Muhammad Rizqi A.

American Studies English Department, Letters and Fine Arts Faculty Sebelas Maret University

The Construction of Black Feminism Thoughts in Precious (2009) In 2009, an American drama film entitled Precious: Based on the Novel ‘Push’ by Saphire or simply called as Precious was produced. The media mogul, Oprah Winfrey was interested to promote it widely by taking the position as the executive producer. The reason of Oprah’s interest to the film was unquestionable. For so long, she has always been known for her deep concern on women’s issues, and this is the film all about. Precious is a film which film tells about the life of a fat young Black woman namely Clareece Precious Jones (Gabourey Sidibe) in 1985 US. In the age of 16, Precious now bears second child from her own father. Yes, she is raped twice by her own biological father. She only lives with her mother, Mary Jones (Mo’Nique) and she lives in a living hell with her. Her monstrous mother always tortures her as an expression of her depression of not being able to protect Precious from her lover’s raping as well as her anger and jealousy. For her solid acting as monstrous mother, Mo’Nique was then awarded an Oscar in 2010. Precious is then expelled from her school and is transferred to an alternative school in which she meets an inspiring lesbian teacher, Miss Blu Rain (Paula Patton). In this new school Precious finds new friends as well as new family. This Oscar winning film is about self-empowering and self-encouraging for black women and women of color in general. Therefore, Precious inarguably incorporates Black Feminism ideas within. Black Feminism is a branch of feminism that specifically addresses the issues of Black women. Precious could be used as a perfect model to understand surface or deeper concept about Black Feminism. It could be done through analyzing how this film embodies Black Feminism ideas through its three major characters Mary Jones, Precious and her lesbian teacher, Ms. Blu Rain.

Black Feminism: an Overview Unlike white women, Black women suffered from multiple oppressions by being Black and women at the same time. In addition, the concept of minority race and sex cuts across with their status as a lower class citizen. The multiple oppressions experienced by Black women, ironically, were not


accommodated in movements that were supposed to fight for them like Women’s Movement and Black Liberation Movement. Women’s Movement was actually formed in response to sexist conduct experienced by women (Lewis, 1977, p. 339). Women, at the times of its formation, were oppressed in terms of being excluded from public activism. They were required to linger on the domestic sphere. However, the term “women” actually refers not to all women in different races and classes. Women, in traditional Women’s Movement refer specifically to white middle class women (ibid). They –white middle class womenwere domesticated by sexism. It became their sole source of oppression. On the other hand, Black women had more source of oppression despite sexism. Traditional Women’s Movement was dominated by white middle-class women. Thus, it is no wonder that the early Women’s Movement fought specifically for the rights of White middle-class women (for example the rights to vote which was not given to Black women until 1960s). Early Black woman figure who had been able to recognize this unfair conduct was Sojourner Truth as represented in her speech entitled “Ain’t I a woman?” The title connotes that her existence as a woman was denied and unheeded by Women’s Movement because they she is not a white women. Black women experienced racism within Women’s Movement in forms of Black women exclusion from discussions which did not address issues of Black women or the third world Women (“But Some of Us Are Brave: A History of Black Feminism in the United States”, n.d.; Bryson, 2003, p. 227). Ironically, many white feminist believed that they did not conduct racism because they argued that they were already oppressed. Thus, they could not oppress others since they had no power to do so (ibid). Therefore, it led Black women to mistrust Women Movement (Lewis, 1977, p. 339). As in the Black Liberation Movement, Black women experienced sexism. The source of sexist conduct in this movement itself can be traced back to slavery years. The most tragic effect of slavery and racism is the loss of manhood (“But Some of Us Are Brave: A History of Black Feminism in the United States”, n.d.). Black men failed to protect their women from being abused. Therefore, they felt powerless and helpless. Black Liberation Movement, then, was understood as the movement of not only liberating Black race, but also restoring Black men’s masculinity, power and manhood (ibid). Therefore, Black men dominated and led the movement while at the same time suggesting Black women to take domestic sphere. Black women, however, could not resist much about this sexist conduct as they believed that “demand rights as black first, women second” (Lewis, 1977, p. 347). Some even believed


