SEMINAR REPORT

Submitted by
DERRICK INFORMATION SCIENCE 1EW07IS021

Department Of Information Technology
EAST WEST INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BANGALORE

3D Password

Seminar Report 10

CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION 2. WHAT IS AUTHENTICATION 3. AUTHENTICATION METHODS 4. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM 3 4 4 5 6 7 8 9 14 15 17 18 22 23 24

5. INNOVATIVE COMPONENT 6. WHAT IS 3D PASSWORD 7. STATE DIAGRAM 8. SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION 9. DESIGN OF 3D VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS 10. APPLICATION 11. SECURITY ANALYSIS 12. ATTACKS 13. CONCLUSION 14. FUTURE WORKS 15. REFERENCES

EAST WEST INSTITUTE OF TECH NOLOGY

DERRICK Page 2

3D Password

Seminar Report 10

INTRODUCTION
Users nowadays are provided with major password stereotypes such as textual passwords, biometric scanning, tokens or cards (such as an ATM) etc. Current authentication systems suffer from many weaknesses. Textual passwords are commonly used; however, users do not follow their requirements. Users tend to choose meaningful words from dictionary or their pet names, girlfriends etc. Ten years back Klein performed such tests and he could crack 10-15 passwords per day. On the other hand, if a password is hard to guess, then it is often hard to remember. Users have difficulty remembering a password that is long and random appearing. So, they create short, simple, and insecure passwords that are susceptible to attack. Which make textual passwords easy to break and vulnerable to dictionary or brute force attacks. Graphical passwords schemes have been proposed. The strength of graphical passwords comes from the fact that users can recall and recognize pictures more than words. Most graphical passwords are vulnerable for shoulder surfing attacks, where an attacker can observe or record the legitimate user¶s graphical password by camera. Token based systems such as ATMs are widely applied in banking systems and in laboratories entrances as a mean of authentication. However, Smart cards or tokens are vulnerable to loss or theft. Moreover, the user has to carry the token whenever access required. Biometric scanning is your "natural" signature and Cards or Tokens prove your validity. But some people hate the fact to carry around their cards, some refuse to undergo strong IR exposure to their retinas (Biometric scanning). In this paper, we present and evaluate our contribution, i.e., the 3-D password. The 3-D password is a multifactor authentication scheme. To be authenticated, we present a 3-D virtual environment where the user navigates and interacts with various objects. The sequence of actions and interactions toward the objects inside the 3-D environment constructs the user¶s 3-D password. The 3-D password can combine most existing authentication schemes such as textual passwords, graphical passwords, and various types of biometrics into a 3-D virtual environment. The design of the 3-D virtual environment and the type of objects selected d etermine the 3-Dpassword key space.

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you are asking to be authenticated to act on behalf of the account holder. that is. but no others . EAST WEST INSTITUTE OF TECH NOLOGY DERRICK Page 4 . For example. when you show proper identification credentials to a bank teller. If your authentication request is approved.3D Password Seminar Report 10 WHAT IS AUTHENTICATION? Authentication is the act of establishing or confirming something as authentic. or assuring that a computer program is a trusted on e. that claims made by or about the subject are true. tracing the origins of an artifact. ensuring that a product is what it¶s packaging and labeling claims to be. you become authorized to access the accounts of that account holder. This might involve confirming the identity of a person.

