Quality management | Business Process | Quality (Business)

Abstract

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In today's world Quality Management is of utmost importance in ensuring that project deliverables meet certain quality standards so as to ensure that all project outputs are ready/fit for use. It is the management of the processes of the performing organization that determine quality policies, objectives, and responsibilities so that project will satisfy the needs for which it is undertaken. The basic principles for the Quality Management philo sophy of doing business are to satisfy the customer, satisfy the supplier, and continuously improve the business processes. In this knowledge paper I would discuss about how quality management came into picture, how it is useful for various projects, why should it be employed, and various activities of quality management (quality planning, quali ty assurance, quality control).

Introduction:

One of the most important issues that businesses have focused on in the last 20 -30 years has been quality. As markets have become much more competitive - quality has become widely regarded as a key ingredient for success in business. Producing products of the required quality does not happen by accident. There has to be a production process which is properly managed. Ensu ring satisfactory quality is a vital part of the production process. A frequently used definition of quality is ³Delighting the customer by fully meeting their needs and expectations´. These may include performance, appearance, availability, delivery, reliability, maintainability, cost effectiveness and price. It is, therefore, imperative that the organization knows what these needs and expectations are. In addition, having identified them, the organization must understand them, and measure its own ability to meet them. Quality starts with market research ± to establish the true requirements for the product or service and the true needs of the customers. However, for an organization to be really effective, quality must span all functions, all people, all dep artments and all activities and be a common language for improvement. The cooperation of everyone at every interface is necessary to achieve a total quality organization.

This can be achieved with Total Quality Management programme/s (TQM). But the service quality is normally intangible. Quality Management encompasses the entire organization and is implemented from the top management le vel. otherwise called Total Quality Control or Total Quality Improve ment. and work habits. colour. Second is the heterogeneous. So the different producers may provide different services to the same customer. long-term effort to transform all parts of the organization in order to produce the best prod uct and service possible to meet customer needs". so it is d ifficult to get the information on how the customers satisfy about the service. decision making and planning. With this in mind. The service usually involves a lot of labour content. heterogeneity and inseparability is essential to understand the service quality. restructuring of organizations must be implemented. p. without any errors. shape. culture. The service quality is different with the product quality. As Parasuraman et al. the customer may not get the service which the producer actually provides. . First is the intangibility. This requires change . etc. (1985) claimed that fully understanding of the three characteristics of services which are intangibility. in this characteristic. The product or physical goods quality can be measured by the tangible aspects of the product. like the appearance. Or one producer may provide the different services to different customers. Hannagan.[task1] What is quality management? Theorists have noted that Quality Management i s the process of ensuring that things are done right the first time. In summary.184) stated that Quality Management is "an intensive. which instils the shift. (2002. incorporating internal customers in the process of Quality in terms of service: Quality in service is defined by Bolton and Drew (1991) as the customer¶s assessment of the overall excellence or super iority of the service. These are all because of the uncertainty of human being. This is done through participative management.the redesign of the organizational structure.

For example. like the massage. the company which practices the best quality control will be successful. The simplest way to find out quality excellence in business is by consulting staff and customers. [task1] Quality in terms of customer satisfaction: . Refined to a dogma of business buzz words. The method of consultation can vary. Once the business has established that changes are necessary. how do they go about making those changes? Regardless of the way the data was gathered. the most successful companies will be more efficient. 1996). Quality in terms of business: In the competitive world of business. Ask if there is anything they can think of that would improve the business or the service it provides or there are specific problems that need to be addressed. the customer is enjoying the service at the same time. 1985. a forum could be held with a representative cross section of employees or customers. So this means that when a service is created and offers to the customer. the underlying concept is one of commitment to the ideal of customer satisfa ction through continuous improvement. more responsive.Third is the inseparabilit y. It may be best to use a written survey. haircut is the situation which the service affected by the requirement of th e customer. and so on. the issues will have to be analysed and addressed somehow. which would allow development and discussion of any issues arising. Service is not like a product which can be made and stored. To aid in the process of achieving better quality. produce and support the better products. especially dealing with large workforces or customers spread over a wide geographical area. Services¶ production and assumption are inseparability (Parasuraman et al. In short. This aspect also implies that the service quality can be controlled when the service being offered by producers or customers. Alternatively. the principle of Quality Management was invented.

