Dana or gift. rays. written On his mind and planted in his breast will never fail.ttle or other strategio movement 4. and of their increase or decrease according to the motion of the planeta among the stars. he must be learned in the Shadguna* and upaya t policies. It treats of the effects of agastya chara§ and saptarishi chara ~ on particular parts of India.bout dissension among the enemies. It treats t of the motions of the sun and planets. animal and plant. brilliancy and shape and changes in the sam e of their disappearance and reappea. The predictions of one to whom the truths of the science appear as if spread before his eyes. he must be able to interpret the color of ceremonial fires. On all the above subjects. 3 Yana or proceeding to ba. corresponding to particular portions of the ecliptic. Bheda or bringing a.UmlTA. § Heliaoa. 2 Vigraha or open battle. spies. fighting. l'iew to defeat the other 6. of their size. he must be "ble to predict the success or failure of an undertaking. of their retrograde and re-retrograde motions.of their courses and deviations therefrom. • Digitized by Goog Ie . Denda or punishment.ra. 3. 2. messengers and forest men. A true Astrologer is also one who has thoroughly master.ix -I. he must be able to interpret omens. 4.

netary years. c. of the red sky immediately before sunrise and after sunset. of the rainbow and of architecture.ther. of the price of food grains. a8h". t of the features of a house • This refers to the erection of a fiag staff on occasions of certain an' ceremonies performed by princes. A SOld oruament for the forehead. of putts. of earthquakes. of tbe construction of temples. of certain . of false fires. of ghritc£ kambClla.CK.nnual ce remonies to be performed by prin. . of the casting of images and of founding the same. of thunderbolts. 9 by the plenets when meeting togethe-r.da and of predicting the mture of the coming weather and crops from the eame. of the grow th of plants and trees.ces for success in war. of the halos ronnd the sun and moon. and 21st constellations" on particular week days of the month of Asha. It treats of the prediction of immediate rain from sur:rounding phenomena. of the winds. of planetary conjunctions. of the formation of Zodiacal circles for purposes of horary astrology. ()f gardening. . B1vati (15th constellation) and the t. towers and palaces. It also treats of the prediction of events from the :flight of the ka'lljana{a small black bird-the gracular religiose) and from the * appearnce of various abnormal phenomena.w. of monso mish indications of the wea. of expiatory eesemonies. It treats of the prediction of future events from phenomena connected with the deer. A. the dog and the motions of the wind. It treats of indradhv(Jia. of pla.rtain ceremony of ablution on thA ocoasion of a IOvereign'a coronation ' :. of judging the natare of the future crops from the growth of plants and :flowers..dfts (20th. of dust storms. of miscellaneous phnetary phenomena.2] BRIHAT SUlHITA. of the moon's conjunction with Rohini (4th constellation). of the prediction o~ events from casual words and gestures and from the cawing of crows. of under currents. t.t or the royal sword. of lines of clouds crossing the solsr disc at rising and setting. of meteoric falls.ual Digitized by Goog Ie . of the fanciful shapes of clouds.

of hairy fans. Generally. the nakBhatras. 'SAHHITA. 9. SUD. of tooth brash and the like. For the fall of meteors and the like is Budden in its nature and the determination of one's fortunes depends • on the sbape.a third the westand north-west. As it i. BBIHAT. east.mily. single a. of lamplight. color. It also treats of the treatment of women.2 cow. If there were no Jyoutishakas. the tithees. man and a woman. and the fourth the north and north. an elephant.lamp and the sky without the so is a prince without a.ving conquered their passions and cut asunder all ties of fa. a horse. of moles in the body. the rl. the muhurtnB. 8.yS:- '1. size and 'he like of these falling bodies and upon how they approach or cross planets and stars. a prince who loves BDCCns.B impossible for a. gloss.aB wonld go wrong. a sheep. It therefore behon. the task must be assigned to {our competent and well paid astrologers.tkuB and the ayafl.Jyoutishaka and he gropes his way in the dark. And Bhagavan Garga Ba. another the south and southwel:lt. a. fame. one of them is to observe the east and eouth-east. ha. 11. of injuries to shots and clothes. ths determination of the fortunes of men and princes depends on matters enumerated above and changing every moment. desire to question a learned Jyoutishaka regarding their future. of beds and seats. As is the night without a. Digitized by Goog Ie .strologer to observe and determine all the phenomena occurring day and nig-ht.10 cock. live in woods. 10. of walking ilticks~. [CH. It therefore behoves a prince to employ 8S· trologers solely upon this work. That prince meete with ruin who does not support a Jyontisheka well versed in all the Divisions and Snbdivisions of Sambita and in Horoscopy and Astronomy. R. Even men who.

19. One that. 11 services or a wealth. as well 8S the person who sneers at the science itself. baTing only an imperfect knowledge of the subj\'Ct shall be rejected.. sins ~xist Bot.. To question an ignorant man is not unlike begging of a clod of earth at the gate of a city for a gift: whatever i. A learned Jyoutishaka not only escapes hell but (aiter death) goes to the Brshma loka and obtains salvation. That Brahmin J youtishaka who has mastered both the tex& and the purport of the entire science deserves to be res- pected and fed first on occasions of Sradha the party of diners. troth will finally triumph. after the occurrence of an event. 13. disgrace to Boci~ty. Even the Mlechas and the Y_vanas (Greeks) who have well studied the science are respected as Rishis. He who. BIUlIAT SURITA. if the. not having studied the science. happiness and renown to secure the learned Jyout.ishaka. who will deny him respect? 16. and he purifies 15. 18. He (the Jyoutishaka) forms as it were the eye of the land and where he dwells. 17. 21· He who well knows the hora. A pretentious Jyoutishaka whose knowledge of the science has been picked up from what has occasionally fallen on his ears ought not to be consulted. and one that wanders away from the subject as well as the person who is proud. Jyoutishak" should happen to be a Brahmin. will suffer miseries in the hell of dsrkneea. 2] . He who ridicules the words of a Jyoutishaka. passes for a Jyoutishaka is a sinner and a. pretends .thatJais prediction already meanli so mucb. 20. by a prince. . ] 4. Such being the case. 12.CR. the g&nita and tbr Digitized by Goog Ie . He who loves prosperity ought not to live in a country devoid of a Jyoutishaka.

of sad thoughts. service. Neither the father nor the mother nor the relations -aor friends of a prince will desire so much his well being and that of his subjects as a true Jyoutisabab. At one time. 'nat it is so. 2~.us. cannot he rendered to him by a thousand elephants or by four thou. and different from what it was at one time can easily be ascertained from actnal observat'on as follows: 3. Whereas at present the one course of the sun commen-ces at the beginning of Cancer. the Son's southward course commenced on his reaching the middle of Aslesha. [CR. the Delphin of i'lurope8D Asbonomers). which a single Jyoutisahaka. 'lhe evils of bad dreams. 2. (the ninth constellationj and its northward course on its reaching the beginning of Dhanisbta (the twenty-third constellation. 2 Samhita sbastras ought to be respected by the prince who loves victory and admitted into his court. ON THE SUN. sand horses. 24. Either from observing Bornedistant point in the horizon where the sun rises or sets or from observing the ingress -or the egress of the end of shadow of a perpendicular rod 'Placed at the centre of a big horizontal circle (ae change in the son's conrse can be detected. and the other at the beginning of Caprlcorr. I I I It the Sun should change his course before reaching Digitized by Goog Ie j I . 1.) 4. 2:1. CHAPTER III. That -. of ill (mens and of evil deeds and the like will vanish immediately r ne hear!' of the moon's motion among the stars. having a knowledge of place and time can render to a prince.12 BRIHAT SAMBlTA. This mnst have been the case as we find it 'so recorded in ancient books.

5. The trees will fail to yield in their appropriate seasons birds and animals will appear to be bnrning. 9. 11. a headless human body. term ia applied both te eomets and te IOlar . 10. If these spots shonld appear on the solar disc. mankind will snffer miseries: if on the lunar disc mankind will be happy. bat when he undergoes a chauge either in his usual course or in hi" usual appearance he causes fear to mankind. 13 Makara (Oapricornus) he will bring evil on the west and south: and if he should do so before reaching Kataka [Oancer]. the sky will be filled with dnst.nce of false fire all round. * TVa8hta eclipaes the solar disc. the scns of Rahu are Thama8a. 'Will carry pebbles and sand along their course. Thi.pots Digitized by Goog Ie . also known as Kethus. 8. The Sun when he changes his course from north to south and when in his ususl condition will bring on prosperity and increase of crops. ani 1ightning and earthquake will a81ict mankind. or spots pikeIike in shape the effects of these and of solar eclipses are the t e· The~llt phenomenon of the blue orgreen rayleslI ann i. by fire and by famine. Keelaka and the like. If there should appear on the solar disc Kethust other than the thirty-three already mentioned. 3] BaIllAT SAMRiU. bntif they take the shape of a crow. high winds capable of breaking down the tops of monntains and of trees. 6. position and shape. How they affect the earth depends upon their color. there will be an appeara. The dark spots. he will bring evil on the north and east.CR. I 7. inatanoe. and are 33 in number. or a ~eapont mankind-will suffer even though the spots should appear on the moon. When the spots appear on the solar disc the waters will get disturbed. a. Even on other than new-moon day" the Kethu named Then seven princes and their subjects will perish by the sword.

the clouds will yield little rain. Even Rishis. blems of royalty such as Ohatra [umbrella]. If the sol&r spots should be of the s. the rivers will fall and [food] crops will be found [ouly] here and ther~. and with their sight dimmed with tb. if two or more spots should appear. with long sighs. [011. Digitized by Goog Ie . 18. the reigning prince will be dethroned and a foreign prince will begin to reign. Soma will begin to speak disparagingly of the character and deeds of their own sovereign. 11. S same as those assigned to them in the Ohap~rs [V and XI] on Rahuchara and Kethuchara. if they should appear white. 17. 15. the Kshatrias. Dhvaja [flag staff] and Ohamara [hairy fan] and the like. giving up their pious course of life. emaciated bodies. 13. if of the shape of a crow they will suffer from robbers. and if of the shape of a pike. Deprived of their property by highway men. Meo. closed eyes. red. his snbjects will suffer. Even though there ahould be indications of good rain. 16. 19' A single spot will bring on famine.e tears of sorrow will proceed with difficulty to other lands.T SUKITA. If the spots should appear like sparks of fire. 12. reduced to mere bones and ashamed to beg will be harassed both by their own princes and by the princes of other lands. like the smoke and the like. yellow or black then the Brahmins.BBlHA. the Vaiaias or the Sudr •• will suffer respectivly. '] he princes of the countries in which the spots are visible will be aftlicted with miseries. with fleshless infants in ~~~~ ..ape of the em. If the spots should be of the shape of a rod the prince diesj if of the shape of a headless body mankind will suffer frsm disease. they will suffer from famine.. the reigning priaee will die. reduced to mere skeletons by starvation.

If in Sisira [Februrry. 23 24.he princes of the land will be at war with one another. if of blood color the K~ha. If. Digitized by Goog le . will be atBicted wit.sJf i yellow the Valsias.h various fears. if. If. in Sarat[October. mankind will be happy. mankind will be happy even though the sun should be of any of the colors mentioned above.~ri!l. July]. 3. ' Earth. in Yarska [August. If. If the sun be variegated in color or of the color of smoke there will be either immediate rain or mankind will BuBer from robbers and from weapons. if it be white the royal chaplain dies. if. the rays of the sun be 80ft. if. January]. 27. September]. slightly white and of gold color. the sun be white then the Brahmins. if. If in winter the disc be clear there will be immediate rain. in Varsha. May]. in Hemanto: [December. blue crimson.] BRtHAT S~HBITA. If. If. in Hemanta he be yellow there will be immediate fear from disease. in Yarsha [August. the rays be soft. in Greeshma. of the color of tbe centre of the lotus. in (}reeshma [June. of blood color. when the rays are sharp. September]. and if black the Sudra.CR.s will parish. the sun be of blood color mankind. If. 15 20. 25. If tbe solar disc should be crossed by the rainbow t.in-chief dies. white. in Varaha. 21. 22. as said above. when the rays are tnrned away from the earth the color of the sun be that of copper the commander. lfarchJ the sun be of copper color or red black. mankind will be happy. If. in fasanta [April. Only those parts of the earth will suffer in the corresponding parts of which on the solar disc the spots happen to appear. 26. if it be green or yellow the king's son dies. he be black there will be drought On the . If. November].

34. it he should appear like the moon. he brings on hun. if there should appear black lines on his disc the reigning prince will die by the hand of his own minister. then the sun be black there will be fear from worms and reptiles. t the sun should be crossed by the fall of an aerolite. t Or SittiDg. for several days. or quivering or of sharp rays be will bring on wars. 30. if like an umbrella then the country. if the eun should appear with a hole that prince will perish in the Btar*of whose nativty the sun then hap~ens to be. 28. an • The star of a person is that constellation in whlch th" moon ill at thet time of hls birth. will perish. Digitized by Goog Ie . 33. the reigning prince dies. if like a gate. a bird. at such periods. If the suu should appear like a flag staff. If at rising and setting the sun should be hid by clouds of the shape of implements of war. or thunderbolt. there should appear a halo round the sun both at rising and setting or if the sun should. throned and a. If. If at other times than rising or setting the sun be of the color of th8 blood of a bare there will be war in the land. foreign prince will succeed. ECHo 3. 31>. If the sun should appear like a pot.at rising. if without rays. if the color be that of the peacock's plume there will be no rain for 12 years to come. ger and death. the reigning prince will die and a foreign prince will succeed. then the capital city. if it be ashy pale there will be fear from foreign princes.16 BRIHAT SAMBITA. 32.. the reigning sovereign will be de. if he should appea. If in Var3ha the color of the sun be that of the flower Sirell3ha (Mimosa flexuosa) there will be immediate rain.r broken. or a bow. If. the reigning prince will be kiI1ed and a foreign prince will succeed immediately.be afflicted with fears.lo. mankind will . be of blood color. a buffa. if these clouds should appear like a deer. 31. If. or by Iigh tning. he will bring on strife. according to commentator. 29.

RITA.bonld be either black or a mixture of black and other colore and if birds and animals should fearfully howl iowards night.CR. mankind will perish. 37. The Dloon alter quitting the place (direction\ Digitized by of the Goog Ie . 89. CHAPTER IV. If the SUD .. just like a pot pleeed in the suu. 3] BBUUT S. One half of it is always illuminf'tl by the light of the sun. while the other half is dark . If the sun should be of blood color when in mid. wide and farbe Naching and if the dl8Cshouli be stainless mmki nd will enjoy prosperity."ing to its own shadow. 40. O.heaven. mankind will be aftlicted with fears. TID )(00 •• 1. subjects. if a. The ra. will perish. 36. if below it (towards the horizon). 2.bove the sun (towards the meridian) ihen the king. when subjected to the hot rays of the 8UD are freed from their impuritilfs just as gold is purified by the action of the fire.. The planets. a. if on both sides there will be fear from floods. of the sun falling on the watery moon remove the darknell8 of the night (on Earth) just in the same way as light reflected from a mirror (placed in the 8UU) removes the darbels (from) within a room. 11 the halo should be io the north of the sun there will be rainj if to tbe south there will be wind. S8.. If the 101ar disc should be of clear appearance and Dot irregul.. It is sphfrioal in shape.r in shape and if ita 1'&11 pure. then hi. dust storm the reigning prince will die. 17 aaa or a young camel. or if he should appear red by a.fall. The Moou is always below (nearer to the Earth "ban) 'he sun.