do a chemical analysis of the materials used. or compare the object to an old photograph. watermarks. and comparison with a known physical environment. The first is comparing the attributes of the object itself to what is known about objects of that origin. For example. such as fine printing or engraving. Consumer goods such as pharmaceuticals.3D Password Seminar Report 10 AUTHENTICATION METHODS There are two types of techniques for doing this. can be used to examine the authenticity of audio recordings. photographs. and holographic imagery. A trademark is a legally protected marking or other identifying feature which aids consumers in the identification of genuine brand-name goods. check the location and form of a signature. fashion clothing can use either type of authentication method to prevent counterfeit goods from taking advantage of a popular brand's reputation (damaging the brand owner's sales and reputation). coins. An archa eologist might use carbon dating to verify the age of an artifact. the rules of evidence in criminal courts often require establishing the chain of custody of evidence presented. or compare the style of construction or decoration to other artifacts of similar origin. The physics of sound and light. distinctive feel. and are also vulnerable to being separated from the artifact and lost. EAST WEST INSTITUTE OF TECH NOLOGY DERRICK Page 5 . or by testimony from the police detectives and forensics staff that handled it. Bills. This can be accomplished through a written evidence log. For example. The second type relies on documentation or other external affirmations. or videos. and cheques incorporate hard to-duplicate physical features. External records have their own problems of forgery and perjury. which are easy for receivers to verify. an art expert might look for similarities in the style of painting. Currency and other financial instruments commonl y use the first type of authentication method. perfume. Some antiques are accompanied by certificates attesting to their authenticity.

It can combine all existing authentication schemes into a single 3Dvirtual environment.3D Password Seminar Report 10 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM The proposed system is a multi factor authentication scheme. On the other hand users who have more difficulty with memory or recall might prefer to choose smart cards or biometrics as part of their 3D password. and various types of biometrics into a 3D virtual environment. The sequence of actions and interactions toward the objects inside the 3D environment constructs the user¶s 3Dpassword. graphical passwords. This 3D virtual environment contains several objects or items with which the user can interact. Therefore it is the user's cho ice and decision to construct the desired and preferred 3D password. The choice of what authentication schemes will be part of the user's 3D password reflects the user's preferences and requirements. EAST WEST INSTITUTE OF TECH NOLOGY DERRICK Page 6 .The 3D password can combine most existing authentication schemes such as textual passwords. A user who prefers to remember and recall a password might choose textual and graphical password as part of their 3D password. Moreover user who prefers to keep any kind of biometric data private might not interact with object that requires biometric information. The user is presented with this 3D virtual environment where the user navigates and interacts with various objects.

recognition. or token based. or combination of two schemes or more.3D Password Seminar Report 10 INNOVATIVE COMPONENT The proposed system is a multi factor authentication scheme that combines the benefits of various authentication schemes. Moreover. Users have the freedom to select whether the 3D password will be solely recall. 2. However. User have freedom to select whether the 3D password will be solely recall. biometrics cannot be revoked. or token based. which make textual passwords easy to break and vulnerable to dictionary or brute force attacks. COMPARISON WITH CURRENT AUTHENTICATION SYSTEMS Suffer from many weaknesses. the user¶s freedom of selection is important. This freedom of selection is necessary because users are different and they have different requirem ents. The new scheme provides secrets that can be easily revoked or changed. Smart cards or tokens can be stolen. Textual passwords are commonly used. Many biometric authentications have been proposed. The 3D password is a multi factor authentication scheme. the scheme secrets should be difficult to share with others. 3. Users tend to choose meaningful words from dictionaries. to ensure high user acceptability. The following requirements are satisfied in the proposed scheme 1. Therefore. Many available graphical passwords have a password space that is less than or equal to the textual password space. or combination of two schemes or more. Moreover. The design of the 3D virtual environment and the type of objects selected deter mine the 3D password key space. The new scheme provide secrets that are easy to remember and very difficult for intruders to guess. recognition. The new scheme provides secrets that are not easy to write down on paper. EAST WEST INSTITUTE OF TECH NOLOGY DERRICK Page 7 . users tend to resist using biometrics because of their intrusiveness and the effect on their privacy.

The type of interaction varies from one item to another. the number of possible 3 -D passwords will increase. it becomes much more difficult for the attacker to guess the user¶s 3-D password. the user simply avoids interacting with that item. The 3-D password is constructed by observing the actions and interactions of the user and by observing the sequences of such actions. if an item requests an iris scan and the user is not comfortable in providing such information. EAST WEST INSTITUTE OF TECH NOLOGY DERRICK Page 8 . Moreover. giving the user the freedom of choice as to what type of authentication schemes will be part of their 3 -D password and given the large number of objects and items in the environment. This is achieved through interacting only with the objects that acquire information that the user is comfortable in providing and ignoring the objects that request information that the user pr efers not to provide. It is the user¶s choice to select which type of authentication techniques will be part of their 3-D password. It can combine all existing authentication schemes into a single 3 -D virtual environment.3D Password Seminar Report 10 WHAT IS A 3D PASSWORD? The 3-D password is a multifactor authentication scheme. For example. Thus. This 3-D virtual environment contains several objects or items with which the user can interact.