The second measurement is company health status. 2003). I feel that they should get more quality than we just for the simple fact of comfortableness to draw out without being a new paradigm. One measurement is the outcome.existence of customer satisfaction measuring systems could cause the hotel companies to be lacking in market orie ntation. If one company is healthier than some other else that is terminal. attention and even research towards hospitality industry has been growing.Customer satisfaction is not an objective statistics but more of a feeling or attitude. If a customer is happy with a product or a service it has hired or purchase they will pay their bills promptly. Korea. individuals and nonThe third measurement is individual. Attributes of the service and product that add value for the customer and increase his or her satisfaction might be unknown and that gives no guide to the hotel operators for improvement projects. Company status of both. If outcome of an organization is negative then I will perceive the quality as negative also. Edvardsson (1996) reflected that the concept of quality should be approached from the customer's point of view. these research studies were mostly focused on Australia. which greatly improves cash flow -the lifeblood of any organization. today's business environment and the multicultural diversity of international tourists points to the importance of develo ping a better understanding of the culturally different tourist (Reisinger & Turner. 1999). As mentioned by Camison (1996). should be compared to peer practices. Furthermore. However. Customers may have different values and different grounds for asses sment and most of the time they may want to acquire the same service quality in different ways. Customer satisfaction can be secured through high quality products an d services (Getty & Getty. since it was his/her perception of the outcome that constituted the quality. [ task1] How quality can be measured? I believe that it will take at least four measurements to measure the quality of an organization. poorness or non . . the United States and Europe. Outcomes should be evidence-based processes. The concept of quality has been the subject of many research studies in variety of service industries.

manufactured a new service and sent it overnight. Customer satisfaction is seen as the company's highest priority. There are various schemes required to improve quality. Value expresses professionalism to the organization and is very important to both organizations and suppliers. quality has a customer -first orientation. Example: Here I have explained quality of the Hilton hotel. Hilton is sensitive to their customer requirements and responds rapidly to them. delivers her testimony of her quality -managed experience with Hilton. the fourth measurement is value. The process and a ccess of organization should be assessed. Hilton assumed total responsibility for the service error. The company can only realize success if their customers are satisfied with the quality of the information and product provided. If they are not satisfied then they do not believe that there was quality involved at all. where the customer supplies much of the needed information when designing their own computers based on their own research of service products. Benchmarking. The main four are that Quality Circles. . Ashley Loran. [Task2] Quality schemes adopted by the commercial operators: To implement quality successfully commercial operators continuously ensure performance by creating a culture involving all internal and external customers. As a total quality management company. a recent Hilton customer. These customers will have an input in the end result of the product or service and as such the organisation will have satisfied the customers' requirements/concerns.customer satisfaction. Hilton receives a fair amount of information from the internet for the quality measurement . As Hilton exemplifies above. Statistical Process Control and I have also discussed the rationale behind these systems. Last but not least. Just-in-Time.

needed. which may be applied to specific areas in an effort to identify what is done differently and how it is accomplished. a llowing the workers regardless of their positions to make valid contributions. Supplies are received only when This eliminates wastage and storage facilitates and minimizes cost. mostly those that are similar to the organization in question or best in the field. If teams are to function well management must give the necessary support and time for teams to meet. There are four types of benchmarking. Type Internal Functional Generic Competitive Just in time: Function Comparing operations across your business Comparison of business activities within the same industry Comparing business activities not related to a specific industry Comparing your activities to other competitors Just in Time is an inventory control system where efficient production processes help reduce inventory levels (Lean Manufacturing). This method has been said to originate in Japan and involves participative management. is established by voluntary teams comprising of six to ten individuals from the same area or unit. services and or products by collecting and analyzing data. which are either implemented by the team or in most cases presented to management for review and then possible implementation. This comparison is achieved through reviewing the business operations. As . Benchmarking: Benchmarking is achieved through comparison with other organizations. The group meets on a regular basis to discuss and decide on solutions to solving problems.Quality Circle: Quality Circles (QC) is approached to control and improve products or processes within organisations. as well as finances to facilitate training for team members and the implementation of solutions. It is a means of measuring performance.