[Cn . .r fromfire. she should pass the middle of MaJha (the 10th oonssellstiou) 'Ot' of (the 16th eonstellesion} she will bring on. and there will also be ·fea. the commentator adds.'. just in the same way as the western half of a pot becomes gradually illumined by the sun in the after-uoon. she then sun becomes illumined by the sunIrom beloW' and also rises after the sun. \ 7.' lunar mansions is said to take place when the moon is in the middle of these mansions •. Visakha couatel. and inthe nine beginning iromjeshta (the 18th) they are in the west of the several mansions. SA)(Hl'TA. 5. she hrings troubleoa the sailors hut prosperity on mankind at large. prosperity. Digitized by GooS Ie . If. rrea. . Thus the lunar disc appears more and more illumined day by day by the BUU according to her change of place. . moon should appear but slightly raised andfarIrom each other 'preeentio'g"the appearance of. Mula (the 19th constellation) and the two Ashadas (20th and 21st constellations) she destroys 'Beeds. In the six lunar mansions' 'beginning from Revati (the 27th) the stars are towards the east.'.d1'a (the 6th) they are in the centre. and the . a boat.. If the notthernhorn of the moon sl¥>old be hie-her. mocn's-oonjunction with the several .tnres in water and forests. to state certa. If the moon' should pass to the south of Jeshta * (the 18th constellation}. 6.T}le Mooncan never pass.iu unullual "ppearanc:e' of the mOOD.18 BRIB&T. and in the twelve beginning from A. described in the text clash with astronomical· oalculatlona they" should be treated as abnormal." •. to "the south ·of the four stars mentioned ill the text ordinaf'ily and that wherenr the phenomea. " :) 8. 9. 4. If the moon should pass to the south of (the 16th constellation) and Anuratha (the 17th lation) she will bring on evil. through Vi8akha / -. Ift the two horns of the. t Tbll author now proceeds.

than the other by one-half. It Ia therefore the duty of almanao publishers to give beforehaud the phaaea of the moon for the iDfozmation of &he publio.ge in war. 10. 11. 1f the s~nthern horn should be higher than the other by one half. 14. and those will succeed whos~ places lie in the direction of t~~:~w-stripg'. the cattle willsuff'jr and the sovereign will rule with a severe rod.tate certain ordinary pheacmena..lHHITA. carriage pole.CII••. ] BBIH.ppearing like a plough.· -ohed from Notth to South presenting lille appearauoe of a carriage pole there ~ll be e!'rthq_uake t within ~lll. 16. If one of the aosns . 13. rod. 'I'hey and their prince will be friendly and there will be prospericy in the laud. 12.-· If the horns should together appear like a circle then the provincial rulers will have to quit their plaoes*.other and bent aside. ~rI~e ruler of Southern India will die and hia a. there will be war in the land. If the ~oon should appear like a. If. cows will suffer. the crops will flourish and therewill be good rain. If. Digitized by Goog Ie . when the northerD horn is a li~la higher ta'an t~ . bow. there will be the same prosperity and rain throughout the month as on such first lunar day. ern one otherwise thaD as stated already. The aathor now proceeds to . If the northern horn should bo higher than the south.e3D:d of equel height. the south.lT S. both horns should be &lik. the moon a.sheuld appea. than the 15. tile moon shouldeppear like a. pilgriUl parties will suff~ and there will be no rain. plough-men will then suffer.rmy will enga. If tbe moon should appeal' strat.ern horn is scraight like a. If.r higher other and bent GoWD a. th9 appearance of the moon is also said to be plough like but of evil consequences. an)he first lunar day after newmoon.l. 1£ the southern horn • In all the above caaes the observation is to be made on the first or seeond bUM day and theae unDlllal phenomena will ptodnoe evil only wheu they clash wi\h the oalOJilated phaael of the moon and not otherwise. 1.t mouth).t the end.

.ving thus described the shape of the moon we next proceed to describe her size (genera. OJ" if one of the horns should appear bent downwards or if ahe aprear like a fuU moon (when in reality such is not the ca.ted.at ten months BeeS a double sun and a double moon. the Yavanas. perity and plenty. Man should be eclipf. if she should appea. If.se) the person dies*. there will be abundance of that grain which men like most. If the middle should appear big she win Cause pros. Tulers will suft'er. 19.Uy): if the moon 'snould appear sma. [CB. If the middle of the moon should appear small. 1 know of an old gentleman who for the la. if t-laturn should be so eclipsed there will be fear from weapons end from hunger. men of • This evidently refers to Bome optical iIIosion conseqaent 00 the dil8&sea of the eye.. the Mlecbas. prosperity. least. in the land.and if big. 22. the minor princes will suffer.imilarly higher there will be famine and fear in the land17. 21. If Venus should be eclipsed by the lunar disc the people of Magada. she will iucrtaaSe the prosperity of the princes. the moon shonld appear of only one horn. 20. to any person who observes on the first lunar day after new.moon. As regards the waning moon the subject has been elsewhere ~rea. and if Venus. It follows from: this that SImI! a. • Digitized by Goog Ie . j .horn. if Mercury should be so' eclipsed there will be drought and famine in the land. If she should appear broad.llthere will be £a. there will be hunger in the land and princes will be afBioted with cares. of the abJlormal appearances of the III1nand moon may not inprobably be the result of optical illusions aftectiog mankind more or less.mine.. should be .€d by a.r big there will be happiness in the land. during the waxing mOOD. if Jupiter should be so eclipsed eminent princes will 8uffer. the border (Mlecha) princes as well as wicked .I. Ha. 18. and if amall.20 BBIBAT SAHmTA. If.

_---._ • _. 16.l 2. of war. Artisans will perish. of disease a. the Bhringees. of lIaUlsia and of Sakti will aufter for six months.nd will enjoy the happiness ()f Krithayuga. If while the moon is eclipsed. 21 Pulinda (a barbarous tribe). If Saturn should be eolipsed by the lunar disc. the Panch alas.months.CK.] BaIBU SAlIlI1T. to the lunar eclipse when the moon is in the deacendiDg node. the men of Cntch and of SDrat. the rnlers of Bibee. A country to the North Weat of Hindl18t&nProper. the Caunibala and the men of Usmara (Candahar) will auffer miseries for 7 months. and thieves will sufter greatly. the ministers of Youdhey. If the lunar disc be of ashy color. If Jupiter should be eclipsed by the lunar diso the men of Candahar. 25. or red black.A.. . If Mercury should be 80 eclipsed the men of Magada. 27.nd of robbers. of Mnttra and those on the banks of the river Veena will sufi'er miseries while the rest of the la.. she be crossed by the fall of a meteor. that prince will die in the star of whose nativity the moon then happens to be. the Kuluthakas. the chiefs of Knlinda. 29.. If Mars should be so eclipsed the rnlers of Trigartba (Labore) and of Malwa. of Kunda. the Kouravas. of Kuru (Delhi). or rayless. 28. of Souveeraka. 28. If the moon should be eclipsed by Kethut she will destroy prosperty. § of Kumuda II and of crysta..--Goog Ie . the Kekayas. -. the Arjunaa as well as the men of the eastern countries will sutler miseries for ten . of Ondh. the Mathras*. (Ca. t Probably the Buirs inha. health and plenty. l Tbis refer. If the lunar diso should appear white and of the color of the snow. and the Marwaree!l. 8lunere) the rum of the Drarida couutries and Brahmins al ·well as food grains and mountains will suffer for ten mouths. " .. the Nepaulees._. or appear broken there will be fear of hunger.biting the Oountry on the west of the Indus._-------. with their fighting men in their cars. 110 do Digitized by ----. SO. 4. t of Bindh and of Keera. § A Species of white Hower. of sharp raY3 or red.

ili Digitized by Goog Ie . 2.y that Baku. The increase of . on- as that the 3. i. 31-.e. though his head ". that he is mere darkness and that he is the son of Simhika. how comes it that he never eclipses by the part of his body between his head and tail. That he has a disc like the sun and moon and disc is black it is invisible when in the sky except occasion of eclipses in virtne of a boon from Brahma. 4. node.ng the waxing moon ths Brahmins. if ihe diso. and during the wa~ Ding moon they will suffer miseries. 3i.ullhu. how comes it that his exact place is ascertained. If his motion be not subject to fixed laws.the moo~tha. die.of . he brings prosperity on the' land. • The moon'. how comes it that he eclipses the sun and moon when they are 180 from him? 0 5.* Some Ia.es and wanes should appear white resembliag.'nBIHAT S. a few that he is bodiless. ON RARu. cuts the ecliptic.rly wax. the aBUTG.ving taated of ambrosia.dversity after the full moon.as Qut. the Ksba trias and mankind at 1ari9 will prosper. if he has a.t regula. body or be limply a head with a regular motion in. Now. prosperity will commence after the new-moon and of a. the ecliptic. CHAPTER V. the c~lor of the kunda flower or that of the stem of the lotus or if the moon's course or disc or rays should suffer )10 irregular change thar~ will be prosperity in the land. Others say that he resembles a serpent in shape with his head severed from his tail. not but lives in the shepe of a planet ha. one of the two points where the moon's or . Dnri.

in -wemi-Iunar and semi-solar eclipses the luminous horns . 7. Hence. 5. she enters the shadow of the earth.ted by learned astronomeri!. Digitized by Goog Ie . hides the. ~.~' differently. in different .t the eastern limb. Thus. and the solar eclipse vari~.shadow of the earth. what eelipsea the sun is smaller than the sun.Cf)ull-triesaccording .the other !tahu of equa. at the weste1'll limb nor the soll\r a.] \ BltllIAT ~A)(HITj.of a tree neither continnea in the same direction nor of the same length.are respectively -bluut-and sharp.l motion 7 8. 13.CD. as some say~ there be two Rabus" when the moon is eclipsed by one of them at rising or setting how comes it we see the sun in the opposite point nn eclipsed by .shadow.to the different degrees of visibil~ty of the eclipsed disc.. The moon. Jt. When the moon. 25 6. moving from. whose course is always from west to east. is due opposite to the sun swerving neither much toths north nor to the south. 1~. the causes of theeclipses have been ~ta. "May you be satisfied by the gifts and fire offering5 '(of men) on the o~cMionof the eclipses" is the boon bestowed on Hahn by the. and in that of the IU!l.cloud . the moon enters the shadow of the earth. night after night owing to the revolution of the sun' 10. the solar disc. so changes the . IZ. What eclipses the moon is 'biggl3r than the moon . solar disc from below just like a .s the . If being of the shape of a. If. The truth is that in her own eclipse. :11. that Rihu do~s not cause the eclips~1J is the truth of the shsstras. Hence the lunar eclipse noes not commence. the" WElSy.1st a. how comes it that he does not hide -one half of the beavena lying between his head and tail. serpent he eclipses with his head or with his tail. command of Bra1aama..

Digitized by 10. the points (on the .BRllUT S. If Brahm a should be lord as stated. 18. 19. drop of oil on the surface of water. Bahu's Goog Ie . 00 the occasion of the eclipses. and so on~e cycle being repea.ies can be ascertained by examining the a.enth six montha. the Moon is the lord over those of the second six months i lodra.ted over and over again.disc) ot the commencement and termination of the eclipse are determinecl by means of both paraUax and angles*..my (Eighth lunar) day the coming eolipse and its propert.. of creation.. Brahma is the lord over the new and full moon periods of the first six months. The details of the process of calculation are given by me in my work on Astronomy. over those of the third six months i Kubera onr those of the fourth six months. above. Commencing from the time. there will be health and happiness iQ.A. QOWIl U ~vaIuam ad .e).ppearance of a. the times of the commoncement a nd Germination of the eclipse by meanl of the time of ne tr moon.lIl. It is wrong to say th~t there can be no eclipse nnlesa five planets are in conjunction and it is equally wrong to suppose that on the previous Ashta.hmr. 20. oows 8J1d Brahmins will prosper. 5. even on other than new or full moon daysJ the luminaries may be eclipsed abnormally-by comets and the like. Agni over those of the sixth six months and Yama over those of the s. Toohuicall. It 1S impossible to determiue eclipses by other means than those described above.lanan. and the moon's ascendingnode is termed Bahu and her course (north or south) is ascertained astronomically with respect to such node. The magnitude of the solar eclipse is determinecl by means of the moon's parallax: (m latitud. [CR. . Varuna ovsr those of the ruth six months.. 17.UnUTA. 16. presence is recognized and he is worshipped.

as above. If the moon should be the lord. t This is taken to mean the thirteenth or interoalary JUI\M' month in the opinion of Vyasa who in hi. death and drought.] : BRl1U. 24. should be the lord. but the calculation of a.* 25. t princes will suffer both from dissensions among their own army and from wars. 25 the land. If Indra should be the lord. hunger.t war with each other. . If Kubera. and there will also be health. the rest wi1l be happy and crops will flourish. should be the lord. 21. also.S. really learned Astronomor will at no time fail. if they should occur after the calculated times. aud total blight of crops. If Yama. freedom from fear and abuudance of water.runa should be the lord.ding nryoda. If the eclipses should occur before the calculated times. the effects of the occurrence of eclipses either before or after the calculated times in accordance with the ancient shastras. will perish and there will be no prosperity in the land. Digitized by Goog Ie . -The commentator is of opinion that these irregular phenomena must be ulpotll (abnormal) in their nature. princes will suffer. there will be drought.Oli. rich men will Buffer ill their wealth but there will be prosperity in tho land. If Agni should be the lord. 22. and crops will thrive.nal OClO1ImIDC9 of noh eclipscs iJl an interoalary month when cJiBSna. the effects will be those desoribed above. I have described. famine. in the next parva mankind will be amicted with misery.f SAlfRITA. learned men will suffer and there will be dronght. there will be good crops. 23. 26. If Va. D 11& from enpging in warl and Garga ill also of the 8all1eopinion. Mahaharat (Bhishma Parva) refers to the aot. the crops of Sarat (October and November). there will be miscarriage of pregnancy and wars in the land. the princes will bea. flowers and fruibl will perish and there will be fear in the land and blight of crops. If there should be both lunar and solar eclipses in one month.

eJ. the Kshatriyas and commanders of the army will suffer. the Sudrss. the crops of Sal'at (October and :Nov<. deoeitful men will suffer as well as sacrificial rites. the Brahmins and the Kshtriyas will suffer.s!ie:'Il. * 29. merchants. those that Iive by fire and virtuous Brahmins will suffer as well as men belonging to one of the holy orders.hina ayanll (southward march) the Vysia~ and the Sudras will suffer. but there will be happiness over the land an 1 the price of food gra. ryots. artisans. 27 If the eclipse should occur at rising or setting. If when in the fifth section. Those will be happy in whose section the eclipse termmates. In total eclipses if the eclipsed sun or moon should be subjeot to malefic planetary influence there will be death and famine in the land. and.appino88 next. women and the Sudras will suffer. if when setting. first. tion of the firmament. If when in mid-heaven.ins will fall. ths Mlechas and ministers will suffer. If they should be eclipsed when in the second sec. If tbe sun and moon should bl3 eclipsed when in their uttara ayana (northward march). "terminate in one aud the same section there will be both adering b. • Out of the six aectioll8 of the visible hemispherical vault. 31. the central provinces will suffer. 80. robbers and -the border Mlecha. minis'ers and house h ild inm vtes will suffer as also the Vysias. Digitized by l' The commentator adds that if au eclipse sbould both oommeuoe and Goog Ie . herbivorous animals. If the sun and moon should begin to be eclipsed when only half risen. heretics.26 BBIRlT SAHRITA. 28. if when in their dak. If they should be eclipsed when ill the sixth section of the firmament.lmber) ill perish and princes will w suffer. If the eclipse should c:>mmance at th3 northern.s will perish. If when in the third section. 1£ they should be eclipsed when in the first section of the firmament. t 32.

N. E. or N. If they should be eclipsed when in the sign of Gemini (Mithnna). farmers and servants will suffer and seed grains will be destroyed.] BBI1IAT SAJIBITA. chaste women.. ** '. If the sun and moon should be eclipsed wheu in the sign of Aries (Mesha. : Cf the fixed Hindu Zodiac. a district on the Coromandal coast extending from below Cnttaclc to the vicinity of Madras. 34. learned men. the Vysias or the Sndras will suffer respectively· 33. if the western limb should be eclipsed. • • Sabalu: a wild mountain tribe. S. their owners and eminent men will suffer miseries. persons proceeding to battle and those who live by fire t will perish. the Kalingas. the nothern part of Orissa. people living on the banks of the Jumna and the rulers of Belhiks and Matsia with their subjects will sufier miseries. powerful petty chiefs. If the sun or moon should be eclipsed when in the lign of Taurus !V~ishabha)J shepherds. probably the Combodia of Cochin China. If the eastern limb should be eclipsed there will be abuudant rain. sonthern. § KalingB. . and if the northern limb should be eclipsed cows will suffer. if the southern limb should be eclipsed aquatic creatures as well as elephants will die . the Brahmins. Digitized by Goog Ie . potters and tb. E. Camboja . the Sabar8R. If they should be eclipsed when in the sign of Cancer (Kataka) the Abheeras.). 38. If the disc should be eclipsed at one of the corners. t the Panchalas. the people of Oombojs. the Kshatriyas. $ Kirata: a degraded monntain tribe. t e g. 35. \I Odhara. II of Kiratft' soldiers and persons who live by fire will be afHicted with miseries. cows. Smiths. W.e like. § the Suraseaas. W. 36. the Palhavas. of Odhra. S. 37. or western point of the disc.5. princes. the Mloohas.CB.

the sign of Pisces (Meens). the Mat. prince like people possessed of a single military force.5. the families of ministers. skilled magicians and physicians and old soldiers will perish. hill men. the Sa.-. or hfautry or the like.thePa. If they should be eclipsed when in the sign of Virgo (Kanya). robbers. the people of Udambara. W.industan. [CII. mininsters. llathra: a COllIItry WI the N.W.RITA.ias. v J 42. carriers. the Mullas. the people of the extreme border lands on the West. If they should be eclipsed when in the sign of Libra ~Tula). * I If 39. shepherds. the trading classes. fine horses. worthy men. chalas and the Vikalast will be aftliated with miseries and food grains will be destroyed. Digitized by Goog Ie . If they should be eclipsed when in the sign Aqulft'ius (Kumbha). princes and forest men will suffer miseries. and Tripura. men of western countries. vadad !Delia. and the people of Broach will be afflicted with miseries. t. . If when in the sign of Scorpio (Vrischika). If the sun and moon should be eclipsed when in the si!n of Leo (Simha) hill men. 41.u. writers and singers will suffer and the rice fields of Asmaka. the Panchalas. merchants and persons skilled in the use of destructive weapona will perish. the chandalss. the products of the sea b saoh t • Kurus: Sakaa: or people of the District of Delhi. Physicians. the Mallahs. If when in the sign of Oapricornus (Makara). . the people of Sind. the Videhas. crops. the Kurus. II Tripura: The modem Tippera.$ of Ohola and of Youdheya will all suffer miseries along with soldiers armed with poisoned weapons. II will be destroyed. serpents. . 'II" Bingle military force: CaTalry. citizens and the people of Barbare will perish. If when ia. fishes. of Mathra. 40.28 BRIHAT SA. probably the desceutianta of the Tartars and Scythian. liODS. If they should be eclipsed when in the sign of Sagittar us (Dhanus}. who in. of B. t Vikalas: a warrior tribe. poets.

commencing at the edge. 2 Apa8avya. * and of learning and Also those provinces wlll be affected. zodiacal aad other di'ision~. 48. 7 Aroha. the eclipse is technically known as Lehana. 4 Grasana. animate and inar. persons that live by water will suffer. some of t hem have 1:0 English eqllinlents. If a third. 8 Lehana. 29 and of the 8ea. 10 Tamontya. If the eclipse should. 5 Nirodha.·~BIB4T S4)(lIITA. Solar and Lunar eclipses are 01 ten kinds and they are technically known as I Sa"Ya. all creatures will be happy and the earth will be flooded with water. \ I Digitized by Goog Ie . it is teohnically known as Grasana (seizing with the mouth] grasar-partial eclipse: the wealth of pros perous princes will Bufferdiminution and prosperous countries will be ~fJlicted with calamities. 9 Madhyatam4. 8 Agrhata. 45. or one half of the diso should be eclipsed. t Thee term. men of respectability. If the eclipse should commence on the left side of the disc. . travel to perlOIIIIi~orant • Sueb a string of apparently incoherent ideas might appear inexplicable o· Altrology in which all objects.6 Avamardana. it is technioally known as SavyagrBsa: the earth will then be flooded with water and there will be joy and freedom from fear. it is technically known as Apasavyagrasa: mankind will suffer from their rulers and from robbers. (licking) Grasa . If it should commence on the right side of the disc. which correspond to particular hilDar mansions in whioh the eclipses happen to occur. If the solar or lunar disc should be just dimmed by darkness all round which disappears immediately. 46. are explained in the Illbaequent stanzu.imate are di. as will be explained in the Chapter (14) on Kurmaivibbaga.t 44. or a fourth. 47.ided into planetary. eteIIar.