3D Password Seminar Report 10 STATE DIAGRAM OF A 3D PASSWORD APPLICATION EAST WEST INSTITUTE OF TECH NOLOGY DERRICK Page 9 .

3D Password Seminar Report 10 EAST WEST INSTITUTE OF TECH NOLOGY DERRICK Page 10 .

For example.3D Password Seminar Report 10 SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION IN BRIEF The 3Dpassword is a multi factor authentication scheme. The 3Dpassword can combine recognition. and biometric data to be verified. The user navigates through this environment and interacts with the objects. z1 ) position. any user input (such as speaking in a specific location) in the virtual 3Denvironment can be considered as a part of the 3Dpassword. EAST WEST INSTITUTE OF TECH NOLOGY DERRICK Page 11 . information to be recognized. Any obvious actions and interactions toward the real life objects can be done in the virtual3Denvironment toward the virtual objects. The 3Dpassword is simply the combination and the sequence of user interactions that occur in the 3Dvirtual environment. y1 . token. the user can go to the virtual garage. This can be done by designing a 3Dvirtual environment that contains objects that request information to be recalled. Then. tokens to be presented. The combination and the sequence of the previous actions toward the specific objects construct the user¶s 3Dpassword. z2 ) and provide his/her fingerprint. y2 . Moreover. recall. Virtual objects can be any object that we encounter in real life. and turn on the radio to a specific channel. and biometrics based systems into one authentication scheme. then enter a room that has a fingerprint recognition device that exists in a position (x2 . The 3Dpassword presents a 3Dvirtual environment containing various virtual objects. open the car door. the user can enter the virtual environment and type something on a computer that exists in (x1 .

The action toward an object (assume a fingerprint recognition device)that exists in location (x1 . y1 . Therefore. EAST WEST INSTITUTE OF TECH NOLOGY DERRICK Page 12 . y1 = y2 . sign. 9) A car that can be driven. 4) A paper or a white board that a user can write. z2 ). 5) An automated teller machine (ATM) that requests a token. 12) Any real life object.where x1 = x2 . 8) A staple that can be punched. 13) Any upcoming authentication scheme. 2) A fingerprint reader that requires the user¶s fingerprint. 11) Any graphical password scheme. This means interacting with the same objects that reside at the exact locations and perform the ex act actions in the proper sequence. the user must follow the same scenario performed by the legitimate user. and z1 = z2 . y2 . 3) A biometric recognition device. 7) A television or radio where channels can be selected. or draw on. 10) A book that can be moved from one place to another. 6) A light that can be switched on/off. z1 ) is different from the actions toward a similar object (another fingerprint recognition device) that exists in location (x2 .3D Password Seminar Report 10 We can have the following objects: 1) A computer with which the user can type. to perform the legitimate 3Dpassword.