Stati ti al SP trol ith the aim to improve on his is carried out y is used to monitor and measure processes consistency of uality for products through statistical analysis. if not. ontrol chart hese enefits of SP cannot e obtained immediately by all organi ations. sampling using control charts.such. hich ould affect production time and customers y lost of orders. he process involves collecting data at different stages of the production process through inspection techni ues to track variation . . ucts have t eet e-i entified ualit standards. SP requires defined processes and a discipline of following the m. this result in the failure of having ack on at the time needed for processing. It requires a climate in which personnel are not punished when problems are detected and strong management commitment. as st ck anufacturing. ill not e stored at a arehouse to replace defective products during ith this t pe of system there is the need for management to have defined lines of communication no stock to fall ith oth staff and suppliers.

teams have carried out research that may require them to be out of the office on various occasions. They need to continually reassess to meet changing needs.is a common management process . Leaders have the plan to communicate with others in organization and organizing the implementation of the plans have been talking to others about how to better distribute power. Record keeping is an important key role of an organizer and the main aspect is to assist planning and set future learning goals to the learner. personal situations may change and they may need to be considered to assist the employee to complete their training. Here SPC plays a critical role. gestures.Similarities and differences of the process es: Team improvement quality gives a sense of accomplishment. Here supervisor is communicating the worker¶s assigned work area. verbal communication would . or facial expressions. and design work. Records may contain company¶s physical information as well as manager¶s observation on the performance. Example: In Hilton organization co-workers communicate amongst themselves through proper communication.planning. If it is a noisy factory. which enables team members to drive the project. Benchmarking method is simply like quality circle to work from the smallest to the largest organisation can tailor methods to suit its individual needs.g. organization. e. or desired production for the day. command and control thread. verbal communication would be ineffective so employees of this organization communicate nonverbally with hand signals. This results in loss of time in labour. Benchmarking and quality circle allow an organisation to continually meet the changes within its environment by recognizing its flaws and improving on them. SPC received from research and be reported to the relevant persons to avoid discord and misunderstanding which will hinder the process of effective implementation. Benchmarking uses manpower . [task2] Importance of communication and record keeping quality sc hemes: Communication .

Keeping records of lesson plans and scheme of work enables the manager of the Hilton to reflect on how their quality scheme plans are progressing.. the idea of normative expectation was introduced and the wording of expectation statements was changed from ³A compa ny should have. It carries the possibility to assist in the development of new tactics and to continuously monitor where/who would benefit from adjustments. Parasuramen (1991) argued that excellent service is similar to the ideal standard used in the satisfaction literature. equity and experiences are some of the standards most frequently employed (Woodruffet.´ to ³An excellent company will have. Such an approach has caused confusion and some past research has not specified which standard should be sued for assessing service quality and customer information. 1991). Tas (1993) identified several problems regarding this concept. However. or important information needs to be communicated.´ to capture the new co nceptualization. in certain situations the perceived quality may decline even if the perception exceeded the ideal expectation.work fine..a point that threatened validi ty of the survey outputs. [task3] Relation between quality and the information given to customer: The relationship of quality and the information given to the customer . There are various ways through which small and medium type . relevant information reveals that the choice of standard is an issue customer expectation. He pointed out that according to the gap model. Desires. According to the researcher quality is the gap between customer information and perceived performance. but if vast amounts. Importance of affective marketing: Affective marketing for business is very important as it aids in the growth and profit for business. Therefore. This form of record has the benefit of allowing the management to critically evaluate the process on an individual basis and the implementing techniques they use to transmit knowledge. written communication would be the best choice. He also showed that interpretation of the ideal service customer information performance varied among respondents.

This will help you a great deal as people love free and discount offers. [ task3] Difference in benefits between user and non -user surveys to determine customer needs: Customer needs are the basis thing for a success business. it will cost much less than the big budget ads created by the reputed brands and also will help in promoting business. There are several tips is identified by user based survey for the benefit : (1)A customer is the most important person in any business. (7)A customer deserves the most courteous attention we can give him. not an outsider. (2)A customer is not dependent on us. So for these customers. When one is marketing for business. (3)A customer is not an interruption of our work. Moreover. He is the purpose of it.business marketing at a very reasonable budget. A good way to learn to do something better is to observe in action those who do it very well. As many of the customers don¶t want to pay the price because they consider it to be high. At the beginning it is required trying to include some offers in advertisement. (5)A customer is an essential part of our business. A short and simple advertisement is much appealing than a lengthy and boring one. Advertising is an important part in marketing for business. always keep a cheaper version of product in stock. In order to know your customers first of all is to know what a customer is. and it is a very important strategy in marketing for small business. (6)A customer is not just money in the cash register. (4)A customer does us a favor when he comes in. The company who know their customers better than anyone else has more chance to success. . selling product cheaper and in smaller packages is a smart business strategy.