54.urIDTA. in the laud and crops will suffer. fonip invasion. ~ The. it is known as Avamardana (tormenting) grasa: the then chief' provinces will suffer aad the then chief rulers will be afflicted with miseries. (smelling) grasa : there will be good rain in the land. to the north of the Vindya monntains and.should be dark while the disc continues bright all round. ]mown as .. If the disc should This. f'anipnt) to the west of Allahabad. inwards and remain there for a time of the shape of a dark ball. are six: exoesai. * 50. 1£ the eclipse should be a total oue and continue so for a tune. If the eclipsed disc should appear white.e raiD. but the Brahmins will suffer.all creatures will be happy. 53.5. it be slight. to the South of the Himalayas. nt. If the disc should appear yellow. 52. persons who live by fire will be afflicted with miseries. [CK. If all round the disc.si badha. According to Mano the country to the east of Vinasana: (the modern. moat be abnormal. . _hot breath. + • Digitized by Goog Ie . the darkness be thick. mankind will su:ffer from stomach pain and there will be fear in the land. the eclipse is known as Aghrata. the commentator add. bird. the eclipse is kuown as Madhyfttama (centrally dark) grasa-annular eclipse: the Central Provinces+ will be afflioted with miseries.. 48. it is technically known as Nirodha (blocking up) grasa. If a small portion of the disc should be so slightly ecli psed Ii S to resemble a mirror covered with the vapor of. there will be prosperity and plenty in the land. 49.ao BRIHAT S.. droulbt. S]..: . injuriea. If the middle ot the eclipsed disc . the eclipse is technically known as ADtyatama (terminally dark) grasa: the crops will be injuredt and mankind will suffer from robbers.the disc should be re-eclipsed (by comets and the like). RJUI hoppel'll. If immediately after the termination of the eclipse. there will be increase of di@eas. it is tE'cbnically known aa Arohana (climbing) graas : the princes will be at war and there will be fear in the land. and in th~ middle.

81 appear of gold 00101'. there will be fear from fire. there will be suffering from weapons. 57. crops will be injnred and mankind will be variously a1Bicted.l. If the diso should appear black resembling the color of the stem of durva grass (agrostis lioearis) or yellow. If Venus should see the eclipsed disc. 58. of the rainbow.OK. 5] BJtlHA'l SAJmIT. If the disc should appear to be burning. If of the colorof the rising sun. 55. If of the color of the flower patali (Bignonia Suaveolenis) -tru 'll pet fl rwer -there will be fear from lightning. of the color of the pigeon. If the disc be of the color of the pigeon or of blood color or of the color of gold or yellow-black. 61. If Meroury should see the eclipsed disc. If again the disc be black or as said above. If the eclipsed disc should appear yellow resembling the topaz in color. mankind will suffer from starvation. If the eclipsed disc be of the color of red dust. if it should resemble gold ore. 56. there will be wars in tbe land. 60. there will be prosperity and plenty in the land but slight rain. of lotus. These evil effects. the Xshtriyas will sllffE'rand there will be no rain. I f Mars should see the eclipsed disc there will be war in the land and fear hom fire and robbers. honey and oil will become scerce j princes will suffer. 59. resulting from planetlU'Ylook at Digitized by Goog Ie . If Saturn should see it. If the disc should be of the color of the sky Rt dawn of Jay. there will be much death in the land. swift footed animals and the Mleohaa will suffer and there will be famine in the land. 62. there will be famine and drought and birds will soffer. the Vysias will perish and there will be prosperity in the land. the Sudras will suffer from disease. If red-black. there will be drought and famine in the land and fear from robbers.

eighteen. the people of Mar~ war. should also see the eclipsed disc. soldier boye and men of letters will perish. probably au imaginary geographioolline.r Pushkara e II. there should occur tempests. or thirty-six months respectively. If Jupiter. the evils described will vanish in just the same way as the flame of fire dies out 'when water is poured over it. those living on the banks of the eavery and the Nerbada and haughty princes will be afHicted with miseries. men living between the Ganges and the Jumna. of I'usbkara . learned men. 64. 67. If Mercury should be so eclipsed. the minerals. from the city of Ajmere. 5. the low The eclipsed or solipaing lunar or solar disc &II the case may be. is stated to run from tbe N. to the 8.[Cu. princes. of Kekaya. women and ministers will be afHicted with miseries. universal darkness. raka. of Y odheya and of Aryavarta ana the Sibees will suffer. on the banks of the Sara. E. -. the eclipsed disc. 68. W. twenty-four. If Venus should be so eclipsed. the people of Dase. of India. meteoric falls. twelve. If J upiter should be so eclipsed. a beneficent planet. celebrated place of pilgrimage now called Poknr 5 mile. the people of Avanti. If Saturn should be so eclipsed. the eclipse will re-occur after six. and of Sourashtara. ministers. • * t Digitized by Goog Ie . as the Eastern and the Southern countries. 63. 65.and We~t uJ this line are known al the Northern and the Western countries and those 1" the East and Bouth of it. Nort hern countries: a river. kings. those liying about the east sea and on the banks of the Sonne will suffer and women. and countries to the North . dust storms.yu and in the country of Nepaul. thirty. 'or thunder bolt. earth quakes. apply as well to the time of termination of the eclipse 8S to its commencement. elephants and horses will perish and persons living on the banks of the Indus and in the northern countries t will suffer calamities. 66. 1£ during the eclipse. If Mars should be eclipsed by Rahu.

.. ------ ol. ~tern princes.PQ~c: the modern IleDpi aDd Be. t ~a '.l_utl and horses.will suffer distress.gha: .. quadrllj)eda will periah.rtika: Octobel'. .CR. when the full mooll it in the . ~. 72. branch of the Yada... will suffer oa1a~ltie9i ~h~~ be good rain and prosperity and pleqty thron~~ut tl¥ ~~d. the people the Kukurasll and the VidEUmswill periah.~iallL of Jlripleenlla.. the 8Q~1 Ind the people of Benares will suffer miseries j ther$r' of Xalinga with his ministers and servants and the Kshatriyas will perish but there will be pr08perity and plenty in the land. sha.oma plant iD the -mflcial rite known. . Margasirat. § .. when the full mOOllit in the OOIlItellatiOll of llakha. men acting up t. .] BZIBAT SAJOIlTA... II .month or PouBrahmins and the Ksbatriyas will s~er.. the Kalmashas.January. of the l'1ota.r J!JcWh of the people of Cashmere. / Digitized by Goog Ie . the Vewe principles. u SoID8l!'P.. when the full mOOIl it ill the lulW' manllio1L ltUIU'U: .February. 69. be slight If the eclipses should fall in the luna.P{lI.'t ~: the Xodem 0-04h.embei'~lJeoember. If the solar or lunar eclipse should fall in the 11!lQar month of Kartika._ If the eclipses should fall wthin the lunar month of Kagha.' the of Sindb. 70. 11' Ania: BenpJ Propel' Illfol' Bhaplp1U'. of ..No. the Kosalas. t\\. •• :Ma. $ Pouaha: DeoeDi. with miseriesj and there will be rain IUited to the want. • Xa. . there will rain and fear of famin •..Oq~ ~cl of P:Q114. 83 daISes inhabiting the Arbuda hills. . th. t.. 5. If the eclipses ahonld fall ill the luna. . in. * persons who live by fire. ta and Pariatra will perish immediately. "ill 71. persona noted for filial duty.restern ~ountries and Somayajees.. whell the full IIlOOJl il ill the MWriIm of Kritib.**.' N'o. loudthe hillmen of Goman. the people ot Vanga tt. tt VaDga:Eu* BeDgal.. 'II' SomayajeeB: thoae who have tasted of the jmoe of the .l'at will Buffer miseriel.b'er~lanury. thct ~d.ember. men of the . of AngaJ" ani of Benares will be aftlioted. the deaoendauta of VasiaAta.

of Avantika and disease. bow-makers.. wet fields and rivers will become dry . crops. the Mekalas will be a. the Salpas and the Nishadas will "uffer. * the people of Vangs. gingelly and beans will be injured j the Ikshwakus. of Odra. singers. -but there will be prosperity over the land. II Jyellbta: May.t painters. 73.ahadha: June-July. Digitized by Goog Ie . walls. of Pa _ linda and of China will perish. and there will be abnndance of rain.. t Chaitra: March.. § Vaisakha: April. food crops. 78. If the eclipses should fall in the lunar month of JyeBh~aJIIthe Brahmins. llmhwakas: a warrior tribe. 77.Constellation of Chi~ is n. faU in the lunar month ot of Asmaka. writers. when the full moon is in the aaterilDl of J1eBhta • . when the full moon is in the oonstellation of Alhadha.1Hict8d with chaste women. of Cashmere. the people of Gandhara. adds the Commentator. men learned in the Vedas and dea.June. •• A. beautiful persons. when the full moon is in the lunar mansion of VaiBakba. : Immediately after the eolipse. If the eclipses should faU in the lunar month of Bra.. the Commentator adds. [OH. the Queens of the reigning sovereign. dancers.the people of Poundra. Kshatriyas and ascetics will 74. rain. of Kekaya and of Asmaka will suffer distress and there will be good rain throughout the land.April when the full mOOD in the .lers in gold.t 75. dealers in roots and fruits. the also suffer.May. If the eelipses should Phalguna. If the eclipses should fall in the lunar month of Vai_ sakha§ cotton.' the Youdheyes. large gatherings of men. when the full moon is in the asterism of l'balguni. . If the eclipses should faU in the lunar month ofAshadha**.BJUHAT SUHITA. prostitntes. . • Phalguna : February·March. the Sakas and the Kalingas will suffer. S To the end of the year.$ 76.5. If the eclipses should fall in the lunarmontb of Chaitru.

~a. $ Theae terms are ezplained in the aubl8quent atuzaa.Ootober. together with the physicians of Anarta and of Poandra and the . 83. of Pnlinda and of China. vama han'll" 8. pregnant women will miscarry' but there will be prosperity over the land. will perish. the horses of Camboja and the crops of Sarat will perish. 7~. dana. cl. Lunar and solar eclipses terminate in ten ways technl. (right jaw) : crops will perish. 6. cally known as 1.uwayuk. wayuja§ the people of Oamboje..nas. vama payu. If the eclipses should fall in the lunar month of Bha. princes will suffer. but there will be prosperity in the land. of Vanga. Digitized by Goog Ie . the rest of mankind will enjoy prosperity and will be happy. Kiratas. . the Daradaa t and the Sakas will perish. the Balhikas and the people living on the banks of the Indus. sanchar. dakshina han'll" 2. If the lunar eclipse should terminate at the south eastern point of the disc.da and of 8nrat. drapada. jarana. the termination is known as va. of Maga. 81. and t here will be good min. of China.August when the full moon ill in the conatellation of Sra- August.* the people of Cashmere.ana. 4ntavidarana.. 'the Yavanas. the Mlechas. Xiratas: a barbarous mountain tribe. dakskina kukski. maclhyavidarana. facial disease will afllict mankind. 5. daksknia payu. t t he people of Kali nga. 85 nna.ma -. 4~ tlama kukshi. If the lunar eclipse should terminate at the North eastern point of the disc. when the full moon is in the conatellatioD. 7. 80. § AlWayuja: September. 10.] BBIlUT SAJmIT~. surgeons. September. l Darada: a oountry bordering on Calhmere. If the eclipses should fall in the lunar month of As. t Bhadrapada: • SraTana: July.$ 82. 5. desa (Central Provinces). the Yav8. the Kurus. . 9. 8. the Suveeras. the Gandharas and the people of Madhya. the termination is technically known 8S da"shina han'll. when the full moon is in the lilnar manBion 01 Bhadarapada.

9O~ If th~'edge should'first begin to clear all round. the termiuation is known as Dakshina Knkshi (right abdotnen): the king's son wi1lsuffer and the enemies in the 800. there will be facial disease and wars. 87.) : pregnaut women will miscarry and crop. hanu (left j&w)~ the king'1 Ion will be a81icted with fears. If itahould commence at the ealtern point and terminate at the wes~ern point of the diso.wm Ider to' someuteiit. If the lar eclipse should commence and terminate at the eaatern point of the diso. If the lunar eclipse shoilld terminate at the South Westflrnand'NoMh Western points of the diso. If the lunar eclipse should terminate at the southern point of the disc. the Commentator adds. Dilllt be 85. but prosperity over the whole 84.~gms will' I1lft'er in the 'cue' of the latter. BIUJUT S~lImTA. U.e termination is known as Madhya Vidarana (central o~g): Were1rill'bfioger at heat't and prosperity over the land but Dot much rain. th& termination is known as • Thil. 88. the terminationlJ Are known as Dakshina' Payu (right anus) and Vama Payu [left&Il11I] reSpeotively: there will be diseases of the genital organs in' the 'ca. the termination is techincally known as VamaKubbl (left abdomen. and the Qaeeos of reigning . utpata ( abuormal ) ill its charlMltor- Digitized by GooS Ie . If the lunar eclipse should terminate at the northern point of the disc.aG land.th may then be defeated in wars.5.* the termination is known aa SaJ10hardana (vomitting): there will be prosperity and joy in t. [OH. where then will they go for protection? 89~ Itthe middle of the eclipsed disc should first begin to clear. whila there iI darhesa in the centre. the termination is known u Jaraila (decaying): manJdnd will be aftlicted with hunger and with wars.se of'both tenhinations. 86.be land ftd food crops will flourish.

people. jf lightning should appear. the only difference being that where the East baa been referred to in the former. there shonld sppeare halo round the Sun' or Moon. 95. mankind will suffer from various fears. that moh directioDI" B.. if there should occur an earthquake. atBicted wit1l hunger. If. N. begin to roar. lfthere should appear either a rainbow.* 92. E•• aDd S. if clouds of various hues should appear. Digitized by Goog Ie l .. 93.• B.. 91. in the oaaeof the Lunar eolipae Ihould be iabIl to menN . will suffer from foreign yoke. there ranee false 94~ If~ within seven days from the termination of an eclipse. in the c:aaeof the IOlareoltpee. it must be taken to mean the West in the latter. if 'there should be aetorm. N. or a come' club. the chief rulers will die.5. S.here will be miscar riage of pregDalley. 17 Anta Vidarana (terminal opening): Madhyadesa or Central Prorinces.] BBIRAT SA. • The coDlDlatator add. If. if there should be either planeta\·y conjunotions or cometary appearances princee will be at war with one another.RITA. if there should be an appeaof 6re abou~ the horizon mimkind will suffer from rulers and from fire. ae a corollary from the above. mankind will Buffer from starvation j if there should ooonr a faU of anow there will be fear from disease... there should occur any meteoric fall. willenffer. W.•and N.. It there should' ocour a faU of good rain within the laid period. t. W. will be disease in the land. 96. the ministers will die.ClI. if olouds should. These termiaations of the lunar eclipse apply to those of the solar eclipse. rulers and tusked animals will anffer. there will be fear'from robbers. within the said period.like in shape. find the crops of Sarat will be injured.. within seven days from the termi!1ation of an eclipse there should ooour a dust storm. there will be prosperity in the land and the evils d8llcI"ibed above will disappear. E..