91) Action = Open the office door. For example. · (1. 24. 91) and opens it. The user then finds a computer to the left. y) coordinate relative to the paper space is (330. 24. . . · (10. 34. and the user types ³FALCON. The user then presses the login button. EAST WEST INSTITUTE OF TECH NOLOGY DERRICK Page 13 . 34. ³C´. 34.´ Then. . the user walks to the meeting room and picks up a pen located at (10. 18. We assume that the user can navigate into the 3Dvirtual environment and interact with the objects using any input device such as a mouse. stylus. 24. y. point = (330. which is the dot (x. z) coordinates. and microphone . . · (4. 130). ³F´. 34. 80) Action = Drawing. 24. Let us assume that the user is in the virtual office and the user turns around to the door located in (10. the user closes the door. ³N´. ³L´. 18) Action = Typing. 18. Then. card reader. 130). · (4. The initial representation of user actions in the 3Dvirtual environment can be recorded as follows: · (10. · (4. consider a user who navigates through the 3Dvirtualenvironment that consists of an office and a m eeting room. iris scanner. · (10. 1 8). · (4. ³O´. 34. ³A´. which exists in the position (4. 18) Action = Typing. 91) Action = Close the office door. 80) Action = Pick up the pen. 18) Action = Typing. The 3Denvironment space is represented by the coordinates (x. 18) Action = Typing. 18) Action = Typing. 24. the objects are distributed in the 3Dvirtual environment with unique (x. G] × [1. · (4. 80) and draws only one dot in a paper located in (1. G] × [1. 34. . · (4. fingerprint scanner. 18) Action = Typing. G]. y. 34.3D Password Seminar Report 10 3DPASSWORD SELECTION AND INPUTS Let us consider a 3Dvirtual environment space of size G ×G × G. 30). z) [1. key board. . We consider the sequence of those actions and interactions using the previous input devices as the user¶s 3Dpassword.

Snapshot of a proof-of-concept 3-D virtual environment.3D Password Seminar Report 10 In order for a legitimate user to be authenticated. the user has to follow the same sequence and type of actions and interactions toward the objects for the user¶s original 3-D password. where the user is typing a textual password on a virtual computer as a part of the user¶s 3-D password EAST WEST INSTITUTE OF TECH NOLOGY DERRICK Page 14 .

3D Password Seminar Report 10 Snapshot of an experimental 3-D virtual environment EAST WEST INSTITUTE OF TECH NOLOGY DERRICK Page 15 .

3D Password Seminar Report 10 EAST WEST INSTITUTE OF TECH NOLOGY DERRICK Page 16 .

3D Password Seminar Report 10 EAST WEST INSTITUTE OF TECH NOLOGY DERRICK Page 17 .

The uniqueness comes from the fact that every virtual object has its own attributes such as position.3D Password Seminar Report 10 3­D VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENT DESIGN GUIDELINES The design of the 3 D virtual environments affects the usability. Thus. 1) Real life-similarityThe prospective 3D virtual environment should reflect what people are used to seeing in real life. it should be easy for users to navigate through and to distinguish between objects. Therefore. The design of 3-D virtual environments should follow these guidelines. Possible actions and interactions to ward virtual objects should reflect real life situations. having similar objects such as 20 computers in one place might confuse the user. the prospective interaction with object 1 is not equal to the interaction with object 2. effectiveness. the design of the 3-D virtual environment should consider that every object should be distinguishable from other objects. 2) Object uniqueness and distinctionEvery virtual object or item in the 3-D virtual environment is different from any other virtual object. Object responses should be realistic. in designing a 3-Dvirtual environment. Objects used in virtual environments should be relatively similar in size to real objects (sized to scale). The distinguishing factor increases the user¶s recognition of objects. The target should have a 3-D virtual environment that users can interact. Therefore. The first step in building a 3-Dpassword system is to design a 3-Denvironment that reflects the administration needs and the security requirements. acceptability of 3D password. EAST WEST INSTITUTE OF TECH NOLOGY DERRICK Page 18 . Similarly. However. it improves the system usability.

a small 3-D virtual environment usually contains only a few objects. The types of objects reflect what kind of responses the object will have. 5) System ImportanceThe 3D virtual environment should consider what systems will be protected by a 3D password. A large 3¬D virtual environment will increase the time required by the user to perform a 3-Dpassword. Moreover.3D Password Seminar Report 10 3) Three Dimensional Virtual Environment Size A 3-Dvirtual environment can depict a city or even the world. and thus. The number of objects and the types of objects that have been used in the 3D virtual environment should reflect the importance of the protected system. On the other hand. For simplicity. the probable 3-Dpassword space broadens. it can depict a space as focused as a single room or office. However. EAST WEST INSTITUTE OF TECH NOLOGY DERRICK Page 19 . 4) Number of objects and their typesPart of designing a 3-D virtual environment is determining the types of objects and how many objects should be placed in the environment. a large3-Dvirtual environment can contain a large number of virtual objects. performing a 3-D password will take less time. we can consider requesting a textual password or a fingerprint as an object response type. Therefore. Selecting the right object response types and the number of objects affects the probable pa ssword space of a 3-D password.