that Black women’s proper place was one step behind the men to bear and rear the warriors for the struggle (ibid, p. 348). Sexism and racism intersected with the Black women’s oppression in the work field causing them to find it difficult to improve their class status. Many Black women in the 70s – 80s had enough quality to be placed as white collar workers or professionals, yet they ended only in the labor force (Combahee River Collective, 1977.). A study conducted to examine blue collar black women also revealed that sexism is the key to the black poverty (Lewis. 1977, p. 359). Unlike the middle class white women, black women were able to work outside domestic area. However, many of them were lowly paid and even had jobs considered as “hazardous, dirty or immoral” (King, 1988, p. 65; Collins, 2000, p. 46). Even, Collins (2000) states that Black women were exploited by US capitalism industry for its cheaper or even, free wages (p. 4). Organizations that supposed to fight for the betterment of labor workers such as the American Federation of Labor (AFL) also excluded women and Black women in particular from their agenda (King, 1988, p. 64). Therefore, Black women who faced multiple oppressions were left with no medium that specifically addressed their own distinctive needs. The multiple oppressions that intersected one into another -sexism, racism and classism- was responded with the establishment of Black feminist organizations such as National Black Feminist Organizations (NBFO) in 1973 and Combahee River Collective (1974). Those Black feminist organizations specifically addressed the multi oppression issues experienced by Black women. The aim of the Black feminist organizations was to develop an awareness of Black feminist thought that promotes Black women self-awareness and self-empowerment (Collins, 2000, p. 22). By self-awareness, it means that Black women needed to actively recognize their multiple sources of oppression. Black Feminism developed the idea that their source of the oppressions did not stand alone. They all intersected and crossed cut one to another in oppressing Black women (King, 1988, p. 72; Bryson, 2003, pp. 227-228). The prevailing myths such as Black women were already liberated and racism as the sole source of oppression should be denied (“But Some of Us Are Brave: A History of Black Feminism in the United States”, n.d.). By self-empowerment, it means that Black women should rely and depend on their own selves. Black women do not need to rely on others to define themselves. Black women must set their own standard and priorities different from white women or men’s (King, 1988, p. 72).
We will strengthen the current efforts of the Black Liberation struggle in this country by encouraging all of the talents and creativities of black women to emerge, strong and beautiful, not to feel guilty or divisive, and assume positions of leadership and honor in the black community (NBFO-Statement of Purpose, n.d.).


Black Feminism is also characterized with its commitment not to be a separatist group, to stand in opposition to Black men. Black Feminism tries to work along with Black men to eliminate racism and at the same time educate them about sexism (ibid). Black Feminism, in the end, has given a big contribution in developing feminism itself. It broadens and enriches feminist thoughts so that it appeals more than just to white middle class women.

Mary Jones and Precious Jones: The Problems Faced by Black Women The intersections of race, sex and class produces multiple oppressions towards Black women. As the result, Black women face complex problems. Starting from this theory, Precious starts to elaborate it. This film introduces complex problems faced by Black women as represented by Clareece Precious and Mary Jones.

Figure 1

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The opening scene of the movie is shown in the Figure 1 depicting Precious (the girl in the black polka dot shirt) and a motherly figure in an orange gown shot in a high-key lightened room. Then, the scene gradually dissolves as the motherly figures walk away furthering Precious. It is then replaced by a total black image with introductory information “Harlem 1987”. The scene is also accompanied by musical background of a music box. The scene is probably a good introductory to Precious problems. This scene is just an imagination constructed by the fairy dressed motherly figure, the high-key lighting and the musical instrument. But then, everyone must wake up and face their real lives. Thus, figure 2 literally becomes ‘the exit way’ for Precious. Spectators are then introduced to the real Precious in Figure 3. The alley shot in low-key lighting completes her already messy hair and dressing. Precious’s facial expression also shows one that is not happy, very different from figure 1. This introductory scene sums up Precious’s desire that is to have a motherly figure because she has a monstrous mother.