He shall then recite the mrittyunjaya and other well known mantras. 91 If on the new. He R hould get a serpent made of gold or flour and present it to Brahmins on the day of the eclipse.1:. there should occur a lunar eclipse on the full moon day immediately succeeding a solar eclipse. 5. whose Lagna* or from that in which the moon was in one's nativity the person will be affiicted wit~ miseries. 98. the Brahmins will perform various sacrificial rites snd mankind will be happy. Again. by the 'llVorshipof the Devas. If. by japa and by (eclipse) ceremonial ablutions. there will he dissensions amocg men and discord between husbands and wives. the moon happens to be eclipsed. on the contrary. [Cu.88 BBImT SAKBIU. man• Lagna: that particular sign of the zodiac which is cut by the eastel'D. birlli. borieOJ1 at the time of ODe'. :-It may be some relief to the monotony of what has preceded to append here a description of certain ceremonies for the expiation of the evil eftects of the eclipses. by fire ceremonies. NOTE In lunar eclipses those persons will sufter in the sign of whose nativity in which the Sun was.e oon was in one's naM tivity then the persons on his mother's side will sufter. A!J all the devas are present on the occasion of an eclipse. If the eclipse should occur in the 19th constellation Digitized by Goog Ie L . Again that person will also suffet'in Nakshatra the Bunor moon iii eclipsed. if he should fail to perform the req uisite expiatory rites : it therefore behoves a person to avert the evil eftp. then the persona on his father's side win sufter . if in the sign in which 1.moon day immediately succeeding' So lunar eclipse.tivity. there should ocour So solar eclipse.cts of an eclipse by gifts. if an eclipse should occur in the sign in which the Sun was in one's na.

"May aU the seas. They shall also invoke into the pots the deities presiding over all creatures and tbinglil. ought to bathe in the water purified by mantras and by drugs as prescribed below. during the former period new mantras may be learnt. in the three worlds as well as Beahma. The Brahmins shall then invoke. a piece of crystal. the fragrant root of the plant Andropogon Muricatus and the resin bilelium (exudation of the Amyris Agallowchum}j he shall then invoke the devas into the pots. though. They shall also chant verses from the Rik. the dews presiding over the eight points of the compass. Yajus and Sawa Vew. yellow pigment. he shall also put into the water panchanga"'Yo. On the occasion of the eclipse he shall adorn four Brahmins with garlands of white flowers and with white sandal paste j he shall.*. The Brahmins shall then say aloud. of whose nativity an eclipse occurs. Digitized by Goog Ie .] BBmAT SA)[HITA. by their respectiTe mantras. w~ quote from Matsyapurana: That person. and throw the earth into tht! water pots. white sandal paste. arieonute. by horses. uriJ:e and duug. with or without motion. mustard seed.5.s ought not to be recited or performed while the eclipse progresses but only when the eclipse begins to decline and terminate. The master shall then be bathed with the charmed waters • Panchagavya . butter. pearls. The pots also shall have thread s tied round their necks and adorned with white flowers and white pasta. As regards the a blutions above referred to. 89 tras or japa. rivers. lotus.CH. the conch shell. and other waters come into these pots for the purification of our Master" . Vishnu and the Sun.fix four pots in four places near each other and he shall bring earth from places frequented by elephants. by chariots and by cows and from ant-hills and from before the entrance to the palaces of kings as wen as from deep wa. curd. in tbe lagna.ters. a mixture of the cow's millr.

[uiee will be injured and there will be disease and drought..n eclipse but will gain the high. If Mars shonld begin to retrograde from the 7th.1111 r . 8. to appeu·wla8D H10Dd it.r wodds. 4. such retrograde motion is techni. nutri""a musaZG. aTe ezplain. gold plate shall then be presented to the Brahmins. cally known as ushna: when Mars should reappear after his oeD conjunction with the Sun.appeal'lloBC8. CJ.40 BBIBAT SAKBITA. If Mars should begin to retrogr.thing the master aha1l present cloths and OctWS to :Brahmins and worship his favourite gods. The retrograde motion of· Mara is of fiye kinds knoWD technically as 1. t liars is said to disappear • Digitized by Goog Ie .e the commencement of the eclipse the Brahmins shall tie. lohilan4M and 5. ON~.i. OHAPTER VI. 2. "1Iala."umukha: when Mara shonld re-appear after his next conjllootioo with the SUD.8 master's head. Th. [0. lIuch retrograde motion is known as a. a. 1. IC he ahould begin to retrograde from the 13th or 14th constellation from that of his reappeara.. ·Utb. 8th or 9th constellation from ~ha. alrumukha.nce. over. cloth containing bIts of the fiTe preciolls gems and a gold plate with mantras inscribed in it. p81'1!1ona live by fire will be who alllicted with diseaee.t in which he reappears t after his conjunction with the Bun. He who bathes as prescribed above will not only be purified from the evil effeots of a. . 4.d in the Bublequent ttauzaL when within 17 degrees from the SUIl ..ade from the 10th. such retroThtlll term. after ba. * 3.. 2. or 12th constellation from that of his re. uSMa.

he will afflict the three worlds with miseries.Cha. on K:oorllla. bands of robbers will be afflictedwith distress and there will be drought and wars in the land. 5. 6. anointed monarchs will be afflicted with miseries. 7. tellatiou of Mald~a and retrograde back through the same.Vibba.there will be • For the N'akshtro.Cll.kha. at the time of finch reappearance mankind will be afflicted with disease in the face and with various fears.and disappear in the constellation of Rohini [sacred to Brahma]. wild boars and fierce animals will be afflicted with distress. If Mars should re-appear in the constellation of Poorvapbalguni [sacred to Bhaga] or in that of Uttaraphalguni [sacred to Aryuma]. those eountries and those persons will suffer in whose Nakshatra. such retrograde motion is known as rudhiranana.p. from that of his reappearance such retrograde motion is known as Asimusala.] BRIllJ.. retrograde in the constellation of Uttarashadha [sacred to Visvedeva]. If Mars should begin to retrograde from the ]5th or the 16th constellation from that of his reappearance. If "Mars. approach thQmi:ldle of Visa.after his re-appearance in the constellation of Sravana. after cutting through the constellation of 11akha. country v~. should retrograde in that of Poshya.T S.6.le. but there will be prosperity in the land. of a.Ir&. Digitized by Goog Ie . Mars shonld begin to reapvear. If he should begin to retrograde from the 17th or the 18th constellatioi. when Mars is in his re-retrograde motion. 8. If Mnrs should.urHlTA. ] O. grade motion is known as vyala: when he should disappear before his next conjnnction with the Sun. If Mars should pass through the middle of the cons.* 9. the ruler of tho Pandia country will perish and mankind will suffer from wars and drought.

* 12.svini. rulers will Bufter.ppear with a large and clear disc or red like the flower of Kimauka (Butea Frondosa) or of Asoka (Jonesia Asoka Roxb) or of clear and fine rays or like molten gold or if he should pass through the northern path. the pl'Onnoe of Kalwa. Moola. If Mars should pass to the louth of the cODitellatioll of Rohini. diltaDoe. ~ l[eronr.0.rful deaths in the land. Ule·limlt ill 0111. Utta.nd . the nine froUl Poor1'aphalguni to Koola oonecitute the middle pa'h and the nine from Poorvashadha to Anini conetitnte the Sonthern path.S fear from flood. If Ma. bu' when retrograde.re will be prosperity ill the land. • Pariyatrr.he price of food grains. Sravana. Hasta. 14.4. 1. 11... never reappears t after his conjunction with the sun without upsetting the existing order of things : he caU8. ON MncuBY.mine in the la..rabhadrapada and J yeshta. Makha.iu which akin.ra Phalguni. prices will rise and there will be little rl:lin. dfaappeara when within 1~ degrees from the Bun and re.114 Digitized by Goog Ie . if Marl should appear enveloped in smoke or with a pointed flame. CHAPTER VII.rs should pass through the constellations of Rohini. : the oeDVal or the weltem portion of the Viudhaya ohr. Moola.ri. IS. t Northern path I according to Girg. from fire and from storms and para_ Iiaes trade by abnormally enhancing or lowering .[CHi G.a. Mercur.. Punaeraeu..tra will perish. he will destroy clouds charged with rain. the people of Pa. t rulers will be happy and th. Poorvabhadrapada . if he should cut through the cODstellation of Bohini. If Mars should a.. U desn& -. Uttarashadha. Visakha and Rohini there will be prosperity in the land.appean 5lIat. there will be fea. the nine coJ1ltellatiODll from Bharaui to Kakha conltitute the Northern path. If Mars should pass through the constellations of Sranna. Utta. fr.

the price of liquid eubst&. if Meroury should pus through the constellations of Bharanj. to Pitamaha. Sumkshipta 4.. crea. but th. mankind will luffer from W&l'8. S. 8. Rohini. <ihma. 2.he five constella.y are teohnically known as 1'..l001& and Revati. Robini. of }..desmen.l to Tama. th.leaha..er. his disc appeeriag to rub against thOle of the stars. tra.. physician. his course is tecbnicaBy known as Prakrita.. Snti.ni{sacred to Yama). and '1. Y oganta 6. Prakrita. Mrigas. cows will Buffer. in bon •• and the like. If he should cut through the six constellations from Basta. If he should cut through one of the constellatious of Purvaphalguni and Purvashadha andPurvabhadra mankind will suffer from hunger.). the Sun). If he sheuld pass through tbe cons tel· lations of Mrigueersh3. Goog Ie . . the Moon and Visvedea. Digitized by 9.s from Ardra to Makha. boat.] 2. tures of water loud horses will suffer. theme). Teekkshna 5. he oaUlel drought and disease in the land. sacred reapectinly to Vayu. '1.ucis and of juice will rise.tions of Aswini (sacred to the Aswini Devas) . Huha.h&. from.. of Kritika (saored to Agni. hunger. Ashtavasu. in fieah. Brahama. In Parasara'a work on Astronomy. Vimisra. If he should cut through the constella.tions of Uttarapbalaguni (sacred to Ariyama.OB. and Krittika. from dileal' and from drought. If Mercury should cut through t. alllivmg creatures will be amicted with disease in blood. from wars and thieves and from disease. his disc appearing to rub against those of the star. Papakhya..Ja (Sacred to Varuna. If Mercury should cut through the oonstellations of Sravana. Meroury has soven courses assigned to him. 7. S. If he should cut through the constella. and UttaraBhadhr. ofUttarabhadraandof Bha. of Sata.. aacred. relpeotively to Vishnu. _ 5. Dhanilhala.i. sacred. •. and to Agni.re will be abundance of food grains in the land. 6.ra.tiop. Ardra.eD.

Dhanishta and Satabhishak. When Mercury is in his f'uju course. 1£ Mercury should pass through the constellations of :Moola and the two Ashadhas. his course is known as Misragati. sacred respectively to the Sun. of Visakha. When Mercury is in his Prakrita course. when in his at. 1] . to Mittra and to Indra his course is known as Papa.st respectively for 30.his course is known as Yogantika. 16. 30. 9. or Misra course mankind will be partly happy and partly miserable.4titJakra (over retrogradej. in days. Amiradha.vakra COursehe will destroy wealth. to the Pritris and to the serpent. to Siva. of Aswini and of Hevati. Punarvasu and the two Phalgunis. his course is known as Sankshipta -. Chittra. respectively. 14. If he should be either. 24. will Iaat respectively for 40.7 •. If such course should lie through the constellations of Sravsna. in his Samkshipts. 22. [OH. 10.. We now proceed to state the periods. to the Moon. his course is known as Teekshna. When in his remaining four courses. 15.BRIlIAT SAHHITA. If Mercury should pass through the constellations of Pnshya. 12. of rain and of crops. According to Devalsya.. Mercury brings on adversity. and there will be prosperity in the land. it is known as Ghors. there will be increase of health. particular lunar mansions.kala (ofirregular rate). U and 6 days. motions of Mercury willla. 15 and 11 days. 13. H he should pass through the oonstellatioDs of the two Bhadrapadas. mankind will be happy. 18. when he is in his va}ra course there will be wars in the land. Digitized by Goog Ie . The effects I)f the Prakrita. the efficts of the ruju(direct) the . Jyeshta. of the effects or Mercury's reappearanoe in. and course through. and other coarses of Mercury described above. If Mercury should pass through the constellations of Hasta. the valera (retrograde) and the v.

mankind will be happy. after h·is conjunction with the reappear in the month of Aehadha 01' Sravana or Vysakha. from disease.7. from fire. t Jupiter disappears when within 11 degrees from the Sun and reappeal'l iIe. they will be afB.mes from the I8veral Na. ON JUPITER. there will be wars in the land. but when he reappears the siege will be raised. If Mercury should. If Mercury should be of the color of gold or of a parrot or if i~ should resem ble the hue of the Easyaka* gem. 19. but if he should b~ in his COtlT86 in those months there will be happiness in the land.ner fruit of a c0coa· nut I perhaps an opal. 17. or Aswa.1'8o£ Jupiter take their na.kshatras in wbich he reappearst after his conjunction with the Sun. or if his disc should appear glossy or big in size. and learned writers also Baytha. there will be fear in the land. • B&ey&ka: a species of preeious stone colored like the h. 20. When Mercury should disappear. CHAPTE R VIII. will be atllicted with fear and disease.yuja. from flood and from hunger. The yea.icted with miseries. According to some writers.CK. and these names are identical with the names of ths Iunar months.t the chief rulers will also get an accession of territories.] BBIHAT SlitHITA. 01' Magha. SUD. and when he is in his vi kala course mankind. Digitized by GooS Ie . the latter occurs only when Mercury reappears as an evening star. 18. the chief towns in the land will be besieged by enemies. If Mercury should so reappear in the month of Kartika.ond that limit. and mankind will suffer from robbers. but if otherwise. - 1.

* * * Phalg1l1la * Karitika.kshatras. the eleventh and the twelfth years follow. all creatures will be happy. Prothtapad.. and mankind will be more friendly than ever. 5. by grass hoppers lind by birds j there will be disease in the land and rulers will be lit strife even with their friends. rain.rtika follow. In Batabilhak or UttaraproshtApada . and cows will be a1Bicted with miaeries j there will be disease and wars in the land j flowers ol blood and of y. In the Pousha year of Jupiter mankind will be happy. S. Karma. and crops will be injured by animals. prince . 'WhenJupiter rer.. In the Chaitra year of Jupiter there will be slight &8 " t Tho. by rats. t of respect to fathers. persons that live by fire. In. * 6.ppe&n. In llriguinhaor Ardra IS In PoorYnphalg1lni or Uttaraphalguni * 11.BBIJUT SA][][IU.. will cease their enmity to one another j the price of food crops will become cheap doubly or tribly and there will be an increase of ceremonies to secure special benefits. In Kritbika or Rohini his 'fear it mOWD J. two stars beginning from Krittika.. 11. women will suffer miseries j thieTes will become powerful and ml. These years beginning from Ka. and crops.. In the Phalguna year of Jupiter there will be prospel·ily .. the oor-relative .. three N a.. 8. t S. each. whoae cor-relative again il Nitla Karma i. [Ca. 7. In the Margasir. In Renti or Alwati or Bharani Ana11lj. here and there. health and rain will j revail over the land j the price of food grains will faH. * * * * or Poorvaproshtapada * or liar. 4. Karguira I Digitized by GooS Ie. but the fifth.e. year of Jupiter. oart drivers. 2. In the Karttika. j . year of Jnpiter there will be drought.llow color will thrive. ceremonies.he Magha year of Jupiter there will be an increase. • Sncb ceremonies are known as Poalbtika. 1. tbe daill obllenance of which ia eDjoiDN b7 the 8hutru. wbich aims at the remoyaJ of ezisting evils-the two together go by tbename of Naimittika (pnrposi'f9) Karma.n tyrannic. each.f thia being Santika Karma.

several ftl'ietiell which are cultivated and form articl . of Digitized by Goog Ie . in one yea. and happy. and happiness.T S£.)(HITJ. and rulers will be aftlicted with. 12. • The . raiD.nd. lage as well as princes and learned men will suffer miseries.. Panioum ltalioum. In the ASW8ynja. In the Bhadrapada year of Jupiter the produce of creepers will thrive as well as the first crop.. men will engage in sacrificial rites and there will also be growth of crops. a. * 16. * 11. cares.na year of Jupiter mankind will be happy and crops will thrive and ripen well. good food. mankind will be happy and prosperoas. and grains exoep~ing Kangll and PJd grains will suffsr.. When Jupiter passea through the northern path there will be health and happiness in the la. fearlea.0•• 8. 13. In the Vysakha month of Jupiter prin eel with their subjects will be virtuous. In the J yeshta year of Jupiter the chief men of . there will be prosperit1 in the land j • Kangu: a kind of Panic seed. . If. wicked men and impostors will so~er with their followers..very caste. when he passes throngh the southern path the reTerse of these will be the case. 1. rulers will become mild..year of Jupiter the rainfall will be incessant. In the Srav. of food for the poor. mankind will Dot be very happy. Jupiter should paIS through a space of two stellar divisiona.ll living cr. of every family. 10.. but the second crops will fan and there will be prosperity in some places and fear here and there.] BRIJU. 15. leguminous grains will increase and fair men will Buffer miseries.tures will grow strong and food lIupply will be abuudanti. In the Ashadba year of Jupiter there will be crops here and tbere and drought in other places. and when he passes throngh the middle path there will be neither much of the former nor much of the latter. of every opulent class and of eTery vil. 9.r. pathl bal" already beeD e%plaiDtd.