so the 3-D password¶s main application domains are protecting critical systems and resources. The 3-D password has a very large probable password space. A 3 D password authentication proposes a sound replacement for a textual password. and since it can contain token-. recognition-. it is a sound choice for high level security locations. 3.3D Password Seminar Report 10 3­D PASSWORD APPLICATIONS The 3D password can have a password space that is very large compared to other authentication schemes. biometrics-. 2. A small virtual environment can be used in the following systems like Some other application areas : ‡ ATM ‡ Desktop Computers & laptop logins EAST WEST INSTITUTE OF TECH NOLOGY DERRICK Page 20 . Critical serversMany large organizations have critical servers that are usually protected by a textual password. In addition. and knowledge based authentications in a single authentication system. Airplanes and jet fightersBecause of the possible threat of misusing airplanes and jet fighters for religio-political agendas. 1. Nuclear and military facilitiesSuch facilities should be protected by the most powerful authentication systems. usage of such airplanes should be protected by a powerful authentication system. 3-D passwords can be used in less critical systems because the 3D virtual environment can be designed to fit to any system needs.

.  EAST WEST INSTITUTE OF TECH NOLOGY DERRICK Page 21 . The textual password space may be relatively large. letter or number sequences.). upper and lowercase letters in passwords if allowed by the system Password length should be around 12 to 14 characters if permitted. dates. an attacker might only need a small subset of the full password space is observed to successfully break such an authentication system. use capital and lower-case letters Avoid any password based on repetition.g. symbols. we have to consider. It is important to have a scheme that has a very large possible password space which increases the work required by the attacker to break the authentication system. romantic links (current or past). usernames. ‡ Common guidelines for choosing good passwords are designed to make passwords less easily discovered by intelligent guessing:  Include numbers. ‡ How hard it is for the attacker to break such a system A Possible measurement is based on the information content of a password space. or biographical information (e. dictionary words. ID numbers.. and longer still if possible while remaining memorable   If the system recognizes case as significant.3D Password Seminar Report 10 ‡ Web Authentication SECURITY ANALYSIS To analyze and study how secure a system is. relative or pet names.. ancestors names or dates. Find a scheme that has no previous or existing knowledge of the most probable user password selection. however..

textual password. and the number of points that represent the strokes for DAS. the number of selections for Pass faces. and DAS with grid sizes of 5 × 5 and 10 × 10. and inputs towards all objects that exist in the 3D virtual environments. interactions. Length is the number of actions and interactions for a 3-D password. FIG: Password space of the 3-D password.3D Password Seminar Report 10  Password should be easy to remember for the user. Pass faces. and n ot force insecure actions (e. The length is up to eight. EAST WEST INSTITUTE OF TECH NOLOGY DERRICK Page 22 .g. we have to count all possible 3D passwords that have a certain number of actions. the very bad and insecure practice of writing the password down on a Post-It note stuck to the monitor) 3D PASSWORD SPACE SIZE To determine the password space.. the number of characters for textual passwords.