Figure 4

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Figure 6

In the other scene, Precious’ monstrous mother is introduced. Mary Jones is a powerful Black woman. Yet, at the same time she is also a fragile woman because she feels helpless when her boyfriend (Carl Kenwood Jones ) raped Precious. She could only stand outside the door room watching her boyfriend’s incest infidelity as shown in the figure 4. This also becomes the examples of black women subordination since the prevailing values in the Black community state that “sisters do not challenge brothers” (“But Some of Us Are Brave: A History of Black Feminism in the United States”, n.d.). Mary Jones cannot act much as she feels she should be obedient so that her boyfriend can love and make love to her back. Her stress, anger and jealousy transform her into a monstrous figure. In Figure 5, she is shot from low angle. This is also the very first clear image of Mary Jones in the movie. It builds up the atmosphere of her as a powerful woman who has control over her surrounding. She often hurts Precious physically. In Figure 6, she is depicted throwing Precious’s head with ashtray. On the finale scene of the movie, it is revealed that Mary Jones blame Precious for everything that happen. She blames her because Precious does not resist or even scream when his father abuses her. Precious’s remaining silent is also a vivid proof of Black women subordination to Black male. Historically, Black women’s subordination can be traced back to the slavery era. Black female slaves were often sexually abused by their white master. The husbands of the abused Black female slaves were unable to resist. They could not ask for justice since their existence was not legally recognized at that time. Helpless and frustrated Black male slaves then expressed their anger and jealousy in forms of violence to their abused wives or even, abandoning them (Kamara, n.d.). This affected to the Black family culture even until now. In Precious, Mary Jones’ boyfriend who is also Precious’s father deserts his family. In the finale scene, Mary Jones admits that his boyfriend already abused Precious from the age of three. She could not resist or stand up against him, since “sisters do not challenge brothers”. Mary Jones also acts so because it is what is considered to be “the right” way as being taught by her mother. Thus, it shows that the notion about Black women subordination is perpetuated in the Black culture. To become a desirable Black woman then one must always obey her husband’s request. Moreover, after the passing of Civil Rights Act in 1965, Black men implicitly started


to gain its “manhood” back. Thus, in the following years, Black men would try to restore its masculinity and it is done by placing themselves higher than Black women even, through violence ways.

Figure 7

Figure 8

The stereotype of Black male’s superiority is also shown in figure 7 and 8. When Precious walks home from school, she passes a gang of young Black males. She looks at them as they yell and start seducing her. The Black males insulted her big body by calling her “orca”. However, eventually these Black males ask Precious to allow them touch her ass. When Precious does not respond and just pass them on, one of them secretly approaches and pushes her down brutally, causing her fainted. Carl Kenwood Jones and the young Black male gang represent the stereotype of Black male i.e. brutal people and rapist. They represent Black male’s superiority who always wants to be heeded and obeyed. They represent Black male’s value that does not want to be objected. They represent the everyday problems faced by Black women. Black male’s domination is also one of the issues fought by Black feminism.

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In the first 20 minutes of the film, there is a scene taking place in Precious’s room. It shows the wall of her room covered with many white women celebrity posters (see figure 9). After exposing the room, the camera moves to Precious who is preparing to go to school. She sits facing a mirror. However, the mirror does not reflect her big fat Black body. Instead, it reflects a skinny white woman who has


wavy long blonde hair (see figure 10). Mary Jones also loves watching television program depicting white women. She even tried to have the look of white women by wearing brown-blonde wig, even though she never uses it outside her house (see Figure 11 and 12). This scene reveals more problems faced by not only Precious and Mary Jones, but also by most Black women i.e. problems about the myth of beauty. Mary Jones’ hobby, watching television, serves as escapism. She escapes to the realm of imagination. Figure 12 shows her trying to have more beautiful hair like white women. She always covers her hair with wig because her original hair is so curly that make her difficult to comb. She does not feel beautiful with that. As for Precious, she is constructed by her experience of oppression and violence. And, the way she actually wants to feel is represented in the way she sees her self in the mirror (see Figure 10). She always longs to be normal. By normal, it means that by becoming skinny white blonde girl. The white woman figure is the representation of Precious’ inner desire. Her room wall is covered by white women celebrity posters. They become the source of “beauty” standard for Precious. This is actually a naïve desire. Many Black women actually faced the same problem. They long to be as “beautiful” as White women. They long to have lighter skin, blonde hair and skinny body. But, it is just a wishful thinking. They cannot really realize their fantasy and dream. Black women cannot instantly have lighter skin or blonde hair. Thus, it can be concluded that Mary Jones and Precious Jones represent Black women trapped within white women beauty myth.