Digitized by GooS Ie . the heart-bladder. there will 08 suffering from fire and winds.* the two Ashadhas form his nRvel. 20. if they should pass through the heart. Ayalya forms tho heart and Makha. Rohini and Krittika.48 if he there pass will BRIHAT SUIHITA. if yellow. 8.rs from the time of the Saka prnice. if they should pass through the nwel. if malefic planets should pass through the body. when benefic planets pass throngh these. Purnsha : the 12 year& cycle of Jupiter peraouifielf. the remainder represents the number of years by which Jupiter has advanced in his cycie of 60 years j (call it J. crops will perish. suffering from thieves. there will be happiness in the land. and divide the sum by 60. 18. roots and fruits will suffer. and divide the sum by 3750. there will be wars. and if at any time. 21. I 19.bladder. The Naksbatras. if green. and take 4 times the product. divide this remainder by 5. If the disc of Jupiter should appear of the color of fire. Add the quotient to the said number of solar yea. there will be suffering from starvation. blue. 17. mankind will be happy. If the disc of Jupiter should appear of the color of smoke there will be drought. if dark. form the body of the Vatsara Purusha.). there will be disease in the land. if it should be visible during day rnlers will perish and if it should appear large and oleae at night. there will be fear from fire. should pass through two and a 1:aU of sucb divisions will not be much of it. snd if they should pass through the heart. Multiply by 11 the number of past solar years from the time of the Sak a prince (Salivahana). and if of blood color. suffering from weapons. the quotient wm give the number of yuga! preceding the currents yuga of Jupitel' calculated from Vishnu • VathlllrB. [('H. he should through over tW) and a half of these divisions crops be injured. to it add 8589.

(Jupiter's years) by 12 and multiply the remainder by 9 and divide the product by 4 j the quotient will represent the number of Nl$kshatras. years of Jupiter require+.32.hatra.750 solar years we get 3. oommenced in the year Digitized by GooS Ie .dadvanced in the Kaliyug at the commencement of ~he Saka era. So that for every 3. according to Ariy .000.Oil. tions of Jupiter is 36'224000.tur Yugas. We will now find (jut the number of years by which Jupiter ha. the number of Jupiter's years in the same period is 4 37.rs 0 f Jupiterfrom the commencement of the KaHyug to the commen. calculated from Dhani. and the remainder will Kive the years by which Jupiter has advanced in his current Yuga. 3750: 3794:: 3. x3179 37aO = 8C)16ull~ ~ aniV' t e num er h b 0 f yea. Divide J . but as each revolution contains 12 years.hta.750+ 44 years of J upieer .OOO:t3. 49 (the name of the first of Jupiter's 12 Yugas. in other ward!'.0. of Jupiter's}::43.umITA. NOTK:-We will now explain the principles involved in the calculations contained in the three preceding stanza.70688 years ye.20. to suit ourselves to the figures in the text.] B1UUAT S.000. and llhe mmber of sidsrial revolu. in a Chatur yuga. it being known that the number of solar years during the said period is 3179.. 8..bhatta the number of aiderial revolutions or years of the Sun is '. : A kalpa contains 1000. No.00.'1"8 :: 1875: 1897 or :: 3750 : 3794. of SOiar}: No.179: z. Ohn. We haTe the followmg proportion. 22.:emem of t1&e Saka era. z = 3794.0688.y Mean Jupiter and the remaiuder the number of Navamslls passed over by him in the next Nalc- . passed over }. in a kalp«. each consisting of 5 years). therefore a aoler ye8r= 1+rtio years of Jupiter. Now it is knOWD tha~ KaUyug-.

era. No. ] :1 aHo : : No. of past} 44 X No. in a cycle of 60 years of Jupiter). No.ims at discovering the particular lunar mansion or Nakshatra m which Jupiter might hsppen to be at any given time: Time Digitized by Goog Ie . (the 27th year from Prabhava. 2 t • Stanza. 22 a. call this remainder J. . [OH. of past Solar years Solar years a750' + Adding to this the 2!m 01' 00 years which elapsed from the beginning of Prabhava to the time of the commencement of the Saka era we get. being divided by 5. This brings us to the eni of Stanza. we have. of past} .'. being divided will give the particular year of Jupiter (in bis cycle of 60 years) from Prabhava at the time of the commencement of the S lkllo era and this remainder is 2tti-& which is the :3rd year or the year Suk la of the cycle. the quotient will give the number of yugas that have elapsed from the first yuga. the remainder which is the irst 3216lli! + 26 or 324200. of past Jupiter's years .8 year Vijaya. of Vishnu and the remainder the number of years by which Jupiter has advanced in the current yuga. of past Solar years: 00. ~ = No. Therefore by 60.Solar years + + 44 X 1\0. (For the names of these yugas 'Viole stanza 23). as alreatiy stated. of past Solar years 8760 8750 + b6~6 3750 44 x No. of past } ~olar years _ No. of past Solar years + 8626 when this is divided by 60 the remainder will give the year of Jupiter in his cycle of 60 years commencing from Prabhava . Now as thera are 12 yugas (each of 5 years) in a cycle of 60 years J. Now 2HlS = 00. Coming down to the period subsequent to the commencement of the !::iaka.50 BRIHAT SAHHITA.

1n 1~ Inch yeflrs Mea.ing between Dhanishte and the particular lunar mansion in which Jupiter might happen to be at the given time. As stated above. 8. which represents the number of years. 6. 3. Indra.hta.bove that the figure given in at anza 20 is 8589 and not 8626.c is called a year of Jnpiter.. we find the number of siderial revolutions of Jupiter. But what we want is Varaha Mlhira's figure . ThiB is probably the correct figure. the remainder will show the number of years taken by Mean Jupiter to go over the number of lunar mansions l. 7.ugas of Jupiter's cycle are known as belongiDg to the Devas 1. 2. Now as each sign contains 21 lunar mansions the number of lunar mansions required (from Dhauishta] = 21 x H. Ta8 twelve . kalps. Thereiore a nnmber of such years will represent the num ber of signs gone over by Mean Jupiter during the time.As his Astronomical work. Vishnu. . is now lost we cannot give it exactly. according to Variiha Mihira to be 364 1gO 000. It will be observed from the a. R. 7va. Panchasindhautika. and Mean Jupiter takes 12 years from Dhauishta to it again. This brings us to the end of ~tanza 22. Jupitw. sign of Zodia. but calculating backwards from the figure 85b9 appearing in the text. Now the year Prabhava commences when Jupiter enters (or reappears according to commentator) in the constellation of Dhanishta in the month of Magha.49ni lfire). Vaau- Digitized by GooS Ie .n Jupiter makes a circuit of the heavens. 5. 226 455 against 364 224000 of Aryabhatta. also represents the number of Zodiacal signs.8. 51 ta~E'n by Mean Jupiter to go over a. If therefore J were divided by 12. For instance: Baskaracharriar gives it as 364. 4· _. The fact is that in our process we adopted Aryabhatta's figure. there being a. =t R. The Pitris. difference of opinion among Hindu Astronomers regar ling the number of the siderial revolutions of Jupiter in a.] BRlHAT SAHBITA.r ) CB.4hirbudhnya. Call this remainder R. . 23.

there will be good rain in the first year and at the beginning t of the second year. moderate rain at the end (of the rainy season) of the fourth yea. of Buga. 10. The five yea. 2. In the same year there will be drought in certain places a.rley and othtr crops • In the four months from Anaust to NOl'llmbel' acoording to th. and slight rain the in the fifth year.ladies will affiict mankind. 27. 29. mentatol'. comme'D'''tol'. to the OOD1.ABvinideva. the first year of t. 5. 2.r .52 Baulu S. These are sacred respectively to 1. Prajapa.. Generally in every yuga. and the fifth as Prajapati: in each of these years mankind will be happier than in the next preceding year. In the first four yugas there will be prosperity in the land. 11. the fourth as Pramoda.AnuvatBara. 8.he moon). 4. aaoordin.ti (the Creator). t Of the rainy l18a8OJl-Angust and Sep~mbel'. Rudra (the Destroyer).nd suiIering from storm and fire j the crops will be injured. 5. SamvatS/lf"a. In it all creature" will be happy. Ohandra (the :\foon). phlegmatic ma. of rice Digitized by Goog Ie . Agni (fire). 12.8. 24.he -cyole of 60 veara of Jupiter known as Prabhava commences. Indragni. [CB. 3.r cane. SO. be much of it . Porioaieara. 4. in the next or middle four there will not. 28. Idvatsara. . of ba. The next year is known as Vibhava the third as Su'kla. IdavatBara. When Jupiter reappears at the beginning of the constellation of Dhanishta in the momth of Magha. excessive rain in the third year. In the same foar years there will be good growth of the 8ali t crop. Som" (t. 25. 9.. and in the last four mankind will suffer miseries. neva. . :l Bali:" specie. Bhoga. * 26.rs of each yaga are known as 1. Arka (the Hun).UIBITA. nevertheless mankind will be happy.

during the first three years mankind will enjoy happiness a. msnkind will be happy and they will be afBicted with fears in the other yeara. Srimultha 3.krama and Vrisha . The next is known as Parthivaj in it crops with thrive well and mankind will be happy. are 1. In it mankind will be neither happy nor mise. The first year of the fo~th yuga is known as Ohi. Ntlnd. 31.71XI. 2. The second is known. 3. V. In the first three of the a. V ik. The next year is known as 81. Vri8ha.] BBIllAT SUIlITA. 36. Bhuua. in happiness and without the vices of the Kaliyoga. as Subhanu. The five years of the next yuga. 4.IUJ Digitized by GooS Ie . there will however be disease in ~the hnd but no aeaths in consequence. S8. are known as 1 • . they will again be happy. Bahudhanya. 32.7wama and b. Of theae. YUtJa and 5. 'rhe next year is known as Tarana. 33. In the year !'ramadhi they will feel miserable but in the ysara V.bove five year~ there will be abundance of rain and mankind will be freed from fears and anxietiesj in the la~t two years the rainfall will be moderate but disease and wars "ill affiict mankind. . in it there will be abundance of rain. The five years of the third yuga s&Cr'edto Indra are kuown as 1 &Swara.j in it mankind will be happy. cZh4riThe nextthree years are Virolhi. rable. 37. trabhan. The fifth year is knnwn as V yayai in it amoroua sensations will prevail over the land.elL 8.nd doring the laet two they will not enjoy much of it.. Pramadhi 4.The first year of the nexh yuga sacred to T1Da8ta is known as Sarvajit.. 2.he first two years mankind will enjoy the happiness of Kritayug.ittt ~and Khara: in tae second of these.n and they will live at peace.tt. The five years of the second yuga. 35.Angira. 53 in the land j mankind will be freed from all fea. In t. Dhatri.

Tbe first year of the next yuga sacred to Visvedeva is Sobhakrit. in the second year crops will not grow in abundance and the rainfall will not be mach. but in the year Parabhava there will be fear from fire and suffering from weapons and from diseasej the Brahmins and cows will also suffer. in the fifth year there will be' a. in the fourth year there will be famine. Sadharana there will be slight rain and oropll will suffer. during the third they will feel exceedingly miserable and during the last two years they will be neither happy nor miserable. 2. 2. the fifth year. in Plava. in the third year mankind will be alllicted with fears and there will be much rain. Sar"ari and 5. Jaya 4. 4. Vilambi. during the years Keelaka and Soumya mankind will be happy.( 54 BRIHAT SUIBITA. The yeard of the seventh yuga. Plaua. 40. the next year is known as Subhakr. Vikari. the next year is known as Ke8laka. in. there will be prosperity in. Durmukha: doring the first three years there will be happiness in the land i in Manmatha mankind wiu feel neither happy. variety of rainfall and crops will thrive. 39. Digitized by I 1 I GooS Ie J . and the remaining years are known as Visvavasu and Porobhaua. Hemalamba. During the first two years mrnkind will be happy.8. 41. 42. 44. Vijaya.t. nor miserable and in the year Durmukha they will feel miserable. 43. of these. are 1. 3. 3. the third ia Krodhl. the third is known M Soumya and the last two years are known as Sadharana and Rodhakrit. Manmatha 5. The first year of the ninth yuga is Plavanga. [CH. In the year Plavanga mankind will suffer mach. In the first of these years crop~ will generally be injured and there will be storm and rain. the land and also much rain.

r Prama(U m mkind will be disposed to be inactive. in it there will be a. 47. 48.nkind will suffeJ' from disease. Rak8hasa and Anala.8. than one. Digitized by Goog Ie . Roudra. In tbe year Kalayukta mankind "will suffer from varions evils.nkind will be happy.ni dnl6l'l there will be deaths and decay in the land.] BBIBAT SAKEITA. and ma. 5. The foul'th year is known as K'1'odha. 55 45.j in it there fe!l. da. there wi1lbe slight rain and feat' from fire. vi1lagers will ba at strife. In the next year ma. The next yea. 46. will be st. The first year of the next yuga sac!ed to lndragfli is known as Paridhavi. yaga are 1. red flowers and red seed will be destroyed. The five years of the eleventh 2. but in Sidharta they will be happy in more way. In the year Paridhavi the Madhyadeaa will suffer the ruling princes will perish. firat year there will be much rain and mankind will suffer from consumption like utbmatic complaints.r is known as Udgarij in it the ruling sovereigns will perish and there will not be good rain. 50. The third year is known as Rak8hasa.rfrom the attack of tusked animals. in the yea. Pingala. the first year is known as Dundubhij the crops will thrive well. in Rakshasa again the summer crops will thrive and in Anala there will be fear from fire and much suffering in the land. In the fear from thieves and of the lungs and the 49. In the twelvetb yuga sacred to god Bhaga. the remaining years are P'1'amadi" Anan. Kalayukta. 4.nger in the land and countries will be ruined in consequence of internal strife. In Durmati there will be moderate rain. In the year Roudra mankind will suffer much and there will be loss and ruin in the land. Sidharta. Durmati. In the years Rakshasa a.CE. 3.

other planets and when he is in his good course mankind will be happy. Dahana (fire). Gaja (elephant) J S. 6.apada. The ecliptic is divided into nine divisions known as Ve6dhis (paths). 2..thers the Nags. Go ( cow). Aja (ram). According to some each division consists of three constellations beginning (rom Aswini: these divisions are technically known as 1. Naga (serpent). Digitized by Goog Ie . If the disc of Jupiter be full of pure rays and large and appear of the color of white jasmine or white water lily or orystal and if be does not soffer by occultation by or conjunction with. 5.4. the Yrisllabh'lo Veedhl of the three from Magha. 52.PTER IX. 9. 3. there wi!\ then be much rain in the land. / 1. tbe Brahmins will be atUicted with fear and farmers will prosper. the Mriga Veedbi of the three from Anuradha. R8'tJat. and rhitra j and the Dahana Veedbi consists of the two oonstellations PoorvaIhadha and Uttarashadh'l. lJaral1i and Krit ik a j the Gaja Veedhi of the three constellations from Eokini. V. Visakha. 53. Iravala (the divine elephant 01' sel·pent). the Aja Veedhi of Hasia. Veedbi consists of the constellations of Swati. The Vysyas and Sudras will be happy as also persons that deprive others of their property. from Sra'Vana. the Go Veedbi of A8t1ati. the Iravata Veedhi of she three from Punarua8u . Pooroo» bhadrapada and Uttarabhad. The lasE year of the last yuga is Kshaya. According to o. The Jaradgava Veedhi coesists of the three constellalioni. 9.BRIHAT SUHlTA. CHA. 2.i8habha (bnll). ON VENUS. Jaradgava (old ox" 7. [011. Thus have been described briefly the e:ffeots of the sixty years of Jupiter's cycle. 8. Mrio ga (deer).