EAST WEST INSTITUTE OF TECH NOLOGY DERRICK Page 23 .3D Password Seminar Report 10 Fig: Observing the number of possible actions/interactions of a 3-D password within a 3-D environment specified in Section V-A compared to the two critical Points of textual passwords. Point ³a´ is the bit size of Klein [2] (3 × 106) dictionary of eight-character textual passwords. Point ³b´ represents the full password space of eight-character textual passwords.

the attacker has to study every single authentication scheme and has to discover what the most probable selected secrets are.3D Password Seminar Report 10 3D PASSWORD DISTRIBUTION KNOWLEDGE Users tend to use meaningful words for textual passwords. race. Therefore. Therefore finding these different words from dictionary is a relatively simple task which yields a high success rate for breaking textual passwords. the attacker has to separately study every 3-D password system. Every user has different requirements and preferences when selecting the appropriate 3-D password. EAST WEST INSTITUTE OF TECH NOLOGY DERRICK Page 24 . Pass faces users tend to choose faces that reflect their own taste on facial attractiveness. more effort is required to build the knowledge of most probable 3-D passwords. This fact will increase the effort required to find a pattern of user¶s highly selected 3-D password. and gender. In addition. Since every 3-D password system can be designed according to the protected system requirements. since the 3-D password combines several authentication schemes into a single authentication environment.

 The scheme secrets should be difficult to share with others.  Provide secrets that can be easily revoked or changed . Smart cards. biometrics and alpha num password can embedded in the 3d password technology  Strength: A scenario in a 3D environment offers as almost unlimited combination of possibilities. As such system can have specific 3d world. hack are extremely difficult.  The 3D password gives users the freedom of selecting what type of authentication techniques. EAST WEST INSTITUTE OF TECH NOLOGY DERRICK Page 25 .3D Password Seminar Report 10 ADVANTAGES  Easiness to memorize : Users can memorize a 3D password as a ³little´ story which makes the password easy to remember  Flexibility: 3d passwords allows multi-factor authentication.  Secrets those are not easy to write down on paper.

the attacker has to acquire knowledge of the most probable 3-D password distributions. It requires a study of the user¶s selection of objects for the 3D password. Cost of attacks ±The 3-D virtual environment contains biometric recognition objects and token based objects. 2) Well Studied AttackThe attacker tries to find the highest probable distribution of 3 D passwords. a brute force attack on a 3-D password is very difficult and time consuming. Therefore. a wel l studied attack is very hard to accomplish since the attacker has to perform a customized attack for every different 3-D virtual environment design. The high number of possible 3 D password spaces leaves the attacker with almost no chance of breaking the 3-D password. therefore cracking the 3 D password is more challenging. Time required to login . the size of the 3-D virtual environment. This is very difficult because the attacker has to study all the existing authentication schemes that are used in the 3D environment.The total time needed for a legitimate user to login may vary depending on the number of interactions and actions. This environment has a number of objects and types of object responses that differ from any other 3-D virtual environment. Therefore. a carefully customized study is required to initialize an effective attack EAST WEST INSTITUTE OF TECH NOLOGY DERRICK Page 26 . Moreover.3D Password Seminar Report 10 ATTACKS AND COUNTERMEASURES 1) Brute Force AttackThe attacker has to try all possible 3D passwords. In order to launch such an attack. The cost of forging such information is very high. and the type of actions and interactions. The attacker has to forge all possible biometric information and forge all the required tokens. This kind of attack is very difficult for the following reasons.

this kind of attack alone cannot be very successful since it gives the attacker mere hints. This attack is the most successful type of attack against 3 D passwords and some other graphical passwords.3D Password Seminar Report 10 3) Shoulder Surfing AttackAn attacker uses a camera to record the user¶s 3-D password or tries to watch the legitimate user while the 3-D password is being performed. Therefore. Therefore. However. we assume that the 3-D password should be performed in a secure place where a shoulder surfing attack cannot be performed. it would probably be launched as part of a well studied or brute force attack. This observation gives the attacker an indication of the legitimate u ser¶s 3-D password length. EAST WEST INSTITUTE OF TECH NOLOGY DERRICK Page 27 . Timing attacks can be very effective if the 3D virtual environment is poorly designed. However. the user¶s 3-D password may contain biometric data or textual passwo rds that cannot be seen from behind. the attacker observes how long it takes the legitimate user to perform a correct sign-in using the 3-D password. 4) Timing AttackIn this attack.