and focus group interviews. You need show them how to do on-the-spot market research. Gennard & Judge (1997) explain that employee involvement schemes can thrive where both management and employees are willing to be open in their attitude and behaviour. And each of them can function as a valuable data collection centre. the relationship can¶t be successful. They are kinds of sort of frontline radar. an early warning system. These are the best opportunities to learn about customers need. employee support gained by . The employees can be your best secret weapon in the war to win customers. It is a serious mistake to attempt to launch a survey initiative in an organization benefit which has internal problems or issues that may be counterproductive to the new service culture. There are numerous ways to gather qualitative and quantitative data. It allows employee participation and employee support through mutual agreement. on-site interviews. The employees represent one of most valuable means for gathering information about customers. Unless an atmosphere of trust is in the air. they are the first source of information. allowing employee agreement not by force. opportunistic interviews. participation. operating in a background with no disputes and confrontation.(8)Without him we would have to close our doors. These special data are the most common means for segmenting market and for identifying new targets wish to reach with your product or service. Among the most common qualitative research tools are: face to face in -depth interviews. Non user surveys provide the profile of average customer. telephone interviews. [task3] Consultation suggestion scheme to encourage under -represented group: Employee involvement scheme: Employee involvement scheme is one of the quality schemes that can help where both management and employees are willing to be open in their attitude and behaviour. Other radar stations for gathering customer information are at refund and exchange counters.

However it is still upon management to make the final decisions but management takes into account the views of employees before making the decisions. We can use this option as it will lead to direct participation from employees. . ITV¶s approach to employee relations is based on engaging with its employees. The information gained from complaints should be used to inform and improve practice within the both the company and the delivery network. If this is the case then the detail of the conversation will be recorded. In most cases this will be a written acknowledgement using e -mail or letter. collective bargaining. [task3] Complaints procedures: The purpose of an effective complaints procedure is to ensure all complaints are resolved quickly and efficiently. It should also be used to influence the executive board of the Investors in People UK in defining and setting organizational strategies. consultation with elected employee representatives and direct engagement with individuals. In Hilton hotel complaints are handled by q uality projects manager who will then ensure that the complainant receives some form of response. such as. The management of the Hilton hotel is required to investigate complaints against organisations that are located in their defined geographic locations. It is believed that employees become well informed about company operations and therefore choose to support management initiatives. regardless of whether the quality management department has previously been responsible for assessment and review of the organisation concerned. It is a face-to-face communication scheme that encourages a dialogue between management and employee representatives. CIPD (2004) report on agenda for change mentions ITV¶s EI initiatives. unless the complainant¶s preferred communication method in the telephone.In Consultation employees exchange views and information. The credibility of the Investors in a company is paramount and it should be perceived as a benchmark of quality. It achieved this by a combination of methods.

and cultural designs. and academia information prior to implementing the change as to its level of readiness and risks if the organization decide s to implement the change initiative for different levels of planned changes. researchers. This article summarizes aspects of a more . which may have a bearing upon which version of the Standard the organization. should the complaint require formal investigation.In Accor Group hotels details of the complaint and associated information will then be entered into the Investors in People Enquiry Management System Database. The assessment method utilizes a mixed methodology using a combination of qualitative and quantitative techniques to determine the organization's readiness to change. An integrated approach is to conduct an organizational self-assessment with a purpose to assess an organization's readiness and risk for a planned change. which should be quoted on all written correspon dence. the quality projects manager will check the following information using the National Database of all the organisations that have achieved the Standa rd:  Whether the hotel in question is recognised as an Investor  The recognition or last review date. The results of this study are intended to provide guidance to assess the others who may develop similar initiatives in the future. Once the complaint has been received in database. has been assessed against. With the aid of self assessment the level of risk to change provides an insight on the organization's alignment to their strategic. The self-assessment utilizes a multi-dimensional approach and incorporates an organizational analysis to assess its supportive organizational climate and cultura l analysis to assess the strength of its organizational culture. The significance in providing such insight provides organizational leaders. consultants. [task4] Role of Self assessment in order to determine organization health: Self-assessment is the process of critically reviewing the quality of one¶s own performance and provision to assess the other organization . A risk analysis is deter mined by the difference between the level and type of planned change initiative and the organization's readiness to change. climate. Each complaint will automatically receive a numeric identifier.