According to others the nine constellations from \ Bharani form the northern Veedhi or path. the nine from POO1"lJaphalguni form the central path and the Dine from Poorvashadha form the Southern pa. / 5. good. // 7. 10. fair. 2. If writers on Jotishasastra should disagree it is not for me to determine the correct view j I have only to state the views here of several authors. The four constellations from Bharani are known as the first mandala (circle or division).] '9RIlIA1 S U1HlTA. 8. the people of • Venul disappears whiln within 10 degree. 6. poor. so that if the star should be on the north of the ecliptic. 8. 7. and if in a southern Veedhi mankind will be affiicted with miseries. tolerable. beJODd that limit. If Venus should either disappear or reappear in So northern Veedhi there will be prosperity and happiness in the land. If Venus should re· appear in it there will be prosperity in the land . If Venua should disappear or reappear in the several Veedhis beginning from the northernmost one the condition of the world will respectively be 1. Of the nine Veedhis the first three are known as the northern Veedhis. 9. miserable. 4.ClI. very poor. it is known as the central one and if on the south of the ecliptic. Again in tho case of each three the first is known as the northern Vecdhi. P. Digitized by * Goog Ie . very excellent. /' 6. excellent. if on the ecliptic. the second 88 the central Veedhi and the last as the Southern Veedhi. it is known as the sonthern one. S. 57 4. the Veedhi is known as the northern one. if in a central Veedhi there will not be much of either. According to some the position of a Veedhi follows \ that of the Yoga Tara (chief star) of the particular constellation.th. moderate. 5. the next three as the central Veedhis and the last three as the southern Veedhis. from the 811uloud reappear. 9.

the Sudras. who so reappears in the said mandala. hunters. ~ Digitized by Goog Ie . especially those who are wicked. If VenuB. If Venns. the Pundras. 17. the Sudras and the people of Videha will become wick· ed and lawleslI. form the second . the Sulikas. 9 'Vanga and of . Ka. the rainfall will be moderate and the growth of foo~ crops will also be moderate.Mandala or circle j if Venus should reappeal' in it.Ang(J. The three constellations from Swati £orlll the fourth mandala. . persons that live by dogs. the hill men of Gomanta and Gonarde. foresbmen. the 'Brahmins will suffer. should be crossed by a planet.kas and ot the Y oudheyas and of Kotivarsha t will perish. < 12 The four constellations from c4rdrrr. the border Mlechas. of the Surasena.IIlAT S. should r--------------------------------------• Kotivaraha: the city of Devikote in the Coromandel Coast. the Mahishas.58 B._. who so reappears in the Ilid circle. the Mle. [Cu. the Dravidas and persons who live close to the sea will be affiicted with miseries. crops will suffer. of the AswaB.lingas will be affiicted wit h fears. if Venus should reappear in it. Chandalas will prosper and there will be an intermingling of castes. there will also be suff~ring from hunger and robbers. 13. mankind will be free from fear. The five constellations from Mllgha form the third mandala: if Venus should reappear in it.:Jhas. shepherds. ]4.ltBlTA. and the 11 If Venus. 15.A. the rulers of the Bbadras. the Balhikas. 16. the Chan. should be crossed by a planet. If Venus who so reappears in the said circle. should be crossed by a plarit. who so reappears in the said mandala. Iorestmeu. the Brahmins and Kshatryas will prosper and friends wilt turn into enemies. dales.

beginning from Magha. a planet. the people of Candahar and of Avanti will be afRicted with miseries.nd of Polinda and the SUr\S3tla~ will aho perish. the people of Avanti a. the Ambastas.T SU[mTA.i and from Jyeshta or in the eastern portion of the mandala. the Abhiras. 22. crossed by a planet. the Ikshwakus. v v 21. 'I'he servants of the border Mlechas and of the Yavanas will prosper. the people of Sindh and of Souviraka and the ruler of Benarea will perish. the chiefs of the hunters will perish. the Sourashtras. 59 b. from thiel'es and from diseasl>. if l'ilJible throughout the day. 18. The Videhas will perish. there will be happiness in the land. the Sulikes. if visible at midday in conjunction with the mOOD.0 •. those li\'ing on the banks of the Charudevi and in the couutry of Avanti will suffer from hunger. mankind will Buffer from hnnger and from disease. who so reappaarsia the said mandala.. the people of Cashmere. 1£ Venus should be visible before' sunset thre will be fear in the Iand. 9. 19. the Deavidas. in all the other mandalas the effects will be the same as those already described whereever Vemus might happen to reappear or be then creased. The five constellations from Jyeshta form the fifth mandala. 20.the king's army and capital city will loffer. The six constellationsfrom Dhenishba form the sixth mandala.] BBI1U. If Venus. if Vellul should reappear in it. the border Mlechss. should be crossed by " planet. the Trigartas. the AsmakM. the Matsyas. If Venus who so reappears in the said mandala should be crossed b. 23. If Venus should reappear or be crossed by a planet in the western portion of the mandalas beginning from Swat. if Venus should reappear in it there will be wealth and prosperity in the land and cows will thrive and crops will be abundant but fear in certain places. Digitized by Goog Ie .

If Venus should pass through the constellation of Rohini. If Venus should enter the constellation of Ml'igasirsha. 9. there will be good rain. merchants and boatmen will become wicked 8J:d lawless. elephant keepers Or ministers will suffer and there will be abundance of rain.. 26. J. the Earth will be so much enundated with water as to make its surface even. vasu. if Venus should pass through the constellation o£ Magha. there will be good rain. well-diggers aad birds will suffer./ I 25. the Kouraves. and there will also be rain. and painters will sutler. 29. the people of Kosala and of Kalinga will suffer aud there will be abundance of rain.a. if she should enter the constellation of Ardra. j J 24. 31. If Venus should enter the constellatiou ot Pushys. If Venus should pass through the constellation of Krittika. 27. Earth will assume the same appearance of death and devastation as if she was going through the ceremony of K!\pslika for the expiation of the sin of murder. the people of Ashmaka and of Vidarbha will become lawless. servants. If Va-nus should pass through the constellation·of Poorvaphalguni.. If she should enter the Digitized by Goog Ie .. there wiH be no rain. singing ana dancing parties will suffer. If Venus should enter the constellation of As19sha. [ClI. If she shonld enter the constellation of Chittra. 30.60 BRIHA'I SU(HI'l'A. 1£ Venus should enter the constellation of Punar. of Jangala and of Panchale wlll perish. If she should enter the cOllBtellation of Sw. the people of Kuru. hill men and the people of Pulinda will perish and there will be abundance of rain. juice and crops will sulier. If she should pass through the constellation of Hasta. if she should pl\SS through the constellation of Uttaraphalguni. 28.ti. there will be much suffering from serpents. there will be milch rain.

if she should enter the constellation of Uttarashadha. If she should enter the constellation of A. if she should enter the constellation of Jyesta. travellers will sufier.nnsha. If she should enter the constellation of Dhanishta. and there will be rain in the land. ]f Jupiter and Venus should be opposite to. fruits and roots will be injured. 33. 61 constellation of Visakha.CH.] BBIHAT SAM:HITA. the chief rulers will sufier. diseases of the ear will am ict mankind. 34. heretics will suffer. 32. that is. if she should enter Aswini.\. hillmen and the Ya. If Venus should either reappear or disappear in the 8th. 36.hishak. the Earth will be flooded with water. drunkards or dealers in liquor will suffer. If she should enter the constelJation of Sravana. if she should enter the constellation of Poorvabhadra. the creatures of water will sufier. If Venus should enter the constellation of Poorvashadha. physicians that deal in medicinal plants will suft'er.vanas will suffer. and there will be no rain. Digitized by Goog Ie . If Venus should enter the constellation of Uttarebbadra. diseeses will increase. if she should enter the coustellation of Moola. there will be good rain and tradesmen wi1lsufier. In each of these three cases there will be drought in the land. 37. if she should enter the constellation of Revati. If Venus should enter the constellation of Sata. or 15th lunar day of the waning moon.9. horsekeepers will suiter and if she should enter Bharani. mankind will snffer Irom disease. gamblers will suffer as well as the Kouravas and the Panchalas. from fears and from Borrow. 1800 apart from. 14th. 35. each other and if they should be a~ the same time due east and welt of each other. rulers will be at strife.

nllers in the south will suffer by diseasea of the eye and by windy disorders. black grains. he will destroy objects that are white. cows. there will be a fall of hail from the clouds and diseases of the neck.r from fire. elephants. If Venus should be of the color of fire. If the course of Mercury should just precede that of Venus. cats.. 9.tures a. If the course of J upiter. t. 43. mankind. the east will suffer. asses. the crops of Sarat will thrive well. Hthe course of Marsshould just precede tha. 41.t of Venus. p(lrSODS who have performed aacrificial rites. If the course of Jupiter should just precede that of Venus. 40. 39. hogs. there will be no rain . there will be wars in the land Digitized by GooS Ie . and mountains will be riven asunder by thunderbolts. the Mleohas.he Brahmins. the Sudras and tra. [CR. asoetioa. dancers or wrestlers. Friends will cease to be friends. lightning and dust. ous jaundice will aftlict mankind. If the course of Saturn should just precede that of Venus. if of blood color. physiciaas. from hunger. mankind will suffer from fire. horses. the Vysias. and if Mercury should then have either disappeared or reappeared. from drought and from thieves j all the crea.62 BRIRA'! SAKRITA.nd objects of the north will suffer and the sky will be filled with fire. 44. cows and temples. 42. the crops of Greeshma will flourish. from wespeons. Mars and Saturn should just precede that of Venus. barbarians. buffaloes. there will be fea. elephants and magicians will be at strife among themselves j storms a~d deaths will afBict mankind. Mercury. 38. diseases and laili. rulers 1D their chariots and aU yellow objects wiII perish and the west will suffer. there will be rain in the land. the Brahmins will cease to perform r eligioua ceremonies properly.

Jyeshtl. if his course should lie through Moola. If the ccurse of Saturn should lie through the first constellation of Ailwini.or if her course be direct. from weapons and from drought. low people and deceitful men will perish. X. players on musical instruments. of Benares and of Panohala and carriage drivers will suffer. If the disc of Saturn should appear glossy and if his course should lie through the constellations of Sravena. of the white water lily. 4. 1. mankind will suiter from hunger. If it should lie through the eonatellation of Bharani. physicians and ministers will perish. of Mathra. horses. A. We will now proceed to state the effeets of Satu~n'8 course through each of the 27 constellations.BRIHAT S. poets. mankind will enjoy the happiness of KritaYlAga. there will be drought In the land. person. or Poorvaphalguui. the people of Kosala. 63 if of the color of burnished gold. there will be prosperity in the laad but alight rain. 3. 2. vocal singers. if ashy-pa.rdra. Hasta. 45. the Earth will be covered with water. Swati.AHHITA.le or black.that live by fire and commanders of armies will perish. if green. there will be disease. If his course should lie through the constellation of Krittika. Bharaai. If his course should lie through the constellations of Ayulia. and if through Rohini. there will be asthmatic complaints. b. dancers. or of the mOOD. If the course of Batuen should lie through the cons- Digitized by GooS Ie . or if she should be the successful planet in conjunctions. Satabbishak. ON SATUD. If Venus should be of the color of coagulated milk. horse-keepers. CHAP'fEH.

if through the conste llation of Magha. will suffer miseries. the Panchalas. the border Mlechas and the people of Surat. criers. deceit. of Sulika. mill-men. the people of Vatsa. messengers.f Madhyadesa will suffer miseries. the Chinese and the • Vat . garland should lie through the consof Hasta. painters. and of Paratha. reverend men and the people '. the people of Magada. [CR.64 BRIRAT SllIHITA. fu1 men and flowers will suffer. 6. tradesmen. If the course of Saturn * J 10. oil mongers.. prostitutes. if through Ardra. and of Ramata.kas. If the course of Saturn should lie through the constellation of Punarvasu. the officia.har. If the course of Saturn should lie through the constellation of Ohitra. jaggery. the Kosala. and makers will suffer. : name of a country. If the course of Saturn should lie through the constellation of Ayulya. tellation weavers. if through Uttaraphalgcni. mariners. kings. barbers. the Balhfkas.ting priests in sacrificial rites as well as the persons that perform them. 8. reporters. 10· tellation of Mrigaseersha. bell ringers. washermen and thieves will suffer.' charioteers. various utensils will suffer. thieves.OUlllmbha. the Chinese. women. dancers ana the like will suffer miseries' 11. the Vysias. 9. the Yavanas. the Trigartas. the creatures of water and serpents will suffer. If his course should lie through the constellation of Poorva phalguni. it his course should lie through the constellation of Pushya. if through Swati. writers. salt. of Sind and of Souviraka. ascetics. elephant keepers. the people of Canda. ita chief town is f. water and the town of Takshasilo. store houses and merchants will suffer. prostitutes. physicians. virgins and the Maharashtras will suffer miseries. Digitized by Goog Ie . the people of Paratha. If the course of Saturn should lie through the constellation of Visakha.in thlil Punjab will suffer. juice sellers. 7.

If his course should lie through Dhanishta.l.raciesa in the Digitized by Goog Ie . drunkards or those that deal in liquor. saffron. physicians. poets. valieut soldiers. at Kosala. crops. the ruler of Magada will become'riumphantj and treasury officers will prosper. and the Kunty-bhojas will Buffer. and of Panchala. south east of Ma. the king's chaplain. the Tanganas and the Khasas. If the course of Saturn should lie through . every thing of bright. 65 Kulootas. diers will Buffer. tradesmen and ministers. opper part of the vaDe! of Sara). if it should lie • TaoganAs: name of a people in the t Girivraja.ns. of Girivraja t of Magads. the king's favorites. 14. of Kosala. of Va. If the course of Saturn should lie through the constellations of Satabhishak: and Poorvebhadra. and bell-ringers will suffer and friends will turn into enemies.dh.T SAlmIT. the chief Brahmins. drivers. fruits. red or crimson 00101' will snffer. •• Magada.. the Kulutas. the western mouth of the Ganges. abel-lao. medicinal plants and sol.nga.{OIL 10 BBIHA. § the Yav&nas. ~he people of Dasama. If the course of Saturn should lie through th'J constellation of Jyeshta. ministers. of Mitila and of Tamralipta t willsuft'er miseries. the people of Oojein. 12. If his course should lie through ~he constellation ofPoorvashadha.tbe constellation of Anuradha. of Pundra. will be afflicted with miseries. the people of Benares. If the course of Saturn should lie through Sravana public officials. * 13. 17. 15. the people of Anga.l of :t Tamralipta : name of & people near § Dauma : name of a people living C8IIb:e of Hinduatan. : name of the capita. and mixed crowds of men of different castes will suffer j if through Moola. If the course of Saturn should lie through the constellation of Uttarashadha. the people of Paryatra. and priests and the people of Kalinga will suffer miseries. physioians. 16. barbaria. the people of Cashmere.

ndterrestrial • are of • Krouchadvipa or Kroun()h&: a mouD. mankind will be very much at strife. if yellow.. ON COllns .si : common flax bearing a blue flower. if yellow the VY1ra .triyas. defined by the Author in stanzaS. 1£ Saturn should appear as bright as the cats'eye gem or puro or of the color of the bana (a black flower) or Atasi t flower.. meseoJ'l faillng lltars. LIKE. travel- through the constelletion of Uttarabha. * 19.ti. '1 he reappearance OJ' disappearance of the Ketus is . Having examined the treatises of Garga. Whate"ermay be the color of Saturn. t Ata. the crops of Sarat. Digitized by Goog Ie . 2. birds will perish. The Ketus three kinds-celestial. Parasara. color will suffer. ifblack the Sudras . if of blood color. [tJ CHAPTER XI. g : if white the Brahmins. sola. the servantl of the reigning sovereigns. ABita. barbarians and the Yavanaa will suffer.dra. lers.66 BJtIHA. mankind wiJl then become very wicked. § KetulI:This serm i. while Saturn is in Kritika. 21. II.ll danoers.lDiD01I. not subject to astronomical calculations.tain or part of the Himalaya.nd if blue the Chandalas will su1fer.nd the like 1. Jupiter should be in the constellation of Visskha. bediea. the persons who or objects which correspond to the particular. Devala and many others on Ketus §. if red the Ksba. 1.n range situateo.HITA. I now proceed to give a clear account of the same. 20.. there will be fear from hunger. there will be wars in the land and if of ashy color. etherial a. If the course of Saturn should lie through Reva. the people of Krouehadvipa. mankind will be happy.iND TH.r and luuar 'PO" . If Saturn should appear variegated in color.T Sl. in tbe eastern part of the chain on the north of ASBilm. :t e. If both the planets should be in one and the same constellation the chief towns will Buffer.. ) I 18. women and gold will suffer. and il made te include Comets. [eH.

the heavenly bodies with which they might appear to be in contact and on their colors. straight. clear.y that the Ketus are 101 in number. precious stones and the like excepted. horses. 5. 67 3. white and visible either immediately after their appearance or some time afterwards there will be health and happiness in the land. 7. fur instance. Whether there is one Ketu or many. if visible for months.t. houses. Generally if the luminous body or comet be amall.fflOtII1ril11•• for 21 + Ii or 40:rear•• • t Digitized by Goog Ie .[CX. the .00(1in number. mankind will not be happy. Paras . :rrom 26 to su day. they have tails and ilppt:ar in the East and in the West. 10· The Ker us or comets that resemble garlands.tor 16:rI: 'rom 1 to Z40da)1 of vilibilit:r the effeok will lui. the effects to be described are vadous and these effects depend on their reappearance or disappearance (at partiaular times and places) their positions. Narada says that there is but one Ketu which appears in various shapes at Tarioue times. 6.4mont1l8. The effects will last for as many months as the number of days during which the Ketus c mtiuue to be visible. the effects will last fol' years't). .. implements of war. gems. 1 he effects will commence after three weeks from such appearances. otheJ'st s8ythat they are 1. Or of the shape of the rainbow or whh two or three tails. gems and golJ are named Kirana Ketus and are 25 in Dumber. If it be the opposite of these. of 'ilibili~:r. Garga for instance. Some writers* Sl. 11 BR1JIAT S. for two yean.llIXITA. they are the SODS ot the bun.ra. The etherial Ketns nppear in flag staffs.. if filible for 2i wontUl for iIlMIloe. The COWlU~ . Ketus are luminous appearances resembling fire but without the power to consume objects-the glow worm. elephants and the like. The celestial Ketus appear in stellar region! and the terrestrial 0 ces appear in pits and low grounds in thl'l surface of the Earth.. transient. 4. 9.. certain phosphorescent appearances. princes will begin to be at strife. and when 'hel appear.. 8. glossy. trees. from 1 to ..