The design of the 3-D virtual environment. and some other authentication schemes are based on user¶s knowledge such as textual and graphical passwords. Moreover. Additionally. Moreover. textual password and token -based schemes. user¶s who have more difficulty with memory or recall might prefer to choose smart cards or biometrics as part of their 3-D password. On the other hand. both authentication schemes are vulnerable to certain attacks. Therefore. as mentioned before. and the object¶s type reflect the resulted password space. there are some other important authentication schemes that are based on what you have. The choice of what authentication schemes will be part of the user¶s 3-D password reflects the user¶s preferences and requirements. The virtual environment can contain any existing authentication scheme or even any upcoming authentication sche mes by adding it as a response to actions performed on an object. Some of them are based on user¶s physical and behavioral properties. The 3-D password is a multifactor authentication scheme that combines these various authentication schemes into a single3 -D virtual environment. the selections o f objects inside the environment. Among the various authentication schemes. such as smart cards. the resulted password space becomes very large compared to any existing authentication schemes. there are many authentication schemes that are currently under study and they may require additional time and effort to be applicable for commercial use. However. Moreover. Therefore. users who prefer to keep any kind of biometrical data private might not interact with objects that require biometric information.3D Password Seminar Report 10 CONCLUSION There are many authentication schemes in the current state. A user who prefers to remember and recall a password might choose textual and graphical passwords apart of their 3-D password. or the combination of both. it is the user¶s choice and decision to construct the desired and preferred 3-D password. It is the task of the system administrator to design the environment and to select the appropriate object that reflects the protected system requirements. are commonly applied. designing a simple and easy to use 3 -D virtual environment is a factor that leads to a higher user acceptability of a 3 -D password system. EAST WEST INSTITUTE OF TECH NOLOGY DERRICK Page 28 .

However. Moreover. Other schemes are under study yet they have never been applied in the real world. Acquiring the knowledge of the probable distribution of a user¶s 3D password might show the practical strength of a 3D password. EAST WEST INSTITUTE OF TECH NOLOGY DERRICK Page 29 . Users do not have to carry cards if they do not want to. critical servers and highly classified areas can be protected by 3D Password system with large three-dimensional virtual environment. A 3D password gives the user the choice of modeling his 3D password to contain any authentication scheme that the user prefers. A study on a large number of people is required. Critical systems such as military facilities. many different schemes have been used in specific fields. Moreover. Users do not have to provide their fingerprin ts if they do not wish to. which is designed by the system administrator. The 3D password is in its infancy. authentication schemes into one scheme. The three-dimensional virtual environment can contain any objects that the administrator feels that the users are familiar with. We are looking at designing different three -dimensional virtual environments that contain objects of all possible authentication schemes. The motivation of this work is to have a scheme that has a huge password space while also being a combination of any existing. A 3D password¶s probable password space can be reflected by the design of the three-dimensional virtual environment.3D Password Seminar Report 10 FUTURE WORK Textual passwords and token-based passwords are the most common used authentication schemes. The main application domains of 3D Password are critical systems and resources. or upcoming. For example. ATM's and operating system's logins. Users have the choice to model their 3D password according to their needs and their preferences. football players can use a three-dimensional virtual environment of a stadium where they can navigate and interact with objects that they are familiar with. a small three-dimensional virtual environment can be used to protect less critical systems such as handhelds. finding a solution for shoulder surfing attacks on 3D passwords and other authentication schemes is also a field of study.

3D Password Seminar Report 10 EAST WEST INSTITUTE OF TECH NOLOGY DERRICK Page 30 .

Adrian Perrig. Déjà Vu: A User Study Using Images for Authentication. Colorado. Graphical Password.3D Password Seminar Report 10 REFERENCES  A Novel 3D graphical password schema -Fawaz A Alsulaiman and Abdulmotaleb El Saddik  Daniel V. Blonder. Foiling the Cracker: A Survey of. pages 45 -58. United State Patent 5559961  Rachna Dhamija. 2000. EAST WEST INSTITUTE OF TECH NOLOGY DERRICK Page 31 .Klein. and Improvement to Passwords Security  Greg E. Denver.

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