# Gas Laws

Gases are subject to changes in: Pressure (absolute), Volume (m3), Temperature (absolute) i.e. 10° Celsius = 10 + 273 = 283K

Pressure (P) can be defined as Force per unit area and is measured in N/m2 (Newtons / squire metres) or Pa (Pascal). P Absolute = P Gauge + P Atmospheric

Figure 1: Atmospheric Pressure Atmospheric pressure is the force per unit area exerted against a surface by the weight of the air above that surface.

Figure 2: Bourdon Gauge
The pressure a gauge such as the bourdon gauge reads above the pressure of its surroundings.

An ideal gas has the following properties: A gas will spread or expand to fill any space available to it. The volume of gas molecules is neglected compared to the volume of a container. The molecules of gas are in rapid, random motion.

PV = Constant P1V1 = P2 V2 Charles' law Charles' law: At constant pressure. the volume of a gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature: V/T = constant V1/T1 = V2/T2 . the gas pressure is inversely proportional to the gas volume.Figure 3: Units for pressure Boyle's Law Boyles Law: At constant temperature.

V2. Combining Ideal Gas Laws: PV T P1 V1 T1 Equation of State of an ideal gas = P2 V2 T2 = Constant. Its numerical value depends on the units in which P.Combining Ideal Gas Laws Consider at constant mass. This rule is not obeyed exactly by any real gas but describes the behaviour of gases well enough for practical purposes.P1 to a final T2. an ideal gas is changed from initial properties T1. The value of the gas constant R depends on the nature of the gas. V. These laws can be developed incorporate mass (m) variation by using the gas constant for the specific gas (R) P/T * V/m = R constant. m and T are measured. In applying the gas rule absolute pressures and absolute temperatures must be used. A gas that is assumed to obey the ideal gas rule and also has a constant specific heat is called a perfect gas. This is normally written as: PV= mRT This is known as the ideal gas rule or the characteristic equation of an ideal gas.P2.V1. Figure 4 Values of the gas constant for important gases .

If the temperature and pressure 370K and 6atm at state 2 what is volume at state 2? 4. If the gas in question 3 cools down to 79 ° C and the volume 0. A gas under constant Pressure has a temperature of 9 ° C and volume of 1. What is the mass of the nitrogen? (R for nitrogen = 297 J/kg K) b. 120 litres in in in in in in in K J/kg K m3 Pa Pa Pa m3 2.1 m3 and a temperature 10 ° C at state 1.1 m3. what is the new volume? .120 kJ/kg K c.9 m3 at state 1. 10 ° C b. 0.39 m2. Express the following in their SI units: a. What is the temperature in SI units at state 2 if the volume increases to 3200 litres? 3.6 bar at 9 °C and has a volume of 2. 0. Temp & P are constant.769 bar g. More nitrogen is added and the mass increases to 6 kg. 0. a. A gas is under a Pressure of 1200mmHg and volume of 2. 12 mmHg e. 45 dm3 d.Problems Note: When Using the Gas Laws all the values must be converted to the SI units: Temperature (Kelvin) Pressure (Pa) Volume (m3) Gas Constant (J/kg K) Mass (kg) 1. A balloon is filled nitrogen at a pressure of 1.329 MPa f. what is the Pressure? 5.