KetaSj when they appear mankind will feel very misfierable. they appear in the South. they are of 2S in number. in number. when they a. when they appear mankind will be happy.ppear mankind will be afBioted with fear and hunger. of Shel-lac or of blood are the eons of Agni (fire) and appear in the South. The Ketns or comets whose tails are bent and which are of sharp rays and black are the SOUB Yama. The single Comet possessing three tl!oilsand three colors is named Brahmadanda and is the son of Brahma. silver. it appears anywherej when it appears the world will come to an end. they are 25 in number. they are the 80m of Saturu. 14. The Ketus or comets t that appear like a mirror.LCted with fears. white and shining disca and when they appear mankind will not be bappy.000 Ketus already referred to. when they appear there will be deaths in the land. they are the sons of Venus. • Bu"ndhujinu: P(on~apeteB Phoenicea- a plant with a red llower . whiLe jasmine and the white water lily are the sons of the moon. :they appear anywhere and are named Kanaka.68 'BBIRl'l S UlHITA.rethe sons of the Eiorth. 12.r glossy. 18. they are 23 in nnmbel'.. with rays and double tailed are 60 in number. of fire. The oomets that appea. J 5. they appear in the North and are S. snow. The Ket11Bthat are of the 00101' of the parrot. The Comets thatappear in the North and North East are 84 in number. which 'o~1I at iDid.~' Digitized by Goog Ie . 11. they have large. are ronnd in shape without tail" but with rays' and looking like oil or water a. The Ketus 01' Comets that appear bright like the moon. of Bhsndhu-J'ivika= flower. when they appear mankind will be afH.y· and' witheN away the nest moruing at ~ ~alled in talllil QIF!tlU'!J. l~. and appear in the North-East. 17. East. IS. Thus have been stated briefly 101 Ketus and we will now proceed to state clearly the 1.

The Comets which are of the color of blood or fire and with three tails are named Kumkuma. 11 19. They are the SODS of Rahu. 22. Those tha. without disc. Their effects have been stated in the Cha.ka. named Visnrup" Ketns. with'la. • Ohamara : the basby tail of the Bos Grunnienl. 20. presenting the appearance of Chamara* and with scattered rays are named Aruna Ketus.8.re.) 23. Ob. Digitized by Goog Ie .oblongular+ in shape. The Comets that are neither very bright nor clearly visible to the naked eye. The Ketns that ap~ar as spots in the solar and lanar discs are 8~ in number. They are the sons of Vayu (the wind) and are 77 in number.re 8 in number and are the sons of Pra. The Comets that resemble clnsteea of stars are named Gana. 24.japati. triangular. land are 120 in number. Ketus : they are the sons of Mars and are 60 in number. -t G&iga-liays . When they appear there will be faar from fire. 25.t tails and glossy are named Vikacha Ketus and are the sons of Jupiter.Ketns .med Taskara Ketus .[CII. The Oomets that are dark-red in color. They are 65 in nnmber. of single disc. The Comets that resemble she filming fire or a gar. 'rhey are the sons of A gui and a. and that are long and white are na. they appear any where and are 51 in number ~ when they appear mankind will feel miserable. 'l'hey are named as Tamas& and Keelaka Ketus.tAor. they are the sons of Mercury. when they appear mankind will feel miserable. they apppar in the South and when they appear mankind will not be happy. thE'y appear in the North and when they appE>armankind will feel miserable.pter on the Sun {vide stanza 7. 21. are 204 in number and are the sons of Brahma. theya. The Oomets which are white.

. when they lI. they appeC\r mankind will suffer miseries. Digitized by Goog Ie ..stra. and when it appears. The Comets that resemble a headleas trunk are named Kab mdha Ketus. comet which appea. they are the sons of Yama and are 96 in number j and are without discs . it app~a. The Comets that are white possessing a single disc are 9 in number j they appear in the £ollr oorners. with its head to'lV'ar. 83. Chal. tlut if it appears of sharp rays. Vasa Ketu is a comet which lie.OO(}Ketus. 28. Keto is a. resemble elusbera of bamboo ca. [CH. there will be fear in the land. as it pro.nd produces the same effects as the Kapala Keto. * 30. there will be wars a. Ketu also resembles the Vasa. when it appears mankind will suffer from hunger. 29. Hasti Ketu resembles the Vasa Ketu. Kspala Ketu IS visible on new-moon days.ll 4l6. ceeds more and more towards the North. it increases in length. Ketlls.70 BRtHAT SAHBITA. We shall now give a few particulars connected with them.ppear there will be much fear all over the E~rth. 32. they are the sons of Veruna and are 32 in number. Abollt the conltellation of Ashadha aooording to oommentator. 3l.rs t in the South-East and travels through . drought and disease. death. Thus we have ginn an account of l.rsin the West with So t:til an inch in length pointing to the South. When it appears there will be immediate deaths in the land but prospeeity in the end.Ketu but is glossy and appears in the West. When 27. Sa. glossy. The Comets that.is the North. its tail is of the color of smoke : its course lies through the eastern half of the visible hemisphere. third of the sky a. Roudra Kotu is a comes resembling the dagger'S end and is of a dull red color.. t • On the day of appearall08 &OOOrdinjrto commentator.nes and that are as bright as the moo I are named Kanka. it is of large size. and appears in the west.nd· deaths in the land.

. or the constella. 41.ppears in the c. the country between Allahabad and Oojein. 'I'he effects are the same as those assigned to Sweta Ketu. shape of the twisted hair and of adull and disagreeable aspect.. it travels ithrough a third of the sky and then retraces its steps. Ka Ketu is a comet' of the shape of a. Sweta Ketu is a comet which appears in the Ea~t about midnight with it! tail pointing to the South. 40. 39.mstellati on of Kritika. 11] BBIHA'I SlKHITJ. The other countries will also sutler in several places from disease and from famine. t1:. When it disappears it leaves only a third of mankind as survivors. comet possessing no fixed course . mankind will be hsppj- t For 8 1ear1 acoorjinl to Paruara and Gar. it a. 38. the forests near Ajmere. /' 35.tion of Ahhijit. color or shape and appears anywhere iu the heavens. carriage pole and appears in the West. the north. the effects described will last for 10 months according to some and for 18 months according to othersl+). if the Ka Ketu should be visible for over 7 days. When this Ketu appears. it turns bsck and after travt)lling one half of the sky disappears in the South. the country of Devika and Madhyedesa will perish. in the sky and on Earth.. Both rhe above Ketus are seen simultaneoualy for 7 days. Dhrnva Ketu is a. When i~ appears glossy. there will be PI'OS- perity and happiness in the land. Rasmi Ketu is a comet possessing a tail slightly colored like smoke. 36. Digitized by Goos le .Ca. The Sweta Ketu is of the. 37. 71 34' After touching the Ursa Major or the Pole star.ere will be much snffering from wars for ten years. If both should appear glossy.

its tail is Rtraight and white and it resembles a line of milk drawn from a human breast. When it appears there will be unprecedented happiness in the land for a period of ten yea. when it appears there will be prosperity iu thEland for 9 months.BBmAT SaRITA.d is visible only for a night. • rore..esand vencmous creatures will come into existence (§) 46. and the world will be freed from all miseries. China reads. in the 45. 11 42. camels. Digitized by Goog Ie . bed. l +) 44. in the tail is bent like that of a lion. vessels and the like. implements of war. There will be unprecedented happiness in the land for as many months 8S the number of hours for which it continnes to be visiblej j£ it should be fearful to look at faml diseases will afflict mankind. 60. jewels. elephants."bIe for onr 8 houn terpenta. Tbe number of these KetUli is 10. According to P8l'asara it is seen in trees. be happiness in the land from the very time or ita appearance for four and a half months. mountains.in trees. Bhava Ketu is a comet visible ouly for a single night 8::1d the East.rs. seats. t Vridha Garga. bamboos. chariots. Kumnda Ketu is a comet of the color of the white water lily. it is glossy. cometary appearances never fail to produce evils. [*] 43. it is glossy. :l This and several other oometa can be very well identified by a look iDto the Map of comets published by Europeana. [CK. it possesses an invisible disc and appears in the West. aeeording to him. or 100 opinion of several writers. 47. in hills and in house hold utensils. says that this happiness cannot be au unmixed one. 48. in houses. To those whose death might be near this Ketu appears in the several divisions of the King's army.!!) There will. mODgooaeaand the likewill come iuto e:dGaol. Mani Ketu is a comet which appears for only 3 hourg occasionally. 21. possessing a small disc. § According to Parasara if the comet continuel to be . reptH. Jala Ketu is a comet which appearsin the wes~ with a raised tail. It appears in the west with its tail pointing to the east 8I.

CR· 11. If it appear only for a night there will be joy and happiness in the land for 7 years. the ruler of Aseenara will perish. the ruler of Kalinga will perish. The rest wherever 10 Digitized by Goog Ie . Omitting the benefic comets.J BRIHA1' SAMRITA. If the stars of the constellation of :Mriga Seersha should be dimmed by the tails of or appear to be in contact with malefic comets. 51. 73 49. they can be identified. if the stars of Bharani should be so dimmed or in contact with malefic comets. if those of Bohini. Avarta Keto is a comet of a red color. Princes will suffer in wars for as many years as the number of hOUI'S{Ol' which it continues to be visible.ions or appear to be in contact with the same. it appears in the West at mid-night with its tail pointing to the Sooth and . malefic comets the ruler of Asmaka* will perish. extending to a third of the sky and resembling the sharp end of a dagger. we shall proceed to state tne several princes who will perish accotding as the malefic comets either dim with their tails the stars of the various constellat. If the stars of the constellation of Asviui should be dimmed by the tails of or appear to be in contact with. 50. 52. 'l'here will be happiness in the land for as many months as the number of Kshanas (Four minutes) for which it continues to be visible. it is fear~ul to look at. the ruler of Surasena will perish. 'l'hose persons will also suffer in the star of whose nativity the comet appears. 53.it is glossy. Padma Ketu is a comet white like the stem of the lotos. 54. if those of K~ittika. 55. the ruler of Kiratas will perish. Samvarta Ketu is a comet which appears in the West in the evening with a tail of the color of smoke and copper. will be explained as we proceed. if • l'tIost of these countries have been already explained.

the ruler of Pundra will perish. the rulers of Cashmere and Camboja will perish. the ruler of Kekaya will perish j if those of Dhanishta. If the stars of the constellation of Aslesha should be dimmed by the tails of or appear to be in contact with malefic comets. the rulers of Youdheyaka. .k:a ill perish i w if those of Anuradha. . the ruler of Oojein will perish . the ruler of Ikshwaku and of All1. the malefic comets. if those of Sataya • Danda. If the stars of the constellation of Sravana should be dimmed by the tails of 01' appear to be iu contact with. ECHo Ll. if those of Magha. the ruler of the people subsisting by the products of water will perish j if those of Punarvasu the ruler of Asmaka will perish j and if those of Pushya the ruler of Magada will perish. the ruler of Bensres will perish j if those of Uttarashadha. the ruler of Pandya will perish. If the stars of the constellation of Mula should be dimmed by the tails of 01' appear to be 'in contact with. malefic comets. malefic comets. If the sbnrs of the constellation of Chittra should be dimmed by the tails of or appear to be in contact with malefic comets. the ruler of Punjab will perish. if those of Jyeshta the chief emperor will suffer. 60. the ruler of Dandaka* will perish.ka: name of a district in the Dekhan between the Nermada and Godaveri rivers which in tho time of Ramachendra was a forest and celebrated as a place of pilgrimage. of Arjunayana. 58. 57. and if those of Basta. If the stars of the constellation of Visakha should be dimmed by the tails of or appear to be in contact with. if those of Poorvaphalguni. those of Ardra. of Sivi and of Chaitya. the ruler of Asika will perish. the ruler of Anga will perish.74 DlUHAT SAMHITA. the rulers of Andhra and of Mathra will perish j if those of Poorvashadha. &6. the ruler of the Kurus will perish j if those of Swati. if those of U ttaraphalguni. 59. will perish. Digitized by Goog Ie .

blazing and glowing j second. 75 the ruler of Ceylon will perish. the ruler of Naimisha will perish j and if those of Revati. 'I'he genesis of comets 'is found to Digitized by Goog Ie I L___ J .dra. dropped from the tail. Ilhe infidels and the Chiuese will suffer. the ruler of Kirata will perish. with the above. which are ponderable. of a more or less solid nucleus on fire. It consists. the ruler of Bengal will perish . of vast masses of incandescent gas. particles grouud by ceaseless attrition. 61. If the tails of the comets should be crossed by the fall of meteors there will be happiness in the land.J IlRJHAT SAMUITA. consist of stones and sand. and these meteors are stones. solid materials.CH. first. if those of Uttarabha. of the countries in the direction of which the tllils of the comets extend and of the countries corresponding to the several constellations (a. an immense prolongation of the tail in the nature of attenuated volumes of gas. if there should be a fall of rain at the time of the appearance of a comet mankind will be exceedingly happy j but the people of Chola and of Avagana as well as the white-men. what modern science has to sayan the subject of comets : " What then is a comet according to the latest scientifio researches? 'I'he spectroscope has pretty well solved the query. if those of Poorvabhadra. constituting the luminous head. 62. 'I'he proof of this is the con' cession of most astronomers that meteoric showers are shreds and patches of cometic matter. oonstituting the tail. it is believed.s described above) with whose stars the comets might appear to be in contact. NOTE :-Compare. whioh l'eflect the Sun's light and are carried along by the influence of the nucleus. The solid materials of a comet. 11. third. will triumph over their enemies and be happy. fourth. 'I'he rulers of the countries to which the bent tails of the comets point.

description of the beauties of the Vindaya mountains on the occasion of the latter feat. and Lambert regards 500." " Arago estimates that there are 17. 3. water lilies and Swans. though deprived of water. and.000. 1. [CB. exhibited gems that eclipsed the splendor of the crowns of the Devas and rocks broken by the action of the sharks on them and thus presented an appearance beautiful. pearl oysters and conch shells. 12.who is said to have drunk ofFthe ocean and suppressed the heights of the Vindaya mountains. moving to and fro.000 as a. There were also seen. and the sea altogether looked hke a summer lake with its moving waves.'/ CANOPUS. presented an appearance splendid 8S Devaloka. fine net-work of cometary orbits. Canopus: This star is sacred to Agnstya. 4. corals and gems and the scene was rendered picturesque by serpents that issued from the rocks. though without water.'he Orbit of the Earth is over-whelmed in a.* 1. whales. are devotedto a description of the beauties of the sea on the occasionof the former feat. ON . It exhibited whales. Il. water elephants and rivers and gems scattered over its bed. All the astronomers agree that they are scattered through space as profusely as the fish in the seas.000. cariously enough. and the 6th stanza which is written in Dandaka metre is devoted to a. It also exhibited hills with trees. Digitized by Goog Ie .000 of these fiery wanderers within the orbit of Neptnne.. The mighty ocean whose water&X'were swallowed by Agastya. good scientific authority. 2. The language is highly rhetorical." CHAPTER XII. The first 5 stanzas. moderate estimate for those in the Solar System. and our globe is like a lost child in a forest full of wild beasts. theory not without be in the explosion of planetary bodies. .76 BRJHAT SAMHI'fA.

nopus. .] BRIBAT SAMUITA.ca. 6. of bears. When star Canopus reappears after its conjunction with the Sun. beginning and end) . of tigers and of monkeys j throngh which lay the secret course of the Ravi which appeared to embrace its bosom with the affection of a mistress. having drunk of the perfumed blood of elephants in rut had their mouths covered wit. Hear now tbe effects of the heliacal rising of Canopus. which means both contact with the earth and contact with the wicked.whose caves were the abodes of lions which. in it is heard the music of the swan j and its opening is marked by the beautiful red sky j • The rhetorical beauty in this stanza conaiste in a certain Blesha.* 8.h bees that looked like so many black flowers. Digitized by Goog Ie . and in whose forests dwelt the Devas and also Brahmin recluses. some on the ail' and some altogether without food. (donble meaning) contained in the term Ku Ba. some on roots. some subsisting on water.. 'l'he autumn is a.. / t Chakrnvaka: the roody goose commonly called the Brahmani duck. 12. Its huge white \vaves looked like clouds j its gems looked like stars j its crystals looked like the MOOll . and from which caves issued rivers j whose summits appeared to score the starry vault '. waters muddled by their contact with the earth will resume their original clearness just in the same way aa the minds of the Sadhus naturally recover their original purity after contact with the wicked. 77 5. and its long bright serpents bearing gems in their hoods looked like comets and thus the whole sea looked like the sky. whose rocks were full of buzzing bees scared by the violent pulling of flower trees by wild elephants and were also the abodes of hyenas. The next three stanzas describe the beauties of the autumn which commences with the reappearance of Ca.mayoga. e. 7.ttended by the Chakravaka t on both its sides (i. a star sacred to Agllstya who suppressed the Vindaya mountains whose soaring heights obstructed the course of the Sun j to which the pictured robes of the Vidyadhara females leallillg for support on their lord's arms and flying aloft in the sky formed beautiful flowing flag!! . '\.