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The last problem represented in the movie is about social class. It is very often when Precious passes out; she is drowned into the realm of imagination. There are five scenes showing Precious’s imagination. Two imaginations are about family, other two are about the wildest fantasy i.e. becoming rich, famous and loveable. One remains is about both (see figure 1). Figure 1 is a fantasy about family and also about pure fantasy. It can be noted from the polka dot clothing, make up and accessories worn by Precious that shows her glamorous style that are constantly repeated in other scenes. The scene is followed by Precious’ introductory monologue:


My name is Clareece "Precious" Jones. I wish I had a light-skinned boyfriend with real nice hair. And I wanna be on the cover of a magazine. But first, I wanna be in one of them BET videos.

Precious’s monologue clearly states her desire i.e. to be famous. It is also emphasized in other two imagination scenes (see Figure 13 and 14). Precious’ imagination to be rich, famous and loveable is represented in the mise-en-scéne of imagination scenes. It is observable from the glamorous dress (fury dress), catchy make up and hair do and also she positions herself as the centre of the spotlight. Unlike the naïve desire –to be as “beautiful” as white women – this desire is actually achievable. The desire to increase her social status is not an impossible thing to do. In the film, it is narrated that Precious’ family depends on AFDC program (Aids to Families with Dependent Children). This program financially helped American family which has low or no income. Mary Jones is unemployment. She relies on this program to keep on living. To gain this financial aid, she constantly needs to see social workers who will interview her. Sometimes, social workers will drop by the house to check and validate the data. During the house visit, Mary Jones is questioned whether she already has a job or not. She replies that she has already filed to some vacancies but none calling her. Although she might be lying, her statement can be used as an indicator that it is hard for Black women to get job. It is also supported by numerous scenes in the Citizen Advice Bureau that show numbers of Black women trying to get the AFDC support. One way to better social class status is actually through education, and it also becomes an issue raised in the movie. Even though Precious has gone to school for several years, she is still illiterate. Her mother also discourages her to continue schooling after she gets expelled because of her pregnancy. The education issue in Black community in 70s was an up and down history. Before the passing of Civil Rights Act 1964, the number of Black women who had higher or better education was high. It was because they were required to be teacher at segregation school. However, after the Act was passed, the number of Black women going to school lowered (Lewis, 1977, pp. 349 – 357). The lower education rank also becomes the reason why Black women had lower class social status. They were denied from public works because of inadequate education. However, Precious decides to continue her education at an alternative school ‘Each One Teach One’ in which she met her inspiring teacher, Ms. Blu Rain.


Ms. Blu Rain: The Black Feminism Embodiment Mary Jones and Clareece Precious Jones represent the problems or issues concerning Black women. It ranges from sexism within black community where Black women are required to be submissive, naïve desire (longing for the White beauty myth) and also about class status betterment. These issues are some points that are fought by Black feminism. Ms. Blu Rain who also fights for these issues can then be considered as the representation of Black feminist in the movie.

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The above figures are scenes showing Precious enters the room which is taught by Ms. Blu Rain for the very first time. It is filmed in high-key lighting. In this movie, the high-key lighting is always used when Precious enters the realm of imagination (see Figure 1, 13 and 14). The question remains then whether the scene in figure 15 and 16 is only imagination or not. Apparently it is a reality, as the scene gradually employs normal-key lighting. Ms. Blu Rain is a Black woman character that embodies the ideas of Black feminism. Black Feminism most important idea is about self-awareness and self-empowerment (Collins, 2000, p. 22), and it all exists in Ms. Blu Rain. She works in an alternative school “Each One Teach One”. This alternative school is a special place to deal with children who have problems in the previous school such as engaged in violence, drugs addict, becoming prostitute and got pregnant. In this school, Ms Blu Rain’s duty is not only to teach, but also to empower her students. Unlike in public school, the “Each One Teach One” only has several students. In “Each One Teach One”, there were six students (five females and one male) who come from minority races: African American and Latin American (see figure 16 and 17). In the very first meeting of the class, Ms. Blu Rain asked their students to introduce themselves. Below is the dialogue when Precious gets her turn.
P: B: P: B: P: My name Clareece "Precious" Jones. I go by Precious. I live in Harlem. I like yellow. And I had problems at my other school, so I come here. Something you do well? Nothing. Everybody's good at something. Come on. Well, I can cook. And ... I never really talked in class before.


B: P:

How does that make you feel? Here. It makes me feel here.