particularly when they have no choice in the matter. disability. restructuring. The effects of re-structuring can be huge and lead to low morale. cultural changes. and feeling side stepped and undervalued. services and functions do not have an adverse impact on staff from different quality target groups through systematic quality impact assessments and promoting equality at every opportunity. consulting staff on the effects of change. and other interventions in an attempt to successfully implement change initiatives. and where all customers can expect to receive the same quality and outcomes of service irrespective of ethnicity. and how the organization can best support the m is a powerful and motivational process. software/technological development and implementation. in workforce and in the services it offer by: y Ensuring policies. consultation w ould happen before major change occurs. drawing out their best strategies and ideas for moving forward with the change. A plethora of organizational change self assessment technique can help to intervention and strategies have been attempted to align organizations in implementing change initiatives. downsizing. Either way. but sometimes this is not possible. Ideally. Organization doesn¶t like change. . Organizations have invested into reengineering. gender. age. insecurity. religion or belief. sexual orientation. mergers and acquisitions. Staff consultation is committed to putting the following schemes of quality and diversity into practice.comprehensive work concerned with the conditions and attributes of successful organizational change. y Improving customer satisfaction by aiming to provide information and services that are equally accessible to all sections of the community. [task4] Staff consultation for effective implementation: Processes for finding out staff consultation think are particularly valuable when a team / organization is facing change and re -structuring for quality development . total quality management.

seven-point Likert Scale where all of the issues were directly applicable to a hotel. Implementation: First. and consists of a 22 -item. understanding gap between the expectation and the received service can be a key source of the service quality. According to Saleh and Ryan (1991). [task4] A new system to improve service quality: Service quality is defined as the degree of excellence intended that meets customer requirements (Wyckoff. y Developing a diverse workforce that is representative of the population of the community that we serve enabling us to develop our ability to understand and reflect the diverse needs of patients and staff and provide a more appropriate and responsive service. Carey (2003) points out the service quality. Therefore. a survey instrument that measures service quality. Here we have introduced a new system to improve the service quality which is known as SERVQUAL. the result of a comparison between the expectations of a customer and the actual service they received. Not only the quantitative data but also qualitative research will be used to identify the service quality gaps . to adopt SERVQUAL scheme on the Hilton hotel. 1992). it was initially devised for the assessment of services within the financial sector. quantitative research will be used and the data are from existing the company¶s record. Consulting effectively and enabling a wide range of people to be involved in shaping the way that they work. y Skilling our workforce to understand and apply quality and diversity in their roles through comprehensive mandatory equality and diversity training. y Enabling our workforce to feel positive about the organization in which they work by involving them in its continuous review and improvement. However.y Striving to become a model organization and model employer and mainstreaming equality and diversity principles proactively in all that it does.

the quality of the interactive service between hotelier and the guest can be possibly long term and this can be why the improving service quality is important to hotel. The staffs of the Hilton can have in-depth and face-to-face interviews. the sport activity GOs. As discussed above. the front desk has high level of contact with guests and also the reception desk will receive the majority of guest complaints .which brought to inconsistency between the guest expect ations and the guest perceptions. Both service quality theories and models¶ measurement is a customer satisfaction. Therefore hotels need to manage the service quality with various theories and methods. T his provided the researcher to recognize which department has the most contact with the general manager. The interviewees will be included the reception GOs. if the Hilton hotel uses the service quality. Conclusion: The quality of service will be a major component of the future hospitality industry continuously. Accordingly. Next step is for sampling procedures and in the process the reception desk or the front desk will allow information relate guest complaints. this report has applied new scheme and on the hotel to identify the service gaps. The any efforts from hotel¶s marketing cannot be stand on long term period solely. they can reduce gap and provide customer satisfaction. the whole of departments should link and think about the service quality together so the all of employees and the senior mangers generate continuous improvements. Thus to improve a hotel or resort¶s service quality with customer satisfaction. However. It is because of in many hotels. . the bar and restaurant GOs and whoever village GOs to identify the gap.

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