The Earth. adorned by the lotus. by means of her arms.fair fuoe. the ruddy goose and the watercrow appears to welcome the appearance of Agastya.s in which lie concealed the black bee serviug as the pupil of the eye.rghya. 10. he who worships thee shall enjoy wealth and prosperity in Sweta Dwipa (Vnikuntha. The very thought (meditation) of the sage Agastya is calculated to wash off one's sins. hilt whioh the commentator takes to mean being ill Leo. the waves. As if to view the beauty of the pure disc of her lord the Moon. the summer lake opens at night her red lotus buds -her eyes-of soft petaJ. abundant flowers and fruits. (offering) to be presented to Agastya as stated by the Rishis. 9. the Swan. hovered over by beautiful liues of bees. 11. sounding jewels and betel colored mouth. the season therefore resembles a charming woman with blue eye-e. ECHo 12. tender creepers adding beauty to the scene. ill all these respects the season resembles a woman with a rising bosom. The poisonous and hot waters poured down by cloudcovered serpents by order of Indra become pure and fit for use on the reappearance of the Star Oanopus13. The time of reappearance of the Star Canopus is different in different places. Vide Dote to stanza 21. In Vishnu Rallasya we find Vishnn addressing Agastya aa follows: he who fails to worship thee by the offering of Arghya shall lose in your favor the effects of a year's Punnyakarma. I will now speak of the rules of the A.. Digitized by Goog Ie . therefore. of pt·inces. with her offerings of gems.just begins to enter the 24th degree of the sign Leo-f • The commentator adds that this offering is equally binding on all men.78 BRIHAT SAMHITA. For the benefit. Again io the season of autumn will be found the blue and white lotus growing side by side. which lilerally means before the Sun enters the sign of Virgo. and it is for the learned Astronomer to ascertain these times for given places. his praise (worship) must be capable of doing more. black hair and thin brows. In the 'I'own of Oojien the star reappears when the sun .. 12. 14.) t Leo: The word in the text is Agatasya Kanyam. and forms part of man's Nityakarma.

] BRIHAT SAMHITA. be broken by streaks of red light from the eastern 16. a Vaisia doing the same will get cows j and a Sudra doing it will get wealth. accord- t According to Mat&yapurana. und all the four will be freed from disease and become virtuous. princes. and if of very small disc.ca.l:lt s a will be pointed out by the Astrollomtlr. 17. of perfumed smoke and fl'agl'allt paste. and must be accompanied in the case of the first three classes of men by the singing of Vedic hymns. shall consist of the fl'ugrll. the offering must be made 7 times on some one morning before dawn withiu 7 days from the reappearance of Can opus. 12. if yellow. Digitized by Goog Ie . cows will suffer j if of unsteady light. of well cooked rice. on every occasion of the reappearance Canopus for 7 years will be freed from disease. and will become the Sole ruler truly devout of the ~tlli' will triumph of the Barth. A Brahmin making this offering to the extent of his ability will become learned in the Vedas and will be blessed with a wife und children. of sweet-nreats. mankind will be afflicted with fears j if white red.ut fluwers of the seusou. with a spirit. of precious stones. If the disc of the Star Canopus should present a disagreeable appearance. the chief 'I'owus will be SUI'rounded by the enemy. of cows. of Lulls. ought to offel' their . of curdled milk. 'I'he offering to be made by princes in houor of Agastya. A prince makiug this offering. • Previously prepared: ing to commentator. of colored rice. previously prepared= for the purpose.r 19. by fasting and performance of Agastya pooja. 18. 79 15. there will be disease in the luud. For a detailed account of the ritual counected with the ceremony the reader is referred to Bhavishyapurana snd to a work entitled Danamala.Arghvam to Agastya by pouring it on the earth in the direction of the Star Canopus rising ill the South Ell. According to some other authority the offeriug should' be continued for 17 years. over his enemies. When the darkness of the night should just begin to horizon. of gold cloths. there will be drought j if of the color of smoke. of fruits. they will suffer from hunger and from starvation .

rlllUd of the white lotus to lady North 01' look like her smile or seem to be her lords.J1JR XIII· ON 'tHE URSA OR I MAJOR. i. 'I'he Seven Rishis form as it were a gll. Digitized by Goog Ie . If Canopus should be crossed by metoric falls 0\' by comets mankind will suffer from hunger nud death. nud when he enters the constellation of Rohini. and muukiud will be free from fear and disease. the Hindus wero noted for their knowledge of Astronomy and thnt they had recognised the motions of the stare.ATION OF SAPTA RISHIS. 3.. and is besides opposed to what has been stated in stanza 14th. appears to dance round their course. the commentator regards as being true for the Northern countries.f CHAPT. 1. 20. nearly 4. This is opposed to actual observation and must be regarded as Utpato.sta. be ordinarily. there will be prosperity in the land. This the commentator says cannot.80 BRIIIAT SAMHITA.yuga.500 years ago. if not earlier still. for C•• nopus is situated at the endeof the sign Gemini which is 700 from Haata and only 50 0 from Rohini:According to some Oanopus reeppears on the 8th lunar day or on new-moonday of the waning moon of tho month of A~vayuk (Tula and Vrischikn). Or by the direction of North. 21. During the reign of her lord the Pole star. The reader will note that at tbis early period at least. t Yudhishtira. I begin to treat views of Veidh» Garga. [crr. Cannpus reappears. THE CONSTELJ. Oanopus diaappears. 13. :t 2526. but this as well as what Brihaspati says. When the SUII en tel's the constellatiou of Haste. otherwise known as Dharmapntra.. the eldest of the Pandus who flourished at the end of the Dvapara. If C. Again in Vishnu RahlUly~ Vachana it is stated that Canopus reappears when the Sun enters Hn. lady as the Seven Rishis move in of these stars adopting the Yndhishtirat 2526! years be- • The statement in tho text amounts to this: Oanopus reappears when tho sun enters the 17th degree of the sign Virgo. According to commentator the author has quoted in the last stanza the opinion of Parasara whioh is only an instance of Utpaia. 2. and disappeare when the sun enters the 1Uh degree of the sign Taurus. e. or brilliant.lOOPUShould appear of the color of silver or s erystnl. speaks bighly of their pnwors nf observation. It cannot be otherwise.

or if they should appear dim or without rays or of very small disc. skilled magicians and physicians. the Devas. It the Rishis should be crossed by meteoric falls. the Nagas and the Vidyadharas will also be aftlieted. The Rishis take a period of 100 years to go over each of the 27 Asterisms. The eastern-most of the group is Bhagavan Marichi . thunderbolts. Tlae PU1'&lllLalso .4. 9. or comets.red ia the Saatraa to be a Soobhllllo Tara (Te1elOOpio star) verI cloee to Vuishtha. • Regulus: Aaterism is 130 • 20' of the ecliptic: at the rate of 100 yean Rishis take 2.dy obaerved. If Vasishtba should be crossed by meteoric f"l1s or otherwise affected. 8.: 5.-11 Digitized by Goog Ie . is the lut etar but oue.iou of the ecliptio with lI'hicll the western most two either rille at Lanka (equRtor) or culminate at the meridian.tatee ~at wh8ll the Biehie mould reach the constellatioll of Poonuhr. thElY will cause misery and Buffering to the persons and objects 'hey severally represent. the Asuras. but if they should appear big or bright there will be happiness and prosperity. the . tlle two Rishis were found in Magh&.Yakshas. The next in order are the Rishis Pulsha and KrituThe chaste Arundhati closely attends her husband the sage Vasishtha.] 81 fore the commencement of Vikrama Saka the SenD Riabia were at the constellation of Magba (Regulus). . the Soythiaos.CK.§ 7.700 years to make a circuit of the heavens. the consort of Vasishtba. as aJrea. What it pointed out as Amndhati near Vasishtha is Rot the real Amndhn. passing over a. \ t An nile laat note to the nerletanza. the next to him is Vasishtha. t 'l'hey rise in the North-East and are accompanied by the chaste Arandhati. the Yavanas. In Vishnu PUl'aIIA it is stated that when the obeenation was made at one time. 13. § Vasishtha.. the next is Angirasa and the next two are Atri and Pulaetya. If Marichi should be affected as described above the Gandharvas. each the :t The Biehis are IlBid to be in that COlUItellat. the Daredaa. ebs is c1eela. in 1015 years the Naudas will reign. 6.da. space of 10 astemm.

should appear bright. Ghosha. 10. the people of Camboja and the Rishis of the forests will suffer j but if Vasishtha. Ujjihana. Rohini and Mrigaseersha represent the Madhyadesa or central division consisting of the countries of Bhadra. Panchala • • Kurma Vibhaga: The geographical divisions of the Earth and of India particularly.. Arimeda. U pajyotishaka. he will cause happiness. &c. Digitized by Goog Ie . Gouragreeva. It may be used as a geographic&! dictionary of reference when necessary.. Vatsa. The countries of the Earth beginning from the centre of Bharata Varsha and going round---the East. men of acute intellect and the Brahmins will be afflicted j if Atri should be so affected the products of the forests and of water. Uddehika. Madhyamika. The Constellations of Krittika. Sonth East. 14. and along with Kritu will suffer sacrificial rites and persons performing them. men of knowledge. For convenience of reference it is proposed to give 1m alphabetical. 11. the countries bordering on the Jumna and the Sarswati. If Angiras should be affected as described above. Dharmarani. list of the more important terms oeouring in the three Chapters at the end of Chapter XVII with the modem names given opposite to each.82 BRIHAT SAMBITA. Surasena. Salwa. the countries of Matsya.* 1. Mandavya.l terms occur in Chapters XVI and XVII. corresponding to the various stellar divisions along the ecliptio. South. Neepa. the Paratas. Along with Pulastya will suffer the Rakshasas. Pandn. Maru. [CH. A few more geographic. 2. The object is to discover whioh of the countries of the earth will soIFerwhen planetary and the like celesti&! phenomena oocur. the Pisaohas. The Chapter therefore is a useful one. are divided into 9 divisions corresponding to the 27 lunar asterisms at the rate of 8 for each division and beginning from Krittika. Madhuraka. CHAPTER XIV. the Deityas and the Nagas. Guda. the Asuras. though it may not be found to be interesting study to the general reader. seas and rivers will suffer. ON KURKA VIBBAGA. Alol'g with Pulaha will suffer roots and fruits. Asvatths. 8.

the countries of Nasikya. . 11. The constellations of Aslesha'. 10. of Nalikera and of Charma. the forest of Maho. Kerala. Kshirasamudra. Khasa.Malyavan. Yekapada. 5. Kalakot]. Nisahda. Dasapura. Kalanjana. Oudnmbare. Nagna. Ko. tbe river Vena. Vanga. Magba and Poorvaphalguni represent the South Eastern division consisting of the conntries of Kosels. tbe coantries of Vidarbharaga and other countries in the Viodaya mountains. Vanavasi. Gajahvaya. the countries of Bhadragondaka. Kalioga. Abhira. Knrn. Kanku. Hemakuta.rvata. the countries of Avanti.] BRIRAT SAlIRITA. Tankana. Kantakasthala. The constellations of Ardra. Udrs. of Dhvaja. Poundra. and farther-east Jyotisha. 'Mahagriva. Samatata. Nagara. Paroa aod Sebsra. Konkana. of Vrishabha. Andhra. Talikata. Sibiragiri. Chedika. Mekala. Suhma. Ohola. Akara. The constellations of Uttaraphalgoni. Kishkindha. Umbashta. Tbe islands of Vrisha. of Padma. Digitized by Goog Ie . Asvavadana. the mountain of Chitrakuta. Kukura. of 'I'ripuri. the mountains of Giei. Soorpakarna. Kapishthala. Louhitya. Dantoraka. Magada. Vidarbha. Soorikirna. 8. Purika. the Pariyatra mountains. 9. 13. Oordhvakentha. Giri. Vyalagriva. Punarvssn and Pushy~ represent the Eastern division oonsisting of the monntains of Anjana. Saketa. 6.ta. Phanikara. Chand~pnra. Kells. the conntries of Vyaghramukha. Mahendra and Malinys and the countries of Broach. 7. Hasta and Chitra represent the Southern division consisting of the coontries of Ceylon. Vatsa. Mithila. the land of the Canibals. 88 4. Aod Caroo.tavi. Smasrudhara. 14. Sibika. Jataranga.CR. Gonarda. and of . The Eastern Ghants. Sonlika. Kankaia. Dasarna. Kosalaka and Vardhamana. Upavanga. Utkala. Kasee. 12. Dardnra. Tamraliptika. Malaya.

VSDakhs. Kshurarpana and . Narimukhlll Anarta. Kirata.. Raivataka.and Poorvashadha represent the Western divisions consisting of the five mountains of Maniman. the countries of 'I'apaaaarama.. The constellations of Uttirashadha. Badare. Kravya. [CH.. the countries of Timingilasana. Madra. Visakha and Anuradha represent the South-Western division consisting of the countries of Palbava. The Town of Baladeva. 20. Praaestadri. Talahala. Karnapraveya._'amraparni. 17. Ambashtha. Nrisimha. Kbanda. Arys. 21. Makara. Punjab. Pattana. 22. Digitized by Goog Ie . Jrings. The forest of Tumbavana. 16. Kacbhs. the conntries of Ganarajya. 18. Sako. Muktadvipa. Haihaya. Parasaka. Vanougha. Kunjaradbari and 'J. Mnla.Trivaricha. Sindhukalaka. Strirajys. Asia. Parata. Tukhara. Simhala. of Kristna. 14 Krouncbadvipa and Jatadbara. the forest of Dandaka. The constellations of Swati. Phenagiri. Souvira. Meghavan. the river Cauvery and the 14. Abbira. Santika. Rishika. As':' maka.and the rude Mlecha countries in the west. The islands of Vyduryadvipa. Arava. Ohellnr. Hemagiri. Barbara. Sudra. Yavana. the Sib. Badavamukba. Kanaka. Dravida and Maharnava. Astagiri and the countries of Aparantaka. mountain of Risynmuka. Bhadra. Vaisya. Riahabha.. Sindh.BRIHAT 8AKHITA. the country of Karmaneyaka. 15. . Vokkana. Lahada. the north western division consisting of the countries of Mandavya. . Tarakashiti. Camboja. Marncbi. The constellations of J yeshta. and Sravishtarepresent. Cherya. Kanchi.radvipa and Dharmapattanadvipa. 19. Cbanobuka. Kapila. Rsmatha. the South ses. Surashtra. Sankhadvipa. Surpa and Kuaumanaga mountains. Sravana. Kuluta.

8~.jya. Va. Cbina. • 29. Kacbara. Kasmira. Yondbeya. Yekacbarana.rokuohha and Charmaranga whose people possess a single eye. The constellations of Satabbisbak. The rivera the Venumati. Munjadri and Gandharva. Nashtarft. Pasnpala. Darada. Kesadhara.narajya. Kuntadhana27. Madraka. Huns. 26. Vasati.. TangaDR. Ghosha. Uttara Bhadrapada. Dasatneya. Kohala. Keera. Digitized by Goog Ie . Manabala. Aswamukha. Ohirsnivasana. Mars. Pourava. single lock. Suvernabhn. 8). Gavya. Vasu vana. Syamaka and Kshemadhurta. 14. in them. Porva Bba. Saradhana. represent the Northern division consistiug of the six mountains of the Kylasa. Asvati and Bbarani represent the North-Eastern Division consisting of the conntries of Merukft. Adarsantadvipi. 'I'uraganena. Hematala. Chipita. • TheBe are Saturn. Jatasura. Divishta. Amara. and the countries of Ma.tions from Krittika should Bufferfrom the presence of malefic· planets. long neck. AbhisBra. the Himalayas. }landavya. Ambara. Kbaohara. 28. Palola. Gandhara. a. Pourave. Kirata.] BBIInT SA. Pushkalavata. Ksbadrameena25. Arjunayana. the rnlers of Pauchale.drapada. Kalinga. Nasika. Seetaka. Sairindba. the Vasuman. Dandapingala. 'l'rigarta. Kunatha. Kuluta. the Palgoluka and the Gumha. Kbeshe. Vatadhan8. the Dbanushman. Rahu and Kctu according to commentator.CR. If the nine divisions of the 27 constella. Annvisva.naka. Rajanya. Bhogapraethe. Magada. 80. Yamuna. Bhalla. Malava. Kaikaya. 'I'rinetre.RITA 85 28. Agnidbru. Kuchiks. a long face and long hair24. Yasovati.Kouninda. the Kronncha and the Mtlro and the conusries of the North Kurodesa. 'rhe oonstellations of Revati. Kailavata. Bribmapura. 'l'"ksbasila. Darvada. the Sun. Daserake. Vanarashtra. Bhlltapora.

UlHITA. Avanti. The number of rivers whose course is wes~wards is 01000. Gaya. Madra 33. Simhala. Vengi and Konsale are in the right foot. Utblal Kalinga and Magads are in the head. Malaya.-The following list is from Parasara. side. aDd China. face and so forth going round as' before. Souvira. The chief oceans 111'e 4. The chief rivers are 40.000. NOTB. 14. Nepala. of Sandy deserts is 8 . the navel and the heart of lunar Zodiac. Sindb. and Kouninda will respeo~ivejy Buffer miseries. are iu the left foot. [CH. of deep lakes 80 i of islands 80. Apichatra as far as Alll\habad are in the womb of the Innar Zodiac i Bengal. Harahoura. Digitized by GooS Ie .'he number of amaller rivers flowing into Seas is 6. Kuru. the three from Ardra form the neck.. Mithilal Konsiki. so that Oudh. The chief mountains are 7. Patna. According to Vikrama 8imha the three constellations from Krittika form the womb. 'J. Anarta. The number of peninsulsa is 10 . Kanchi and Kishkinda are in the right side. Kashmere is in the left. The chief countries are 99 •.86 BRIHAT 8.

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