(P: Precious, B; Ms. Blu Rain)

When Precious does not state the “something she does well” part, Ms. Blue rain insists on asking her. She empowers her by saying “Everybody's good at something. Come on”. Her role in this alternative school requires her to not only act as a teacher who keeps on teaching, but also as friend who must understand and finally empower her children. It can be observed, firstly by her appearance. Ms. Blu Rain always wears simple costume. Her choice of color is always simple but strong color like black, red or simple pastel. Her make up and her hairdo are also not fancy. She also has an eagle eye. She has sharp looking eyes that show her strength. Unlike Mary Jones, another powerful character in this movie, Ms. Blu Rain possesses her power not through violence or cinematographic elements that signify power and strength (see figure 5 and 6). Her power is shown in scenes showing her empowering her students, including Precious.

Figure 18

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The close up shot in figure 17 and

20 shows both expressions of Ms. Blu Rain and Precious. This

scene happens in Ms. Blu Rain’s office where she specially teaches Precious how to read when she finds out that Precious is not able to read. She forces Precious to read not through violence. Rather, she forces her through her firm sound and her straight gaze. In this scene, there are also extreme close up shots of Ms. Blu Rain’s lips to signify how she forces Precious to push her limits to read. Ms. Blu Rain’s eye gaze is also another factor is used as her weapon to force Precious. Her power is shown through that ways, unlike Mary Jones who employs violence to force Precious to obey her. Education is a crucial issue for Ms. Blu Rain. She believes that education is the gate for everyone to better their lives, including social status. Thus she states that the class is a “revolving door” for her students. The lower class status possessed by most Black families and women in particular stems in the lack of proper education. It is also supported by the Black’s consciousness which places education on the lower ground. This is what Ms. Blu Rain tries to fight. To better social class, one must gain higher education. This is also what Black Feminism tries to fight. Black Feminism tries to raise Black women’s awareness about the importance of education to eliminate class-based discrimination. In educating her

students, Ms. Blu Rain has her own unique way i.e. by having their students write journals to track their feelings, experiences, dreams, hopes and fears. She will read the journals and write back about her thoughts including her suggestions. This journal also becomes a weapon for her to empower her students. By writing journals, Ms. Blu Rain’s students are expected to recognize their own fear and the source of the fear. In other words, it will make them aware of themselves. This is also another key idea in Black Feminism i.e. self-awareness to identify the key source of oppressions (Collins, 2000, p. 22). After the meeting with Ms. Blu Rain, Precious decides that she needs to focus on her own future. Firstly, she needs to recognize the source of her oppression. In her case, the source of her oppression is her father’s infidelity and her mother’s violence. Before meeting Ms. Blu Rain, Precious always lies to the social worker about her life to get AFDC. She denies that she has children from her father. She denies that she has harmonious relationship with her mother. She always lives in denial. But finally, she admits that she has been raped by her father in an interview with social worker. She finally admits that her mother always tortures her. Precious has finally been able to identify her source of her oppression. By doing this, she has been one step closer to liberate her self. This is what Black Feminism tries to promote i.e. to recognize the source of the oppression. In the end of the story, Precious is told to have high reading and writing score that will enable her to continue her education to college and university. Therefore, she hopes that her future will be brighter. There is also a changing paradigm in her mind set. If her mother, Mary Jones, dissuades Precious to continue her education, she instead wants her children to know all the things that she learns and more. There is a changing paradigm in two generations of Black women here that represents Black Feminism gradually will achieve its goals in increasing selfawareness within Black women community.

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In the journal, Precious keeps on writing how she longs to be normal. She wants to have lighter skin, blonde hair and skinny body. She wants to be “beautiful” like white women. Ms. Blu Rain replies that she is beautiful as she is. She writes that she does not need to feel sorry for how she looks because she is already beautiful. The common problem for most Black women is embodied in Precious. She wants to have the normal look of white women (see Figure 10). Black Feminism tries to confront this.

Black Feminism tries to, once again, empower Black women so they are not trapped by the false standard of beauty. It is just a naïve desire. Ms. Blu Rain’s empowerment then resembles the ideas of Black Feminism. Her empowerment also works satisfactorily. In figure 10, Precious’ reflection in mirror is a skinny white girl, but in figure 24, Precious’ reflection is herself i.e. a fat young Black woman. The long shot shows her full body, from head to feet. It signifies that she now embraces her identity as a fat young Black woman, but she still feels beautiful and happy for what she is. Eventually, she does not need feel to be somebody else. She is not trapped in that naïve beauty myth. Ms. Blu Rain, therefore embodies the ideas of Black Feminism through her empowering characterizations. However, there is one more thing that tights her closely to Black Feminism. Ms. Blu Rain is an open lesbian Black woman. Lesbian plays a great role in Black Feminism history. Barbara Smith, one of the founders of NBFO is also a lesbian. When she was in that group, she experienced oppression within because she is a lesbian. According to Cherrie Moraga, embracing homosexual as one’s sexual orientation, lesbian for instance, in minority race is considered as conducting ‘genocide’ on her own race (as cited in Bryson, 2003, p. 203). Thus, lesbian Black women were discriminated by even heterosexual Black women and men. Being discriminated in NBFO, Barbara Smith then established the Combahee River Collective to address the interlocking oppression by sex, race, gender and heterosexuality. The lesbian Black feminists give a big contribution to Black Feminism. They developed Black Feminism thoughts to cope not only the experience of Black women but also to women of all color, homosexuals and all the other Third World minority women. Thus, in this movie Ms. Blu Rain becomes the perfect representation of this developed version of Black Feminism. Her students come from various minority races, from various women of color and men. Therefore, it fits to the latest model of Black Feminism that tries to respond to all forms of oppressions. Ms. Blu Rain’s empowerment is working. It is shown in the gradual shifting of Precious characterization. In the first half of the movie, Precious’ is always filmed in facial expressions

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Figure 27

that show depression and unhappiness. She is also constantly depicted to always imagine things in an alternate version. In the last half of the movie, Precious’ expression changes. She is filmed with more


laughs and smiles (see figure 25). She also never imagines that alternate version of life. In the final scene of the movie, Precious walks in a crowded path with both of her children. She walks in smiling face (see figure 26, 27). She states that she will go to college. She is also optimistic about her life although she realizes that she may not achieve her dreams because she is declared with HIV positive. Ms. Blu Rain is successful in empowering Precious.

Conclusion The filmic construction of Precious clearly shows that this film incorporates Black Feminism thoughts. The problems faced mostly by Black women are constructed in the complex characters of Mary Jones and Clareece Precious Jones. As for Black Feminism ideas, they are constructed through Ms. Blu Rain character. Mary and Precious Jones represent the stereotype of Black women who must always remain silent. They represent the idea that “sisters do not challenge brothers”. They cannot resist or stand up against them even though being abused sexually, physically or mentally. Mary and Precious Jones also represent the problems faced by most Black women i.e. being trapped in the white women’s myth of beauty as constructed through mirror Precious’s mirror reflection (see figure 10) and Mary Jones hobby in watching white women television program (by considering that television serves as means of escapism). The last problem to address is about social status of Black women. Precious’ constant imagination is to always become famous and rich. Black women lower class status is not produced out of nowhere. It is produced by the intersection of racism and sexism. By becoming Black and women, it makes Black women become the cheapest labor ever. The problem of being lower class status is elaborated more with the low awareness within Black women community to get higher education. They feel that having higher education would not help them better their lives since society still perpetuates the negative stereotypes on them as a member of minority groups (black and women respectively). The problems faced by Black women as represented by Mary and Precious Jones are contrasted with Black Feminism embodiment, Ms. Blu Rain. Unlike Mary and Precious, Ms. Blu Rain is not trapped in the naïve desire. She is also a powerful woman although she does not have large and big body. As an embodiment of Black Feminism, Ms. Blu Rain constantly empowers Precious. She empowers her to be faithful to herself. She tries to raise her self-awareness in order to recognize the source of her oppression and to get rid of it. She also empowers Precious to accept who she is as a fat young Black woman. And the last, Ms. Blu Rain successfully empowers Precious to continue her


education. Ms. Blu Rain is considered successful in transferring Black Feminism thoughts to Precious. It also resembles the success of Black Feminism. It is successful in influencing and enriching other areas of thought like feminism and social theory. Black Feminism has given a big contribution by opening the discussion about the intersections of sex, race and class (and sexual orientation for some) to understand oppressions in not only women, but also other minority groups. Before entering the credits part, there is a final scene in the film showing writing: “For Precious Girls Everywhere”. From this, it can be concluded that the film appeals not only to Black women, but also for women of all color similar to Black Feminism that addresses “all oppressed people” as written in “A Black Feminist Statement”.


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